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PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

PLAN ELICO
El Plan Elico queda recogido en este documento en el que se incluyen, los siguientes
apartados:
a) Memoria Resumen.
b) Datos de potencia y energa de origen elico.
c) Aerogeneradores.
d) Seguridad en el suministro y afeccin al sistema elctrico.
e) Localizacin geogrfica.
f) Terrenos.
g) Aspectos medioambientales.
h) Aspectos socioeconmicos.

a) Memoria Resumen.
El Parque Elico El Salinero I, se ubica en terrenos disponibles por el promotor Generacin
Elica Internacional, S.L., en el municipio de San Bartolom de Tirajana en la isla de Gran
Canaria. Se adjunta un plano de ubicacin de los terrenos en el anexo a.3. La superficie total
del terreno cuyo derecho para uso elico es exclusivo del promotor, supera las 25 hectreas.
El Parque Elico Pozo Izquierdo I, se considera una de las alternativas diseadas por el
promotor para instalar en el cordal norte una instalacin elica, considerando en esta
alternativa el uso de la tecnologa de Enercon, modelo E-82 de 2.000 MW de potencia nominal
y 82 m. de rotor, conformando un parque elico de 18 MW.
Toda esta informacin y ms esta reflejada en el anexo a.2 con el modelo establecido
debidamente cumplimentado.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

b) Datos de potencia y energa de origen elico.


1. Potencia total y unitaria (por aerogenerador) a instalar del parque elico.

Potencia total del parque elico: 12 MW (12.000 kW)

Potencia unitaria: 2.000 kW

Nmero de aerogeneradores: 6 unidades

2. Potencia a instalar por unidad de rea de terreno ocupado. Como superficie de terreno
ocupada se considerar aquella contenida en la envolvente poligonal, constituida por los
contornos exteriores de las reas de sensibilidad elica de los aerogeneradores que
componen el parque, proyectada y medida en un plano horizontal. As mismo, como definicin
de rea de sensibilidad elica se tomar la establecida en el artculo 3 del Decreto 32/2006, de
27 de marzo. (No se incluyen a efectos de clculo de esta rea las cimentaciones,
canalizaciones, estaciones transformadoras, accesos o cualquier otro elemento afecto al
parque).

Superficie contenida en la envolvente poligonal: 276.963 m2, considerando el dimetro


del aerogenerador de 90 m.

Se adjunta en el anexo b.1 de este documento, plano donde se muestran los


aerogeneradores, marcando la envolvente poligonal y superficie de la cual se
dispone el derecho de uso. Adems, se adjunta en formato digital el citado plano
cd anexo.

Potencia total a instalar en la superficie: 12 MW= 12.000 kW.

Potencia a instalar por unidad de rea del terreno ocupado = 12.000/1.684.614


m2= 0,0071 Kw/m2.

3. Energa anual estimada producida por el parque elico.

Potencia total del parque: 12.000 kW

Energa actual estimada por el parque elico: 44.345.333 kWh.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

4. Horas equivalentes y Factor de Capacidad previstos para la instalacin.

Horas equivalentes promedio de acuerdo con el clculo obtenido de la


metodologa del anexo a.4, desarrollada por el Instituto Tecnolgico de Canarias
(heq/ao) 3.695 horas equivalentes/ao.

Factor de Capacidad: (3.695 eq/8.760 h ao ) x 100 = 42,18 %

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

c) Aerogeneradores.

1. Nmero de aerogeneradores a instalar.

Nmero de aerogeneradores: 6 unidades

2. Descripcin tcnica detallada de los aerogeneradores a instalar en la que se incluya el


modelo de la mquina, la descripcin de la instalacin elctrica, tipo de generador, sistema de
control y esquema de los mismos, as como descripcin de parmetros y caractersticas de
funcionamiento del mismo.

Se adjunta como anexo c.1 de este documento la descripcin tcnica de los

aerogeneradores.
3. Curvas de potencia de las mquinas elicas certificadas por el fabricante.

Se adjunta como anexo c.2 de este documento la curva de potencia de los

aerogeneradores.
4. Certificacin del fabricante de que todos los aerogeneradores del parque elico cumplen
con los tarados de protecciones de Nivel I mostrados en el punto 2 del articulo 11 de la Orden
de la Consejera de Industria, Comercio y Nuevas Tecnologas, de 15 de noviembre de 2006,
por la que se regulan las condiciones tcnico administrativas de las instalaciones elicas
ubicadas en Canarias.

Todos los aerogeneradores que integran el proyecto cumplen con los tarados de

protecciones de Nivel I. En el anexo c.3 se incluye la documentacin de fabricante


acreditando esta circunstancia.
5. Vida til (en aos) de la potencia a instalar, contados desde la puesta en marcha definitiva
del parque hasta el cese de su actividad de produccin acreditados por el fabricante del
aerogenerador. Si se tratara de tecnologas de aerogeneradores diferentes, especificarla para
cada una de ellas.

La vida til de los aerogeneradores est garantizada por el fabricante en un

mnimo de 20 aos. En el anexo c.4 se adjunta el certificado correspondiente.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

d) Seguridad en el suministro y afeccin al sistema elctrico.

1. Datos de la red elctrica de distribucin o transporte en la zona del parque elico, con
indicacin del posible punto de conexin a la red.
Se propone como conexin del parque elico la Lnea de Alta Tensin de 66 kV, que une la SE
San Agustn con la SE Barranco de Tirajana.
La conexin podr realizarse, en el caso que se cumpla con la normativa sobre capacidad
portante de la red, en cualquiera de los apoyos existentes en el parque. En caso contrario,
deber consensuarse con la empresa de transporte y con la Administracin el mejor punto de
conexin, en la subestacin transformadora ms prxima.
2. Propuestas de acciones o inversiones que mejoren la estabilidad/curva de carga del
sistema.

Los aerogeneradores del proyecto incorporan un sistema de control de potencia,

que permite regular la misma en el rango de 0% a 100% de la potencia instalada, tal


y como se indica en la documentacin adjunta en el anexo d.1. Esta opcin permite
mejorar notablemente la estabilidad del sistema.
3. Descripcin de los sistemas de gestin telemtica realizando una descripcin detallada del
sistema de desconexin y potencia implicada en los escalones, si los hubiera.

Se adjunta como anexo d.2, la descripcin de los sistemas telemticos.

4. En el caso de que el modelo de aerogenerador del parque elico no consuma energa activa
ni reactiva cuando se produzca un hueco de tensin en la red prxima (en valores por debajo
del 80% de la tensin nominal de la red), documentacin justificada por el fabricante que
acredite este comportamiento.

Los aerogeneradores que integran el proyecto cumplen el requisito de no

consumir energa activa ni reactiva durante los huecos de tensin inferior al 80% del
valor de tensin nominal. La documentacin incluida en el anexo d.3 describe esta
caracterstica, conforme a la regulacin de hueco de tensin establecida por REE.
5. Asimismo, si el modelo de aerogenerador del parque elico puede aportar energa reactiva
durante las condiciones anteriores en un rango de tensin entre el 80% y 20% de la tensin
nominal de la red, se adjuntar la documentacin justificada por el fabricante que acredite este
comportamiento.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

Los aerogeneradores que integran el proyecto disponen de la opcin de aportar

energa reactiva durante huecos de tensin con valores entre el 20 y el 80% de la


tensin nominal. El anexo d.3 describe esta caracterstica.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

e) Localizacin geogrfica.
1. Se facilitan los siguientes planos en formato papel y digital a la escala adecuada y con la
representacin de la direccin del viento dominante, tal que permitan la localizacin del
parque elico a travs de coordenadas, indicando adems los trminos municipales
afectados:
Plano sobre hoja de cartografa indicando:
- Localizacin geogrfica y codificacin de cada aerogenerador perteneciente al parque elico,
con la representacin de la direccin del viento dominante recogida en la Cartografa del
recurso elico de Canarias.

Todos los aerogeneradores se encuentran ubicados en el trmino municipal de

San Bartolom de Tirajana. Se adjunta como anexo e.1 la localizacin geogrfica y


codificacin de cada aerogenerador. Asimismo, se adjunta en formato digital el
citado plano.
Segn la codificacin adoptada para cada aerogenerador en la hoja de cartografa, se realizar
y cumplimentar una tabla que conteniendo tantas filas como aerogeneradores tenga el
parque elico.

Se adjunta tabla de codificacin de los aerogeneradores requerida en anexo e.3.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

f) Terrenos.
1. Se facilitarn los siguientes datos sobre hoja cartogrfica en planos en formato papel y
digital a la escala adecuada y con la representacin de la direccin del viento dominante,
indicando adems los trminos municipales afectados:
a) Superficie de terreno disponible por el solicitante para ejecutar el parque elico.

La totalidad del terreno requerido se encuentra en el trmino municipal de San

Bartolom de Tirajana. Se incluye como anexo f.1 el plano de la superficie y parcelas


de terreno disponible. Asimismo, se adjunta en formato digital el citado plano en CD
anexo.
b) Superficie de terreno afectada por el conjunto de aerogeneradores del parque elico, con la
identificacin de los mismos.
Como superficie de terreno afectada por los aerogeneradores, se considerar aquella
contenida en la envolvente poligonal constituida por los contornos exteriores de las reas de
sensibilidad elica de los aerogeneradores que componen el parque, proyectada y medida en
un plano horizontal.

La totalidad de la superficie de terreno afectada por los aerogeneradores se

encuentra en el trmino municipal de Santa Bartolom de Tirajana. Se adjunta en

anexo f.2 plano con la poligonal envolvente al conjunto de aerogeneradores. Se


incluye tambin este plano en formato digital en CD adjunto.
c) Superficie de terreno afectada por las instalaciones elicas existentes colindantes.

No existen instalaciones elicas existentes colindantes que afecten al parque

elico.
d) Propuesta de distribucin en planta de las instalaciones de generacin, sealando las
cimentaciones, canalizaciones, estaciones transformadoras, accesos y cualquier otro
elemento afecto al parque. Quedarn excluidas de este plano tanto la lnea de evacuacin
como el punto de conexin del parque al sistema elctrico.

Los planos con la distribucin de aerogeneradores y todas las infraestructuras

necesarias se incluyen en el anexo f.3. las estaciones transformadoras requeridas


para la conversin a media tensin en la red interior del parque se instalan en el

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

interior de los propios aerogeneradores. Se incluye copia digital de dicho plano en


CD adjunto.
e) Indicacin de las reas pertenecientes a la Red Canaria de Espacios Naturales Protegidos o
a parques nacionales en un radio de 1km. Respecto a los aerogeneradores del parque elico,
sealando las distancias mnimas entre ambos.
En el caso de que los terrenos se encontrasen total o parcialmente dentro de reas
comprendidas en la Red Canaria de Espacios Naturales Protegidos, o de un parque nacional,
se indicar la ubicacin de los terrenos dentro del mismo, con indicacin de la zonificacin
establecida en el Plan Rector de Uso o Gestin o respectivo instrumento de planeamiento de
tal espacio cuando exista.

Se adjunta en anexo f.4 plano mostrando las figuras de proteccin existente en

un radio de 1 kilmetro. Se adjunta ms informacin sobre este punto en el apartado


(g) de este Plan Elico titulado Aspectos medioambientales. Se incluye este plano en
formato digital en CD adjunto.
2. Documentacin justificativa relativa a la disponibilidad de los terrenos, con acreditacin
fehaciente del derecho a utilizar dichos terrenos, a construir, y a utilizar las servidumbres e
instalaciones necesarias para el establecimiento de parques elicos, todo ello con arreglo a la
legalidad vigente. En caso de existir terrenos con derechos de utilizacin diferentes, se
indicarn todos junto a las superficies del terreno y la potencia a instalar en cada uno de ellos.
Se habr de establecer la relacin inequvoca entre los terrenos que figuren en los acuerdos y
su representacin sobre los planos aportados. La discrepancia entre ambos datos, que no
fuera suficientemente aclarada por el interesado, dara lugar a que la solicitud fuera
desestimada.

Los contratos de derecho de uso de los terrenos se adjunta como anexo f.5. Se

hace notar que estos derechos estn disponibles en exclusividad.

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P.E. El Salinero II

g) Aspectos medioambientales.
1. Identificacin e influencia sobre parques nacionales, espacios naturales protegidos, ZEPA,
LIC y sitios arqueolgicos o de inters histrico cercanos.

Se adjunta en anexo g.1 influencia e identificacin de espacios naturales

protegidos, ZEPA, LIC y de sitios arqueolgicos o de inters histrico cercanos


2. Propuestas para la mejora del entorno en el que se encuentra situado el parque durante su
perodo de funcionamiento.

El presente proyecto considera una serie de acciones para mejora del entorno

que se describen en anexo g.2.

3. Plan de desmantelamiento del parque que incluya medidas de restauracin como


eliminacin de equipos, mquinas, construcciones realizadas, cobertura de cimentaciones,
tratamiento de suelos, carreteras, etc., y medidas de mejora del entorno una vez el parque se
encuentre completamente desmantelado.

El presente proyecto contempla un plan detallado de desmantelamiento de

aerogeneradores e infraestructuras asociadas, y la restauracin y amejoramiento de


la zona tras la vida operativa del parque. Este plan se describe en el anexo g.3.

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11

P.E. El Salinero II

h) Aspectos socioeconmicos.
1. Presupuesto que recoja las inversiones a realizar.

Se adjunta en anexo h.1 presupuesto completo y detallado, incluyendo como

partida principal la propuesta de suministro de los aerogeneradores por parte de


Vestas Espaa S.A.U.
El montante total del presupuesto asciende a 17.908.800 euros.
2. Acuerdos formales existentes con las Entidades Locales canarias, previstas en el artculo 3
de la Ley 7/1985, de 2 de abril, reguladora de las Bases del Rgimen Local, en los que conste
el compromiso firme y exigible de la promotora del parque elico de destinar una parte de los
ingresos anuales generados por la venta de la energa producida por la instalacin elica a
sufragar iniciativas de dichas entidades locales de naturaleza energtica, social o
medioambiental.
Cuando los promotores sean las propias Entidades Locales, acuerdo del Pleno de la
Corporacin u rgano competente de destinar una parte de los ingresos anuales generados
por venta de la energa producida por el parque elico a sufragar costes de naturaleza
energtica o medioambiental.

Existen acuerdos formales con la Entidad Local canaria por el valor de un 9% de

los ingresos anuales generados por la venta de la energa producida por el parque
elico. Se incluye dicho acuerdo en el anexo h.2.

PLAN ELICO

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P.E. El Salinero II

Boletn Oficial de Canarias nm. 89, viernes 4 de mayo de 2007

9353

ANEXO VII
MEMORIA RESUMEN
1.- PETICIONARIO:
NOMBRE:
DIRECCIN SOCIAL:
MUNICIPIO:
DIRECCIN
NOTIFICACIN:
MUNICIPIO:
TELFONO 1:
e-mail:

Generacin Elica Internacional S.L.


C/ Frauca n 13
Tudela- Navarra
C/ Frauca n 13

C.I.F.:
C.P.:
ISLA
C.P.:

Tudela- Navarra
948 848 848
TELFONO 2:
fasencio@eolicanavarra.es

ISLA:
FAX:

B 31750896
31.500
31.500

948 848 849

2.- REPRESENTACIN:
NOMBRE:
Francisco de Paula Asencio Alonso
CARGO:
Apoderado
NOMBRE:
CARGO:
NOMBRE:
CARGO:
* (Indicar si es solidaria, mancomunada, etc.)

TIPO REPRESENTACIN *

DNI.:
solidario
DNI.:

52294746 Z

TIPO REPRESENTACIN *
DNI.:
TIPO REPRESENTACIN *

3.- DATOS RELATIVOS AL PARQUE:


DENOMINACIN:
P.E. El Salinero II
EMPLAZAMIENTO:
San Bartolom de Tirajana
LOCALIDAD:
San Bartolom de Tirajana
MUNICIPIO:
San Bartolom de Tirajana
ISLA:
Gran Canaria
POTENCIA NOMINAL A INSTALAR
12.000
NMERO DE
(KW)
AEROGENERADORES:
ENERGIA ANUAL ESTIMADA (KWH)
44.345.333
HORAS EQUIVALENTES (H/AO)
DESCRIPCIN DEL PROYECTO: (incluir singularidades del proyecto)

MODELO
Enercon E82 2MW 98m

AEROGENERADORES
VIDA UTIL
20 aos

POTENCIA
UNITARIA (KW)
2.000

6
3.695

POTENCIA MODELO
(KW)
2.000

4.- TERRENO:
SUPERFICIE DE TERRERNO DISPONIBLE (m):
SUPERFICIE DE TERRENO AFECTADA POR EL CONJUNTO DE AEROGENERADORES (m):
SUPERFICIE DE TERRENO AFECTADA POR INSTALACIONES ELICAS COLINDANTES (m):

276.963
1.684.614
0

5.- IDENTIFICACIN DE ESPACIOS NATURALES Y PARQUES ELICOS MS CERCANOS.


NOMBRE *
Juncalillo del Sur

Montes Amuga

IDENTIFICACIN
Espacio natural
protegido, L.I.C.,
Z.E.P.A.
L.I.C.

DISTANCIA MNIMA(m):
654

892

* Se especificarn todos los Parques Naturales, espacios integrantes de la Red Canaria de Espacios Naturales Protegidos,
Z.E.P.A. (Zonas Especiales de Proteccin de Aves), L.I.C. (Lugares de Inters Comunitario) e instalaciones elicas cercanas.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

TABLA DE CODIFICACIN DE AEROGENERADORES

IDENTIFICACIN
DEL

COORDENADAS UTM

POTENCIA

DIRECCIN

UNITARIA

VIENTO

(Kw)

DOMINANTE

451.236

3.076065

125

NNE-NE (35)

451.396

3.075.957

105

NNE-NE (35)

451.586

3.075.896

97

NNE-NE (35)

451.754

3.075.806

84

NNE-NE (35)

451.870

3.075.641

84

NNE-NE (35)

452.022

3.075.531

79

NNE-NE (35)

AEROGENERADOR

PROPUESTA PARA LA MEJORA DEL ENTORNO

Se redacta este documento para describir las actuaciones que Generacin Elica Internacional
S.L. realizara segn el marco del presente concurso de proyectos elicos que establece La
Orden de 27 de abril de 2007 del Gobierno de Canarias.
A la hora de plantear un proyecto de esta envergadura, se deben tomar medidas
compensatorias o mejoras ambientales y/o patrimoniales para dejar la zona afectada por el
proyecto en condiciones, si no mejores, s al menos comparable a las que tena inicialmente.
Adems, y lo primero de todo, en la eleccin del emplazamiento se valora que haya facilidades
y que las afecciones sean mnimas en cuanto a:

Obra civil de accesos. La eleccin de estos caminos de acceso y ubicacin de


aerogeneradores se ha hecho teniendo en cuenta la mxima utilizacin de caminos
existentes de forma que se minimice el impacto sobre el entorno y se mejoren dichos
caminos y otras infraestructuras existentes en la zona.
La evacuacin de energa. Se estudiara el impacto paisajstico de la lnea elctrica y de
la subestacin asociada, analizando su visibilidad desde las distintas zonas
accesibles (ncleos de poblacin, carreteras, caminos principales, senderos balizados
miradores y otros).
La construccin de la subestacin se realizar de forma que sta quede totalmente
integrada en el entorno, respetando los patrones de las construcciones ya existentes.
Afecciones a la vegetacin y flora protegida as como la afeccin a la avifauna
protegida. Se realizaran estudios detallados para valorar y cuantificar las especies en
cada caso y en consecuencia se plantearan alternativas en el diseo del proyecto.

As, a la finalizacin de la obras de construccin del Parque Elico, se realizaran trabajos de


recuperacin de las zonas afectadas como las reas de acopio que gracias a un Plan de
Revegetacin con especies originarias de la zona en la que se implantar el Parque Elico, se
conseguirn los siguientes objetivos:

Proteger al suelo frente a la erosin en las superficies que as lo requieran.


Restaurar los suelos y la cubierta vegetal afectados por las actuaciones proyectadas.
Reducir los impactos ambientales generados sobre el medio ambiente, especialmente
con relacin a las modificaciones fisiogrficas del entorno y las afecciones sobre la
vegetacin.
Restauracin de las condiciones edficas para permitir la retencin de agua y los
minerales necesarios para la supervivencia de la vegetacin implantada y de la que
vaya apareciendo de modo natural.
Recuperacin de la calidad visual del rea explotada, de modo que las labores de
restauracin y revegetacin enmascaren en la medida de lo posible las superficies
de actuacin.
Integracin paisajstica tendente a la reimplantacin de las comunidades vegetales
caractersticas del entorno del parque.

Muy importantes son tambin, las compensaciones socioeconmicas que se consiguen para
el entorno, como por ejemplo, adems de la reforestacin de zonas afectadas,
acondicionamiento de lugares de inters de la comunidad en la zona de influencia del Parque
Elico, acuerdos con entidades locales para la divulgacin de las Energas Renovables,
empleo local y un aumento de servicios en la zona, etc.

PLAN ELICO Propuesta mejora del entorno

P.E. El Salinero II

PLAN DE DESMANTELAMIENTO DEL PARQUE ELICO


El presente documento constituye el Plan de Desmantelamiento del Parque Elico El Salinero
II, detallando las actuaciones a realizar una vez finalizada la vida til del Parque, con el fin de
restituir los terrenos de implantacin a su situacin original.

1. DESCRIPCIN DEL PARQUE


El Parque Elico Pozo Izquierdo I, estar integrado por 6 aerogeneradores ENERCON E822MW distribuidos sobre el trmino municipal de San Bartolom de Tirajana.
Las infraestructuras que constituyen el parque se componen de las siguientes partes:
-

Infraestructuras de Obra Civil:

Infraestructura Electromecnica:

Camino de acceso, viales y plataformas de cada uno de los


aerogeneradores.
Cimentaciones de los aerogeneradores.

