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Individual Current Harmonics in Percent of IL

7.00%

Simulation
6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

IEEE limit

harm_volt

Individual Voltage Harmonics in Percent of the PCC voltage

2.00%
1.80%

Simulation

1.60%

IEEE limit

1.40%
1.20%
1.00%
0.80%
0.60%
0.40%
0.20%
0.00%
5

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97 101 103

POWER :
Z:
DEMAND:
Harmonic Calculator WEG
V1.00
Copyright(C) 2009 WEG. All rights reserved.

10
8
8000

MVA
%
kVA

Graphs (PCC)

Ie (Estimated Waveform)
Isc:
IL:

189.9
12154.7

kA
Amp

Voltage at PCC (rms)


Volts

380 V
VFD Rectifier

6 pulse

Case Study:

12 pulse

Estimated Results

18 pulse
Motor

Motor Voltage (rms)


3300 V

Motor Rated Current (rms)


310.0

IEEE-519

Volts

Amp

Motor Power
1523.8 kW

See Graphs

Company Name
% LOAD
Ie(1)
Ie RMS
IL
THDi
TDD
THDv
Isc / IL

15.99
2429.4
2543.4
12154.7
31.55
6.31
2.47
15.6

%
Amp
Amp
Amp
%
%
%

FP:
MotorPower:
Ni
PCCPower:
Fund_IL:
I_source:
freq:
L_pcc:

limite_TDD:
limite_TDD:
ISC/IL:

0.86
1523823.66
0.953
1598975.51
2429.39
15193.4281365691
60
3.06426317099596E-006

5
0.05
15.625

pcc_power_kV

1598.9755083767

ctrl thdv
ctrl tdd
soma ctrl

0
1
2
2

amarelo
vermelho

2
0

Lfonte
relao tr
Lfonte_ref
Queda%_Ref
QuedasS
Queda%LIM

3.06426317099596E-006
8.6842105263
0.000231093
0.0141751038
0.064175104
0.0641751038

Henry
Henry

Harmnicas de Corrente
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

(N-1)
0.2
0.0909091
0.0588235
0.0434783
0.0344828
0.0285714
0.0243902
0.0212766
0.0188679
0.0169492
0.0153846
0.0140845
0.012987
0.0120482
0.011236
0.0105263
0.009901
0.0093458
0.0088496
0.0084034
0.008
0.0076336

(N+1)
0.1428571
0.0769231
0.0526316
0.04
0.0322581
0.027027
0.0232558
0.0204082
0.0181818
0.0163934
0.0149254
0.0136986
0.0126582
0.0117647
0.010989
0.0103093
0.0097087
0.0091743
0.0086957
0.0082645
0.007874
0.0075188

(N-1)^2
0.04
0.0082644628
0.0034602076
0.0018903592
0.0011890606
0.0008163265
0.000594884
0.0004526935
0.0003559986
0.0002872738
0.0002366864
0.0001983733
0.0001686625
0.0001451589
0.0001262467
0.0001108033
9.80296049406921E-005
8.73438728273212E-005
7.83146683373796E-005
7.06164818868724E-005
0.000064
5.82716624905309E-005

(N+1)^2
0.0204081633
0.0059171598
0.0027700831
0.0016
0.0010405827
0.0007304602
0.0005408329
0.0004164931
0.0003305785
0.000268745
0.0002227668
0.0001876525
0.0001602307
0.0001384083
0.0001207584
0.0001062812
9.42595909133754E-005
0.000084168
7.56143667296786E-005
6.83013455365071E-005
6.2000124000248E-005
5.65323082141444E-005

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

0.0072993
0.006993
0.0067114
0.0064516
0.0062112
0.005988
0.0057803
0.0055866
0.0054054
0.0052356
0.0050761
0.0049261
0.0047847
0.0046512
0.0045249
0.0044053
0.0042918
0.0041841
0.0040816
0.0039841
0.0038911
0.0038023
0.0037175
0.0036364
0.0035587
0.0034843
0.003413
0.0033445
0.0032787
0.0032154
0.0031546
0.003096
0.0030395
0.0029851
0.0029326
0.0028818
0.0028329
0.0027855
0.0027397
0.0026954
0.0026525
0.002611
0.0025707
0.0025316
0.0024938
0.002457
0.0024213
0.0023866
0.0023529
0.0023202
0.0022883
0.0022573
0.0022272
0.0021978
0.0021692

0.0071942
0.0068966
0.0066225
0.0063694
0.006135
0.0059172
0.0057143
0.0055249
0.0053476
0.0051813
0.0050251
0.004878
0.0047393
0.0046083
0.0044843
0.0043668
0.0042553
0.0041494
0.0040486
0.0039526
0.003861
0.0037736
0.00369
0.0036101
0.0035336
0.0034602
0.0033898
0.0033223
0.0032573
0.0031949
0.0031348
0.0030769
0.0030211
0.0029674
0.0029155
0.0028653
0.0028169
0.0027701
0.0027248
0.002681
0.0026385
0.0025974
0.0025575
0.0025189
0.0024814
0.002445
0.0024096
0.0023753
0.0023419
0.0023095
0.0022779
0.0022472
0.0022173
0.0021882
0.0021598

5.32793435984869E-005
4.89021468042447E-005
0.000045043
4.16233090530697E-005
3.85787585355503E-005
3.58564308508731E-005
3.34124093688396E-005
0.00003121
2.9218407596786E-005
2.7411529289219E-005
2.57672189440594E-005
2.42665437161785E-005
2.28932487809345E-005
2.16333153055706E-005
2.04746012571405E-005
1.94065477692173E-005
1.84199377406104E-005
1.75066963113391E-005
1.66597251145356E-005
1.58727639243822E-005
1.51402746445821E-005
1.44573436076855E-005
1.38195989552383E-005
1.32231404958678E-005
1.26644799331315E-005
1.21404897473564E-005
1.16483593285886E-005
1.11855572085323E-005
1.07497984412792E-005
0.000010339
9.95133795738837E-006
9.58506263838434E-006
9.2386433976035E-006
8.91067052795723E-006
8.59985724236978E-006
0.000008305
8.0251025206847E-006
7.75909559981689E-006
7.50609870519797E-006
7.26527706134074E-006
7.03586178753105E-006
6.81714375311032E-006
6.60846809101182E-006
6.40922929017786E-006
6.21886679809205E-006
6.03686107371611E-006
5.8627300388699E-006
0.000005696
5.5363321799308E-006
5.3832612873531E-006
5.23645198958993E-006
5.09556736594836E-006
4.9602928556902E-006
4.83033450066417E-006
4.70541734699159E-006

5.17571554267377E-005
4.75624256837099E-005
4.38577255383536E-005
4.05695971439004E-005
3.76378486205728E-005
3.50127796645776E-005
3.26530612244898E-005
3.05240987759836E-005
2.85967571277417E-005
2.68463582914978E-005
2.52518875785965E-005
2.37953599048186E-005
2.24613103928483E-005
2.12363821699335E-005
0.000020109
0.000019069
1.81077410593029E-005
1.72173344122863E-005
0.000016391
1.5622803043322E-005
1.49073508146867E-005
1.42399430402278E-005
1.36163723260849E-005
1.30328819611881E-005
1.24861092035111E-005
0.000011973
0.000011491
1.10374057681483E-005
1.06101921505798E-005
1.02073104757627E-005
9.82694745531196E-006
9.46745562130178E-006
9.12733545696005E-006
8.80521973425847E-006
8.49985975231409E-006
8.21011321746127E-006
7.93493354493156E-006
7.67336039471766E-006
7.42451128154489E-006
7.18757412185813E-006
6.96180060010721E-006
6.74650025299376E-006
0.000006541
6.3448153341497E-006
6.15729423861978E-006
0.000005978
5.80635796196836E-006
0.000005642
5.48459104146899E-006
5.33364624057945E-006
5.18884812760415E-006
5.04986744097968E-006
4.91639667454929E-006
4.78814837514185E-006
4.66485359356997E-006

