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# Lecture-7

Prepared under
QIP-CD Cell Project

1

1.
2.
3.
4.

Carnot
Otto
Diesel
Brayton

## - maximum cycle efficiency

- spark-ignition (SI) engine
- compression-ignition (CI) engine
- gas turbine

## Air Standard Cycles

Air standard cycles are idealized cycles based on
the following approximations:
the working fluid is air (ideal gas)
all the processes are internally reversible
the combustion process is replaced by heat
input from an external source
heat rejection is used to restore fluid to initial
state

Thermodynamic Cycles

## Air-standard analysis is used to perform elementary analyses

of IC engine cycles.

## Simplifications to the real cycle include:

1) Fixed amount of air (ideal gas) for working fluid
2) Combustion process not considered
3) Intake and exhaust processes not considered
4) Engine friction and heat losses not considered
5) Specific heats independent of temperature

FUEL

Ignition

I
R
Fuel/Air
Mixture

Combustion
Products

Actual
Cycle
Intake
Stroke

Compression
Stroke

Power
Stroke

Qin
Otto
Cycle

Air

Exhaust
Stroke

Qout
TC
BC

Compression
Process

Const volume
Process

Expansion
Process

Const volume
heat rejection
Process

## Air-Standard Otto cycle

Process 1 2
Process 2 3
Process 3 4
Process 4 1

Isentropic compression
Isentropic expansion
Constant volume heat rejection
Compression ratio:

r=

v1 v4
=
v2 v3

Qin

Qout
v2

TC

v1

BC

TC

BC

In
Otto
cycle,
the
combustion is so rapid
that the piston does not
move during the process,
and
therefore,
combustion is assumed to
take place at constant
volume.

T4 T1
T1(T4 / T1 1)
wnet
qout
=
=1
=1
=1
T2 (T3 / T2 1)
T3 T2
qin
qin

## Otto Cycle (Contd.)

For isentropic process:
pvk = constant with k=cp/cv
For process 1-2:
p1 v1k = p2 v2k
RT2
T2 v1
v1k p2
v2
=
=
=
T1 v 2
v k2 p1 RT1
v1

v1k v 2
T2
=
k
v 2 v1
T1
T2 v
=
T1 v

k 1
1
k 1
2

v
= 1
v2

k 1

Since m = constant:
k 1

T2 v1
=
T1 v2

k 1

V1
=
V2

k 1

VBDC
=

VTDC

= r k 1

T3 V4
=
T4 V3

Then

k 1

V
= BDC
VTDC

T2 T3
=
T1 T4
=1

k 1

or

= r k 1

T3 T4
=
T1
T2

1
r k 1
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## Increasing Compression Ratio

Increases the Efficiency

Typical
Compression
Ratios for
Gasoline Engines

10

## Higher Compression Ratios?

auto-ignition (without spark)
Causes knock
Engine damage
Thus, there is an upper limit of high
compression ratio

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Fuel injected
at TC

A
I
R

Combustion
Products

Air

Actual
Cycle
Intake
Stroke

Compression
Stroke

Power
Stroke

Qin
Diesel
Cycle

Exhaust
Stroke

Qout

Air

BC

Compression
Process

Const pressure
Process

Expansion
Process

Const volume
heat rejection
Process

12

## Air-Standard Diesel cycle

Process 1 2
Process 2 3
Process 3 4
Process 4 1

Isentropic compression
Isentropic expansion
Constant volume heat rejection
Cut-off ratio:

Qin

rc =

v3
v2

Qout

v2

TC

v1

BC

TC

BC

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## for fuel injection, combustion process

continues till the beginning of power stroke.
This keeps the cylinder pressure at peak
levels for a longer period. Therefore, the
combustion process can be approximated
as
constant
pressure
heat
Remaining processes are similar to that of
Otto cycle.

Cycle efficiency,
wnet
qout
=
=1
qin
qin

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V3
Cutoff Ratio, rc =
V2
V1
Compression Ratio, r =
V2
V4
Expansion Ratio, re =
V3
Cutoff Ratio Expansion Ratio = Compression Ratio

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=1

c v (T4 T1 )
(T4 T1 )
T (T4 / T1 1)
=1
=1 1
cp (T3 T2 )
k(T3 T2 )
T2 k(T3 / T2 1)

T1 v 2
=
T2 v1

k 1

ideal gas law:
RT2 RT3
=
v2
v3

=>

T3 v3
=
= rc
T2 v2

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T3 v 4
=
T4 v 3
=>

k 1

v1
=
v3

T v
T4
== 3 3
T1
T2 v 2

then, = 1
sin ce

k 1

k 1

1
r k 1

v1k 1
= k 1
v3
v3
v2

T2 k 1
v2
k 1
T2 v 2
T1

=
=
k 1
v3
T1 v 3

v3

v2

k 1

v
= 3 = rck
v2

rck 1
k(rc 1)

rck 1
1, for given r
k(rc 1)

diesel Otto

## but diesel cycle has higher r!

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Thermal Efficiency

Diesel
Recall,

r
1 1 ( c 1)

= 1 k 1
r k ( rc 1)

Otto = 1

1
r k 1

## Note that the term in the square bracket is always larger

than one so for the same compression ratio (r), the
Diesel cycle has a lower thermal efficiency than the
Otto cycle.
Note: CI needs higher r compared to SI to ignite fuel
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Remark

## When rc (= v3/v2)1 the Diesel cycle efficiency

approaches the efficiency of the Otto cycle
Compression ratio = 10-22 (Diesel)
Compression ratio = 6-10 (Otto)
Thus, efficiency of Diesel Cycle is greater than Otto Cycle.