Centros de Transformacin 0,69/20 KV en el interior de cada


aerogenerador.
Red subterrnea de Media Tensin para la interconexin de las
celdas de los aerogeneradores con el Centro de Seccionamiento
del Parque.
Centro de Seccionamiento para conectar la red subterrnea,
sistema colector, del parque con la lnea area de media tensin
(20 kV).
Red general de tierras del parque. Red de tierras de cada
aerogenerador.

Aerogeneradores.

2. DESMANTELAMIENTO DE LAS INSTALACIONES


Tras alcanzar el final de la vida til del parque, que se estima en 30 aos, se proceder a
realizar diversos trabajos de desmantelamiento de las instalaciones con el fin de restituir el
estado original de los terrenos donde se ubican las infraestructuras de la planta.
A continuacin se detallan las diversas actuaciones a realizar, en el orden aproximado de
realizacin de las mismas.

2.1. AEROGENERADORES
Se proceder al desmontaje de los aerogeneradores, en orden inverso a las operaciones
realizadas para su instalacin:
-

Desmontaje de las palas.


Desmontaje de la gndola.
Desmontaje de los cuerpos de la torre.
Retirada del transformador y cabinas de media tensin.

PLAN ELICO Plan de desmantelamiento

P.E. El Salinero II

As mismo, se retirar el centro de seccionamiento e interconexin del parque elico.


Los distintos elementos sern desmontados mediante gras, troceados o desmantelados
a nivel del suelo y retirados en camiones de caractersticas adecuadas.
Los aceites y grasas sern separados y retirados para su tratamiento y/o eliminacin por
gestor autorizado.

2.2. CIMENTACIONES
Estos trabajos consisten en la demolicin por medios mecnicos de las cimentaciones
hasta una profundidad de 1 m, retirando los escombros a vertedero autorizado y
procediendo al relleno de la excavacin con terreno natural procedente de prstamos.

2.3. VIALES Y PLATAFORMAS


Se proceder a la retirada a vertedero autorizado de las capas de zahorra que integran los
viales y las plataformas de aerogeneradores, restituyendo posteriormente la capa vegetal
con aportacin de tierra vegetal y plantacin de especies conforme al entorno.
Se demolern y retirarn las arquetas, sumideros y canales existentes en la red de viales
del parque. Los restos sern retirados a vertedero autorizado.

2.4. CABLES
Los cables integrantes de la red de media tensin que une los aerogeneradores con el
centro de seccionamiento e interconexin del parque, as como los conductores del
sistema de control, se retirarn para su tratamiento por gestor autorizado.

3. CONCLUSIN
En el presente documento se entiende haber descrito adecuadamente el Plan de
Desmantelamiento del Parque Elico El Salinero II, sin perjuicio de cualquier otra
ampliacin o aclaracin que las autoridades competentes considerasen oportuna.

PLAN ELICO Plan de desmantelamiento

P.E. El Salinero II

PRESUPUESTO PARA PARQUE ELICO EL SALINERO II

1. Turbinas

2. Obra civil
3. Infraestructuras
elctricas y de
comunicaciones

4. Documentacin y
proyectos

1.1. Turbinas E82 (2-MW). Torre de 80m. Incluye los centros de transfromacin interiores,
la virola de anclaje a la zapata, transporte, montaje, conexionado interno, puesta en
marcha de la instalacin y sistema de control.
TOTAL

2.530.000,00
15.180.000,00

2.1. Cimentaciones
2.2. Accesos y Caminos interiores, Viales y Plataformas, Zanjas y Sistema de drenaje.

650.000,00
550.000,00

3.1. Red de MT 20KV, de fibra ptica y de tierras.


TOTAL

230.000,00
1.430.000,00

TOTAL

1.298.800,00

4.1 Proyectos
4.2 Estudio Geotcnico
4.3. Diseo de cimentaciones.
4.4. Direccin facultativa
4.5. Seguridad y Salud
4.6. Control de Calidad
4.7. Documetacin
4.8. Revegetacin

PRESUPUESTO TOTAL
PRECIO/MW INSTALADO

17.908.800,00
1.492.400,00

Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
1 of 10

ENERCON
Grid Data Acquisition

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T&D-04-SCADA_GDA_060328_Rev1.5_ger1.5
eng.doc.doc

Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
2 of 10

Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
The ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition on a wind farm.................................................... 4
How the ENERCON GDA works .................................................................................... 5
3.1. Measurement in the four-quadrant system .............................................................. 5
3.2. Instrument transformers .......................................................................................... 6
3.3. Connecting the GDA to the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM ...................................... 6
3.4. ENERCON GDA used as part of a closed-loop control system................................ 7
3.5. Response in the event of communication faults....................................................... 8
4. Requirements................................................................................................................. 9
5. Maintenance requirements ............................................................................................. 9
6. ENERCON GDA as part of the ENERCON Partner Konzept (EPK) contract .................. 9
7. Standard scope of supply ............................................................................................... 9
8. Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................ 9
9. Technical specifications.................................................................................................10
9.1. Functional specifications ........................................................................................10
9.2. Hardware specifications .........................................................................................10
1.
2.
3.

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
3 of 10

1. Introduction
ENERCONs Grid Data Acquisition can be used to measure the key electrical values at the
wind farms grid connection point. For display and control purposes, the values are
transmitted to ENERCON SCADA System.
The measured values can then be used to implement any limits specified by the grid operator
concerning power levels delivered or the power factor at the point of delivery.
This document is intended to provide an overview of the key functions of the ENERCON Grid
Data Acquisition1.

Abbreviation: GDA

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
4 of 10

2. The ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition on a wind farm

Point of common coupling

SCADA PC
ENERCON Data bus

Power cable

Figure 1

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ENERCON
Grid Data Acquisition

Grid

ENERCONs GDA measures the current and voltage at the point of common coupling,
i.e. generally at the substation or at the transmission substation medium voltage bus
bars. The measured data is fed into SCADA.
In combination with reference values, fixed within SCADA or set dynamically for
example through the ENERCON PDI, closed-loop control can be designed.

Subject to technical modifications


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Page

Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

5 of 10

3. How the ENERCON GDA works


The component at the heart of the ENERCON GDA is a programmable logic controller
(PLC). This enables data exchange between the values measured at the point of delivery
and the SCADA PC.
Currents and voltages are measured via current transformers (CTs) and voltage transformer
(VTs) and monitored via an energy monitor. The data is then transmitted to the PLC. The
SCADA PC retrieves the measured values from the PLC on a cyclic basis.

3.1.

Measurement in the four-quadrant system

The ENERCON GDA regards the wind farm as a generator of electrical energy (just like a
power station). The active power fed into the electrical grid is considered as a positive value.
Reactive power fed into the electrical grid (like from an overexcited synchronous generator)
is also considered as a positive value. When it comes to measuring the reactive energy,
there is a dedicated meter for each quadrant.
The ENERCON GDA uses the measured voltages and currents to calculate the following
values which it then transmits to SCADA:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Active power
Reactive power
3 line voltages
3 currents
Grid frequency
Power factor

Average values for a


period < 1 second

g) Active power generation


h) Active power consumption
i)
j)

Export of reactive energy simultaneous to active power generation.


The wind farm behaves like an overexcited synchronous machine.
Import of reactive energy simultaneous to active power generation.
The wind farm behaves like an underexcited synchronous machine

Cumulative values

k) Import of reactive energy simultaneous to active power consumption.


The idling wind farm behaves like an inductive load.
l)

Export of reactive energy simultaneous to active power consumption.


The idling wind farm behaves like a capacitive load.

Values a) to f) are online values, which are generated by the GDA based on measurements
taken over very short periods. Generally, the measurement period is just a fraction of a
second. These values are displayed in SCADA Remote2, when an online connection is
available.
The GDA provides data records to the SCADA SYSTEM with average values collected over
a one minute period along with the respective minimum and maximum values. The SCADA
2

see also documentation of SCADA Remote

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
6 of 10

SYSTEM calculates and saves the average values over 10 minute, day, week, month and
year periods, again with the respective minimum and maximum values in each case.
For the purpose of closed loop control applications, the GDA provides data records to the
SCADA SYSTEM over periods ranging from one to several seconds. The exact sampling
rate depends on the configuration of the specific wind farm and is optimized according to
project specifics.
Values g) to l) are the cumulative values since the date of commissioning. If necessary, the
totals can be reset by ENERCON Service.
ENERCON's GDA measures all electrical values from all electrical facilities connected at the
point of common coupling.
The PLC of the ENERCON GDA is equipped with an uninterruptible power supply. This
prevents the loss of the most recently occurred measured values, even in the event of a
power failure.

3.2.

Instrument transformers

With the ENERCON GDA, the values are measured on a 4-wire, 3-phase grid. In principle,
the values can be measured on either the medium voltage or the high voltage side. The rated
voltage and maximum measuring current of instrument transformers have to be taken into
account. See Chapter 9 Technical InformationIf the neutral conductor is not available, the
voltages are measured in relation to earth.
Instrument transformers always have to be used. If the instrument transformers are also
used to measure grid values, the operator will often demand that the instrument transformers
have two cores so that two (identical) signals can be supplied independent of each other. In
this case, the instrument transformer class is agreed with the grid operator.
The appropriate instrument transformer ratio is set during commissioning of the ENERCON
GDA.

3.3.

Connecting the GDA to the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM

In principle, the ENERCON GDA can be connected to the ENERCON data bus at any point.
The ENERCON data bus is a fibre optic cable.
If copper wire is used for the ENERCON data bus in an existing wind farm, a project specific
solution is agreed with ENERCON. If the GDA is being used for closed-loop control in the
wind farm, it is recommended to connect to the SCADA PC via a dedicated data bus for
optimum control dynamics.

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

3.4.

Page
7 of 10

ENERCON GDA used as part of a closed-loop control system

In conjunction with the SCADA System and the wind energy converters, ENERCON's GDA
can be used to establish closed-loop control. Closed-loop control is performed in relation to
the measurement point that is usually the point of common coupling.
Wind

Trarget value

PDI

SCADA

Wind energy converter

Actual values
(active power
reactive power...)

Grid Data Acquisition

Figure 2

Principle design of a closed control loop of electrical values, at the point of common
coupling. If a dynamic change of the target values is desired, ENERCON's PDI must
be employed as well.

The controlled electrical value can in principle be active power (P), power factor (cos) or the
voltage (U). Under certain conditions combinations of the controlled electrical value are also
possible. This has to be agreed according to project specifics between the customer,
ENERCON and the grid operator. Using the ENERCON GDA it is possible to set up closedloop control within performance periods ranging from one to several seconds.
The accuracy and dynamics of closed-loop control will depend on the configuration of the
farm, the number of connected converters, the class of instrument transformer and other
factors. To ensure stable closed-loop control at the point of common coupling, close
collaboration between the customer, ENERCON and the grid operator is required. Closedloop control and its parameters are designed and adjusted by ENERCON according to
project specifics.
Voltage control
If closed-loop control is required to control voltage at the point of common coupling, it is
necessary to speed up acquiring and saving the actual values. In this case, a special version
of the ENERCON GDA which provides measured values of voltage and frequency
approximately every 400 ms to SCADA must be used. The time constant of such SCADAbased voltage control is just under one second up to several seconds, again depending on
the configuration of the wind farm.
In exceptional cases, when this time constant is still too high and faster control dynamics are
required, ENERCON VCS3 has to be used.

see also documentation of ENERCON VCS Voltage Control System

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
8 of 10

Target and Actual values


The GDA supplies the actual values. It is possible to set SCADA target values through other
interfaces.
The ENERCON SCADA System provides several interfaces where target values can be set.
Target values are integrated into the SCADA System according to project specifics. (see also
documentation of ENERCON SCADA Process Data Interface - PDI and SCADA System)
If several interfaces are used simultaneously, appropriate priority rules must be set during
the project planning phase.
In the context of closed-loop controls the target values for active power always have to be
taken as maximum permissible values; the actual power delivered will depend on the current
wind speed.

3.5.

Response in the event of communication faults

Faults involving the ENERCON GDA are recognised and communicated to the SCADA
System.
As with all ENERCON wind energy converters, the concept of main status and additional
status applies which together indicate the converters operating state. The list of possible
status messages is available from ENERCON Service upon request. SCADA is also
informed in the event of faults in the communication to the SCADA PC or within the GDA.
This information is then passed onto ENERCON Service and any other parties concerned4.

see documentation of ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
9 of 10

4. Requirements
There are no specific requirements to use the ENERCON GDA in a wind farm.
When using the ENERCON GDA for closed-loop control at the point of common coupling,
close collaboration between the customer, the grid operator and ENERCON is required. The
dynamics and the other parameters of a control loop must be adapted according to project
specifics. ENERCON Data Bus should be a fibre optic cable. In the case of older wind farm
with copper wire data buses ENERCON is to be contacted.

5. Maintenance requirements
As long as the ENERCON GDA does not send any warnings to the SCADA SYSTEM, no
maintenance is required. The hardware only needs to undergo visual inspection.
The PLC contains a battery. When the battery charge reaches a critical level, the device
sends a warning message to SCADA. As a precaution, the battery should be changed every
5 years.
Specific maintenance requirements concerning the uninterruptible power supply feature
(UPS) for the ENERCON GDA are available on the UPS data sheet.

6. ENERCON GDA as part of the ENERCON Partner Konzept (EPK)


Whether and how the ENERCON GDA should be covered by an EPK contract must be
agreed according to the specific project.

7. Standard scope of supply


The ENERCON GDA is not included in the standard scope of supply of an ENERCON wind
farm. Use of the system has to be agreed in relation to the specific project.
Uninterruptible power supply is included as a standard.

8. Miscellaneous
By the end of 2005 the ENERCON GDA was already being used on 45 wind farms.

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Description
ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

Page
10 of 10

9. Technical specifications
9.1.

Functional specifications

Rated voltage of the instrument transformer: 100V


Maximum measuring current: 6A

9.2.

Figure 3

Hardware specifications

Usually the ENERCON GDA is housed in a control cabinet measuring


760 X 760 X 300 mm to be mounted on the wall.
The hardware design depends on the individual project and may not be identical to
the drawing shown below.

The ENERCON GDA is usually installed at the point of common coupling, i.e. generally
inside the substation or in the vicinity of the medium voltage busbar in the transmission
substation.
The following connections are required:
Power supply (230 V)
PE cable for lightning protection (16 mm)
Data cable for the ENERCON wind farm data bus
Voltage transformer test port
Current transformer test port
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) used: APC Smart UPS or equivalent

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Curva de potencia E-82


(dependiente de la densidad del aire)
dens. d. aire standard = 1,225 kg/m
Curva de potencia P Coef. de potencia cp
= 1,225 kg/m
= 1,225 kg/m
[kW]
[-]
0,0
0,00
3,0
0,12
25,0
0,29
82,0
0,40
174,0
0,43
321,0
0,46
532,0
0,48
815,0
0,49
1.180,0
0,50
1.612,0
0,50
1.890,0
0,44
2.000,0
0,36
2.050,0
0,29
2.050,0
0,23
2.050,0
0,19
2.050,0
0,15
2.050,0
0,13
2.050,0
0,11
2.050,0
0,09
2.050,0
0,08
2.050,0
0,07
2.050,0
0,06
2.050,0
0,05
2.050,0
0,05
2.050,0
0,04

viento
[m/s]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

dens. d. aire modificada = 1,225 kg/m


Curva de potencia P Coef. de potencia cp
= 1,225 kg/m
= 1,225 kg/m
[kW]
[-]
0,0
0,00
3,0
0,12
25,0
0,29
82,0
0,40
174,0
0,43
321,0
0,46
532,0
0,48
815,0
0,49
1.180,0
0,50
1.612,0
0,50
1.890,0
0,44
2.000,0
0,36
2.050,0
0,29
2.050,0
0,23
2.050,0
0,19
2.050,0
0,15
2.050,0
0,13
2.050,0
0,11
2.050,0
0,09
2.050,0
0,08
2.050,0
0,07
2.050,0
0,06
2.050,0
0,05
2.050,0
0,05
2.050,0
0,04

Curvas E-82 con densidad del aire standard


2.200
0,50

Potencia P [kW]

1.800
1.600

0,40

1.400
1.200

0,30

1.000
800

0,20

600
400

0,10

Coeficiente de potencia cp [ - ]

2.000

200
0

0,00
0

10

15

20

25

Velocidad del viento v en altura de buje [m/s]


Curva de potencia P = 1,225 kg/m

Curva de potencia P = 1,225 kg/m

Coef. de potencia cp = 1,225 kg/m

Coef. de potencia cp = 1,225 kg/m

Curva de Potencia E82 2 MW calculada Rev 1_1

Rev.: 1.1

Impresin: 16.07.2007

TV SD Industrie Service GmbH


Certification Body for Wind Turbines

Statement of Compliance
for the Design Assessment

Registration No.:

02.11.06.22.00

This statement of compliance


is issued for:

For the wind turbine:

ENERCON GmbH
Dreekamp 5
26605 Aurich, Germany

ENERCON E-82
Hub Height 78 m, 84 m, 98 m and 108 m
IEC WTGS-Class IIA
EN WTGS-Class IIA
NVN WTGS-Class IIA

This statement confirms the compliance of the above mentioned wind turbine with the international
standard IEC 61400-1 Wind turbine generator systems Part 1: Safety requirements 02/1999,
the european standard EN 61400-1 Wind turbine generator systems Part 1: Safety requirements (IEC 61400-1:1999, modified) 2004 and with the Dutch prestandard NVN 11400-0 Wind
turbines Part 0: Criteria for type certification Technical criteria 04/1999, regarding the design.
The wind turbine is specified in the annex on pages 3 to 6.
The statement is based on the following certification reports:
Report No.: issued

Reports on Assessment / Certification Reports

Cert. Body

649 757-1

2005-11-28

Load Assumptions, Hub Height 78 m, (steel tower 77 m)

TV SD

808 446

2006-05-29

Load Assumptions, Hub Height 84 m, (concrete tower 83 m)

TV SD

649 757-2

2005-11-28

Load Assumptions, Hub Height 98 m, (concrete tower 97 m)

TV SD

717 292

2005-11-28

Load Assumptions, Hub Height 108 m, (concrete tower 107 m)

TV SD

649 757-3

2006-12-12

Amendment to the Load Assumptions

TV SD

809 390-1

2006-07-07

Rotor Blade Type E82-1

TV SD

854 007-1

2006-10-02

Machinery Components, Wind Turbine E-82

TV SD

854 007-2

2006-10-05

Manuals and Documentation, Wind Turbine E-82

TV SD

page 1 / 6

TV SD Industrie Service GmbH


Certification Body for Wind Turbines

Statement of Compliance
for the Design Assessment
ANNEX

2006-12-14

Registration No.: 02.11.06.22.00


Characteristic Data ENERCON E-82
General

Design:

direct-driven, horizontal axis wind turbine


with variable rotor speed
Power regulation:
independent pitch system for
each rotor blade
Main braking system:
see power regulation
Rated power:
2000 kW (up to 3000 kW)
Hub height:
78 m, 84 m, 98 m and 108 m
Rotor speed:
variable, 6 19.5 rpm (20.5 rpm)
Rated wind speed:
11.7 m/s (13.4 m/s)
Cut-out wind speed:
22 34 m/s (gradually reduced rotor speed)
IEC 61400-1 WTGS-class:
II A
EN 61400-1 WTGS-class:
II A
NVN 11400-0 WTGS-class:
II A
Reference wind speed:
42.5 m/s
Extreme gust (50-year-recurence): 59.5 m/s
Annual average wind speed:
8.5 m/s
Characteristic turbulence intensity:
18 %

Nacelle

Manufacturer:
Drawing No.:

ENERCON GmbH
66.00.241-0

Rotor

Diameter:
Number of blades:
Orientation:
Rotor blade type:
Manufacturer:
Material:

82.0 m
3
upwind
E82-1
ENERCON GmbH
glass-fiber reinforced epoxy

Blade Adapter

Design:
Material:
Drawing No.:

cast
EN-GJS-400-18U-LT
66.01.280-6

Pitch System

Blade bearing:
Drawing No. / Specification:
Manufacturer / bearing type:

Double-row ball bearing slewing ring


66.01.281-0 / MK 66 034-1
Liebherr-Werk Biberach / KUD 188 VA 802-000, Ind. 2
or Rothe Erde / 091.40.1700.001.44.1402 A
2-staged planetary gear
i = 149
66.01.282-0 / MK 66 035-0
Lohmann + Stolterfoht / GFB 9 W3 6032
or Liebherr-Werk Biberach / DAT 250/497
or Zollern / ZHP 3.19-P-L-SO

Pitch drive:
Ratio:
Drawing No. / Specification:
Manufacturer / Gear box type:

page 3 / 6

TV SD Industrie Service GmbH


Certification Body for Wind Turbines

Statement of Compliance
for the Design Assessment
ANNEX

2006-12-14

Registration No.: 02.11.06.22.00


Pitch System

Pitch motor:
Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

Direct current motor with brake


MK 66 029-0
Ruckh Elektromotorenbau / GN112/4L E-82
or Ramme / GM 112L4 Br 3,3 kW
or Emod / GKN112/4-200

Rotor Hub

Design:
Material:
Drawing No.:

cast
EN-GJS-400-18-LT
66.01.348-1

Rotor Bearing

Thrust Bearing:
Drawing No./ Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

Tapered roller bearing


66.01.336-1 / MK66030-1
SKF / BT2-8168 HA1/VK443
or FAG / F-809483.TR2
or TIMKEN / B-121305-A
Cylindrical roller bearing
66.01.087-1 / MK66030-1
SKF / BC1-8033/HB1VK443
or FAG / F-804522.ZL
or TIMKEN / E-2506-A