THDi

3.15E-01

78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

0.0021413
0.0021142
0.0020877
0.0020619
0.0020367
0.0020121
0.0019881
0.0019646
0.0019417
0.0019194
0.0018975
0.0018762
0.0018553
0.0018349
0.0018149
0.0017953
0.0017762
0.0017575
0.0017391
0.0017212
0.0017036
0.0016863
0.0016694

0.0021322
0.0021053
0.002079
0.0020534
0.0020284
0.002004
0.0019802
0.0019569
0.0019342
0.001912
0.0018904
0.0018692
0.0018484
0.0018282
0.0018083
0.0017889
0.0017699
0.0017513
0.0017331
0.0017153
0.0016978
0.0016807
0.0016639

4.58528398956389E-006
4.4696932449526E-006
4.35841893994535E-006
4.25124880433627E-006
0.000004148
4.04843548210794E-006
3.95242856973467E-006
3.85979674310351E-006
3.77038363653502E-006
0.000003684
3.60063227102679E-006
0.00000352
3.44209196581314E-006
3.36671997306624E-006
3.29379679250068E-006
3.22321748015304E-006
3.15488265413968E-006
3.08869814461902E-006
3.02457466918715E-006
2.96242753161651E-006
2.9021763420389E-006
2.8437447568456E-006
2.7870602367329E-006

4.54626047344757E-006
4.43213296398892E-006
4.32224964449497E-006
4.21640264958743E-006
4.11439668544203E-006
0.000004016
3.92118419762768E-006
3.82964219652958E-006
3.74126881390555E-006
3.65591948202933E-006
3.57345778495646E-006
3.49375491309285E-006
3.4166891598703E-006
3.34214545685457E-006
0.00000327
3.20019457182997E-006
3.13258673349518E-006
3.06709892314157E-006
3.00364341946781E-006
2.94213699178261E-006
2.88250062694389E-006
2.8246592754749E-006
2.76854161533329E-006

Ie - spectrum
(N-1)
485.8783896
220.8538134
142.9054087
105.6257369
83.77213613
69.41119851
59.25346214
51.68919038
45.83758392
41.17613471
37.37526074
34.216788
31.55054478
29.2697825
27.29653874
25.57254682
24.05338562
22.70459764
21.49904379
20.41505839
19.43513558
18.5449767

(N+1)
347.0559926
186.8763037
127.8627341
97.17567791
78.36748219
65.65924183
56.49748716
49.57942751
44.17076269
39.82609751
36.25958131
33.27934175
30.75179681
28.58108174
26.69661481
25.04527781
23.58632959
22.28799952
21.12514737
20.0776194
19.12907046
18.26610487

(N-1)^2
236077.8094541
48776.40691201
20421.95583513
11156.796288
7017.770792335
4817.914478656
3510.972775939
2671.772402152
2101.084099805
1695.474069622
1396.910115113
1170.788580907
995.4368757554
856.7201678551
745.1010271877
653.9551508425
578.5653599013
515.4987541579
462.2088837304
416.7746088803
377.7244951266
343.9161608504

(N+1)^2
120447.8619664
34922.75287783
16348.87877106
9443.112378166
6141.462264676
4311.136038242
3191.966055356
2458.119631967
1951.056276481
1586.118042557
1314.75723688
1107.514587419
945.6730069466
816.8782334053
712.7092424047
627.2659407327
556.3149435718
496.7549226794
446.2718515201
403.1108009257
365.9213364966
333.6505871645

17.73278794
16.98875488
16.30464395
15.67349644
15.08939098
14.54725717
14.04272802
13.57202206
13.13184837
12.71932957
12.33193882
11.96744802
11.62388492
11.29949743
10.99272375
10.70216717
10.42657488
10.16481987
9.915885501
9.678852382
9.452886957
9.237231741
9.031196832
8.834152538
8.645522946
8.464780306
8.291440095
8.125056682
7.965219501
7.811549672
7.663696996
7.5213373
7.384170054
7.251916262
7.124316563
7.001129533
6.882130164
6.76710849
6.65586835
6.548226275
6.444010472
6.343059916
6.245223516
6.150359362
6.058334035
5.969021985
5.882304959
5.798071475
5.716216348
5.63664025
5.559249309
5.483954736
5.41067249
5.339322962
5.26983069

17.47763991
16.75442723
16.0886884
15.47383406
14.90424508
14.37510028
13.8822397
13.42205496
12.99140079
12.58752305
12.20799974
11.85069243
11.51370591
11.1953546
10.8941343
10.60869846
10.33783808
10.08046451
9.835594931
9.602339715
9.379891691
9.167516784
8.964545933
8.770368043
8.584423844
8.406200512
8.235226942
8.071069594
7.91332882
7.761635616
7.615648739
7.475052147
7.339552713
7.208878184
7.082775358
6.961008447
6.8433576
6.729617584
6.619596588
6.513115142
6.410005139
6.310108955
6.213278639
6.119375184
6.028267861
5.939833613
5.853956501
5.770527192
5.689442501
5.61060496
5.533922432
5.459307748
5.386678377
5.315956122
5.247066842

314.4517681471
288.6177923788
265.8414141865
245.658490587
227.6897201633
211.622691253
197.1982103095
184.1997826645
172.4454415297
161.7813447097
152.076715101
143.2198120885
135.1147005873
127.6786422142
120.8399753558
114.5363821606
108.7134638021
103.323562899
98.3247852787
93.6801834313
89.3570718157
85.3264502357
81.5625162222
78.0422510592
74.7450670122
71.6525056314
68.7479788507
66.0165460829
63.4447217023
61.0203082718
58.732251653
56.5705147788
54.5259673909
52.5902894752
50.7558864849
49.0158147344
47.3637155932
45.7937573138
44.3005834967
42.879267343
41.5252709606
40.2344090992
39.0028167693
37.8269202779
36.7034112745
35.6292234565
34.6015116249
33.6176328248
32.6751293362
31.7717133109
30.9052528754
30.073759542
29.2753767906
28.5083696962
27.7711154961

305.467896918
280.7108316934
258.8458943184
239.4395406042
222.1365213728
206.6435081529
192.7165791462
180.1515593649
168.7764945052
158.4457364319
149.0352576034
140.4389110376
132.5654238753
125.3359645852
118.6821620454
112.5444830639
106.8708960861
101.6157648173
96.7389276394
92.204928
87.9823681274
84.0433639922
80.3630837864
76.9193556068
73.6923327343
70.664207042
67.8189627849
65.142164395
62.6207730199
60.2429874384
57.9981057218
55.8764046045
53.8690340208
51.9679246657
50.1657067748
48.4556385937
46.8315432363
45.2877528284
43.8190589904
42.4206688494
41.0881658882
39.8174750302
38.6048314464
37.4467526369
36.3400134004
35.2816233544
34.2688067142
33.2989840745
32.3697559705
31.478888022
30.6242974889
29.8040410875
29.0163039334
28.2593894936
27.5317104449