## Higher efficiency and low cost fuel makes diesel

engine suitable for larger power units such as
larger ships, heavy trucks, power generating
units, locomotives etc.

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Diesel Cycle

Otto Cycle
The only
difference
is in
process
2-3

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Remark

## Both Otto cycle (Constant volume heat

addition) and Diesel cycle (Constant pressure
unrealistic. In actual case, combustion takes
place neither at constant volume (time
required for chemical reactions), nor at
constant
pressure
(rapid
uncontrolled
combustion).
Dual cycle is used to model the combustion
process. It is a compromise between Otto and
Diesel cycles, where heat addition takes place
partly at constant volume and partly at
constant pressure. This cycle is also known as
mixed cycle. In fact, Otto and Diesel cycles
are special cases of Dual cycle.
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## Modern CI Engine Cycle and the Thermodynamic Dual Cycle

Fuel injected
at 15o bTC

A
I
R
Air

Combustion
Products

Actual
Cycle
Intake
Stroke

Compression
Stroke

Power
Stroke

Qin
Dual
Cycle

Air

Exhaust
Stroke

Qin

Qout

TC
BC

Compression
Process

Const volume
Process

Const pressure
Process

Expansion
Process

Const volume
heat rejection
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Process

Dual Cycle
Process 1 2 Isentropic compression
Process 2 2.5 Constant volume heat addition
Process 2.5 3 Constant pressure heat addition
Process 3 4 Isentropic expansion
Process 4 1 Constant volume heat rejection
2.5

Qin

3
2

Qin

2.5

1
1

Qout

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Thermal Efficiency

Dual = 1
cycle

Qout m
u4 u1
= 1
Qin m
(u2.5 u2 ) + (h3 h2.5 )

Dual
const cv

rck 1
1
= 1 k 1
r ( 1) + k (rc 1)

where rc =

v3

v2.5

and =

P2.5

P2

Note, the Otto cycle (rc=1) and the Diesel cycle (=1) are special cases:

Otto = 1

1
r k 1

Diesel
const cV

(
(

)
)

1 1 rck 1
= 1 k 1

r k rc 1

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## The use of the Dual cycle requires information about either:

i) the fractions of constant volume and constant pressure heat
addition (common assumption is to equally split the heat
ii) maximum pressure P3.
For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same compression ratio:

## Otto > Dual > Diesel

For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same peak pressure P3
(actual design limitation in engines):

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## For the same inlet conditions P1, V1

and the same compression ratio P2/P1:

## For the same inlet conditions P1, V1

and the same peak pressure P3:

Pressure, P

Pmax

Pressure, P

x 2.5

Po
Po

Specific Volume
Specific Volume

Entropy

Temperature, T

Temperature, T

tto
O al
Du
sel
Die

Tmax

el
Dies
al
Du
to
Ot

Entropy

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References
Crouse WH, and Anglin DL,
DL (1985), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.
2. Eastop TD, and McConkey A, (1993), Applied Thermodynamics for Engg.
3. Fergusan CR, and Kirkpatrick AT, (2001), Internal Combustion Engines, John
Wiley & Sons.
4. Ganesan V, (2003), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.
5. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I. C. Engines, Oxford
and IBH Pub Ltd.
6. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold Publishers.
7. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill.
8. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, Taylor & Francis.
9. Joel R, (1996), Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley.
10. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in Internal Combustion Engines,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi.
11. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. C. Engine, Prentice Hall.
12. Rogers GFC, and Mayhew YR,
1.

Wisley.

## 13. Srinivasan S, (2001), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.

14. Stone R, (1992), Internal Combustion Engines, The Macmillan Press Limited, London.
15. Taylor CF, (1985), The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Vol.1 & 2,
The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Web Resources
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http://www.mne.psu.edu/simpson/courses
http://me.queensu.ca/courses
http://www.eng.fsu.edu
http://www.personal.utulsa.edu
http://www.glenroseffa.org/
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.me.psu.edu
http://www.uic.edu/classes/me/ me429/lecture-air-cyc-web%5B1%5D.ppt
http://www.osti.gov/fcvt/HETE2004/Stable.pdf
http://www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid457.php
http://www.tpub.com/content/engine/14081/css
http://webpages.csus.edu
http://www.nebo.edu/misc/learning_resources/ ppt/6-12
http://netlogo.modelingcomplexity.org/Small_engines.ppt