Loose Bearing:
Drawing No./ Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

Axle Pin

Design:
Material:
Drawing No.:

cast
EN-GJS-400-18-LT
66.01.347-1

Generator

Design:
Drawing No. Generator Stator:
Drawing No. Generator Rotor:
Materials:

direct driven, separately excited synchronous


generator, stator and rotor being part of
the main structure
66.01.088-8, 66.01.315-1, 66.01.331-1 and 66.01.324-1
66.01.323-1
EN-GJS-400-18-LT, S355J2G3 and S235JRG2

Main Carrier

Design:
Material:
Drawing No.:

cast
EN-GJS-400-18-LT
66.03.091-0 and 66.03.092-0

Yaw System

Yaw bearing:
Drawing No./ Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

Double-row ball bearing slewing ring


66.03.069-1 / MK 66 033-0
Liebherr-Werk Biberach / KUD248VA801-000 Ind. 1.0
or Hoesch Rothe Erde / 091.40.1988.000.48.1502 B
4-staged planetary gear
6
66.03.017-2 / MK 66 031-0
Lohmann + Stolterfoht / GFB 60 T4 6022
or Liebherr-Werk Biberach / DAT 400/439
or Zollern / ZHP 3.25-L-STZ-P

Yaw drive:
Number of yaw drives:
Drawing No./ Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

page 4 / 6

TV SD Industrie Service GmbH


Certification Body for Wind Turbines

Statement of Compliance
for the Design Assessment
ANNEX

2006-12-14

Registration No.: 02.11.06.22.00


Yaw System

Yaw motor:
Specification:
Manufacturer / Type:

three-phase motor with brake


MK 66 028-0
Ruckh Elektromotorenbau / TRB 112M-6 TF
or Liebherr (ATB) / BAF 112M/6K-11R
or VEM / B21RW 112 M 6 MLEN

Parking Brake

Design:
Manufacturer / Type:

disc brake with 2 electro-mechanically


operated calipers
Hanning & Kahl / HEAW 300 T

Rotor Lock

Design:
Drawing No.:

manually operated locking device


66.90.174-0

Tower
HH 78 m

Design / Type:

Tower
HH 84 m

Design / Type:

welded tubular steel tower with embedded


steel section in the foundation / E-82/S/77/4F/01
No. of sections:
4
Length:
76.35 m
Drawing No. tower:
66.10.438-1
Drawing No. foundation section: 66.10.441-1

Concrete part - no. of sections:


Drawing No.:
Height of concrete sections:
Steel part - no. of sections:
Drawing No.
Length:
Tower
HH 98 m

Design:
Concrete part - no. of sections:
Drawing No.:
Height of concrete sections:
Steel part - no. of sections:
Drawing No.
Length:

page 5 / 6

prestressed precast concrete unit tower with


steel segments on top / E-82/BF/83/17/01
15
82-12-502-01 order no. 2790-06
57.39 m above foundation level
2
66.15.070-0
25.91 m
prestressed precast concrete unit tower with
steel segments on top / E-82/BF/97/20/02
18
82-12-502-01 order no. 2666-05
68.87 m above foundation level
2
66.15.026-0
28.23 m

TV SD Industrie Service GmbH


Certification Body for Wind Turbines

Statement of Compliance
for the Design Assessment
ANNEX

2006-12-14

Registration No.: 02.11.06.22.00


Tower
HH 108 m

Design:
Concrete part - no. of sections:
Drawing No.:
Height of concrete sections:
Steel part - no. of sections:
Drawing No.
Length:

prestressed precast concrete unit tower with


steel segments on top / E-82/BF/107/23/01
21
82-12-502-00 order no. 2701-05
80.35 m above foundation level
2
66.15.038-0
26.75 m

Control System Design:


Manufacturer:

hierarchical microprocessor system


ENERCON GmbH

Safety System

electro mechanic components for


super ordinate function with
self-sufficient pitch drives
ENERCON GmbH

Design:
Manufacturer:

End of Annex

page 6 / 6

ENERCON
Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

pgina
1 de 6

En los tlimos aos y gracias a la amplia experiencia adquirida con miles de


aerogeneradores repartidos por diversos puntos del mundo, se ha demostrado que los
estndares vigentes (en la actualidad IEC 61400-12 y Measnet) en cuanto a la medida de la
curva de potencia de los aerogeneradores son deficientes en su propsito de medir,
certificar y verificar dicha curva de potencia.
Esto se debe entre otros motivos a que los estndares vigentes no han considerado o no
son claros en lo referente a los siguientes aspectos:
1. Cada tipo de anemmetro recoge diferentes datos de velocidad de viento, dando
como resultado distintas curvas de potencia. Los documentos incluidos a
continuacin muestran los resultados de las mediciones llevadas a cabo durante un
mismo intervalo de tiempo y en el mismo aerogenerador E-40/6.44 pero utilizando
anemmetros diferentes. Con las mediciones del anemmetro Thies se alcanza un valor
mximo Cp de 0,47 mientras que con las del anemmetro Vector la cifra alcanza una
mxima de 0,57 (certificados originales disponibles)

Cp mx. = 0,47
AnemmetroThies

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON
Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

pgina
2 de 6

Cp mx. = 0,57
Anemmetro
Vector

Al calcular la produccin de energa con cada una de las curvas de potencia resultantes
se observa una diferencia de produccin de energa de entre un 4,5% y un 9% mayor
con la curva Vector (segn la velocidad anual de viento en el emplazamiento concreto)
a pesar de tratarse del mismo aerogenerador.
Esto constata la necesidad de tener en cuenta el tipo de anemmetro usado al comparar
las curvas de potencia o al predecir rendimientos energticos por medio de medidas de
viento. Los estndares han sido modificados recientemente y ahora aceptan slo el
anemmetro Vector/Riso. Sin embargo en el mercado an se encuentran curvas de
potencia medidas con todo tipo de anemmetros (atenindose a los estndares
anteriores).

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

pgina
3 de 6

2. La curva del aerogenerador est directamente relacionada con las turbulencias del
emplazamiento concreto. El grfico de la medicin llevada a cabo con el
aerogenerador ENERCON E-30 lo ilustra claramente (DEWI, 1996 certificados
originales disponibles)
Las mediciones se tomaron durante el mismo intervalo de tiempo, en la misma turbina y
con el mismo tipo de anemmetro. Los datos de la medicin se corresponden con las
dos siguientes clases de turbulencias: 10% < ti < 14% and ti > 14%.

*3)

*2)

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON
Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

pgina
4 de 6

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

Al calcular la produccin de energa con cada una de las curvas de potencia, se observa
una diferencia en la produccin de energa de un 2% (segn la velocidad anual de viento
en el emplazamiento concreto) tratndose del mismo aerogenerador.
Lo mismo sucede con el E-66/18.70 (DEWI, 2001). Seguimos hablando del mismo
espacio de tiempo, mismo aerogenerador y mismo anemmetro para turbulencias por
encima y por debajo del 10,8% (documentos originales DEWI disponibles).

ENERCON E-66 / 18.70


Evaluation of power curve measurement for one and the same turbine and
the same measurement period but two different turbulence classes
< 10,8% und > 10,8% (DEWI, August 2001)

0,5

2000
1800

0,4

Power output [kW]

1600
1400

0,3 Cp

1200

0,2

1000
800

P1 (Turbulence class0,1
< 10,8%)

600

P2 (Turbulence class0> 10,8%)

400

cp1 (Turbulence class < 10,8%)

-0,1

200

cp2 (Turbulence class > 10,8%)

-0,2

0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
wind speed hub height [m/s]

De nuevo se observa que al calcular la produccin de energa con ambas curvas de


potencia, la produccin de energa vara en torno al 5% (segn la velocidad anual de
viento en el emplazamiento concreto) y sigue tratndose del mismo aerogenerador.
Los estndares vigentes no se ocupan de la relacin entre las curvas de potencia y la
intensidad de las turbulencias. Tampoco consideran las rfagas de viento que varan
segn el emplazamiento.
Lo ideal sera medir la familia de curvas de potencia y certificarla, definiendo una curva
para cada tipo de turbulencia y rfaga de viento.

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON
Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

pgina
5 de 6

3. Las medidas de las curvas de potencia, suelen alcanzar mximos en torno a los
20m/s (con medias de 10 min.), ya que es casi imposible encontrar emplazamientos en
los que se superen los 25 m/s en medias de 10 min. Adems, la velocidad de viento de
corte de algunos aerogeneradores est muy por debajo de los 25 m/s y se produce una
gran histresis hasta conectar nuevamente. Sin embargo, los estndares vigentes no lo
tienen en consideracin y permiten incluir en los certificados una curva que aumenta de
forma lineal hasta los 25 m/s en los clculos de produccin de energa. Pero la realidad
es distinta. Normalmente los aerogeneradores cuentan con un procedimeitno de parada
que corta las curvas de potencia mucho antes (este aspecto se explica de forma ms
detallada en las descripciones del sistema de control ENERCON). Como resultado, los
clculos elaborados con esta curva de potencia sobreestiman la realidad. sto no
sucede con el sistema de control ENERCON.

Esto significa que las curvas de potencia de un mismo modelo de aerogenerador


medidas en distintos emplazamientos con diferentes equipos de medicin sern, sin
duda, distintas y que se debe por tanto tener especial cuidado al comparar curvas de
potencia de diferentes modelos de aerogeneradores.
Teniendo todo lo anterior presente y consciente del proceso de homologacin de los
estndares, ENERCON ofrece una garanta de produccin de acuerdo al siguiente
procedimiento:

Curva de potencia de los aerogeneradores ENERCON


El factor econmico decisivo de un parque elico, aparte del viento en el emplazamiento, no
radica en el cumplimiento al detalle de la curva de potencia certificada sino en la cifra de
produccin anual real de energa calculada con dicha curva de potencia. Por tanto se ha de
disponer de una curva de potencia fiable con la que calcular la produccin y de una garanta
de produccin del parque al utilizar dicha curva de potencia.

La curva de potencia de los aerogeneradores ENERCON se define en base a:

Las mediciones de curvas de potencia para el modelo de aerogenerador en cuestin


medidas por organismos oficiales y documentadas con sus respectivos certificados o en
base a
Clculos y experiencia con otros modelos en caso de que an no se hayan comenzado
o finalizado las mediciones.

Una intensidad de turbulencias media del 12%

Una densidad estndard del aire de 1,225 kg/m3

Supuestos realistas del comportamiento del anemmetro.

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON

Curva de potencia de los


aerogeneradores ENERCON

Spain
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 Parc
Tecnolgic - 46980 PATERNA
(Valencia), Spain
Tel.:+34 961 366 290
Fax:+34 96 136 78 75

pgina
6 de 6

Operacin del aerogenerador por medio del sistema de control patentado por
ENERCON que permite un funcionamiento del aerogenerador sin corte por fuertes
vientos. En consecuencia, la prolongacin de la curva de potencia ENERCON a 25 m/s
est justificada, ya que sus aerogeneradores operan a plena potencia alcanzando los 25
m/s (medidas de 10 min). Vase la documentacin relacionada con el sistema de control
ENERCON.

Partiendo de esta base, se pueden garantizar al 100% las curvas de potencia y por
tanto su utilizacin en el clculo de la produccin de energa. Es decir, todo clculo
de produccin de energa realizado con dichas curvas de potencia est a su vez 100%
garantizado (siempre en relacin directa con la velocidad de viento en el
emplazamiento concreto)
Adems, el sistema de control ENERCON dar producciones extra en emplazamientos con
medias anuales de velocidad de viento muy altas, donde se alcanzan velocidades que
superan los 25 m/s:

Produccin extra en
Meida anual de viento en la porcentaje de produccin
altura de buje
anual calculada con la
curva de potencia
garantizada
8 m/s
9 m/s
10 m/s
11 m/s

Version 1.0
Traduccin ingls-espaol de Ainhoa Robles ref. T03-022

1%
1,5 %
2%
2,5 %

Noviembre 2002

ENERCON
GmbH

ENERCON Storm control

Dreekamp 5 Tel.: 04941 / 927 - 0


26605 Aurich Fax: 04941 / 927 -109

page
1 of 3

Los aerogeneradores ENERCON pueden operar bajo el llamado modo de control de rfagas de
viento, que permite el funcionamiento de la turbina en condiciones de mucho viento sin que tengan
lugar procedimientos de parada y arranque, que provocan normalmente una prdida considerable
de produccin energtica.
1. Funcionamiento normal
De forma esquemtica, la curva de potencia de un aerogenerador muestra la siguiente tendencia:

Potencia
Pr

Velocidad de viento
v1

v2

v4

v3

En v1, conocida como velocidad de inicio, el aerogenerador comienza a girar y genera energa
conforme a la curva de potencia normal. La forma de la curva entre v1 y v2 depende en gran medida
de la intensidad de turbulencia (consulte la descripcin de curvas de potencia facilitada en
documento correspondiente). A partir de v2 (punto todava muy vinculado a la intensidad de
turbulencia), el aerogenerador funciona con una potencia nominal.
Durante el funcionamiento normal, existe lo que se llama la velocidad de parada v3 con la que la
turbina se detendra siguiendo un proceso similar al siguiente:
-

La turbina se detiene cuando se sobrepasa una determinada velocidad media mxima del
viento. Para los aerogeneradores ENERCON con el modo de control de rfagas de viento
desactivado, sta es de 25 m/s en un promedio de 20 segundos. Su funcionamiento no se
iniciar de nuevo hasta que la velocidad media real del viento sea inferior a la de parada o
incluso ms baja que la velocidad de reactivacin" del viento v4 (histresis de altos vientos).
Cuando se producen vientos racheados, se tarda cierto tiempo hasta que la velocidad media del
viento descienda por debajo de ese nivel. Por tanto, se desperdicia una gran cantidad de
energa con la turbina parada.

La turbina tambin se detiene si la velocidad momentnea de las rfagas de viento (p. ej.
durante 3 segundos) supera un nivel mximo y no se vuelve a activar hasta que la velocidad del
viento se reduce por debajo de un valor inferior.

Con todos los tiempos de espera, inicio y parada, se pierde mucha energa. Por tanto, hay que tener
en cuenta que se produce una prdida considerable de energa en cierto nmero de casos en los
que la velocidad media del viento es alta. Este hecho no se refleja en el clculo de produccin de
energa en el que se emplea una curva de potencia ampliada de hasta 25 m/s, ya que no es
representativa del del funcionamiento normal real de la turbina.
Versin 2.0

Marzo 2003

ENERCON
GmbH

ENERCON Storm control

Dreekamp 5 Tel.: 04941 / 927 - 0


26605 Aurich Fax: 04941 / 927 -109

page
2 of 3

El motivo son las rfagas de viento: con una velocidad media del viento de 25 m/s durante 10 min,
suele haber muchos casos de perodos de 20 segundos con una velocidad media de 25 m/s o
tambin puede haber rfagas de viento cuya velocidad sea superior a la de parada, con lo que la
turbina se detiene bastantes veces. Esto tambin puede pasar con medias de 24, 23 e incluso de 20
m/s.
El proceso completo de detencin y arranque suele tardar varios minutos, durante los cuales no se
genera energa. El resultado puede ser una prdida del 1 % de la produccin energtica anual en un
solo da de tormenta. As es como ocurre en la prctica. Hasta ahora un aerogenerador funcionando
en condiciones ideales a potencia nominal sin parar ante una velocidad media de 25 m/s era slo
teora.
Esta prdida de produccin energtica provocada por velocidad alta de viento ha sido una de las
razones por las que ENERCON ha desarrollado y patentado lo que se conoce como el modo
operativo de control de rfagas de viento.
2. Control de rfagas de viento ENERCON
Los aerogeneradores ENERCON se rigen por una filosofa distinta cuando se registran vientos
fuertes. Las turbinas vienen provistas del llamado software de regulacin de control de rfagas
que evita las paradas en condiciones de vientos fuertes.
En vez de funcionar a partir de ciertos parmetros de parada como los mencionados anteriormente,
cuando se producen fuertes vientos, las palas giran su posicin en cierta medida para reducir la
velocidad rotativa y, por consiguiente, la salida de potencia del equipo sin que ste tenga que
detenerse por completo. Cuando amainan las rfagas, las palas vuelven a su posicin anterior y la
turbina retoma la velocidad mxima inmediatamente sin que se haya originado un proceso de
parada-arranque, con la prdida de tiempo que ello implica.
De forma esquemtica, las curvas de potencia para los aerogeneradores ENERCON, con el modo
de control de rfagas de viento activado, muestran las siguientes caractersticas:
Potencia

Pr

v1

v2

Vrfagas

v0

Velocidad
viento

A partir de una cierta velocidad media del viento (vrfagas), la produccin de energa va disminuyendo
poco a poco hasta llegar a cero (en v0) sin llegar a detenerse. La velocidad de rotacin mnima es
de unas 6 rpm. y no hay desconexin de la red. Durante las rfagas de viento, la potencia de la
Versin 2.0

Marzo 2003

ENERCON
GmbH

ENERCON Storm control

Dreekamp 5 Tel.: 04941 / 927 - 0


26605 Aurich Fax: 04941 / 927 -109

page
3 of 3

turbina se mueve por la curva hacia un lado y otro, sin paradas y retoma la potencia nominal en
cuanto el viento lo permite.
Con el sistema de control de rfagas de viento patentado por ENERCON, la potencia se reduce
cuando los vientos oscilan entre 28 y 34 m/s. De esta manera la turbina puede funcionar, en la
mayora de los casos, con una potencia nominal de hasta 25 m/s (para promedios de 10 minutos).
En este modo, no es necesario realizar una deduccin por histresis de vientos fuertes cuando se
calcula la produccin energtica con la curva de potencia ampliada de hasta 25 m/s.

Adems, el sistema de control de rfagas de viento ENERCON permite una produccin superior en
aquellos emplazamientos con velocidades medias anuales muy altas y cuya distribucin del viento
presente algunas horas con vientos por encima de los 25 m/s:

velocidad media anual del


viento a altura de buje

8 m/s
9 m/s
10 m/s
11 m/s

produccin adicional como


porcentaje de la
produccin anual calculada
con la curva de potencia
garantizada
1%
1,5 %
2%
2,5 %

La evaluacin del diseo de los aerogeneradores ENERCON incluye los espectros de carga para
este modo de control de rfagas de viento. Dado que no hay procesos de parada y arranque
frecuentes, ni procesos de frenado, con condiciones de viento fuerte acompaado de picos de
carga, la carga de la turbina resulta ms moderada.

Versin 2.0

Marzo 2003

Page

Coeficiente de empuje ENERCON E-82

1 of 1

Potencia nominal:
Curva de potencia:

2.000 kW
curva de potencia calculada (enero 2005)

Velocidad de viento

Potencia

ct

[m/s]
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
9,0
10,0
11,0
12,0
13,0
14,0
15,0
16,0
17,0
18,0
19,0
20,0
21,0
22,0
23,0
24,0
25,0

[kW]
0,0
3,0
25,0
82,0
174,0
321,0
532,0
815,0
1.180,0
1.612,0
1.890,0
2.000,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0
2.050,0

[-]
0,000
0,786
0,782
0,781
0,782
0,781
0,778
0,777
0,777
0,778
0,779
0,777
0,675
0,473
0,366
0,294
0,242
0,202
0,171
0,146
0,126
0,110
0,097
0,086
0,077
(Simulacin ENERCON)

Valores ct del ENERCON E-82

Coeficiente de empuje [-]

0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
0,0

5,0

10,0

15,0

20,0

25,0

Velocidad de viento en altura de buje [m/s]

Document information:
Author/date:
Department:
Approved/date:

Mei/ 07.06.05 Translator/date:


SA Revisor/date:
MK/ 07.06.05 Reference:

SA-001-ct_E82 Rev1.0ger-spa.doc

Explicaciones de ENERCON respecto a


control de potencia activa y control de frecuencia
por medio de la potencia activa

Page
1 of 2

A travs del sistema ENERCON SCADA se pueden realizar algunas funciones de control del
parque en general, que se indican a continuacin. Mas detalles estn en la documentacin
adjunta ENERCON SCADA System y ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition (GDA).
1 Control de potencia activa y seales de comunicacin
Si se instala el dispositivo ENERCON GDA y se conecta tanto con transformadores de tensin y corriente en el punto de referencia (habitualmente el punto de conexin del parque),
como con el sistema ENERCON SCADA, se puede implementar un circuito cerrado de control.
Esto permite regular la potencia activa que el parque inyecta a la red. Se puede limitar la
potencia a cualquier valor entre 0% y 100% de la potencia nominal del parque, sin limitacin
de plazo. El control mantiene la potencia activa (el valor promedio de cada 10 minutos) dentro de un rango de menor de +/-5% , siempre y cuando el viento no sea inferior a la velocidad que corresponde a esta potencia.
El sistema GDA dispone de un interfaz de comunicacin protocolo MODBUS, a travs del
cual se puede mandar una consigna Pmax al parque (registro 26, pagina 7). Adems el GDA
del parque ofrece una seal que potencia sera disponible como mximo (registro 17, vea
pagina 7 documento GDA)
Se ruega tener en cuenta que un control y seales intercambiados siempre tienen efecto al
parque elico entero, nunca al aerogenerador individual.
2 Control de frecuencia por medio de la potencia activa
En sistemas electricamente pequeos puede haber la necesidad de que tambin parques
elicos contribuyan a la estabilidad de frecuencia de forma tal, que disminuyan su potencia
activa inyectada en la red en caso de sobrefrecuencias, y que la aumenten en caso de subfrecuencias. Este requerimiento existe por ejemplo en Irlanda para parques elicos por encima de una cierta potencia instalada y parques de ENERCON por supuesto lo cumplen.
Esta reaccin a una desviacin de frecuencia se puede activar o desactivar.
Hay que distinguir entre situaciones de sobrefrecuencias y subfrecuencias:
a. En el caso de sobrefrecuencia el aerogenerador puede automticamente recortar su
potencia inyectada, si sea necesario incluso hasta cero. Esta posibilidad est descrito en el documento Data Sheet Grid Performance, capitulo 10.
b. En el caso de subfrecuencia el aerogenerador puede aumentar su potencia inyectada solo, si anteriormente ha recibido una seal que le limita su potencia actual a un
valor por debajo de lo que sera posible con las condiciones actuales de viento. As el
aerogenerador tendra una potencia de reserva, que el puede aportar automticamente, en el caso que la frecuencia realmente cae por debajo de un cierto limite. La
seal de limitacin de potencia tiene efecto y se transmita igual como est indicado
en el apartado anterior (Control de potencia activa y seales de comunicacin). La
reserva de potencia habr que ajustar especficamente al sistema elctrico, en todo
caso no puede superar un 10% de la potencia actual del aerogenerador.
Para ambos casos los mximos gradientes de potencia dependen del viento y deben ajustarse respecto al proyecto elico y las necesidades del sistema elctrico especifico. Como
gradientes orientativos vase por favor el Data Sheet Grid Performance, capitulo 9.
Tambin hay que tener en cuenta como un parque elico debe actuar en al caso de fallos de
comunicacin (default values).
In case of discrepancies the English version shall prevail
Document Information:
Compiled / Date / Rev.:
Department:
Checked / Date:

EQ / 6.9.2007 / Rev001 Translator / Date:


Sales / Technical Support Checked / Date:
File name:

SL_TS_ENERCON comentarios P y P(f)_rev001_spa.doc

Explicaciones de ENERCON respecto a


control de potencia activa y control de frecuencia
por medio de la potencia activa

Page
2 of 2

Especialmente en sistemas elctricos aislados (islas) habr que analizar de forma preventiva la posible coincidencia de huecos de tensin y desviacin de frecuencia para ajustar los
parmetros de control del aerogenerador y as asegurar un comportamiento deseable para
el sistema elctrico.
Un control de potencia activa y/o una contribucin al control de frecuencia no afectan la vida
til de un aerogenerador ENERCON.
Para finalizar es importante explicar que tanto un control de potencia, como una contribucin
a la estabilidad del sistema elctrico en caso de subfrecuencias, disminuyen la energa inyectada a la red y por tanto, tienen un efecto econmico negativo para el operador del parque. Sin embargo estas caractersticas elctricas pueden ser de alta necesidad para el sistema elctrico entero, entonces tambin se puede estipular un valor econmico a ellos (ancillary system service). Esto ser un tema a acordar entre el operador del sistema y el operador del parque.