IL_rms
TDD:

2543.412011225
0.3099514844

(N-1)
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

Vpcc - spectrum
(N+1)
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

5.202124085
5.136135196
5.071799474
5.009055563
4.947845108
4.888112571
4.829805065
4.772872196
4.717265918
4.662940399
4.609851893
4.557958626
4.507220682
4.457599904
4.409059796
4.361565436
4.315083389
4.269581631
4.225029475
4.181397501
4.138657492
4.096782374
4.055746157

5.179940187
5.114509364
5.05071091
4.988484493
4.927772714
4.868520938
4.810677124
4.754191679
4.699017307
4.645108887
4.592423342
4.540919529
4.490558129
4.44130155
4.39311383
4.345960551
4.299808757
4.254626879
4.210384658
4.167053084
4.124604326
4.083011677
4.042249497

27.0620949995
26.379884755
25.7231499006
25.0906376293
24.4811712095
23.8936445083
23.3270169692
22.7803090013
22.2525977429
21.7430131644
21.2507344798
20.7749868399
20.3150382807
19.8701969072
19.439808289
19.0232530527
18.6199446519
18.2293273012
17.8508740608
17.4840850583
17.128485837
16.7836258211
16.4490768876

26.8317803445
26.1582060337
25.5096806997
24.8849775323
24.2829439181
23.7024961199
23.1426143961
22.6023385187
22.0807636541
21.5770365715
21.0903521512
20.6199501663
20.1651123112
19.7251594583
19.2994491214
18.8873731086
18.4883553492
18.1018498789
17.7273389712
17.3643314034
17.012360844
16.6709843552
16.3397809983

2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782
2.8064335782

Vpcc - spectrum
(N-1)^2
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

(N+1)^2
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

Quedas
THDv:

39.6889642815
0.180903428

Quedas Computadas at 100 H

6P
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59

Simu
29.4929%
8.4531%
5.7289%
3.3214%
1.9769%
1.6414%
1.0634%
0.9328%
0.6228%
0.5931%
0.4589%
0.3758%
0.3539%
0.3087%
0.2484%
0.2411%
0.1935%
0.1819%
0.1616%

61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

0.1469%
0.1335%
0.1223%
0.1131%
0.1065%
0.0916%
0.0914%
0.0799%
0.0747%
0.0722%
0.0673%
0.0622%
0.0592%
0.0592%
0.0592%

5%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT

HARMONIC
NO
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55

3.23E-01
9.31E-02
6.50E-02
3.29E-02
2.48E-02
1.91E-02
1.12E-02
1.10E-02
6.81E-03
6.29E-03
5.26E-03
4.21E-03
3.98E-03
3.40E-03
2.83E-03
2.73E-03
2.11E-03
2.06E-03

7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287
7.8760694287

59
61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

1.78E-03
1.59E-03
1.54E-03
1.37E-03
1.26E-03
1.21E-03
1.03E-03
1.01E-03
8.95E-04
8.32E-04
8.09E-04
7.32E-04
7.11E-04
6.67E-04

uedas Computadas at 100 Harmnica

Harm_IL
7.16E+02
2.05E+02
1.39E+02
8.07E+01
4.80E+01
3.99E+01
2.58E+01
2.27E+01
1.51E+01
1.44E+01
1.11E+01
9.13E+00
8.60E+00
7.50E+00
6.03E+00
5.86E+00
4.70E+00
4.42E+00
3.93E+00

Queda
7.17E+00
2.88E+00
3.06E+00
2.10E+00
1.63E+00
1.52E+00
1.19E+00
1.13E+00
8.78E-01
8.94E-01
7.81E-01
6.76E-01
7.05E-01
6.45E-01
5.68E-01
5.74E-01
4.98E-01
4.86E-01
4.64E-01

51.3814208979
8.2728744301
9.3834269055
4.4051113683
2.6687402184
2.2979555702
1.4134667182
1.2849409478
0.7708515476
0.7988511122
0.6095781979
0.4567046017
0.497531062
0.4162472509
0.3220702389
0.3296668436
0.2484809113
0.2365560738
0.2148831985

12P
0
0
11
13
0
0
23
25
0
0
35
37
0
0
47
49
0
0
59

3.57E+00
3.24E+00
2.97E+00
2.75E+00
2.59E+00
2.23E+00
2.22E+00
1.94E+00
1.82E+00
1.75E+00
1.64E+00
1.51E+00
1.44E+00
1.44E+00
1.44E+00

4.36E-01
4.22E-01
3.98E-01
3.90E-01
3.78E-01
3.43E-01
3.51E-01
3.22E-01
3.09E-01
3.12E-01
2.98E-01
2.87E-01
2.79E-01
2.91E-01
2.96E-01

0.1897463475
0.1778444392
0.158578756
0.1523629421
0.1429135892
0.1176166376
0.1231340756
0.1038452215
0.0953343966
0.0976199845
0.0887509503
0.0824166583
0.0779323412
0.0844922747
0.0878716344

61
0
0
71
73
0
0
83
85
0
0
95
97
0
0

10%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT

Queda^2

Soma
Raiz
THD06p

87.7898183436
9.3696221025
2.47%

Queda%

6%

15%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT
2.44E-01
7.42E-02
4.14E-02
3.05E-02
1.36E-02
1.19E-02
8.98E-03
6.94E-03
5.19E-03
4.90E-03
3.49E-03
3.07E-03
2.75E-03
2.46E-03
1.92E-03
1.87E-03
1.59E-03
1.42E-03

Simu
0.0241%
0.0035%
6.4291%
4.3718%
0.0045%
0.0059%
1.0482%
0.8253%
0.0012%
0.0010%
0.4938%
0.4638%
0.0005%
0.0019%
0.2636%
0.2259%
0.0005%
0.0010%
0.1653%
0.1681%
0.0004%
0.0011%
0.1220%
0.1087%
0.0003%
0.0008%
0.0820%
0.0801%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0652%
0.0634%
0.0634%
0.0634%

20%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT
2.02E-01
7.47E-02
2.75E-02
2.28E-02
1.32E-02
9.61E-03
6.58E-03
5.98E-03
4.40E-03
3.62E-03
2.89E-03
2.70E-03
2.17E-03
1.90E-03
1.61E-03
1.54E-03
1.29E-03
1.17E-03

1.72E-01
7.24E-02
2.25E-02
1.69E-02
1.15E-02
9.28E-03
5.74E-03
4.68E-03
3.66E-03
3.33E-03
2.60E-03
2.25E-03
1.78E-03
1.65E-03
1.44E-03
1.32E-03
1.08E-03
9.99E-04

5a H
7a H
11a H
13a H
17a H
19a H
23a H
25a H
29a H
31a H
35a H
37a H
41a H
43a H
47a H
49a H
53a H
55a H

pol 6P
29.4929%
8.4531%
5.7289%
3.3214%
1.9769%
1.6414%
1.0634%
0.9328%
0.6228%
0.5931%
0.4589%
0.3758%
0.3539%
0.3087%
0.2484%
0.2411%
0.1935%
0.1819%

^2
8.6983%
0.7145%
0.3282%
0.1103%
0.0391%
0.0269%
0.0113%
0.0087%
0.0039%
0.0035%
0.0021%
0.0014%
0.0013%
0.0010%
0.0006%
0.0006%
0.0004%
0.0003%