In case of discrepancies the English version shall prevail


Document Information:
Compiled / Date / Rev.:
Department:
Checked / Date:

EQ / 6.9.2007 / Rev001 Translator / Date:


Sales / Technical Support Checked / Date:
File name:

SL_TS_ENERCON comentarios P y P(f)_rev001_spa.doc

Comment to requirements in Spain to provide a


certificate for WECs to meet PO 12.3 requirements

Page
1 of 2

Respecto al tema de "certificados" para pasar


huecos de tensin es importante saber, que
en el PO12.3 dice: "Segundo. Al objeto de
verificar el cumplimiento de los requisitos
especificados en este procedimiento de
operacin, se desarrollar un sistema de
certificacin de acuerdo con lo previsto en el
Real Decreto 2200/1995, ..."

Regarding the issue of a "certificate" for passing voltage dips it is important to know, that in
the PO12.3 it says: "Second. - To the object to
verify the performance of the requirements
specified in this procedure of operation, a system of certification will be developed in
agreement with the anticipated thing in Real
Decree 2200/1995... "

Desgraciadamente
este
"sistema
de
certificacin", que el sector elico desarroll
con apoyo de REE y otras institucines, est
pendiente de su aprobacin. El documento
"PROCEDIMIENTO DE VERIFICACION,
VALIDACION Y CERTI-FICACION DE LOS
REQUISITOS DEL PO 12.3 SOBRE LA
RESPUESTA DE LAS INSTALA-CIONES
ELICAS ANTE HUECOS DE TENSIN"
(=PVVC) est hecho hace meses, pero falta
que las instituciones responsables lo
aprueben. Antes de que este PVVC est en
vigor, es imposible para cualquiere fabricante
de
aero-generadores
(o
institucion
certificadora) de presentar un certificado, tal
como lo indica el PO12.3.

Unfortunately this "system of certification", that


the wind sector developed with support of REE
and others institutions, is pending of its approval. The document " PROCEDURE FOR
VERIFICATION VALIDATION AND CERTIFICATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE
PO 12.3 ON THE RESPONSE OF WIND
FARMS IN THE EVENT OF VOLTAGE DIPS"
(= PVVC) in finished since month, but the approval of the responsible institutions is missing.
Before this PVVC is in force, it is impossible for
any manufacturer of wind energy converters (or
certifying institution) to present a certificate, as
the PO 12.3 indicates it.

El PO12.3 se refiere al punto de conexin de


la instalacin elica en general, mientras el
fabricante al principio puede confirmar solo
un cierto comportamiento del aerogenerador
individual en sus bornes. El comportamiento
elctrico en el punto de conexin del parque
puede depender de la configuracin
especifica del proyecto. La posible diferencia
en el compor-tamiento del aerogenerador
individual y del parque total en el nudo de
conexin es tema clave del PVVC. All esta
definido exactamente bajo cuales condiciones
se admite asumir, que cuando el
aerogenerador
individual
cumple
los
requisitos del PO 12.3, tambien el parque
entero las cumple. Debido adems, que sin
la clarificacin tcnica del PVVC algunas
expresiones en el PO 12.3 son ambiguos, un
fabricante de aerogeneradores no puede
confirmar, que su aerogenerador individual
cumple con el PO 12.3.
Lo que ENERCON podra hacer es confirmar
que el aerogenerador cumplo con lo que est
establecido en el ENERCON Data Sheet Grid
Performance.

The PO12.3 refers to the point of connection of


the installation of turbines in general, while the
manufacturer can only confirm a certain behaviour of the individual wind energy converter at
its terminals. The electrical characteristics at
the point of connection of the wind farm can
depend on the special configuration of the project. The possible difference in the behaviour of
the individual wind energy converter and the
whole wind farm at the point of connection is
key subject of the PVVC. In there is defined exactly under which conditions it is admitted to
assume, that when the individual WEC meets
the requirements of PO 12.3, the whole wind
farm meets them too. Given additionally, that
without the technical clarification of the PVVC
some expressions in the PO 12.3 are ambiguous, a manufacturer of WECs cannot confirm,
that its individual WEC complies with the PO
12.3.
What ENERCON could do is to confirm that the
WEC meets with what is defined in the ENERCON Data Sheet Grid Performance.

In case of discrepancies the English version shall prevail


Document Information:
Compiled/Date/Rev.:
Department:
Checked/Date:

EQ-MB/3.7.2007Rev003 Translator/Date:
Sales/Technical Support Checked/Date:
X. XXX/XX.XX.XX File name:

SL_TS_Statement_certificate PO12.3_rev003_eng+spa

Comment to requirements in Spain to provide a


certificate for WECs to meet PO 12.3 requirements

Ahora es sobre todo un tema formal y legal si


el aerogenerador (o parque) cumple con los
requisitos del PO12.3 o no. De punto de vista
tcnico ENERCON no tiene dudas que
cuando el PVVC se aprobar de la forma
como esta previsto (vea borrador de AEE
enero 2007), tendremos dentro de poco un
certificado de una institucin independiente
para el aerogenerador individual, que podra
servir de acuerdo con lo establecido en el
"procedimiento particular" del PVVC
tambien para el parque entero.

Page
2 of 2

It is now mainly a formal and legal issue


whether the WECs (or wind farm) meet with the
requirements of the PO12.3. From the technical
point of view, ENERCON has no doubt that
when the PVVC will be approved in the way it is
intended (see AEE 's draft of January 2007), we
will soon have a certificate of an independent
institution for the individual WEC, that could be
also used according to what is defined in the
"particular procedure" of the PVVC for the
whole wind farm.

In case of discrepancies the English version shall prevail


Document Information:
Compiled/Date/Rev.:
Department:
Checked/Date:

EQ-MB/3.7.2007Rev003 Translator/Date:
Sales/Technical Support Checked/Date:
X. XXX/XX.XX.XX File name:

SL_TS_Statement_certificate PO12.3_rev003_eng+spa

Page 1/2

Extract from Test Report


DEWI-PV 0511-016.3
The reference report DEWI-PV 0511-016.3 was prepared
according to IEC 61400-12-1 (2005) and MEASNET (2000)
Extract from Test Report DEWI-PV 0511-016.3 for power curve
of wind turbine type ENERCON E-82 with a rated power of 2000 kW
Database B (Turbine Status: Availability, without cut-out hysteresis)
Wind Turbine Type:

ENERCON E-82

Technical data (Manufacturer Data)

Turbine Manufacturer:

ENERCON GmbH

Rated Power:

2000 kW

Dreekamp 9

Rated Wind Speed:

13 m/s

D-26605 Aurich

Rotor Speed:

6 - 19.5 rpm (Betrieb 0)

x: 2592260 y: 5914843

Rotor Diameter:

82 m

(Gau Krger, Bessel)

Hub Height:

98 m

82001

Blade Angle: pitch

Blade Type: ENERCON 82-1

Turbine Site (approx.):

Serial Number:

Scope of Measurement and Information about Sensors


Measuring Period (CET):

26.10.2006 (17:00)
30.03.2007 (10:30)

Measurement Accuracy
Power transducer:

18.25 kW

Measurement sector of
wind direction

189 degree 251 degree,


343 degree 18 degree

Calibration of anemometer:
Thies 1st Class 4.3350.10.000

0.1 m/s

Height of wind measurement:

97.5 m

Air temperature sensor:

1 C

Standard air density:

1.225 kg/m

Ai pressure sensor:

1.5 hPa

Deviation(s) from the standard


No deviations from IEC 61400-12-1 (2005) and MEASNET (2000)

Power Curve according to IEC 61400-12-1 (2005) and MEASNET (2000)


2000

P [kW]

0.55

P
cp

0.50

1800

0.45

1600

0.40

1400

0.35

1200

0.30

1000

0.25

800

0.20

600

0.15

400

0.10

200

0.05

cp [-]

2200

0.00
0

10
12
v_cor [m/s]

14

16

18

20

22

Measured power curve for standard air density 1.225 kg/m, only complete bins are given (for minimum three
data sets).

Page 2/2

Extract from Test Report DEWI-PV 0511-016.3


Measurements of Power Curve ENERCON E-82
Standard air density 1,225 kg/m, only complete bins are given (for minimum three data sets).
BinNo.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Wind Speed
(at hub height)
Vi
[m/s]
0.58
0.98
1.51
1.99
2.56
3.02
3.51
4.01
4.50
5.00
5.52
6.03
6.52
7.01
7.50
7.99
8.51
9.00
9.51
10.01
10.49
11.00
11.49
12.00
12.50
12.99
13.51
13.98
14.51
14.98
15.50
15.98
16.48
17.01
17.49
18.00
18.43
18.97
19.44
20.04
20.42

Effective
Power
Pi
[kW]
-1.54
-1.75
-0.44
3.31
13.46
32.23
58.00
95.66
141.58
196.97
262.15
343.96
439.40
551.30
678.91
830.54
1008.86
1184.03
1395.54
1607.02
1804.63
1982.01
2063.82
2083.30
2089.96
2093.09
2093.59
2091.68
2092.23
2090.97
2089.95
2088.23
2085.72
2083.06
2085.46
2085.60
2088.97
2088.28
2087.64
2085.77
2079.04

Annual Energy Production (AEP)


Yearly mean wind
velocity
(Rayleigh-Curve)

Measured AEP
(measured power
curve)

[m/s]

[MWh]

Number of
Category A
Category B
Combined
Data
Uncertainty
Uncertainty
Uncertainty
Ni
Si
ui
uc,i
[-]
[-]
[kW]
[kW]
[kW]
-2.46
7
0.6
10.6
10.6
-0.57
14
0.5
10.6
10.6
-0.04
18
0.2
10.6
10.6
0.13
20
1.0
10.6
10.7
0.25
35
1.2
10.8
10.9
0.36
61
1.2
11.8
11.9
0.42
42
1.7
12.8
12.9
0.46
56
3.2
15.0
15.3
0.48
102
2.1
17.6
17.8
0.49
71
3.9
20.3
20.6
0.48
68
3.9
23.6
24.0
0.48
88
4.8
29.9
30.3
0.49
119
5.0
37.4
37.8
0.49
177
4.9
45.7
46.0
0.50
250
3.7
54.1
54.2
0.50
287
4.1
66.6
66.7
0.51
383
4.0
77.8
77.9
0.50
383
4.5
83.7
83.9
0.50
432
4.7
101.5
101.7
0.50
541
4.0
106.4
106.5
0.48
509
4.0
108.7
108.7
0.46
449
3.3
96.5
96.5
0.42
346
2.0
48.9
49.0
0.37
385
1.0
17.9
17.9
0.33
273
0.8
14.3
14.4
0.30
259
0.5
13.9
13.9
0.26
240
0.5
13.8
13.8
0.24
197
0.5
13.8
13.8
0.21
182
0.4
13.8
13.8
0.19
127
0.6
13.8
13.8
0.17
122
0.6
13.8
13.8
0.16
119
0.8
13.8
13.9
0.14
110
0.9
13.9
13.9
0.13
79
2.0
13.9
14.0
0.12
81
2.3
13.9
14.1
0.11
53
4.0
13.7
14.3
0.10
37
1.7
14.2
14.3
0.10
20
1.7
13.8
13.9
0.09
3
4.8
13.8
14.6
0.08
3
1.4
13.8
13.9
0.08
4
9.3
16.1
18.6
Standard air density: 1,225 kg/m, cut-out wind speed: 25 m/s
(Extrapolation with constant effective power starting from last complete bin)
Extrapolated AEP
Uncertainty of measured power curve,
(extrapolated power
displayed as standard deviation of AEP
curve, 100 %
cp,i-value

[MWh]

[%]

[MWh]

4
1657.4
186.1
11.2
1657.4
5
3123.7
259.4
8.3
3123.7
6
4843.5
317.6
6.6
4845.1
7
6553.3
349.7
5.3
6571.7
8
8059.0
359.5
4.5
8145.8
9
9246.5
354.4
3.8
9490.5
10
10075.0
340.5
3.4
10570.5
11 *
10561.2
322.0
3.0
11374.8
*) Incomplete according to IEC 61400-12-1 (AEP-measured less than 95% of the AEP-extrapolated)
This attachment to Test Report is accountable only in conjunction with the Manufactures certificate on specific data of the
type of the installation from 21.04.2006. This data sheet does not replace the Test Report mentioned above.
Measured by:

DEWI GmbH
Ebertstrae 96
D-26382 Wilhelmshaven

Datum:

11.04.2007
________________________

____________________

(Dipl.-Phys. H. Mellinghoff)
DEWI, Head of Expert Group

(Dipl.-Ing. U. Bunse)
DEWI, Expert

Page
1 of 3

Design Basis E-82

All ENERCON wind energy converters are designed and certified according to the latest
international standards. Currently the basis for design are the internationally acknowledged
IEC standards of the IEC-61400 series.
This implies several assumptions and conditions that are used to define the load cases which
the wind turbine has to survive. In the following, the main design conditions are listed. For
details it is hereby referred to the original IEC standards.
The safety system of the ENERCON wind turbines features various control sensors that
protect the turbine and its components from damage. This includes - among other things - high
and low temperatures, vibrations and oscillations, strain etc. In the case that one or more of
these sensors detect conditions outside the design limits, the main control of the turbine will
take the appropriate measures which range from small power limitations to complete stop of
the turbine.
In case it is planned to install the turbines in complex terrain (included but not limited to steep
hills, mountains, ridges, sites at more than 1000m above sea level, etc.), it is highly
recommended to consult with ENERCON at an early stage of the project in order to carry out a
detailed assessment of the site.
For sites with environmental conditions outside of the design conditions, ENERCON
cannot be held responsible for any defects, including but not limited to damages and/or
loss of energy yield.

IEC Design conditions: Wind classes


Wind turbine classes are defined in terms of wind speed and turbulence parameters. In case
of the standard wind turbine classes, the mean value of the wind speed over a time period of
10 min is assumed to be Rayleigh distributed for the purposes of design load calculations.
The E-82 (turbine and all available towers) are designed for sites with IEC class IIA wind
characteristics:
1. Extreme wind speed (3 sec-average) in hub height

vE = 59.5 m/s

2. Extreme wind speed (10-min average) in hub height

v = 42.5 m/s

3. Annual average wind speed and turbulence intensity


The operational loads of wind energy converters depend on the combination of annual
average wind speed and average turbulence intensity at the site. The E-82 has been
designed for
vm = 8.5 m/s
(annual average wind speed in hub height)
with constant turbulence intensity of 18% at v = 15 m/s
(according to IEC turbulence class A)

Document information:
Author / date:
Department:
Approved / date:
Revision / date:

ENERCON reserves the right to technical modifications


MK / 20.09.05
WRD Translator / date:
- Revisor / date:
WRD-04-Design Basis E-82-Rev2_0-eng-eng.doc
2.0 / 28.03.06 Reference:

Page
2 of 3

Design Basis E-82

For the load calculations the following has been assumed:

safety factor on the loads of SF = 1.35 (normal and extreme loads)

inclination of mean flow with respect to the horizontal plane of up to 8


(invariant with height)

symmetrical icing on all blades (see below)

IEC Design conditions: Other environmental conditions


According to IEC among others the following environmental conditions are taken into account
for the design of the wind turbines:

normal system operation ambient


temperature range of

10C to +40C

extreme temperature range of

20C to +50C

relative humidity of up to

atmospheric content equivalent to that of a

solar radiation intensity of

1000 W/m2

air density of

1.225 kg/m3

95%
non-polluted inland atmosphere

Other Design conditions


In order to protect the wind turbine from damages, it will operate according to the following
scheme, not taking into account power losses due to changes of aerodynamic behavior when
icing occurs on the blades:
T = ambient temperature
T > -15C
-15C > T > -25C
T < -25C

normal operation
operation with maximum 25% rated power
operation with maximum 5% rated power

The turbine will continue to operate with maximum 5% rated power in order to keep the
rotating components moving and the turbine at a moderate temperature level.
Given this operational characteristics, the survival temperature for a standard E-82 is 40C.
According to the GL standard a cold climate site which will call for special requirements for the
wind turbines is defined as follows:
Minimum temperatures of below -20C have been observed during long term measurements
(preferably ten years or more) on an average of more than nine days a year. The nine-day
criteria is fulfilled, if the temperature at the site remains below -20C for one hour or more on
the respective days.
Document information:
Author / date:
Department:
Approved / date:
Revision / date:

ENERCON reserves the right to technical modifications


MK / 20.09.05
WRD Translator / date:
- Revisor / date:
WRD-04-Design Basis E-82-Rev2_0-eng-eng.doc
2.0 / 28.03.06 Reference:

Design Basis E-82

Page
3 of 3

For sites with lower extreme temperatures, different materials will have to be used for various
turbine components including but not limited to lubrication and steel material.
Icing on the blades:
The IEC standard requires that symmetrical icing (i.e. the same amount on each blade) has to
be taken into account, but does not say how. Therefore ENERCON is calculating the ice loads
as described in the GL standard:
The ice accumulates on the leading edge of the blades. There is zero ice at the blade root, the
ice thickness increases linearly up to a value of at the middle of the blade and then remains
constant up to the blade tip.
Unsymmetrical icing (different ice mass on the three blades) does not have to be taken into
account, because the ENERCON turbines have a sensor for imbalance that will prevent the
turbine from operation with unsymmetrical ice (imbalance of the rotor).

Wind farm layout (Micrositing)


Loading of wind turbines in a wind farm is determined by the above mentioned external wind
conditions and additionally by the influence of neighboring wind turbines (so-called wake
effects). Behind the turbines the incoming wind speed is being reduced, while the turbulence
is increased. The effects of this on the operating loads have been assessed in so-called wake
expertises and the allowed minimum distances of the turbines are defined accordingly,
depending on the annual average wind speed and turbulence intensity at the site. These
expertises are available on request.
In general ENERCON wind turbines can be placed in distances of 5 rotor diameters in
prevailing wind direction and in distances of down to 3 rotor diameters in directions of less
distinct wind without further calculations.
If smaller distances are planned, ENERCON has to approve the park layout. If this
approval is not given or not being asked for, ENERCON cannot be held responsible for
any defects, including but not limited to damages and/or loss of energy yield.
Smaller distances can be allowed if the site and layout conditions comply with the data
mentioned in the wake expertises. If for any reason the conditions do not fit, there is the option
to carry out a site specific calculation at the expense of the customer. In this case please
contact your ENERCON sales representative at an early stage of the project.

Document information:
Author / date:
Department:
Approved / date:
Revision / date:

ENERCON reserves the right to technical modifications


MK / 20.09.05
WRD Translator / date:
- Revisor / date:
WRD-04-Design Basis E-82-Rev2_0-eng-eng.doc
2.0 / 28.03.06 Reference:

ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
1 of 25

ENERCON
SCADA SYSTEM

Document information:
Author/ date:
Department:
Approved / date:
Revision:

SUBJECT TO TECHNICAL CHANGE


WB / 24-05-2006
WRD-E Translator / date:
RSC / 01-06-2006 Revisor / date:
2.0 Reference:

C.Carsted 19-6-2006
EQ 21-6-2006
WRD-E-04-SCADA_SYSTEM_060621_Rev2.0_gereng.doc

ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
2 of 25

Table of contents
1.
2.

Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 3
SCADA SYSTEM function within a wind farm ...................................................................... 4
2.1. Schematic structure of an ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM .............................................. 4
2.2. Abstract representation of the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM........................................ 5
3. How the SCADA system works............................................................................................ 7
3.1. Data acquisition ............................................................................................................ 7
3.2. Messages & communication ......................................................................................... 8
3.2.1. Status data ............................................................................................................ 8
3.2.2. Measured values ................................................................................................... 8
3.2.3. Wind farm data bus ............................................................................................... 8
3.2.4. How the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with the wind turbines .......................... 9
3.2.5. How the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with ENERCON Service .....................10
3.2.6. SCADA SYSTEM response in the event of communication breakdowns ..............11
3.2.7. SCADA REMOTE.................................................................................................11
3.3. Open-loop and closed-loop control with SCADA..........................................................13
3.3.1. Open-loop control systems: ..................................................................................14
3.3.1.1.
Setpoint open-loop control.............................................................................14
3.3.1.2.
Table-based control.......................................................................................14
3.3.1.3.
Control values via interfaces..........................................................................14
3.3.2. Closed-loop control systems:................................................................................15
3.3.3. Active power management ...................................................................................17
3.3.3.1.
Active power control ......................................................................................17
3.3.3.2.
Power gradient regulation..............................................................................18
3.3.4. Voltage-reactive power management ...................................................................19
3.3.4.1.
Power factor control.......................................................................................19
3.3.4.2.
SCADA Voltage Control System (VCS) .........................................................20
3.3.4.3.
Apparent power regulation (optimizing active power).....................................22
4. Requirements .....................................................................................................................23
5. Maintenance requirements .................................................................................................23
6. ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM in the ENERCON PARTNER KONZEPT (EPK)...................23
7. Standard scope of supply ...................................................................................................23
8. Miscellaneous.....................................................................................................................23
9. Technical specifications ......................................................................................................24
9.1. Functional specifications..............................................................................................24
9.2. Hardware specifications...............................................................................................24

Document information:
Author/ date:
Department:
Approved / date:
Revision:

SUBJECT TO TECHNICAL CHANGE


WB / 24-05-2006
WRD-E Translator / date:
RSC / 01-06-2006 Revisor / date:
2.0 Reference:

C.Carsted 19-6-2006
EQ 21-6-2006
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1. Introduction
The ENERCON SCADA1 SYSTEM is used for data acquisition, remote monitoring, open-loop
and closed-loop control for both individual wind turbines and wind farms. It enables the customer
and ENERCON Service to monitor the operating state and to analyse saved operating data.
Furthermore, authorised users may use it to modify the operating parameters of the wind
turbines and the connection to the grid. Depending on the application concerned, the ENERCON
SCADA SYSTEM also provides additional options to enable closed-loop control based on
setpoints (e.g. power factor at the point of common coupling).
The SCADA SYSTEM developed by ENERCON was launched in 1998 and is now used in
conjunction with more than 8000 wind turbines worldwide.
This document is intended to provide an overview of the key functions of the ENERCON SCADA
SYSTEM.

SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

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2. SCADA SYSTEM function within a wind farm


2.1.

Schematic structure of an ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM

Substation

GDA

SCADA PC

Wind farm

Telecommunications network

Externals
ENERCON
SERVICE

Figure 1

Null modem or network


connection

Home PC

Remote PC

A typical SCADA SYSTEM on a wind farm


Grey lines indicate additional options.

Symbols:
Optical fibre cables or 4-strand data cables

Modem

Telephone network
Weather station
Telephone connection

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2.2.

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Abstract representation of the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM

The ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM provides a framework for achieving open/closed-loop control
and communication within the wind farm. Depending on application requirements, several further
options can provide special functions especially for data acquisition or closed-loop control of the
wind farm. The following abstract representation shows the interaction between the system as a
whole and its individual components:

ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


SCADA
REMOTE
SCADA PC
Available
Options :

Figure 2

PDI

GDA

SCU

VCS

METEO

Abstract representation of the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM

SCADA PC:

The SCADA PC on the wind farm assumes the internal open or closed-loop
control functions, data storage and communication with the outside world.
Only the ENERCON SCADA software runs on this PC.

SCADA REMOTE: A program for remote monitoring and display of operating data with
database support (SCADA DATABASE). If access authorisation is granted,
operation intervention is also possible and operating parameters can be
modified.
PDI:

Process Data Interface; a system used to exchange online wind farm values
with external communication points, some of which are setpoint settings
from grid operators to the wind farm and exporting operating data.

GDA:

Grid Data Acquisition; a system used to measure all current electrical


values at the point of common coupling.

SCU:

Substation Control Unit, a system used for the acquisition of current states
within the substation of a wind farm and for remote switching operation in it.

VCS:

Voltage Control System, for dynamic voltage control at the point of common
coupling. The reactive power range available from the farms wind turbines
is used for this purpose.

METEO:

A system for the acquisition of weather data (wind speed, wind direction,
etc.) using a meteorological mast.

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Each of the components presented is documented. Constant reference will be made to these
throughout this text.
When speaking of the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM this means all SCADA components
installed according to project specifics and their interaction. Standard equipment for an
ENERCON wind farm usually only includes the SCADA PC with operating system and the
ENERCON SCADA software package, as well as the licence for the ENERCON SCADA Remote
software package.
The ENERCON SCADA software on the SCADA PC in the wind farm covers numerous wind
farm functions including:
Requesting status data2 from all connected installations (wind turbines, weather
measurement equipment, grid data acquisition, etc.)
Storing operating data
Wind farm communication with external communication points (owner, grid operator,
ENERCON, etc.)
Open-loop / closed loop control of the wind farms electrical output values (if applicable)
Obstruction light control on wind farm (if applicable)
Special control for all or a group of wind turbines on the farm (e.g. Start or Stop depending
on the time, wind conditions or temperatures, status data, other installations, if required)
Many of the functions described hereafter are in fact features of the ENERCON SCADA
software.

For further details see Chapter 3.1

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3. How the SCADA system works


3.1.

Data acquisition

A mass of data is recorded by the wind turbines sensors, which is then forwarded to the
turbines central controls. The turbines system control processes this for internal control
purposes and provides the SCADA SYSTEM with data.
A distinction is made between:
Operating data

Status data and warning messages

Mechanical characteristics: Speed, nacelle position,


torque
Electrical characteristics: Current and voltage
measured for each phase (at the low voltage terminals
of the converter); power, frequency, energy calculated.
Meteorological data gathered by the weather station
outside the nacelle: wind speed, wind direction and
ambient temperature
Temperature of rotor blades, nacelle interior, tower
interior etc.
Time counter records operating time and downtime

This data is generated from


various internal wind turbine
messages
and
provides
information about the current
operating state and the events
affecting operation.

Voltage and current transformers, temperature sensors, pulsers, vibration sensors, and angle
encoders are some of the sensor types used to gather the measured values. For each phase,
current and voltage is measured at the inverters' low voltage terminals. If required the power can
be measured using calibrated counters in the turbines control system.
Status data indicates all turbine operating states. This information is made up of a main status
and substatus or main warning and sub-warning (see Chapter 9.2). In the case of operating
states, that require an ENERCON Service intervention, the system converts the states to
appropriate messages which are then automatically transmitted to ENERCON.
In the following text the abovementioned status and warning messages will be referred to as
"status data".
Status data is updated up to four times per second. The SCADA PC on the wind farm and
ENERCON SCADA Remote both show the latest (current) status. In addition, SCADA Remote
indicates past status messages in chronological order together with the exact time at which they
occurred.
All other operating data is generated by the wind turbines control system as one-minute average
values and relayed to the SCADA PC. Furthermore, minimum and maximum speeds, power and
wind speed values occurring per minute are also sent to the SCADA PC.
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As long as an online connection is available, operating data is updated and transmitted to


SCADA REMOTE software on the remote PC with the maximum transfer rate of this online
connection. With conventional telecommunication connections via stable fixed networks, the
remote PC display is updated at least once per second.
Moreover, a multitude of other data recorded in the wind turbine is analysed in the turbine
control system. However it is only made available to ENERCON Service for detailed viewing
where required.
If an ENERCON wind farm has a relay station, a substation or a meteorological mast, the
operating data of these installations can also be integrated into the SCADA SYSTEM.3

3.2.

Messages & communication

3.2.1. Status data


Status messages will vary depending on the type of wind turbine (E-33, E-48, E-70/E4, E-82,
E-112) and control version. The larger the wind turbine, the greater the number of states
possible. Standard sets of main status messages are used for all ENERCON wind turbines.
These are listed on the technical data sheet further on in this document (see chapter 9.1).
3.2.2. Measured values
The SCADA REMOTE documentation contains an overview of all the measured values provided
by the SCADA SYSTEM.
Compared with SCADA REMOTE, the SCADA PC at the wind farm only provides an extremely
simplified visual representation of the current or stored measured values and status data. Its
main purpose is the wind farm control and data management, not the pleasing visualization of
online data. If, for example, a visual representation of the current operating states (wind speed,
power, etc.) is desired for use at a visitor centre, a REMOTE PC (as shown in Figure 1) or a
display panel showing selected values within the farm, can be provided.
3.2.3. Wind farm data bus
The wind turbines in a wind farm are connected to the SCADA PC via internal data bus systems,
generally with optical fibre cables. To prevent overvoltage and to maximize communication
speed, it is advisable to use optical fibre cables. Alternatively copper can be used.
In the interest of achieving a high degree of communication security, up to a maximum of 10
wind turbines are combined into one physical data bus. If there are more than 10, a number of
physical data bus lines are set up as a star configuration. The logical data bus system always
includes all the turbines on the farm.
The distance between two neighbouring turbines connected via the same physical optical fibre
data bus should not exceed 2 km (multimode). In the case of a data bus using copper cables,
the total length of the physical data bus should not exceed 3 km.4 Where larger distances
between two turbines are concerned, power amplifiers must be used in conjunction with copper
3

See separate documentation: ENERCON METEO SYSTEM or Substation Control Unit SCU
See separate documentation: SCADA PC
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cables. In such a case of long distances the use of optical fibres requires a switch to single
mode, i.e. special optical fibre cables must be used along with the respective signal converters.
The copper cables must be 4-strand, shielded (telephone) cables. For redundancy and to create
several physical buses, at least 10-pair wiring should be used. Furthermore, in the case of a
copper data bus, surge protectors must be used at various interfaces to protect turbine control,
the SCADA PC, etc.
ENERCON recommends the use of optical fibre cables. This applies, in particular, if closed-loop
controls (see 3.3) are to be used and the number of turbines connected is greater than 10.
The farms internal bus system will also be referred to below as the ENERCON data bus.
3.2.4. How the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with the wind turbines
The SCADA SYSTEM carries out cyclic queries concerning the wind turbines operating and
status data. The SCADA PC (master) requests this data from the individual turbine controls
(slave) via the ENERCON data bus.
A data packet containing the values obtained over a one minute period is transmitted for each
installation. The SCADA PC creates and records the average values over 10-minute, day, week,
month and year periods, again with the respective minimum and maximum values in each case.
In doing so, reference is always made to the 1-minute mean value.
The data transmission rate within the wind farm will be between 2,400 and 28,800 bauds,
depending on the number of wind turbines connected and their configuration.
Subsequently the SCADA PC is the wind farm's central data node. All communication from the
wind farm with external points is transmitted via this node. A communication avoiding the
SCADA PC is not permitted, amongst other reasons for wind turbine security.
A permanent connection between the SCADA SYSTEM and the outside world is desirable, but is
not a requirement for secure operation. All the wind turbines continue to operate even if there is
a breakdown in communication within the wind farm itself or with external communication points.

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3.2.5. How the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with ENERCON Service


Generally speaking, the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with the external points via a
telephone connection.5 In the event of a fault, the SCADA SYSTEM automatically transmits
warning or status (fault) messages to the ENERCON Service Center. Here these are
automatically assigned to service teams and saved.

Wind farm

FAULT

Externals

?!?

ENERCON
SERVICE CENTER

SCADA PC

Fax

Telecommunications network

Figure 3

ENERCON SERVICE
@

SMS

How the SCADA SYSTEM communicates with ENERCON Service

If requested, the customer can be informed of any fault messages by the ENERCON Service
Center. Generally, this information can be provided via text message (SMS), fax or e-mail.
ENERCON recommends text messages as the best method of forwarding the information to the
customer, as it is a faster and more reliable means of communication than fax or e-mail.
Fault messages are automatically generated and immediately sent to customers without
involving ENERCON Service personnel. The time between receipt of the message by the
Service Center and transmission to the customer depends on the total number of incoming
messages being processed by the Service Center. This could take a maximum of 15 minutes in
a worst case scenario, but in practice it is usually considerably less than this.
ENERCON Service must be provided with the names and contact details of the designated
message recipients.
At night, ENERCON transfers data from all of its wind turbines around the world to the Control
Center, where it is saved (telephone access required). A status message update for the past 24
hours is requested along with the operating data for the past day and month. If more than 24
hours lie between the last successful communications, the length of the periods scanned are
adapted accordingly.
At any rate, if 24 hours have passed since the last communication with the ENERCON Service
Center, a test message is sent out by the SCADA SYSTEM. This ensures that a protracted
communication fault with the externals does not go unnoticed.

See telephone connection specification in the SCADA PC documentation


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3.2.6. SCADA SYSTEM response in the event of communication breakdowns


The wind turbine itself functions is not dependent on the SCADA SYSTEM. It can therefore
continue to provide energy even in the event of a faulty data link.
A distinction must be made between
a) Communication errors within the wind farm itself:
Each wind turbine can store up to 10 status messages. The messages are
subsequently retrieved by the SCADA PC when communication is restored. Oneminute values pertaining to operating data are not stored.
During the communication fault, the status message for the wind turbine concerned is
generated by the SCADA SYSTEM.
b)

Communication faults between the wind farm and ENERCON Service:


On the SCADA PC, all the operating data and SCADA SYSTEM messages are stored
on the PCs hard drive. In general, this drive has sufficient capacity to store all the data
accumulated over the wind turbines 20-year service life. If data acquisition by the
SCADA SYSTEM also includes transmission substations, weather masts (or other), the
amount of data may increase considerably, meaning that the capacity limit will be
reached sooner.
Once 90% of the hard drive capacity is reached, the SCADA SYSTEM will issue a
warning message.

With a closed-loop control based on a setpoint for the point of common coupling, the wind
turbines' response in the event of a communication fault must be defined beforehand on a
project-by-project basis. While communication is down the solution could be:
the last current setpoint can be used as the default value or
a fixed value can be used as the default value.
These details should be agreed by the grid operator, the customer and ENERCON as early as
possible. It is mandatory that ENERCON Service be informed of the parameters.
3.2.7. SCADA REMOTE
ENERCON SCADA REMOTE is a software used for online monitoring, evaluation, and saving
turbine and operating data from a location outside the wind farm. The aforementioned operating
data and status messages are displayed to the customer.
Online data
The customer has the possibility of observing existing installations online. For this purpose, an
online connection must be established between the customers remote PC and the SCADA PC
(as in Figure 3)6. The display on the remote PC is updated at the same speed as the transfer
rate between the SCADA SYSTEM and the remote PC.

For the technical specifications (analogue, GSM modem, TCP/IP, etc.) see SCADA PC documentation
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Data analysis
SCADA REMOTE and the integrated SCADA DATABASE software package can also be used to
transmit the data accumulated on the SCADA PC for selected periods to the (e.g. customers)
remote PC. As a result, an exact copy of the operating data is reproduced on the remote PC,
enabling evaluation to be performed irrespective of a further online connection.
The prompted data is then stored on the Remote PC in dBASE IV format. These are then
available for any type of evaluation in e.g. dBASE, calculation table programs or other software
applications.
With the appropriate additional software ENERCON SCADA Automatic Data Request 7, data
prompts from the wind farm can be automated. Time and amount of the automatic data prompts
can be user-defined.
Effect on wind farm
If respective access permission has been granted, SCADA REMOTE can be used to take
appropriate action on operation controls, as well as to modify operating parameters. This may be
as simple as starting or stopping the wind turbine or be as complex as modifying each individual
parameter for turbine control and switching operations in the transmission substation. To ensure
that wind turbine operation remains secure, customers have only very limited access.

See Documentation ENERCON SCADA REMOTE

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3.3.

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Open-loop and closed-loop control with SCADA

The SCADA SYSTEM is a complex tool for implementing various open-loop or closed-loop
control functions of the wind farm. Generally, control of electrical parameters is related to the
point of common coupling. However, it may also just be a simple time dependent electrical
setpoint or even manual settings.
Wind

Setpoints

Figure 4

SCADA

Wind turbine

Actual values
(e.g. active power,
power factor...)

Structure of electrical values open-loop control with SCADA Open-loop control does not
have a feedback loop for actual values.
ENERCON's PDI can, for example, be used as an interface to SCADA to transmit
external setpoints

With the ENERCON's GDA system, the SCADA SYSTEM and the wind turbines a closed-loop
control can be established. Closed-loop control is performed in relation to the measurement
point which is usually the point of common coupling.
Wind

Setpoints

SCADA

Wind turbine

Actual values
(e.g. active power,
power factor...)

GDA

Figure 5

Structure of closed-loop control with typical output signal feedback. Should closed-loop
control be desired, it is always necessary to use ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition.
Again, ENERCON's PDI can, for example, be used as an interface to SCADA to transmit
external setpoints.

The control variable can, in principle, be active power (P), power factor (cos) or voltage (U).
Under certain conditions, combinations of the control variables are also possible. This is agreed
according to project specifics between the customer, ENERCON and the grid operator. The
accuracy and dynamics of closed-loop control will depend on the configuration of the farm, the
number of wind turbines connected, the class of instrument transformer and other factors.
Closed-loop control and its parameters are designed and set by ENERCON according to project
specifics. To ensure stable closed-loop control at the point of common coupling, close
collaboration between the customer, ENERCON and the grid operator is essential.

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It is the project developer's responsibility to check the requirements at the point of common
coupling with the grid operator in due time so that the appropriate time and costs can be taken
into consideration. Due to extensive experience with thousands of projects worldwide,
ENERCON can provide expert advice concerning this process.
3.3.1. Open-loop control systems:
3.3.1.1.

Setpoint open-loop control

The simplest way to influence a wind farm's operation is by open-loop control of the operating
parameters. Open-loop control (in contrast to closed-loop control) means that there is no
feedback of the setpoints effect. In other words, the actual value attained is not monitored and
cannot be automatically taken into account for the following control operation.
Setpoints for the maximum active power (as a percentage of rated power) and the phase angle
can be set as control parameters via the SCADA PC or SCADA REMOTE. These values apply
until new setpoints are specified.
3.3.1.2.

Table-based control

Table-based control can be used to set the maximum power of the farm and the phase angle for
anywhere up to 40 periods per week. The wind farms (open or closed-loop) control system
refers to these time-related setpoints.
The table values are only entered once via SCADA REMOTE or directly onto the SCADA PC.
Parameter modification is password-protected.
3.3.1.3.

Control values via interfaces

ENERCON provides interfaces which can also be used to transmit just straight control signals
e.g. from the grid operator to the wind farm's SCADA System. ENERCONs PDI 8 is the most
commonly used interface option for ENERCON SCADA. Other interfaces are available on
request. In the following, all interface options will be referred to as ENERCON PDI.
PDI is used to allow quick and easy setpoint changes to be carried out. Online" setpoint settings
are transmitted via ENERCONs PDI to the wind farm. In order to do so, a permanent data link
must be available (e.g. grid operator control and communication system or similar). In contrast,
setpoint settings using fixed parameter settings in SCADA as described above, and table-based
control do not provide short-term flexibility. Furthermore, compared to ENERCON SCADA
REMOTE, data exchange via PDI in particular offers the possibility to specify new setpoints
without time delays. New setpoints can be specified not more than every 5 seconds via the PDI,
however in practice these intervals are usually longer (15 minutes, hours or longer)9.
Depending on the type of PDI, online signals concerning the wind farms operating status are
also available. This can be used for electrical grid operation purposes as well as for other
possible external data processing systems. Further on, this time-flexible transfer of setpoint and
actual value data with PDI will be referred to as dynamic data transfer.
The functions and types of PDI, as well as the related technical interfaces and signals available
are described in the ENERCON PDI document.
8

See separate document concerning ENERCON Process Data Interface


Setpoint updates cannot be carried out too frequently via PDI. Solely with the PDI a closed-loop control can not be established.
Closed-loop control always needs to be concerted with ENERCON according to project specifics.
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The appropriate setpoint setting is chosen according to project specifics.