1.29E-03
1.22E-03
1.02E-03
9.66E-04
8.94E-04
8.32E-04
7.29E-04
7.26E-04
6.33E-04
6.03E-04
5.66E-04
5.46E-04
4.78E-04
4.66E-04

1.03E-03
9.89E-04
8.59E-04
7.87E-04
7.14E-04
6.86E-04
6.09E-04
5.65E-04
5.20E-04
5.04E-04
4.54E-04
4.25E-04
3.97E-04
3.86E-04

8.93E-04
8.54E-04
7.35E-04
6.84E-04
6.04E-04
5.80E-04
5.34E-04
4.99E-04
4.43E-04
4.20E-04
3.94E-04
3.80E-04
3.42E-04
3.27E-04

59a H
61a H
65a H
67a H
71a H
73a H
77a H
79a H
83a H
85a H
89a H
91a H
95a H
97a H
101a H
103a H

0.1616%
0.1469%
0.1335%
0.1223%
0.1131%
0.1065%
0.0916%
0.0914%
0.0799%
0.0747%
0.0722%
0.0673%
0.0622%
0.0592%
0.0592%
0.0592%

0.0003%
0.0002%
0.0002%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 6P
31.55%

Harm_IL
0
0
1.56E+02
1.06E+02
0
0
2.55E+01
2.01E+01
0
0
1.20E+01
1.13E+01
0
0
6.40E+00
5.49E+00
0
0
4.02E+00

Queda
0
0
3.437644222
2.7625972859
0
0
1.1718936996
1.0029720771
0
0
0.8401375053
0.8341871668
0
0
0.6022784836
0.5379518452
0
0
0.4741726967

0
0
11.8173977973
7.6319437641
0
0
1.3733348432
1.0059529873
0
0
0.7058310278
0.6958682292
0
0
0.3627393718
0.2893921878
0
0
0.2248397462

18P
0
0
0
0
17
19
0
0
0
0
35
37
0
0
0
0
53
55
0

4.08E+00
0
0
2.96E+00
2.64E+00
0
0
1.99E+00
1.95E+00
0
0
1.58E+00
1.54E+00
0
0

0.498336029
0
0
0.4210550512
0.3856062258
0
0
0.3307428271
0.3308463262
0
0
0.3010593195
0.299065083
0
0

0.2483387978
0
0
0.1772873561
0.1486921613
0
0
0.1093908177
0.1094592916
0
0
0.0906367139
0.0894399239
0
0

0
0
0
71
73
0
0
0
0
89
91
0
0
0
0

Soma
Raiz
THD12p

Queda^2

Simu

Harm_IL
0.0054%
0.0030%
0.0051%
0.0031%
1.3483%
1.3947%
0.0014%
0.0010%
0.0013%
0.0011%
0.3682%
0.3684%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0006%
0.1715%
0.1628%
0.0005%

0
0
0
0
3.28E+01
3.39E+01
0
0
0
0
8.94E+00
8.95E+00
0
0
0
0
4.17E+00
3.96E+00
0

0.0006%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0942%
0.0923%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0597%
0.0614%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

0
0
0
2.29E+00
2.24E+00
0
0
0
0
1.45E+00
1.49E+00
0
0
0
0

25.080545017
5.0080480246
1.32%

6P 5%
pol 12P
0.0241%
0.0035%
6.4291%
4.3718%
0.0045%
0.0059%
1.0482%
0.8253%
0.0012%
0.0010%
0.4938%
0.4638%
0.0005%
0.0019%
0.2636%
0.2259%
0.0005%
0.0010%

^2
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.4133%
0.1911%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0110%
0.0068%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0024%
0.0022%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0007%
0.0005%
0.0000%
0.0000%

pol 18P
0.0054%
0.0030%
0.0051%
0.0031%
1.3483%
1.3947%
0.0014%
0.0010%
0.0013%
0.0011%
0.3682%
0.3684%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0006%
0.1715%
0.1628%

^2
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0182%
0.0195%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0014%
0.0014%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0003%
0.0003%

32.2400%
9.3030%
6.4880%
3.2980%
2.4750%
1.9100%
1.1190%
1.0990%
0.6788%
0.6289%
0.5246%
0.4207%
0.3982%
0.3397%
0.2824%
0.2727%
0.2105%
0.2058%

Fator
0.0008158
0.0004090
1.1222256
1.3162523
0.0022877
0.0035817
0.9857015
0.8848044
0.0019107
0.0016489
1.0760579
1.2343713
0.0014448
0.0060141
1.0612606
0.9369270
0.0027145
0.0054859

0.1653%
0.1681%
0.0004%
0.0011%
0.1220%
0.1087%
0.0003%
0.0008%
0.0820%
0.0801%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0652%
0.0634%
0.0634%
0.0634%

0.0003%
0.0003%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 12P
7.93%

0.0005%
0.0006%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0942%
0.0923%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0597%
0.0614%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 18P
2.03%

0.1790%
0.1590%
0.1545%
0.1362%
0.1258%
0.1199%
0.1019%
0.1008%
0.0896%
0.0832%
0.0811%
0.0731%
0.0707%
0.0668%
0.0668%
0.0668%

1.0229050
1.1440252
0.0026544
0.0086784
1.0786963
1.0200167
0.0029323
0.0089871
1.0263540
1.0715230
0.0016928
0.0115113
1.0486838
1.0712895
1.0712895
1.0712895

Queda
0
0
0
0
1.1141672518
1.2881189412
0
0
0
0
0.6264196209
0.66262701
0
0
0
0
0.4418817393
0.435322693
0
0
0
0
0.3251773719
0.3275918794
0
0
0
0
0.2582047249
0.2717290678
0
0
0
0
Soma
Raiz
THD18p

12P 5%
0.0263%
0.0038%
7.2810%
4.3410%
0.0057%
0.0068%
1.1030%
0.9724%
0.0013%
0.0010%
0.5645%
0.5193%
0.0006%
0.0020%
0.2997%
0.2555%
0.0006%
0.0011%

Queda^2
0
0
0
0
1.2413686651
1.6592504066
0
0
0
0
0.3924015414
0.4390745544
0
0
0
0
0.1952594715
0.189505847
0

24P
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
47
49
0
0
0

0
0
0
0.1057403232
0.1073164395
0
0
0
0
0.06666968
0.0738366863
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
71
73
0
0
0
0
0
0
95
97
0
0

4.4704236149
2.1143376303
0.56%

Fator
0.0001827
0.0003581
0.0008875
0.0009482
0.6820202
0.8497382
0.0013047
0.0010728
0.0021523
0.0017920
0.8023256
0.9805087
0.0021067
0.0022788
0.0028527
0.0025567
0.8864608
0.8950437

Simu

Harm_IL

Queda
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Soma
Raiz
THD24p

18P 5%
0.0059%
0.0033%
0.0058%
0.0031%
1.6880%
1.6230%
0.0015%
0.0012%
0.0015%
0.0011%
0.4209%
0.4125%
0.0008%
0.0008%
0.0008%
0.0007%
0.1866%
0.1842%

0.1831%
0.1819%
0.0004%
0.0012%
0.1357%
0.1223%
0.0003%
0.0009%
0.0919%
0.0891%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0741%
0.0715%
0.0715%
0.0715%

0.0032369
0.0038434
0.0038718
0.0041278
0.8330684
0.8665555
0.0050677
0.0051746
0.0050832
0.0048684
0.8264086
0.9121150
0.0056340
0.0065808
0.0065808
0.0065808