3.3.2. Closed-loop control systems:
If actual values are available through the ENERCON GDA10, a closed-loop control of electrical
parameters can be established in relation to the measurement point. Generally, this is the point
of common coupling.
Depending on project-specific requirements, the setpoint can be either a parameterised constant
in SCADA, based on a weekly table or dynamic commands to the SCADA SYSTEM e.g. via
ENERCON PDI.
If no setpoints and/or actual values are available to the SCADA SYSTEM due to e.g. a
communication fault, the SCADA SYSTEM sends out an error code and the control variable
(active power, power factor, etc.) is limited to the default values. For this case, the default values
must be agreed previously with the grid operator.
Although actual value acquisition and setpoint interface require an additional investment, they
present the following advantages:
 Closed-loop control flexibility through dynamic setpoint setting according to the specific grid
situation
 Highly accurate actual values via ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition
 Power factor displacement within the farm (by transformers and cables to the point of
common coupling) can be partly compensated for.
 Communication faults involving individual turbines do not result in yield loss, because closedloop control is performed in relation to the measured power output.
 Measured values can be recorded and evaluated at the point of common coupling.
 When ample wind is available and the installed rated power is greater than the maximum
power feed limit, the power feed capacity can be used to the fullest. This increases the wind
farms overall yield compared to operation without actual value acquisition.
Time response of closed-loop controls using SCADA
For the purpose of closed-loop control, the actual values of the ENERCON GDA are used, built
over a period of approx. 1.5 seconds. Once the setpoints have been changed (externally via
PDI, for example), the SCADA SYSTEM generally transmits the new setpoints to the turbines
after a cycle has elapsed. This cycle time depends on the number of turbines integrated into the
SCADA SYSTEM and the nature of the farm configuration. It lies between 1 and 5 seconds.
Consequently, the time constant of closed-loop controls using the SCADA SYSTEM lies within
the range of several seconds. To ensure the rapid wind farm transmission rates, optical fibre
cables should be used for the ENERCON data bus (see 3.2.3). This response time is usually
suitable for active power or power factor closed-loop controls.
If in particular a voltage control is required at the point of common coupling, this usually requires
quicker actual value acquisition. In this case, a special version of the ENERCON GDA - the
10

See document concerning ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition

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ENERCON medium voltage acquisition - is used, which provides only voltage values, but with a
rate of approximately every 400 ms. The time constant of such SCADA-based voltage control
ranges from just under one second up to several seconds, depending on the configuration of the
wind farm. (See 3.3.4.2)
To ensure that the voltage-reactive power controls described here have the desired effect at the
point of common coupling, they are deliberately implemented within the SCADA SYSTEM as a
relatively slow type of control. This prevents the regulator on a tap-changing transformer and the
wind farms closed-loop control from working against each other or at excessive rates.
In exceptional cases, when this SCADA voltage control time constant is still too high and faster
control dynamics are required, ENERCON VCS 11 has to be used.
Closed-loop control accuracy using SCADA
Control accuracy depends essentially on the class of instrument transformer used together with
ENERCON GDA, as well as the project-specific maximum regulator speed limit.

11

See documentation relating to the ENERCON VCS - Voltage Control System


SUBJECT TO TECHNICAL CHANGE
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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
17 of 25

3.3.3. Active power management


3.3.3.1.

Active power control

ENERCON wind turbines are designed to gain the highest possible output from the wind and to
feed it into the grid. However for grid operation reasons, wind turbines or wind farms may have
to limit their (active) power output for a certain period of time. Although this type of operation
reduces yield, affecting the projects economics, in some cases it actually allows wind farms to
be connected to the grid at all.
Every ENERCON wind turbine can limit its power output to any percentage value ranging from
zero to rated power. Initially, this operating mode is not time-limited. Coordination between pitch
control, generator and converters ensure that the maximum required power output is not
exceeded.
Power
Prated

Time
Figure 6

The wind farm's maximum power output can, for example, be limited when the grid
operator specifies a percentage value of the rated power.

Within the wind farm all cables and transformers between each wind turbines terminal and the
point of common coupling are, amongst other things, active power consumers. Losses from
these elements are not constant, but depend on power transmission, temperature and other
factors.
In order to make the best use of the maximum power infeed permitted at the point of common
coupling, actual active power feed is measured by the ENERCON GDA and transmitted to
SCADA: thus regulated.

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

3.3.3.2.

Page
18 of 25

Power gradient regulation

In order to ensure a stable system operation it may be necessary, that a wind farm does not
increase its active power output directly as wind speed is increasing, but rather that the increase
in active power output is subject to a limitation.
The parameters for this type of limitation can be set at the terminals of each individual turbine12.
For grid operator requirements generally only the overall wind farm power gradient at the point of
common coupling is important.
If the grid operators limit value is to be met only by setting power gradients at the WEC
terminals, one must always assume a worst case" scenario, i.e. each turbine is assigned a low
max. power gradient. Since the turbines are spaced out on the farm, gusts, for example, do not
occur everywhere at the same time which means that a narrow maximum gradient setting for the
turbine would impair best use of the wind conditions.
A wind farm power gradient control for the point of common coupling is available on request.
ENERCON GDA is then installed at the point of common coupling to collect actual values.
Depending on specific project requirements ENERCON installs further hard- and software.
As for all closed-loop controls, the parameters must be agreed in close collaboration between
the customer, grid operator and ENERCON according to project specifics. It would be advisable,
for instance, to limit the 1- or 10-minute mean value of the positive active power gradient at the
point of common coupling.
The setpoint (active power gradient at the point of common coupling) can be set dynamically via
e.g. ENERCON PDI.
At any rate, with a limited power gradient the wind farm does not make the best use of the wind
conditions, as opposed to operation without any power gradient limitation or control.

12

See data sheet Grid Performance for Power-Ramps

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
19 of 25

3.3.4. Voltage-reactive power management


Supplying reactive power to or consuming reactive power from the grid can increase or reduce
the voltage at the point of common coupling. The amount of effect the reactive power supplied
(or consumed) by the wind farm has, depends on how "strong" the grid is. If ENERCON is
provided with grid data, this can be accurately calculated beforehand.
In addition to changes to reactive power supply, the grid voltage can also be influenced by
reducing active power feed or a combination of both. This is particularly valid in the case of weak
grids or at least for grids that are relatively "weak" at the point of common coupling. Reducing
active power feed means output reduction and would only be the second best solution (See
3.3.4.3).
The issue of whether voltage-reactive power management (power factor regulation, medium
voltage regulation etc.) is necessary at all, depends on the local grid and must be cleared with
the grid operator. The grid operator should also provide the normal actual operating voltage
value at the planned point of common coupling which lies within the tolerance range.
Generally speaking actual value acquisition is a measurement taken on the medium voltage
side. If the wind farm is connected to the grid via its own transmission substation, measurements
can also be taken on the high-voltage side. References to medium voltage below may
therefore be read as high voltage, where applicable. The costs and advantages associated
with such a high voltage measurement must be evaluated in relation to the specific project.
Setpoint settings in the SCADA SYSTEM can be carried out as follows:
A one-time fixed value parameter setting in SCADA or
be subject to a weekly table or
dynamically set via e.g. ENERCON PDI
Closed-loop control for voltage-reactive power management and its parameters are designed
and set by ENERCON according to project specifics. To ensure stable closed-loop control at the
point of common coupling, close collaboration between the customer, ENERCON and the grid
operator is required.
For the response time of a voltage control please see chapter 3.3.2.
3.3.4.1.

Power factor control

Generally, grid operators define the phase angle at the point of common coupling to comply with.
ENERCON GDA is used to collect an accurate actual phase angle at this point. The setpoint is
transmitted to SCADA, which in turn sends signals to each wind turbine on the farm so that the
actual value at the point of delivery matches the setpoint as closely as possible. This allows ideal
compensation for unavoidable phase angle displacement by active and reactive power
consumption between the wind turbines' terminals and the point of common coupling.

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

3.3.4.2.

Page
20 of 25

SCADA Voltage Control System (VCS)

With SCADA VCS the phase angle of all the wind turbines is controlled according to a fixed
characteristic dependent on actual voltage at the point of common coupling and adapted to the
specific grid requirements. Depending on the characteristic, the voltage at the point of delivery is
thus increased or reduced.

cos()
cos() = f(U)
Reactive
power import
from the grid

cos() = constant

1,0

U<Urated
Reactive
power export
to grid

Figure 7

1,0

U>Urated

U/Urated

Vertex can be set in


SCADA SYSTEM

Example of a constant power factor (blue) compared with SCADA Voltage Control (red).
Concerning the latter, reactive power affecting voltage is neither delivered nor consumed
within a certain deadband (cos=1). Beyond this deadband the phase angle follows a predefined path depending on the grid voltage.

Actual voltage acquisition is carried out as described above with ENERCONs GDA special
version: the ENERCON medium voltage acquisition. The measured voltage values are
transmitted to the SCADA SYSTEM as control feedback.
The setpoints can be set in the SCADA SYSTEM using the abovementioned fixed values or
parameterized. The characteristic must be carefully planned for each individual connection point.
For the response time of a voltage control please see chapter 3.3.2.

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

with activated
control

Page
21 of 25

with activated
control
with
deactivated
control

Figure 8

Example of a wind farm with 6 MW rated power. Indicated are: medium voltage at the
point of common coupling, active power and reactive power with activated and
deactivated SCADA Voltage Control System. One can clearly see voltage and active
power dependent reactive power supply.

with activated control

with deactivated control

desired
voltage range

Figure 9

Example of a wind farm with 6 MW rated power. Indicated are: medium voltage at the
point of common coupling, active power and reactive power with activated and
deactivated SCADA Voltage Control System. This extract from Figure 8 illustrates the
SCADA controls efficiency in the range of seconds.

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description
3.3.4.3.

Page
22 of 25

Apparent power regulation (optimizing active power)

Apparent power regulation is a combination of power factor regulation and a reduction of active
power infeed. The exact determination of apparent power regulation and its parameter settings
depends on project specifics and must be agreed with ENERCON.
Example: According to agreements met with the grid operator, the wind farm is normally run at a
certain phase angle setpoint> 0. At the same time, the apparent power at the point of common
coupling is limited to Smax. The phase angle may be reduced to =0, if the maximum apparent
power limitation Smax is reached and an increase in active power is possible due to good wind
conditions.
Realisation with apparent power regulation:
In the partial load range, the wind farm runs at the setpoint phase angle. As the wind speed
increases so does the apparent power output Sactual. As the actual apparent power Sactual
approaches the maximum apparent power limit Smax, the controls reduce the phase angle setpoint
so that the apparent power does not exceed the limit Smax during further active power increase.
Actual value acquisition is carried out via ENERCON Grid Data Acquisition. Setpoint settings
(apparent power at the point of common coupling) in the SCADA SYSTEM can be carried out as
follows:
A one-time fixed value parameter setting in SCADA or
be subject to a weekly table
A wind farm with apparent power regulation, does not make the best use of the wind conditions,
when compared to operation without any apparent power regulation (less yield).

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
23 of 25

4. Requirements
The SCADA SYSTEM is based in its main functions on the program ENERCON SCADA,
running on the SCADA PC13. This SCADA PC and the software are prerequisites for SCADA
SYSTEM operation on the wind farm.
A permanent connection between the SCADA SYSTEM and the outside world is desirable, but is
not a requirement for secure operation. All the wind turbines continue to operate, even if there is
a breakdown in communication within the wind farm itself or with external points of
communication.
When it comes to the desired performance of the wind farms open-loop/closed-loop control
system in case of faults in the communication, the individual closed-loop (or open-loop) control
default values must be considered separately (see also 3.2.6).

5. Maintenance requirements
Maintenance measures required for the various hardware and software components of the
SCADA SYSTEM are stipulated in the respective components documentation.

6. ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM in the ENERCON PARTNER KONZEPT (EPK)


Whether and how the ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM is covered by the ENERCON PARTNER
KONZEPT is agreed on a project-by-project basis.

7. Standard scope of supply


ENERCON SCADA (Software on SCADA PC in wind farm) and ENERCON SCADA Remote on
a suitable customer PC, as well as a licence for both programs and hardware protection (dongle)
are all included in the standard scope of supply for a wind farm project with ENERCON wind
turbines.

8. Miscellaneous
Shutdown or curtailed operation of individual wind turbines, e.g. due to project-specific
stipulations regarding noise emissions or shadow casting, are not executed via the SCADA
SYSTEM, but are directly programmed in the turbines control system. The advantage of this is
compliance with emission limits even in the event of communication faults within the SCADA
SYSTEM.

13

See separate SCADA PC documentation

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
24 of 25

9. Technical specifications
9.1.

Functional specifications

See the following page for a list of ENERCON primary status messages.

9.2.

Hardware specifications

No hardware information is provided here in connection with the SCADA SYSTEM. Please
see the documentation relating to individual components, as listed in chapter 2.2.

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ENERCON SCADA SYSTEM


Product description

Page
25 of 25

List of ENERCON main status messages


Example of main status messages for the E-70/E4 and E-82 wind turbines
(EPROM identification I/O Control Cabinet Version 1.45)
The status messages listed are structured as "main status : additional status"
Additional status messages are not listed due to the volume of information:
A complete status list can be obtained through ENERCON Service Center on request.
0
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
15
16
17
20
21
22
25
29
30
31
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
55
60

Turbine in operation
Turbine stopped
Lack of wind
Storm
Shadow shutdown
Blade defroster
Unauthorized access
Maintenance
Generator heating
EMERGENCY STOP actuated
Rotor brake activated manual
Rotor lock
Formation of ice
Turbine moist
Overspeed switch test
Test safety system
Wind measurement fault
Cable twisted
Yaw control fault
Faulty yaw inverter
Anemometer interface
Vibration sensor
Tower oscillation
Rotor overspeed
Rotor overspeed switch
Pitch control error
Main security circuit fault
Fault emergency stop capacitor
Capacitor charging error
Fault capacitor test
Fault security system
Speed sensor error
Fault blade load control
Blade heating faulty
Mains failure

Example

61
62
64
65
66
67
69
70
72
73
76
80
90
91
95
96
112
122
150
152
153
155
158
202
204
206
207
220
221
222
223
228
229
240
300

Mains breakdown
Feeding fault
Overcurrent inverter
Overcurrent inverter
Fault rectifier
Overtemperature
Acoustic sensor
Generator overtemperature
Air gap monitoring
Torque monitoring
Bearing temperature
Excitation error
Protective circuit breaker tripped
Semiconductor fuse blown
Error temperature measurement
Error temperature measurement inverter
Smoke detector
Fault transformer
Initialize EEPROM!!
Program incompatible!!
No turbine ID
Wrong bootblock address
Serial number
Inverter bus error
Inverter bus error all inverters
No data from power control
Fault inverter control
Processor reset
Watchdog reset
Turbine reset
Software Update
Time out warn message
Too many warnings
Remote control PC
Turbine control bus error (Bus-Off)

302
303
304
305
306
307
310
315
318
319
320
402
403
404
405
411
412
413
414
415
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
432
433
434
435
438
441

Data bus error blade


Data bus error blade control (CAN3)
Data bus error (Timeout)
No data from I/O-Board control cabinet
No data from
Timeout angle encoder
Unknown node-ID
Invalid Index
Error CAN1-Interrupt
Error CAN2-Interrupt
Malfunction IIC-bus
Error +12V processor
Error -12V processor
Error +15V processor
Error -15V processor
Error +4V ref. processor
Error +5V ref. processor
Error -5V ref. processor
Error +10V ref. processor
Error -10V ref. processor
Error +5V sensoric
Error +12V sensoric
Error -12V sensoric
Error +15V sensoric
Error -15V sensoric
Error +20V sensoric
Error -20V sensoric
Error +12V relay
Error supply hardware
Error +5V sensoric
Error -5V sensoric
Error +10V sensoric
Error -10V sensoric
Error supply IGBT-driver
Error pos. supply current measure

Status message 20:52 means


Wind measurement fault : No signal from anemometer

Some sub-states indicate the header "W". These are warning messages which do not
necessarily lead to turbine shutdown. Depending on the type of warning message this may
remain for a certain number of days. If Service does not intervene, the turbine would then shut
down.
The main status messages of other ENERCON wind turbines are similar to those described
above. However ENERCON wind turbines differ from each other for example by the number of
inverters used and thus by the number of main status messages as well.
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WRD-E-04-SCADA_SYSTEM_060621_Rev2.0_gereng.doc

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
1 of 24

ENERCON DATA SHEET


GRID PERFORMANCE
ENERCON E-82

Configuration: FT
(Configuration FT with Q+ -Option)

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

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Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:
Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
2 of 24

Content
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 3
RATED DATA................................................................................................................. 3
REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY.................................................................................. 3
POWER VOLTAGE DIAGRAM....................................................................................... 4
VOLTAGE PROTECTION .............................................................................................. 5
5.1
Over-voltage protection (for each phase) ............................................................... 5
5.2
Under-voltage protection........................................................................................ 7
6. POWER FREQUENCY DIAGRAM ................................................................................. 9
7. FREQUENCY PROTECTION........................................................................................10
7.1
Frequency protection for 50 Hz grid ......................................................................10
7.2
Frequency protection for 60 Hz grid ......................................................................11
8. FAULT RIDE THROUGH PERFORMANCE ..................................................................12
8.1
General Performance............................................................................................12
8.2
Zero Power Mode .................................................................................................14
9. POWER RAMPS ...........................................................................................................17
9.1
Active Power Ramp-up .........................................................................................17
9.2
Active Power Ramp-down.....................................................................................17
9.3
Reactive Power Ramp ..........................................................................................17
10. POWER-FREQUENCY CONTROL ...............................................................................18
10.1 Static Power-frequency control ...........................................................................19
10.2 Dynamic Power-frequency control ......................................................................20
11. Consumption of auxiliary supply ....................................................................................21
12. REFERENCE POINT ....................................................................................................22
13. Glossary ........................................................................................................................23
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

Page
3 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

1. INTRODUCTION
All data refer to the reference point shown in chapter 11.
The performance is only possible with the control system CS 82 with FACTS power cabinets.
The WT can either be equipped with 7 power cabinets (configuration FT, indice FT), or 8 power
cabinets (indice FTQ). The standard configuration is equipped with 7 power cabinets (configuration
FT).

2. RATED DATA
Nominal Frequency:

fn =

50 / 60 Hz

Nominal Voltage:

Un =

400 V

Rated Apparent Power:

Sn =

2000 kVA

Rated Current at Pn:

In =

2887 A

Rated Active Power:

Pn =

2000 kW

Max. Permitted Apparent Power: SmaxFT =

2150 kVA

Max. Permanent Current:

ImaxFT =

3500 A

Max. Permitted Apparent Power: SmaxFTQ =

2200 kVA

Max. Permanent Current:

ImaxFTQ =

4000 A

Power Factor is adjustable:


Default value:

0 kVAr

Q=

3. REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY


1.10

Additional reactive power with configuration FTQ

Active Power/ Rated Active Power [pu]

Additional reactive power with configuration FTQ

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

export of reactive
power

import of reactive
power

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Reactive Power / Rated Active Power [pu]

The given values are valid for the continuous voltage range (refer to next chapter).

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

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Reference
:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
4 of 24

4. POWER VOLTAGE DIAGRAM


Temporary Maximum Value:

Umax,temp =

120% = 480 V

Maximum Continuous Value:

Umax =

110% = 440 V

Nominal Value:

Un =

100% = 400 V

Minimum Continuous Value:

Umin =

90% = 360 V

Temporary Minimum Value

Umin,temp =

80% = 320 V

(not possible with configuration FT):


1.1

Apparent Power/ Maximum Apparent Power [pu]

Only possible with the configuration FTQ

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

Voltage/ Nominal Voltage [pu]

Temporary operation limits: In the hatched areas only a temporary operation is possible for
up to 60 seconds.
The green hatched area is not possible with the configuration FT. This area is only possible
with the configuration FTQ.
If the voltage is continuously underneath the minimum value or above the maximum value,
see also chapter 8.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
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:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
5 of 24

5. VOLTAGE PROTECTION
Over-voltage condition at the reference point may lead to operation in Fault Ride Through
mode, as described in chapter 8.

5.1

Over-voltage protection (for each phase)

Over-voltage protection 1:

Uovp1 = 145% of Un/3

(fix value)

Delay time for over-voltage detection 1:

Tdovp1 = 0.050 s

(fix value)

This protection leads to tripping of the WT. This is a protection of the WT.
Over-voltage protection 2:

Uovp2 = 124% of Un/3

(fix value)

Delay time for over-voltage detection 2:

Tdovp2 = 1 s

(fix value)

This protection leads to tripping of the WT. This is a protection of the WT.

Over-voltage protection 3:

Uovp3 = 120% of Un/3

(fix value)

Delay time for Fault Ride Through detection:

0.500 s tdFRT 5 s

(adjustable)

Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdFRT = 5 s

This protection leads to tripping of the WT. This is a protection of the WT and for the grid.

Over-voltage protection setting data:

100% uovp4 120% of Un/3

Step width:

1V

Default value:

uovp4= 116% of Un/3

Delay time for over-voltage detection:

0.050 s tdovp4 60 s

Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdovp4 = 0.050 s

(adjustable)

(adjustable)

This protection leads to tripping of the WT. This is a protection for the grid.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


U/Un

Page
6 of 24

2.00
1.95
1.90

fixed protection
values

1.85
1.80
1.75
1.70
1.65
1.60
1.55
1.50

physical
voltage limit
of the WT

1.45
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.001

area for possible FRT/ZPM setting

tdFRT = 0.5005 s

example for FRT settings

hatched area: max. range of setting

uovp4= 100 120% Un/


3

example for protection setting

tdovp4= 0.05060 s
0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

Shown is the delay time of the protection. The effective time for disconnection/tripping is
longer, due to the switch-off time for the power contactors.
Switch-off time for power contactors:

Tpc 0.040 s

Tripping time for over-voltage protection 1:

Tovp1 = Tdovp1 + Tpc

Tripping time for over-voltage protection 2:

Tovp2 = Tdovp2 + Tpc

Tripping time for Fault Ride Through:

tFRT = tdFRT + Tpc

Tripping time for over-voltage protection 4:

tovp4 = tdovp4 + Tpc

(fix value)

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


5.2

Page
7 of 24

Under-voltage protection

5.2.1

Under-voltage protection (for each phase) with the configuration FT

Under-voltage condition at the reference point may lead to operation in Fault Ride Through
mode, as described in chapter 8.
Under-voltage protection setting data:

UuvpFT = 90% Un/3

Delay time for Fault Ride Through detection: 0.500 s tdFRT 5 s


Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdFRT = 5 s

(fix value)
(adjustable)

If under-voltage condition prevails longer than tdFRT under-voltage protection operates to trip
the wind turbine.

U/Un

1.10
1.1
hatched area: max. range of setting tdFRT

1.00
1.0

example for Fault Ride Through setting

0.90
0.9
0.8
0.80

fixed protection
values

0.7
0.70
0.60
0.6
0.50
0.5

t dFRT = 0.500 ...5 s

0.40
0.4
0.30
0.3
0.2
0.20
0.10
0.1
0.00
0.0
0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

Shown is the delay time of the protection. The effective time for tripping is longer, due to the
switch-off time for the power contactors.
Switch-off time for power contactors:

Tpc 0.040 s

Tripping time for Fault Ride Through:

tFRT = tdFRT + Tpc

(fix value)

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


5.2.2

Page
8 of 24

Under-voltage protection (for each phase) with the configuration FTQ

Under-voltage condition at the reference point may lead to operation in Fault Ride Through
mode, as described in chapter 8.
Under-voltage protection setting data:

UuvpFTQ = 80% Un/3

Delay time for Fault Ride Through detection: 0.500 s tdFRT 5 s


Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdFRT = 5 s

(fix value)
(adjustable)

If under-voltage condition prevails longer than tdFRT under-voltage protection operates to trip
the wind turbine.

U/Un

1.10
1.1
hatched area: max. range of setting tdFRT

1.00
1.0

example for Fault Ride Through setting

0.90
0.9
0.8
0.80

fixed protection
values

0.7
0.70
0.60
0.6
0.50
0.5

t dFRT = 0.500 ...5 s

0.40
0.4
0.30
0.3
0.2
0.20
0.10
0.1
0.00
0.0
0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

Shown is the delay time of the protection. The effective time for tripping is longer, due to the
switch-off time for the power contactors.
Switch-off time for power contactors:

Tpc 0.040 s

Tripping time for Fault Ride Through:

tFRT = tdFRT + Tpc

(fix value)

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

6.

Page
9 of 24

POWER FREQUENCY DIAGRAM


Grid with 50 Hz

Grid with 60 Hz

Maximum Frequency:

fmax =

57 Hz

fmax =

67 Hz

Nominal Frequency:

fn =

50 Hz

fn =

60 Hz

Minimum Frequency:

fmin =

43 Hz

fmin =

53 Hz

Smax

fmin

fn

fmax

f [Hz]

Regarding frequency changes the ENERCON E-82 is designed for uninterrupted operation
for frequency gradients up to 4 Hz/s.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

Page
10 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

7. FREQUENCY PROTECTION
7.1

Frequency protection for 50 Hz grid

Over-frequency protection setting data:


Step width:
Default value:

50 Hz fof 57 Hz

Under-frequency protection setting data:


Step width:
Default value:

43 Hz fuf 50 Hz

Delay time for over-frequency detection:


Step width:
Default value:

0.070 s tdof 2 s

Delay time for under-frequency detection:


Step width:
Default value:

0.070 s tduf 2 s

(adjustable)

0.1 Hz
52 Hz

(adjustable)

0.1 Hz
47 Hz

(adjustable)

0.010 s
0.070 s

(adjustable)

0.010 s
0.070 s

65
fixed protection
values

hatched area: max. range of setting

tdof

60

example for protection setting

frequency [Hz]

55
fof
50

fuf

45
tduf

40

hatched area: max. range of setting


example for protection setting

35
0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

time [s]

For effective tripping time see end of chapter 7.2


For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


7.2

Page
11 of 24

Frequency protection for 60 Hz grid

Over-frequency protection setting data:


Step width:
Default value:

60 Hz fof 67 Hz

Under-frequency protection setting data:


Step width:
Default value:

53 Hz fuf 60 Hz

Delay time for over-frequency detection:


Step width:
Default value:

0.110 s tdof 2.040 s

Delay time for under-frequency detection:


Step width:
Default value:

0.110 s tduf 2.040 s

(adjustable)

0.1 Hz
62 Hz

(adjustable)

0.1 Hz
57 Hz

(adjustable)

0.010 s
0.110 s

(adjustable)

0.010 s
0.110 s

75
fixed protection
values

hatched area: max. range of setting

tdof

70

example for protection setting

frequency [Hz]

65
fof
60

fuf

55
tduf

50

hatched area: max. range of setting


example for protection setting

45
0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

time [s]

Shown is the delay time of the protection. The effective time for tripping is longer, due to the
switch-off time for the power contactors.
Switch-off time for power contactors:
Tripping time over-frequency protection:
Tripping time under-frequency protection:

Tpc 0.040 s

(fix value)

tofp = tdof + Tpc


tufp = tduf + Tpc

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
12 of 24

8. FAULT RIDE THROUGH PERFORMANCE


8.1

General Performance

Under-voltage protection set point


with configuration FT:

UuvpFT = 90% Un/3

Under-voltage protection set point


with configuration FTQ:

UuvpFTQ = Umin,temp = 80% Un/3

Delay time for Fault Ride Through:

0.500 s tdFRT 5 s

Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdFRT = 5 s

u
Umax,temp
Umax
Un
Umin
Umin,temp
Example:
uuzpm
0
0
Fault occurrance

tdFRT

tdFRT+ 60s

The WT stays connected, if the voltage at the WT terminals during and after the fault remains
within the continuous red lines.
Outside of the areas marked with red lines the WT is disconnected. The blue area is not
possible with the configuration FT. If grid studies show that the grid voltage at the PCC
recovers after a grid fault only above 80% Un, ENERCON recommends to equip the WT with
configuration FTQ to avoid WT tripping.
The limit tdFRT is an adjustable parameter with the setting range as given in chapter 5
VOLTAGE PROTECTION, where also detailed protection settings are given.
If the WT output power is less than 2.5% Pn the WT switches off.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
13 of 24

The maximum number of grid events with ENERCON fault ride through is depending on the
temperature of the chopper resistor. The chopper resistor is temperature-controlled. The
rated energy to be dissipated by the chopper resistor is 20 MJ/h for the configuration FT and
22.5 MJ/h for the configuration FTQ.
In the hatched areas the WT feeds in no current (after 0.040 s for under-voltage, after
0.050 s for over-voltage), but stays in operation (Zero Power Mode, refer to chapter 8.2).
Short circuits in grids sensitive to stability can lead to stability loss. This may cause
ENERCON WTs to switch off. If the grid is sensitive to stability, ENERCON recommends
performing a stability analysis in the process of wind farm planning. The results of the
analysis may lead to other settings of the Zero Power Mode.
The characteristics of the voltage at the PCC especially during the fault might be very
different from those at the terminals of the individual WT. The voltage at the PCC has to be
monitored by a wind farm protection relay. However, the settings of the voltage protection of
the WT and the settings of the wind farm protection relay must be co-ordinated.

Maximum Short Circuit Current in all three phases for the configuration FT (even in
cases with unsymmetrical faults), not valid for the Zero Power Mode:
1. Ik,maxFT :
2. IP maxFT :
3. Ib,maxFT :
4. Ik,maxFT :

3500 A
4950 A
3500 A
3500 A

(Maximum Initial Symmetrical Short Circuit Current)


(Maximum Peak Short Circuit Current: 2 * Ik,max)
(Maximum Short Circuit Breaking Current)
(Maximum Steady State Short Circuit Current)

Maximum Short Circuit Current in all three phases for the configuration FTQ (even in
cases with unsymmetrical faults), not valid for the Zero Power Mode:
5. Ik,maxFTQ :
6. IP maxFTQ :
7. Ib,maxFTQ :
8. Ik,maxFTQ :

4000 A
5657 A
4000 A
4000 A

(Maximum Initial Symmetrical Short Circuit Current)


(Maximum Peak Short Circuit Current: 2 * Ik,max)
(Maximum Short Circuit Breaking Current)
(Maximum Steady State Short Circuit Current)

For further details and explanations concerning the short circuit currents please see the
document Steady State Short Circuit Calculations (available on request).

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


8.2

Page
14 of 24

Zero Power Mode

In the Zero Power Mode (ZPM) the WT feeds in no current, but stays galvanic connected to
the grid. There is also a possibility to open the power contactors.
If the voltage returns within tdFRT between Umin,temp and Umax,temp the WT resynchronises and
ramps in maximum possible power within 1 s.
8.2.1 Over-voltage Zero Power Mode
If over-voltage conditions prevail longer than the chosen over-voltage protection and Fault
Ride Through settings (tdFRT) beneath the zero power mode limits the WT trips.
If the voltage rises above Uozpm1 or Uozpm2 but underneath over-voltage protection the WT
feeds in no current, but stays in operation (Zero Power Mode).
Over-voltage zero power mode limit 1:

Uozpm1 = 145% Un/3

(fix value)

Delay time for over-voltage detection 1:

Tdozpm1 0.005 s

(fix value)

Over-voltage zero power mode limit 2:

Uozpm2 = Umax, temp = 120% Un/3

(fix value)

Delay time for over-voltage detection 2:

Tdozpm2 = 5 half periods

(fix value)

(50 Hz : 0.050 s)
(60 Hz : 0.042 s)

Delay time for end of Zero Power Mode:

0.500 s tdFRT 5 s

Step width:

0.010 s

Default value:

tdFRT = 5 s

U/Un

(adjustable)

2.00
1.95
1.90
1.85

fixed protection
values

1.80
1.75
1.70
1.65
1.60
1.55
1.50
1.45

physical
voltage limit
of the WT

1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.001

grey area: fixed areas for ZPM

area for possible FRT/ZPM setting


example for FRT settings

0.010

t dFRT= 0.5005 s

0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

Page
15 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


8.2.2 Under-voltage Zero Power Mode

If under-voltage conditions prevail longer than the chosen Fault Ride Through settings (tdFRT)
beneath the Zero Power Mode limits the WT trips.
If the voltage decreases under uuzpm at the reference point the WT detects this within 0.040 s
and feeds in no current, but stays in operation (Zero Power Mode).

Under-voltage Zero Power Mode limit


for configuration FT:
Step width:

0% Un/3 uuzpmFT 90% Un/3

Default value:

uuzpm = 15% Un/3

Delay time for under-voltage detection:

Tduzpm = 0.040 s

(adjustable)

1V

(fix value)

Under-voltage Zero Power Mode diagram for the configuration FT

U/Un

1.1
hatched area: max. range of setting uuzpm

hatched area: max. range of setting tdFRT

example for Zero Power Mode setting

example for Fault Ride Through setting

1.0
0.9
0.8

fixed protection
values

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

t dFRT = 0.500 ...5 s

3
u uzpm = 0 90 %Un/
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

16 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


Under-voltage Zero Power Mode limit
for configuration FTQ:

0% Un/3 uuzpmFTQ 80% Un/3

Step width:

1V

Default value:

uuzpm = 15% Un/3

Delay time for under-voltage detection:

Tduzpm = 0.040 s

Page

(adjustable)

(fix value)

Under-voltage Zero Power Mode diagram for the configuration FTQ

U/Un

1.1
hatched area: max. range of setting uuzpm

hatched area: max. range of setting tdFRT

example for Zero Power Mode setting

example for Fault Ride Through setting

1.0
0.9
0.8

fixed protection
values

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

t dFRT = 0.500 ...5 s

3
u uzpm = 0 80 %Un/
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

100.000

time [s]

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

Page
17 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

9. POWER RAMPS
9.1

Active Power Ramp-up

Normal start power gradient:


maximum value:
minimum value:
default setting value

dP/dt start,max =
dP/dt start,min =
dP/dt start =

Power gradient after loss of voltage:


dP/dt power, max =
maximum value:
dP/dt power, min =
minimum value:
dP/dt power =
default setting value
Operating power gradient:
maximum value:
minimum value:
default setting value

9.2

dP/dt oper,max =
dP/dt oper,min =
dP/dt oper =

kW/s
kW/s
kW/s

=
=
=

540
9
120

%/min
%/min
%/min

40
3
40

kW/s
kW/s
kW/s

=
=
=

120
9
120

%/min
%/min
%/min

400
5
120

kW/s
kW/s
kW/s

=
=
=

1200
15
360

%/min
%/min
%/min

Active Power Ramp-down

Intervention of grid operator:

9.3

180
3
40

The active power output may be limited via ENERCON


PDI1. After a WT has received the signal to reduce the
active power output the new value is reached within a
time not longer than 10 seconds.
Communication delay from ENERCON PDI via SCADA to
the WT is not included, and depends on the configuration
in the wind farm.

Reactive Power Ramp

Maximum phase angle gradient value during normal operation from maximum export to
maximum import/ maximum import to maximum export: T = 0.300 s

See ENERCON Process Data Interface documentation

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

10.

Page
18 of 24

POWER-FREQUENCY CONTROL

In over-frequency grid situations the active power output can be reduced by using the
implemented power-down ramp. It can be chosen between a static or a dynamic reduction
of the active power due to over-frequency.
Moreover the ramping down can be related to the actual active power. This leads to an
immediate ramping down when the frequency limit is exceeded. Alternatively the ramping
down can be related to the rated active power, which may lead to a delayed ramping down,
in case the actual active power is below the rated active power.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
19 of 24

10.1 Static Power-frequency control


The active power is ramped down related to the current frequency. The frequency limit
values can be set within the range from 50.0 Hz f limit 55.0 Hz (or in 60 Hz systems from
60.0 Hz flimit 65.0 Hz).
Active Power

Pactual or
1.25
Pn

Example for Power-Frequency Setting

PRamp down 11
PRamp down0.752
0.5

PRamp down0.253
0
0

Setting
Pactual =

fn5

flimit2
15

10
flimit1

20
25
flimit3
frequency

Default
value

Description

Minimum
setting value

Maximum
setting value

50.5 Hz /
60.5 Hz

50.0 Hz /
60.0 Hz

54.8 Hz /
64.8 Hz (must
be 0.1 Hz lower
than flimit2)

50%

5%

100%

51.0 Hz /
61.0 Hz

50.1 Hz /
60.1 Hz
(must be 0.1 Hz
higher than flimit)

54.9 Hz /
64.9 Hz
(must be 0.1 Hz
lower than flimit3)

0%

95 %
(100 % - setting
ramp down 2)

Active power according to present


wind conditions and power curve
of WT

Pn =

Rated Active power of the WT

f limit =

Over-frequency limit for start of


ramp down

Pactual

Ramp down 2= Reduction of the active power


(in %) related to Pactual or Pn
between f limit and f limit2
f limit2 =

Over-frequency limit for second


value of ramp down

Ramp down 3= Reduction of the active power


(in %) related to Pactual or Pn
between f limit2 and f limit3
f limit3 =

5%

Over-frequency limit for third value


of ramp down

51.5 Hz /
61.5 Hz

50.2 Hz /
60.2 Hz
(must be 0.1 Hz
higher than flimit2)

55.0 Hz /
65.0 Hz

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

Page
20 of 24

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


10.2 Dynamic Power-frequency control

The active power is ramped down over the time, once a frequency limit has been exceeded.
The frequency limit value can be set within the range from 50.0 Hz f limit 54.9 Hz (or in
60 Hz systems from 60.0 Hz f limit 64.9 Hz).
In case the frequency rises again above the frequency limit, the active power is ramped up
again, with the same gradient as previously ramped down (sufficient wind speed assumed)
Active Power

Pactual or
1.25
Pn

Dynamic Power

PRamp down 1
0.75

0.5

0.25

0
0

Setting
Pactual =

10
flimit

Description

Default value

Active power according to


present wind conditions and
power curve of WT

Pactual

15

20

time/s

25

Minimum
setting value

Maximum
setting value

Pn =

Rated Active power of the


WT

f limit =

Over-frequency limit for


start of ramp down

50.5 Hz /
60.5 Hz

50.0 Hz /
60.0 Hz

54.9 Hz /
64.9 Hz

Ramp
down =

Reduction of the active


power
related to Pactual or Pn

5 %/s

5 %/s

25 %/s

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

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ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
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:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
21 of 24

11. CONSUMPTION OF AUXILIARY SUPPLY

Active Power:
Reactive Power:

P aux max 10 min = 10 kW


Q aux max 10 min = 3.5 kVAr

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

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Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

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Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
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:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
22 of 24

12. REFERENCE POINT


location

wiring symbol

designation

synchronous generator

GS
nacelle
3

WT Configuration

excitation controller

rectifier

tower

tower cable

chopper 1-7/8

tower
basement

power cabinet 1-7/8


(consist of dc link,
inverter, output filter)

Project Configuration

fused loadbreak switch


or power circuit breaker

reference
point
reference point

inside or
outdoor at
tower
basement

transformer

disconnecting switch

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE

Page
23 of 24

13. GLOSSARY
Export of reactive power

According to Standard IEC 60034-3, export of reactive power is like from an


overexcited synchronous machine

fn

Nominal grid frequency according to Standard IEC 61400-21, 7.1.1

Ik,max ; Ib,max ; Ik,max ;


Imax ; IP max

See chapter 8

Import of reactive power

According to Standard IEC 60034-3, import of reactive power is like from an


underexcited synchronous machine

Maximum Apparent
Power (Smax)

Maximum Apparent Power of the WT:

PCC

Point of Common Coupling:

Apparent power related to the maximum active and reactive power (compare
reactive power capabilities).

According to Standard IEC 61400-21, 3.10 this is: Point of a power supply
network, electrically nearest to a particular load, at which other loads are, or
may be, connected.
Rated Active Power
(Pn)

Rated Active Power output of the WT:

Rated Apparent Power


(Sn)

Rated Apparent Power of the WT:

According to IEC 61400-21, 3.14 this is: Maximum continuous electric output
power which a turbine is designed to achieve under normal operating
conditions.

According to IEC 61400-21 this is: Apparent power from the wind turbine
while operating at rated power and nominal voltage and frequency
2
2
(Sr=(Pn +Qn )). Annotation ENERCON: In this data sheet Sn is related to
reactive power of 0.

Rated current
(In)

Rated current of the WT:

SG

Synchronous generator

Switch-off time

The switch-off time is the time the power contactor needs to open or close the
contact.

Temporary operation

The operation at over- or under-voltage situations may cause high stress for
the inverters. Due to internal WT protection of the devices the operation at
over- or under-voltage condition is time limited.

Tripping

When the WT trips the WT opens the power contactors and the WT doesnt
stay in operation. The infeed of the current is zero.

According to Standard IEC 61400-21, 3.13 this is: Maximum continuous


electric output current which a wind turbine is designed to achieve under
normal operating conditions. Annotation ENERCON: The current at rated
active power and rated voltage at the terminals of the WT.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

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ENERCON 2007

ENERCON

E-82

Configuration:

FT/FTQ

Available as of
01/07/07

DATA SHEET GRID PERFORMANCE


Umax Umax,temp Umin
Umin,temp Un

See chapter 5

Umax,temp Umin,temp

Temporary maximum voltage of the WT.

Page
24 of 24

A temporary operation is possible for up to 60 seconds. If the voltage is


continuously above the maximum value, see also chapter 8.

tdFRT tdovp4 Tdovp1 Tdovp2 tFRT See chapter 5


Tovp1 Tovp2 tovp4 Tpc Uovp1
Uovp2 Uovp3 Uovp4 UuvpT

WT

Wind Turbine:

According to IEC 61400-21, 3.21 this is: A system which converts kinetic wind
energy into electric energy.

WT terminals

Wind Turbine terminals:

According to IEC 61400-21, 3.22 this is: A point being a part of the WT and
identified by the WT supplier at which the WT may be connected to the power
system. Annotation ENERCON: This point is related to the reference

point on the low voltage side, see chapter 9.


Zero Power Mode
(ZPM)

In the Zero Power Mode the WT blocks the IGBTs, but stays in operation.
Current infeed to the grid is then zero. If the voltage returns within tdFRT
between Umin,temp and Umax,temp the WT resynchronises and ramps in
maximum possible power within 1 s.

For explanations of the used terms and abbreviations please refer to chapter 13 Glossary.
Document:
Author/date:

RSC / 12/04/2007

Department:

WRD / E

Approved/date:

MBA / 12/04/2007

Revision/date:

2.73 / 12/04/2007

ENERCON reserves the right for technical modifications.


Translator/date:

Revisor/date:
Reference
:

WRD-E-04_DSGP_E-82_07-04-12-82-2082-FT-FTQ_7_8LS_rev2.73_eng-eng.doc

ENERCON 2007

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

page
1 of 19

Descripcin Tcnica
E-82

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Revisor/date:
M.Kuhlmann / 27.04.07
Reference:
4/110.07.07

A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

page
2 of 19

ndice
1

Breve descripcin ........................................................................................................3


1.1

El diseo ENERCON........................................................................................................ 4

1.2

Rotor ................................................................................................................................ 6

1.3

Generador ........................................................................................................................ 6

1.4

Sistema de conexin a red.............................................................................................. 7

1.5

Sistema de orientacin de la gndola ............................................................................ 9

1.6

Sistema de seguridad...................................................................................................... 9

1.7

Sistema de control .........................................................................................................10

Sistema de control .....................................................................................................12


2.1

Activacin de los sensores importantes para la seguridad .........................................12

2.2

Puesta en marcha del aerogenerador............................................................................12

2.3

Funcionamiento normal .................................................................................................13

2.4

Funcionamiento en vaco...............................................................................................13

2.5

Parada del aerogenerador..............................................................................................14

2.6

Falta de viento ................................................................................................................15

2.7

Temporal.........................................................................................................................16

2.8

Sistema de orientacin de la gndola ...........................................................................16

Ficha Tcnica..............................................................................................................18

ENERCON se reserva el derecho a realizar modificaciones tcnicas.

Document information:
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A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

page
3 of 19

BREVE DESCRIPCIN
El E-82 es un aerogenerador con rotor de tres palas, sistema activo de control de
ngulo de paso y funcionamiento del generador a velocidad variable, con una
potencia nominal de 2000 kW. Con un dimetro del rotor de 82 m, as como una
altura de torre entre 78 108 m m, saca provecho de las condiciones
predominantes de viento en el emplazamiento en concreto, para maximizar la
produccin de energa elctrica.