0.0006%
0.0006%
0.0006%
0.0006%
0.1048%
0.1039%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0670%
0.0666%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

Grficos
Corrente
Pulsos
harm
Queda^2

pulsos
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00%

6
fator lim cor
1

1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59
61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

Isc_IL

15.625

6
Amp
% of IL
Limite IEEE
2429.392
19.99%
716.4984
5.89%
4.00%
205.3584
1.69%
4.00%
139.1779
1.15%
2.00%
80.68955
0.66%
2.00%
48.02711
0.40%
1.50%
39.87488
0.33%
1.50%
25.83433
0.21%
0.60%
22.66125
0.19%
0.60%
15.13107
0.12%
0.60%
14.40965
0.12%
0.60%
11.14882
0.09%
0.30%
9.128474
0.08%
0.30%
8.598218
0.07%
0.30%
7.49876
0.06%
0.30%
6.034755
0.05%
0.30%
5.856306
0.05%
0.30%
4.700595
0.04%
0.30%
4.419637
0.04%
0.30%
3.926733
0.03%
0.30%
3.568939
3.242567
2.970502
2.747663
2.58819
2.226004
2.219955
1.940427
1.815466
1.754533
1.636166
1.51031
1.438366
1.438366
1.438366

0.03%
0.03%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%

Limite I

0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%

Tenso
Pulsos
harm

6
AMP_V

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59

7.168083
2.87626
3.063238
2.098836
1.633628
1.515901
1.188893
1.133552
0.877982
0.893785
0.780755
0.675799
0.705359
0.645172
0.567512
0.574166
0.498479
0.48637
0.463555

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

0.435599
0.421716
0.398219
0.390337
0.378039
0.342953
0.350905
0.32225
0.308763
0.312442
0.297911
0.287083
0.279164
0.290676
0.296432

AMP% Limite IEEE


1.89%
0.76%
0.81%
0.55%
0.43%
0.40%
0.31%
0.30%
0.23%
0.24%
0.21%
0.18%
0.19%
0.17%
0.15%
0.15%
0.13%
0.13%
0.12%

3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.11%
0.11%
0.10%
0.10%
0.10%
0.09%
0.09%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.07%
0.08%
0.08%

3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Limite V

THDi calculada
Harm_i_simu
0.294929
0.084531
0.057289
0.033214
0.019769
0.016414
0.010634
0.009328
0.006228
0.005931
0.004589
0.003758
0.003539
0.003087
0.002484
0.002411
0.001935
0.001819
0.001616
0.001469
0.001335
0.001223
0.001131
0.001065
0.000916
0.000914
0.000799
0.000747
0.000722
0.000673
0.000622
0.000592
0.000592
0.000592

ao quadr
0.086983
0.007145
0.003282
0.001103
0.000391
0.000269
0.000113
8.70E-005
3.88E-005
3.52E-005
2.11E-005
1.41E-005
1.25E-005
9.53E-006
6.17E-006
5.81E-006
3.74E-006
3.31E-006
2.61E-006
2.16E-006
1.78E-006
1.50E-006
1.28E-006
1.14E-006
8.40E-007
8.35E-007
6.38E-007
5.58E-007
5.22E-007
4.54E-007
3.86E-007
3.51E-007
3.51E-007
3.51E-007

soma
raiz q

0.09954
0.3155

IEEE-519 Recommended Practices for Applications with


Variable
Frequency Drives
Joable Andrade Alves & Paulo Jos Torri
WEG Automao S.A.
Introduction
The indirect frequency converters or variable frequency drives (VFDs) are usually composed of an input diode
rectifier stage. The three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier, also known as Graetz Bridge or six-pulse rectifier (Figure
1) is one of the most used configurations for the input stage of VFDs. The currents drained by this converter are of
pulsed-type, containing low-order harmonics that may cause voltage harmonic distortion at the electric power
supply system where VFDs are connected. The voltage distortion is related to the magnitude of the current
harmonics of the electrical equipment and also to the network impedance, i.e., to the network capacity and to the
ratio between the installed drives capacity and the network capacity.

+
D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Figure 1 - six-pulse rectifier

Other Loads
PCC
Distorted Voltage

Non-linear Load

Figure 2 - Voltage distortion caused by currents drained by a non-linear load.


In several applications, the six-pulse variable frequency drive with an input line reactor or a DC reactor may
perfectly meet the IEEE-519 recommendations. When it is not possible, the following options are available for
reducing the harmonic currents:
1) Increase the number of pulses of the input rectifier using 12, 18 or even 24-pulse;
2) Use an active front-end rectifier (regen-drive).
The greater the number of pulses of the rectifier, the lower the current harmonic content at low frequencies. The
characteristic harmonics can be represented as follows:

h=P. n1

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ....
Where:
h : harmonic order
P : number of rectifier pulses
At the same time that the harmonic currents at low frequencies are reduced, there are other disadvantages in
increasing the number of rectifier pulses such as: the need of using phase-shifting transformers and increase on
the cost of the configuration. Particular attention needs to be given to the increase on the equipment complexity
and to the reduction on the efficiency and reliability of the whole system (due to the use of a larger number of
components).
24 of 58

25 of 58

Multipulse Configuration

In the industry, the term multipulse, when related to frequency converters, means the association, in series or in
parallel, of six-pulse three-phase rectifiers and the mandatory use of phase-shifting transformers to feed the
rectifiers. The fundamental idea of the multipulse configurations can be understood as the interconnection of sixpulse rectifiers so that the characteristic harmonics generated by these rectifiers are cancelled by the harmonics
generated by other sets of rectifiers. This mitigation is performed by appropriate design of the phase-shifting
transformer with multiple secondaries. The harmonics of the six-pulse rectifier that are present on the secondary
of the transformer will be cancelled and will not appear at the primary of the transformer that is connected to the
utility.
The characteristic harmonics of the six-pulse rectifier are given by:

h=6 . n1
The magnitudes of these harmonics, in respect of the fundamental, are given by:

A h=

1
6 . n1

The following figure shows the spectrum of these harmonics and their magnitude (as a percentage of the
fundamental).

100.0%

20.0%
14.3%
9.1% 7.7%

11

13

5.9%

17

5.3% 4.3%

19

23

4.0% 3.4%

25

29

3.2%

31

2.9% 2.7%

35

37

2.4%

41

2.3% 2.1%

43

47

2.0%

49

Figure 3 - Theoretic harmonic spectrum of the input current for a six-pulse rectifier.

The increase in the number of the rectifier pulses and the use of an appropriate phase-shifting transformer allow
the mitigation of the harmonic components at the primary of the transformer. Figure 4 shows the expected typical
waveforms of the input currents and their respective harmonic spectrum to the 6, 12 and 18-pulse configurations.
It is important to emphasize that the harmonics multiple of the 3rd are cancelled in a balanced three-phase
system (zero sequence).
In practice, however, the non-characteristic harmonics usually present a magnitude different from zero. This is due
to the pre-existing imperfections of the electrical system, such as, voltage unbalance, pre-existing harmonic
distortion, etc. Another factor that contribute to the appearance of non-characteristic harmonics is the transformer
imperfections, which blocks the mitigation of non-characteristic harmonics at the primary of the transformer.
The data presented in the following figures were obtained considering an ideal system. In the numerical
simulation the system was modeled as: power electric system, input impedance, rectifier, capacitive filter and load
(current source).

26 of 58

35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
5

11 13

17

19 23

25

29 31

35 37

41

43 47

49

53 55

59

61 65

67

71 73

77

79 83

85 89

91

95 97 101 103

6-pulse

8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

12-pulse

1.8%
1.6%
1.4%
1.2%
1.0%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

18-pulse

Figure 4 - Typical input currents for the 6-pulse recifier or at the primary of the phase-shifting
transformer input (12 and 18-pulse) and their respective harmonic spectrum (harmonic
components expressed as a percentage of the fundamental).

27 of 58

28 of 58

IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power System:
IEEE-519

This recommendation (it is not a standard) prepared by IEEE describes the main factors that may cause harmonic
distortion, indicates the measurement methods and states the distortion limits.
The scope of this recommended practice is to analyze the harmonic distortion caused by all the loads (linear and
non-linear) at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) and not the distortion caused by one individual device. The
main concern of IEEE is what the installation reflects to the other consumers connected to the same power supply
and not what occurs within the installation.
The distortion limits are different according to the voltage and short-circuit levels at the PCC. The higher the shortcircuit current (Isc) in respect of the load current, the higher the admissible current distortion, since they will cause
a lower voltage distortion at the PCC. As the voltage level increases, the acceptable limits decrease.
The TDD Total Demand Distortion is defined as the current harmonic distortion, in percentage of the maximum
demand load current (15 or 30 minutes demand). This means that the TDD shall be measured at the peak
consumption.

Tables 10.2 and 10.3, obtained from IEEE-519, show the recommended limits for the THDv (Total Voltage
Harmonic Distortion) and for the TDD (Total Demand Distortion).

Notch Depth
THD (Voltage)
Notch Area [V*us]

Special
Applications*
10%
3%
16400

General
System
20%
5%
22800

Dedicated
System**
50%
10%
36500

* Special applications include hospitals and airports.


** A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the
converter load.
IEEE-519 - Table 10.2 - Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits.
In section 10.2 (Development of Current Distortion Limits), of IEEE-519, it is established 3% as the individual limit
of the voltage components at PCC in respect of its fundamental component.

Isc / IL
< 20
20 < 50
50 < 100
100 < 1000
> 1000

< 11
4
7
10
12
15

11n<17
2
3,5
4,5
5,5
7

17n<23
1,5
2,5
4
5
6

23n<35
0,6
1
1,5
2
2,5

35n
0,3
0,5
0,7
1
1,4

TDD(%)
5
8
12
15
20

Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL


Isc - maximum short-circuit current at PCC
IL - maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC
IEEE-519 - Table 10.3 - Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems.
The table 10.3 is applicable to six-pulse rectifiers and general distortion situations. However, when phase shift
transformers or converters with pulse numbers higher than six are used, the limits for the characteristic harmonic
orders are increased by a factor equal to: 1.414 for 12-pulse and 1.732 for 18-pulse.
Although the IEEE-519 is not a standard, this recommendation is being used as a reference to specify the
harmonic distortion limits allowed by the utility companies and in the design of industrial power systems.

29 of 58

30 of 58

Case Study:

Company Name

date:

11-Mar-15

This case study aims to show how to obtain, in a simple way and with a good precision, the Voltage Harmonic
Distortion (THDv) and the Total Demand Distortion (TDD) values for a system composed of a main bus bar with
known power and impedance, feeding a non-linear load with an input rectifier with the specified number of pulses.
This is a simple study, since practical aspects are being disregarded such as: the network is not ideal, phase
unbalance, influence of other loads connected to the PCC, transmission line impedance, system efficiency, etc.
The values presented herein are useful for a preliminary analysis of the harmonic distortion level of the system.
For a complete analysis, taking in account all the variables listed above, it is necessary to perform a numerical
simulation.

The voltages and currents are expressed in RMS values.

PCC Data

Power Capacity:
Source reactance (%):
Voltage:
Demand Current (IL):
Short-circuit Current (Isc):
Ratio Isc/IL:

10.00
8.00
380
12155
189.92
15.63

MVA
%
Volts
A
kA

VFD System

Rectifier:

6 pulse

For this type of rectifier, it is recommended


to use an input line reactor (or DC choke)
with a minimum voltage drop of 4%.

Three-phase Induction Motor

Voltage:
Current:
cos(

3300 Volts
310 A
0.86

Considering that the fundamental is the only component that provides active power to the motor, it is possible to
calculate its value at the PCC by taking in account the typical motor displacement power factor - cos(). With the
calculated fundamental component, the theoretical harmonic components of the current at the PCC can be known
as a function of the number of pulses of the rectifier.
The THDi current at the PCC is calculated by the following expression:

THDi =

n=2

I 2n

I ( 1)

Where:
In are the harmonic components of the PCC current
I(1) is the fundamental component of the PCC current

31 of 58

32 of 58

The TDD is calculated as the current harmonic distortion at the PCC in respect of its demand current (IL):

TDD=

I 2n

n=2

IL

With the given power and impedance (%) it is possible to calculate the physical inductance (L) at the PCC and,
therefore, calculate the voltage drops caused by the components of the current harmonics.

V n =I n . ( 2 . . F n ) . L

L is the physical inductance at the PCC

THDV =

Where:

Fn are the characteristic harmonic frequencies

V 2n

n=2

Vn are the harmonic components of the voltage at the PCC

V ( 1)

V(1) is the fundamental component of the voltage at the PCC

The results of the harmonic analysis are presented in the following table. These calculations were performed up to
the 100th harmonic.
Final Results
% of load

15.99

Ratio between the load power and the PCC capacity

Ie(1)

2429.39 A

RMS value of the fundamental component of the current Ie

Ie RMS

2543.41 A

RMS value of the Ie current

IL

12154.74 A

RMS value of the demand current at PCC

THDi

31.55

TDD

6.31

THDv

2.47

Harmonic current distortion of the current Ie


Total Demand Distortion (considering IL as the demand current)
Above Recommendation

Isc/IL =

16

the limit is:

5%

Voltage Harmonic Distortion at the PCC


Meets IEEE-519 including for 'Special Applications'

7.00%

Simulation

6.00%

IEEE limits

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97 101 103

Figure 5 - Individual Current Harmonics expressed as a percentage of IL.


Observing figure 5 it can be concluded that:

There are harmonics above the recommendation

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2.00%

Simulation

1.80%
1.60%

IEEE limit

1.40%
1.20%
1.00%
0.80%
0.60%
0.40%
0.20%
0.00%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97 101 103

Figure 6 - Individual Voltage Harmonics expressed as a percentage of the fundamental voltage at the PCC.
Observing figure 6 it can be concluded that:

Meets the individual limit of 3%

Summary
THDv

2.47

Voltage Harmonic Distortion at the PCC


Meets IEEE-519 including for 'Special Applications'

Individual Limit for the Voltage Harmonics at the PCC:


TDD

6.31

Meets the individual limit of 3%

Total Demand Distortion


Above Recommendation

Isc/IL =

16

the limit is:

5%

Current Harmonics (table 10.3): There are harmonics above the recommendation

References
[1] PAICE, DEREK A., "POWER ELETRONIC CONVERTER HARMONICS - MULTIPULSE METHODS
FOR CLEAN POWER", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1996
[2] IEEE, "IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTES FOR HARMONIC CONTROL
IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS - IEEE-519", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1993
[3] POMILIO, J. A., "PR-REGULADORES DE FATOR DE POTNCIA", PUBLICAO FEE 03/95,
BRASIL, 2004 (in portuguese)
[4] ALVES, JOABLE A., & HORNBURG, EDSON, "HIGH AND LOW ORDER HARMONICS FOR
FREQUENCY INVERTERS", ANAIS DO VI INDUSCON, JOINVILLE-BRASIL, 2004
(in portuguese)
[5] ROSSA, A. J. & TORRI, P. J., EFEITOS DA DISTORO HARMNICA DA REDE ELTRICA
SOBRE MOTORES ELTRICOS, REVISTA ELETRICIDADE MODERNA, ANO XXIX, N 324,
BRASIL, 2001 (in portuguese)

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Atendimento a Recomendao IEEE-519 em Aplicaes


com
Inversores
de Freqncia
Joable Andrade Alves & Paulo Jos Torri
WEG Automao S.A.
Introduo
Os conversores indiretos de freqncia, ou inversores de freqncia, so normalmente constitudos por um
estgio retificador a diodos na entrada. O retificador trifsico de onda completa, tambm conhecido como Ponte
de Graetz ou retificador de 6 pulsos (Fig. 1), uma das estruturas mais empregadas como estgio de entrada
dos conversores. As correntes drenadas por este retificador so pulsadas, contendo harmnicas de baixa ordem
e que podem causar distores harmnicas na tenso de rede da planta a qual esto conectados os inversores.
A distoro de tenso depende das amplitudes das harmnicas de corrente dos equipamentos e tambm das
impedncias da rede, isto , da capacidade da planta e da relao entre a capacidade instalada de inversores
em relao a capacidade da planta.

+
D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Fig. 1 - Retificador de 6 pulsos

Outras Cargas
PCC
Tenso Distorcida

Carga No-Linear

Fig. 2 - Distoro da tenso provocada por correntes drenadas por uma carga no-linear
Em muitas aplicaes, o inversor de freqncia com retificador de 6 pulsos adicionado a uma reatncia na
entrada ou um indutor no barramento CC atende perfeitamente as recomendaes da IEEE-519. Quando isto
no possvel, algumas das solues disponveis para reduo das correntes harmnicas so o aumento do
nmero de pulsos do retificador utilizando 12, 18 ou at 24 pulsos ou a utilizao de retificadores de entrada
ativos (regenerativos).
Quanto maior o nmero de pulsos do retificador menor o contedo harmnico da corrente nas baixas
freqncias. As harmnicas caractersticas podem ser expressas por:

h=P. n1

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ....
Onde:
h : ordem da harmnica
P : nmero de pulsos do retificador
Em contrapartida ao benefcio da reduo das correntes harmnicas de baixa freqncia existem as
desvantagens em aumentar o nmero de pulsos do retificador, tais como a necessidade de utilizao de
transformadores defasadores e o aumento do custo da estrutura. Deve-se atentar para o aumento da
complexidade dos equipamentos, da reduo da eficincia e da confiabilidade do sistema pois so necessrios
um nmero maior de componentes.
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Em contrapartida ao benefcio da reduo das correntes harmnicas de baixa freqncia existem as


desvantagens em aumentar o nmero de pulsos do retificador, tais como a necessidade de utilizao de
transformadores defasadores e o aumento do custo da estrutura. Deve-se atentar para o aumento da
complexidade dos equipamentos, da reduo da eficincia e da confiabilidade do sistema pois so necessrios
um nmero maior de componentes.

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Estruturas Multi-pulsos
Na indstria, o termo multi-pulsos relacionado a inversores de freqncia tem conotao com a associao, em
srie ou paralelo, de retificadores trifsicos de 6 pulsos e a obrigatria utilizao de transformadores
defasadores para aliment-los. A idia bsica das estruturas multi-pulsos pode ser entendida como a conexo
de retificadores de 6 pulsos de tal forma que as harmnicas caractersticas geradas por estes retificadores
sejam canceladas pelas harmnicas geradas por outros conjuntos de retificadores. Este cancelamento
possvel pelo adequado projeto do transformador defasador com mltiplos secundrios. As harmnicas dos
retificadores de 6 pulsos esto presentes nos secundrios, so canceladas no transformador e no aparecem
no primrio que est conectado a rede.
As harmnicas caractersticas do retificador de 6 pulsos so dadas por:

h=6 . n1
As amplitudes destas harmnicas, relativas a componente fundamental, so dadas por:

A h=

1
6 . n1

O grfico seguinte ilustra o espectro destas harmnicas e a sua amplitude expressa em percentual da
componente fundamental.

100.0%

20.0%
14.3%
9.1% 7.7%

11

13

5.9%

17

5.3% 4.3%

19

23

4.0% 3.4%

25

29

3.2%

31

2.9% 2.7%

35

37

2.4%

41

2.3% 2.1%

43

47

2.0%

49

Fig. 3 - Espectro harmnico terico da corrente de linha para um retificador de 6 pulsos


O aumento do nmero de pulsos do retificador e a utilizao do transformador defasador adequado, possibilita
que sejam eliminadas as componentes harmnicas no primrio do transformador. A figura 4 mostra as formas de
onda tpicas das correntes de linha esperadas e o seu respectivo espectro harmnico para estruturas de 6, 12 e
18 pulsos.
Cabe ressaltar que as harmnicas de ordem mltiplas de 3 so canceladas em um sistema trifsico equilibrado
(seqncia zero).
Na prtica, no entanto, as harmnicas no caractersticas normalmente apresentam uma amplitude diferente de
zero. Isto se d devido s imperfeies j presentes na rede eltrica, tais como, desequilbrio de tenses,
distores harmnicas pr-existentes, etc. Outros fatores que contribuem para o aparecimento de harmnicas
no caractersticas so as imperfeies do transformador, as quais impedem o perfeito cancelamento destas no
primrio do mesmo.
Os dados apresentados nas figuras seguintes foram obtidos considerando a perfeita idealidade do sistema. Na
simulao numrica o sistema foi modelado como: rede de alimentao, impedncia de entrada, retificador, filtro
capacitivo e carga (fonte de corrente).

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35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
5

11 13

17

19 23

25

29 31

35 37

41

43 47

49

53 55

59

61 65

67

71 73

77

79 83

85 89

91

95 97 101 103

6 pulsos

8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

12 pulsos

1.8%
1.6%
1.4%
1.2%
1.0%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

18 pulsos

Fig. 4 - Correntes tpicas na entrada do retificador (6 pulsos) ou no primrio do transformador


defasador (12 e 18 pulsos) e respectivos espectros harmnicos
(componentes harmnicas expressas em percentual da fundamental)

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Recomendao IEEE para prticas e requisitos para controle de harmnicas no sistema eltrico de
potncia: IEEE-519

Esta recomendao (no uma norma) produzida pelo IEEE descreve os principais fenmenos causadores de
distoro harmnica, indica mtodos de medio e limites de distoro.
Seu enfoque a anlise da distoro harmnica no Ponto de Conexo Comum (PCC) das cargas (lineares ou
no-lineares) e no em cada equipamento individual. A filosofia que no interessa ao sistema o que ocorre
dentro de uma instalao, mas sim o que ela reflete para o exterior, ou seja, para os outros consumidores
conectados mesma alimentao.
Os limites diferem de acordo com o nvel de tenso e com o nvel de curto-circuito do PCC. Quanto maior for a
corrente de curto-circuito (Isc) em relao corrente de carga, maiores so as distores de corrente
admissveis, uma vez que elas distorcero em menor intensidade a tenso no PCC. medida que se eleva o
nvel de tenso, menores so os limites aceitveis.
A grandeza TDD - Total Demand Distortion - definida como a distoro harmnica da corrente, em % da
mxima demanda da corrente de carga (demanda de 15 ou 30 minutos). Isto significa que a medio da TDD
deve ser feita no pico de consumo.

As tabelas 10.2 e 10.3, extradas da IEEE-519, apresentam os limites recomendados de THDv (Total Harmonic
Distortion) da tenso e TDD (Total Demand Distortion).

Notch Depth
THD (Voltage)
Notch Area [V*us]

Special
Applications*
10%
3%
16400

General
System
20%
5%
22800

Dedicated
System**
50%
10%
36500

* Special applications include hospitals and airports.


** A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the
converter load.
IEEE-519 - Table 10.2 - Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits.
Na seo 10.2 (Development of Current Distortion Limits), desta norma, estabelecido 3% como o limite
individual das harmnicas de tenso no PCC em relao a sua fundamental.

Isc / IL
< 20
20 < 50
50 < 100
100 < 1000
> 1000

< 11
4
7
10
12
15

11n<17
2
3,5
4,5
5,5
7

17n<23
1,5
2,5
4
5
6

23n<35
0,6
1
1,5
2
2,5

35n
0,3
0,5
0,7
1
1,4

TDD(%)
5
8
12
15
20

Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL


Isc - maximum short-circuit current at PCC
IL - maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC
IEEE-519 - Table 10.3 - Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems.
A tabela 10.3 aplicvel para retificadores com 6 pulsos. Para retificadores com 12 pulsos, deve-se multiplicar
os limites individuais por 1.414. No caso de retificadores com 18 pulsos estes limites devem ser multiplicados
por 1.732 .
Apesar de no ser uma norma, a IEEE-519, tem sido utilizada como base para a especificao dos limites de
distores harmnicas por concessionrias do setor eltrico e em projetos de plantas industriais.

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Estudo de Caso:

Company Name

Data:

11-Mar-15

Este estudo de caso tem como objetivo mostrar como obter, de maneira simples e com um bom grau de
preciso, os valores das taxas de distoro harmnica da tenso (THDv) e da TDD, em um sistema formado por
uma barra com potncia instalada e impedncia definidas, alimentando uma carga no-linear com um retificador
de entrada com nmero de pulsos especificado. Este estudo simplificado pois no esto sendo considerados
aspectos prticos como no idealidades da rede, desbalanceamentos entre as fases de alimentao, a
influncia de outras cargas conectadas ao PCC, impedncias da linha de transmisso, rendimento do
acionamento, etc. Os valores calculados so teis para se obter uma idia inicial das distores harmnicas no
sistema apresentado. Para uma anlise completa, considerando todos os aspectos apresentados necessrio
conhecer todas as variveis e realizar uma simulao numrica do sistema completo.
As tenses e correntes esto expressas em valores eficazes.

Dados do PCC (Sistema)

Potncia Instalada:
Impedncia %:
Tenso:
Corrente de Demanda (IL):
Corrente de Curto-Circuito:
Relao Isc/IL:

10.00
8.00
380
12155
189.92
15.63

MVA
%
Volts
A
kA

Acionamento

Retificador:

6 pulsos

Para este retificador, recomenda-se uma


reatncia de entrada (ou bobina no link DC)
com queda % mnima de 4%.

Motor de Induo Trifsico

Tenso:
Corrente:
cos(

3300 Volts
310 A
0.86

Considerando que a componente fundamental a nica a fornecer potncia ativa para o motor, pode-se calcular
o valor desta no PCC, considerando o cos() tpico do motor. Com a componente fundamental calculada, as
componentes harmnicas tericas da corrente no PCC so conhecidas em funo do nmero de pulsos do
retificador.
A THDi da corrente no PCC calculada pela expresso:

THDi =

I 2n
n=2

I ( 1)

onde:
In so as componentes harmnicas da corrente no PCC
I(1) a componente fundamental da corrente no PCC

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A TDD ser calculada como sendo a distoro harmnica da corrente no PCC em relao a corrente de
demanda no mesmo (IL):

TDD=

n=2

In

IL

Com a potncia, tenso e impedncia % dadas, possvel calcular a indutncia fsica (L) no PCC e assim,
calcular as quedas de tenso provocadas pelas componentes harmnicas da corrente.
onde:

V n=I n . ( 2 . . F n ) . L

L a indutncia fsica at o ponto de conexo comum (PCC)

THDV =

Fn so as freqncias harmnicas caractersticas

V 2n

Vn so as componentes harmnicas da tenso no PCC

n=2

V ( 1)

V(1) a componente fundamental da tenso no PCC

Os resultados obtidos pelas expresses apresentadas esto compilados na tabela seguinte. Os clculos foram
efetuados com at a 100 hamnica.
Resultados Obtidos
% carga

15.99

Relao entre a potncia da carga pela potncia instalada do PCC

Ie(1)

2429.39 A

Valor eficaz da componente fundamental da corrente Ie

Ie RMS

2543.41 A

Valor eficaz da corrente Ie

IL

12154.74 A

Valor eficaz da corrente de demanda no PCC

THDi

31.55

TDD

6.31

THDv

2.47

Distoro harmnica da corrente Ie


Total Demand Distortion
ACIMA DA RECOMENDAO

Isc/IL =

16

o limite : 5%

Distoro harmnica da tenso no PCC


Atende IEEE-519 inclusive para 'Special Applications'

7.00%

Simulao

6.00%

Limite IEEE

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97 101 103

Fig. 5 - Harmnicas Individuais de Corrente em percentual de IL


Observando a figura 5 constata-se que: Existem harmnicas acima da recomendao da IEEE 519

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2.00%

Simulao

1.80%
1.60%

Limite IEEE

1.40%
1.20%
1.00%
0.80%
0.60%
0.40%
0.20%
0.00%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97 101 103

Fig. 6 - Harmnicas Individuais de Tenso em percentual da tenso fundamental no PCC


Observando a figura 6 constata-se que: Atende ao limite individual de 3%
Resumo
THDv

2.47

Distoro harmnica da tenso no PCC


Atende IEEE-519 inclusive para 'Special Applications'

Limite individual das harmnicas de Tenso no PCC:


TDD

6.31

Atende ao limite individual de 3%

Total Demand Distortion


ACIMA DA RECOMENDAO

Harmnicas de Corrente (tabela 10.3):

Isc/IL =

16

o limite : 5%

Existem harmnicas acima da recomendao da IEEE 519

Referncias
[1] PAICE, DEREK A., "POWER ELETRONIC CONVERTER HARMONICS - MULTIPULSE METHODS
FOR CLEAN POWER", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1996
[2] IEEE, "IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTES FOR HARMONIC CONTROL
IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS - IEEE-519", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1993
[3] POMILIO, J. A., "PR-REGULADORES DE FATOR DE POTNCIA", PUBLICAO FEE 03/95,
BRASIL, 2004
[4] ALVES, JOABLE A., & HORNBURG, EDSON, "HIGH AND LOW ORDER HARMONICS FOR
FREQUENCY INVERTERS", ANAIS DO VI INDUSCON, JOINVILLE-BRASIL, 2004
[5] ROSSA, A. J. & TORRI, P. J., EFEITOS DA DISTORO HARMNICA DA REDE ELTRICA
SOBRE MOTORES ELTRICOS, REVISTA ELETRICIDADE MODERNA, ANO XXIX, N 324,
BRASIL, 2001

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