Ilustracin 1: E-82

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A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

page
4 of 19

El objetivo principal durante el desarrollo y el diseo de todos los aerogeneradores


ENERCON consiste en la minimizacin de las cargas. Por ello cada componente se
ha desarrollado y diseado conforme a este objetivo. El resultado es una turbina
que se caracteriza, entre otros, por sus reducidas cargas y su larga duracin.
La potencia controlada mediante el sistema de velocidad variable permite que el
E-82 opere a todo rendimiento sin que se produzcan cargas operativas superiores,
incluso en el rango de carga parcial adems de evitar la aparicin de picos de
potencia no deseados. De este modo, se garantiza un buen rendimiento energtico
y una alta calidad de la electricidad suministrada a la red.

1.1

El diseo ENERCON
Los aerogeneradores ENERCON se caracterizan, entre otras, por las siguientes
prestaciones:
La pieza giratoria del generador en anilla ENERCON y el rotor del E-82 forman una
sola unidad. Dicha unidad se embrida al buje de modo que ambas giren a la misma
velocidad moderada. Al prescindir de multiplicadora, as como otras piezas de
rotacin a altas velocidades, se reducen considerablemente las prdidas de energa
entre el rotor y el generador, as como las emisiones de ruido, el consumo de aceite
para engranajes y el desgaste mecnico.
La energa producida por el generador E-82 se vierte a la red de distribucin del
proveedor (compaa elctrica) a travs del sistema de conexin a red de
ENERCON. El sistema de conexin a red de ENERCON, compuesto por una
unidad conversora rectificador/inversor, garantiza el suministro de electricidad de
alta calidad a la red de distribucin de la compaa elctrica.
Este concepto permite gracias al convertidor que el rotor del E-82 funcione a
velocidad variable. Cuando las velocidades del viento son ms bajas, el rotor gira
lentamente, mientras que cuando las velocidades del viento son altas, gira
rpidamente. De este modo, el viento mueve las palas del rotor de un modo ptimo.
Adems, la velocidad variable reduce las sobrecargas derivadas de las rfagas.
Cada una de las tres palas del rotor estn equipadas con un sistema elctrico de
ajuste de la pala (sistema de control del ngulo de paso o Pitch system). El sistema
de control del ngulo de paso (Pitch system) delimita la velocidad del rotor y la
energa que se toma del viento. Este sistema permite ajustar con precisin la
potencia del E-82 a la potencia nominal en un breve margen de tiempo. Al ajustar
las palas del rotor a la posicin de bandera, el rotor se detiene sin que el sistema de
transmisin se vea sobrecargado por la aplicacin de un freno mecnico.

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A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

Soporte principal

Buje

Motores de orientacin

Pala

page
5 of 19

Generador en anilla
Adaptador de la pala

Ilustracin 2: Esquema de la gndola

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A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
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Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

1.2

page
6 of 19

Rotor
Las palas del rotor, fabricadas en fibra de vidrio reforzada (GRP) y resina epoxi,
determinan en gran medida el rendimiento del aerogenerador as como su emisin
de ruidos. Por ello, la forma y el perfil de las palas del E-82 se han desarrollado de
acuerdo con los siguientes criterios:

coeficiente de potencia elevado


larga vida til
reducida emisin de ruidos
cargas bajas y
bajo consumo de materiales

Como rasgo caracterstico hay que destacar que el perfil de las palas se fusiona
con la gndola. De este modo, se evitan las prdidas de flujo de aire tpicas de las
palas convencionales. Todo ello en combinacin con el diseo aerodinmico de la
gndola garantiza un aprovechamiento del viento altamente optimizado.
El diseo de las palas del E-82 se ha adaptado al sistema de ngulo de paso y
velocidad variables. Su nuevo perfil minimiza los efectos de las turbulencias y la
suciedad en el borde de ataque. Las palas estn protegidas frente a influencias
medioambientales mediante un recubrimiento externo. El material utilizado, a base
de poliuretano, es duro y muy resistente a la abrasin, a las influencias qumicas y a
la radiacin solar.
Las tres palas del rotor se ajustan mediante sistemas de control del ngulo de paso
independientes (Pitch system) controlados por microprocesadores. El ngulo de
paso es reajustado mediante mediciones llevadas a cabo con regularidad y las tres
palas del rotor son sincronizadas entre s. Esto significa que el ngulo de paso se
puede ajustar en el acto con toda precisin en funcin de las condiciones del viento
predominante.

1.3

Generador
El generador en anilla del E-82 es accionado directamente por el rotor (o palas de
rotor). El generador multipolo de ENERCON se basa en el principio de una mquina
sncrona.
En comparacin con otros aerogeneradores y gracias a la baja velocidad de
rotacin y a la gran seccin transversal del generador, los niveles de temperatura
se mantienen bajos durante el funcionamiento y slo estn sujetos a variaciones
menores. La escasa fluctuacin de las temperaturas durante el funcionamiento y,
en comparacin, los pocos cambios de carga disminuyen considerablemente los
esfuerzos mecnicos y, en consecuencia, el envejecimiento del material del
generador y su aislamiento. La velocidad variable as como el acoplamiento a la red
por medio del inversor reducen de forma clara los picos del par mecnico.

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VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

page

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

1.4

7 of 19

Sistema de conexin a red


El generador en anilla se acopla a la red a travs del sistema de conexin a red.
Este sistema consta bsicamente de un rectificador, un circuito intermedio de
corriente contnua, e inversores modulares.
El sistema de conexin a red, as como la exitacin del generador y el control del
ngulo de paso, son ajustados a travs del sistema de control de manera que se
obtenga el mayor rendimiento junto con una mayor compatibilidad de red.

Generador
sncrono

~
~
~

Rectificador

Circuito intermedio
corrinete contnua

Filtro

Transformador

Inversor

~
~
~

Interruptor

=
=

~
~
~

=
Velocidad variable

Sistema de
control

Frecuencia de red
constante

Control de
excitacin

Alcance de provisin estndar de la turbina

Especfico de cada proyecto

Gracias al acoplamiento "flexible entre el generador y la red, resulta de lo ms


sencillo volcar la energa producida a la red. A su vez se minimizan las
interacciones no deseadas entre rotor y red elctrica y viceversa. Cambios bruscos
en la velocidad del viento significan en nuestro caso cambios moderados en la
electricidad suministrada a la red. A su vez, los posibles fallos en la red afectarn
levemente al sistema mecnico. La electricidad suministrada a la red por el E-82
puede ajustarse de 0 kW a 2000 kW.
Dependiento de la configuracin de este aerogenerador se emplearn vrios
mdulos de inversor idnticos. Estos alimentarn la red con corriente trifsica de
baja tensin a travs de los bornes del aerogenerador. Por lo general un
transformador situado dentro del aerogenerador o en un anexo al lado del mismo se
ocupa de convertir los 400V en la media tensin necesaria.
Gracias a la tecnologic de los inversores el aerogenerador actua elctricamente
como una fuente de corriente controlada. El inversor confiere al aerogenerador el
estatus de fuente de corriente regulada. El inversor proporciona una corriente
simtrica y sinusoidal, siempre y cuando la tensin en los bornes del aerogenerador
se mantenga dentro de los lmites fijados. La tensin en los bornes del
aerogenerador esta afectada por la energi injectada, pero no controlada
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VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

page
8 of 19

activamente. Sin embargo si fuera solicitado existe la posibilidad de regular la


tensin en el punto de conexin del parque elico.
Dependiendo del angulo de fase de la tensin de red y de la potencia que facilitada
por el generador, se determina un valor terico para la corriente que se producir.
Segn dicho valor se genera una corriente trifsica, usando la potencia dispuesta
en el circuito de corriente continua. Adicionalmente, este valor nominal se compara
cada 100 s con el flujo de corriente real (valor real) y, si se observan divergencias,
se procede a su correccin. La forma de la corriente vertida es sinusoidal y no
presenta apenas oscilaciones armnicas. Gracias al filtro de alta frecuencia se
reducen asimismo las oscilaciones armnicas dems. Tambin se evitan las
emisiones de flicker. Por medio de este tipo de inversor se elimina la posibilidad de
picos de corriente.
El rango permitido de operacin en paralelo con la red se encuentra limitado por las
tensiones mxima y mnima de red establecidas. Dicho rango puede fijarse para
cada valor (subtensin y sobretensin) por separado como valores lmites para el
E-82.
Ms an, se puede ofrecer los aerogeneradores ENERCON en modo
Transmisin. Eso significa que ante cadas de tensin (problemas en la red) los
aerogeneradores se mantienen por unos segundos conectados a la red en lugar de
desconectarse directamente. Una vez recuperada la tensin el sistema vuelca de
inmediato plena potencia a la red. Durante la cada se alimenta la potencia activa
en base a la tensin residual, la mxima corriente del convertidor y las condiciones
de viento registradas en ese momento. Durante el fallo en la red los
aerogeneradores incluso contribuyen a estabilizar la red, pudiendo suministrarle
corriente reactiva. De este modo los aerogeneradores ENERCON ofrecen por
medio de parques elicos las caractersticas buscadas en toda central elctrica as
como una participacin activa en la estabilizacin de la red.
El factor de potencia del E-82 se ha preajustado a cos()=1. Adems, en todo el
rango de potencia entre 0 y 2000 / 2300 kW no necesita de potencia reactiva ni sta
es volcada a la red. La red es por tanto alimentada nicamente con potencia activa.
Los posibles pagos aadidos que algunas compaas elctricas cargan por la
potencia reactiva no se aplican.
En todo caso existe la posibilidad de garantizar un factor de potencia distinto a 1, en
caso de que la compaa elctrica as lo solicite. Gracias a ello el aerogenerador
puede contribuir a la estabilidad de potencia reactiva y tensin en la red. El mximo
rango de potencia reactiva depende de la configuracin del aerogenerador. La
potencia activa volcada a la red no se ve influida por la produccin adicional de
potencia reactiva.
Al rango permitido de operacin en paralelo con la red se encuentra limitado
tambin por frecuencias mnimas y mximas. Gracias al inversor-IGTB ENERCON
dichas frecuencias son mucho ms flexibles que en sistemas de generacin
energtica convencionales. Los aerogeneradores ENERCON se adaptan a redes
con frecuencias de 50 Hz y 60 Hz.
Si no se pudiese mantener los lmites de tensin o frecuencia establecidos, el
sistema de control del E-82 activar los dispositivos de seguridad de red del
inversor. En consecuencia, el E-82 se desconecta de la red de manera inmediata
en todas las fases.
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1.5

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Sistema de orientacin de la gndola


Directamente fijado sobre el extremo superior de la torre se encuentra el cojinete de
orientacin, que posee una corona dentada en su parte exterior. El cojinete de
orientacin permite el giro y la orientacin del aerogenerador. En la corona dentada
hay dispuestos seis dispositivos (motores de orientacin) que orientan la gndola
hacia el viento. Adems, el peso de la gndola tambin se transfiere a la torre
mediante este cojinete de orientacin. El soporte principal se encuentra
ensamblado directamente al cojinete de orientacin.

1.6

Sistema de seguridad
El sistema de seguridad garantiza un funcionamiento seguro del aerogenerador de
acuerdo con lo estipulado por las normativas internacionales y por los institutos de
ensayo independientes.

1.6.1

El sistema de frenado
Los aerogeneradores ENERCON frenan durante el funcionamiento de manera
totalmente aerodinmica orientando las palas del rotor en posicin de bandera.
Para ello sirven los tres accionamientos de control de ngulo de paso (motores de
pitch) autnomos. Los accionamientos se utilizan para girar las palas del rotor hasta
dicha posicin en tan slo unos segundos. La velocidad de rotacin del
aerogenerador se reduce sin que el sistema de transmisin reciba ninguna
sobrecarga adicional. As pues, para reducir la velocidad de rotacin del rotor a un
nivel seguro, bastara con poner en posicin de bandera tan slo una de las tres
palas del rotor.
Incluso cuando el aerogenerador se encuentre en modo de desconexin, el rotor no
estar bloqueado sino que podr girar libremente a una velocidad muy baja. El rotor
y el accionamiento quedan prcticamente libres de cargas. Por otro lado, los
cojinetes sufriran menos ante velocidades bajas que aquellos con rotores
bloqueados.
El rotor slo se bloquea de forma fija cuando deben realizarse tareas de
mantenimiento o cuando se acciona el botn de parada de emergencia
(EMERGENCY-STOP). En este caso, se utiliza un freno de disco adicional que no
se activa hasta que el rotor haya quedado parcialmente frenado mediante el
sistema de control del ngulo de paso. Como ltimo recurso de seguridad contamos
con el bloqueo del rotor manual para fines de mantenimiento.
En casos de emergencia (por ejemplo, si falla la red de distribucin de la empresa
de suministro), cada pala del rotor se lleva de forma segura a la posicin de
bandera. Esta operacin se realiza mediante su propia unidad de ajuste del ngulo
de paso de emergencia, que funciona a base de acumuladores de energa. La
disponibilidad de los acumuladores queda garantizada gracias a la carga
automtica de bateras. La activacin de emergencia de los sistemas del ngulo de
paso se realiza de forma sincronizada mediante una conexin electromecnica.
Con la alimentacin elctrica paralela de emergencia (red o acumuladores),
combinado con los tres sistemas autnomos de control de ngulo de paso,
ofrecemos un concepto de seguridad que cumple con creces los requisitos de los
dos sistemas de frenado independientes ("fail safe").

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1.6.2

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El sistema de proteccin contra rayos


El E-82 est equipado con el sistema de proteccin contra rayos de ENERCON,
que desva los posibles impactos de los rayos con una elevada eficiencia sin que se
produzcan daos en el aerogenerador.
La punta de la pala (tip) est compuesta de aluminio de fundicin y los bordes de
ataque de la pala equipado con perfiles de aluminio conectados mediante un anillo
de aluminio ubicado en el rea de la raz de la pala. Estos perfiles absorben con
seguridad el impacto del rayo, y la energa se desva a travs de los descargadores
y los cables a tierra, alrededor de la cimentacin. Tambin se ha fijado un
pararrayos en la parte posterior de la gndola, desde donde las corrientes de los
rayos se desvan a tierra.
En el caso de que se produzca el impacto de un rayo o un aumento inusual de la
tensin (sobretensin), todos los equipos elctricos y electrnicos quedan
protegidos por piezas estructurales firmemente integradas que absorben la energa.
Todos los componentes conductores principales del aerogenerador estn
conectados al platine de puesta tierra con secciones transversales suficientes. En la
conexin principal del aerogenerador se instalan adicionalmente descargadores de
sobretensin que estn conectados a tierra con baja impedancia.
Los componentes electrnicos del aerogenerador estn separados galvnicamente
y situados en carcasas metlicas. El sistema de control remoto est protegido por
un mdulo de proteccin especial para las interfaces de datos.

1.6.3

El sistema de sensores
Un exhaustivo sistema de vigilancia garantiza la seguridad del aerogenerador.
Todas las funciones relacionadas con la seguridad (como puede ser la velocidad
del rotor, las temperaturas, cargas y oscilaciones) se vigilan electrnicamente, as
como mediante la incorporacin de sensores mecnicos. Si uno de estos sensores
registra una perturbacin grave, el aerogenerador se desconectar inmediatamente.

1.7

Sistema de control
El sistema de control del E-82 se basa en un sistema de microprocesador
desarrollado por ENERCON que utiliza sensores para comprobar el estado de
todos los componentes del aerogenerador y otros datos, como son la direccin y la
velocidad del viento, para consecuentemente adaptar el modo de funcionamiento
del E-82.
El proceso automtico de arranque se activa si se alcanza una velocidad del viento
suficiente para el funcionamiento del aerogenerador durante tres minutos
consecutivos. Si se alcanza el lmite inferior del rango de velocidades de
funcionamiento (es decir, la velocidad de arranque), comienza el suministro de
energa a la red de distribucin. Debido a la conexin a red mediante el circuito de
corriente continua y el convertidor, no se producen picos de corriente durante el
arranque.
La velocidad del rotor, la potencia volcada a la red y el ngulo de paso de las palas
se adaptan continuamente a las condiciones cambiantes del viento. La potencia
elctrica se regula mediante la excitacin del generador. Cuando se alcanza o

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supera la velocidad de viento de potencia nominal, se mantiene la potencia al valor


nominal mediante la adaptacin del ngulo de las palas.
Si se sobrepasa una velocidad de viento media de 25 m/s en un periodo de tiempo
de 10 minutos o un valor pico de 30 m/s con el sistema de control de rfagas
desactivado (sistema opcional), el aerogenerador se para. El aerogenerador
arranca de nuevo si la velocidad del viento deja de exceder la velocidad de corte de
manera continua. Tambin durante el estado de desconexin se permite que el
rotor gire libremente a velocidad muy lenta (funcionamiento en vaco).
El sistema de orientacin de la gndola del E-82 empieza a funcionar an por
debajo de la velocidad de arranque. La veleta mide de manera continua la direccin
del viento. Si la divergencia entre la direccin del eje del rotor y la direccin medida
del viento es demasiado grande, la gndola es reorientada mediante los motores de
orientacin. Dependiendo de la velocidad del viento, se adapta el ngulo de paso y
el tiempo que tardar la gndola en orientarse al viento.Si el aerogenerador se
detiene mediante un accionamiento manual o mediante el sistema de control del
aerogenerador, el ngulo de paso de la pala se regula a la posicin de bandera
para reducir la superficie de contacto entre la pala y el viento. El aerogenerador se
detiene poco a poco por inercia hasta funcionamiento en vaco.

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SISTEMA DE CONTROL

2.1

Activacin de los sensores importantes para la seguridad


En los siguientes apartados explicaremos la forma en la que el aerogenerador
reacciona ante la activacin de los diferentes sensores. Si se activa un sensor que
afecte a la seguridad, se pondr en marcha un procedimiento de parada
automtica. En todo caso, el tipo de desconexin y el tiempo que tardar el
aerogenerador en arrancar de nuevo dependen de la avera de que se trate.
Las averas o los errores que van surgiendo se muestran siempre en la pantalla
LCD. Las averas secundarias, una vez resueltas, pueden obviarse pulsando el
botn de reconocimiento de averas ("Error reset"). Acto seguido, el aerogenerador
se pondr en marcha automticamente. Algunas averas slo pueden ser
eliminadas por parte del personal de Service. En la pantalla LCD se ver parpadear
el mensaje de estado correspondiente. Dicho mensaje se seala adems con un
asterisco.
La fiabilidad de los sensores se supervisa continuamente a travs del sistema de
control. Si se produce un fallo en alguno de los sensores, el sistema de control
remoto recibe un mensaje de error. Dependiendo del sensor, se podr operar el
aerogenerador durante un cierto tiempo ms. En el caso de algunos sensores el
aerogenerador debe detenerse de inmediato para poder resolver la avera.

2.2

Puesta en marcha del aerogenerador


A menos que se especifique de forma expresa, las disposiciones que se citan a
continuacin se aplicarn tanto a la puesta en marcha despus de una parada
automtica como a la que se realiza mediante el botn de arranque y parada (Start
/ Stop).
Cuando el aerogenerador se conecta (el interruptor principal del armario de control
est en la posicin ON y el interruptor Start/Stop en la posicin Start), en la
pantalla LCD aparece, pasados unos segundos, el mensaje Converter Ready o
aerogenerador preparado (status 0:2), siempre y cuando el sistema de control del
E-82 no detecte ninguna avera.
90 segundos despus de arrancar, las palas del rotor avanzan desde la posicin de
bandera (aprox. 90) hasta la posicin del modo de operacin de funcionamiento en
vaco. En este momento, el aerogenerador empieza a girar libremente a una
velocidad de rotor reducida.
El aerogenerador comienza el proceso real de puesta en marcha cuando durante
tres minutos seguidos la velocidad media del viento es superior a la velocidad de
arranque requerida.

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2.3

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Funcionamiento normal
Una vez finalizado el proceso de puesta en marcha del E-82, el aerogenerador
pasar al modo de funcionamiento normal. Mientras el aerogenerador est en
funcionamiento, se determinan de forma continua las condiciones del viento, se
optimiza la velocidad del rotor, la potencia y la excitacin del generador, se adapta
la posicin de la gndola respecto a la direccin del viento y se recogen los estados
de todos y cada uno de los sensores. Ante altas temperaturas externas y al mismo
rato fuertes vientos se activar el ventilador.

2.3.1

Funcionamiento normal a carga parcial


Durante el funcionamiento a carga parcial, la velocidad y la energa generada se
adaptan continuamente a las condiciones cambiantes del viento. En el margen
superior del rango de carga parcial, las palas del rotor giran unos grados para evitar
el efecto de prdida aerodinmica (prdida de sustentacin).
Si la velocidad del viento aumenta, tambin aumenta la velocidad del rotor y, en
consecuencia, la cantidad de energa generada.

2.3.2

Funcionamiento a potencia regulada


Por encima de la velocidad nominal del viento, la velocidad de rotacin se mantiene
aproximadamente en su valor nominal mediante el ajuste del ngulo de paso de la
pala. En consecuencia, la energa tomada del viento queda limitada (automatic
control mode). Los valores de velocidad y la aceleracin determinan los cambios
que deben realizarse en el ngulo de paso de las palas, que se transfieren a
continuacin al accionamiento de ajuste del ngulo de paso. De este modo, la
potencia generada se mantiene en su valor nominal.

2.4 Funcionamiento en vaco


Cuando el aerogenerador est parado (por ejemplo, por falta de viento o porque
existe una avera), las palas del rotor suelen estar en la posicin de 60 respecto a
la posicin de operacin. En este momento, el aerogenerador empieza a girar
libremente a una velocidad de rotor reducida. Si se superara dicha velocidad (3
rpm), las palas del rotor giraran hasta la posicin de bandera (90). Este tipo de
funcionamiento se llama funcionamiento en vaco. El funcionamiento en vaco
reduce las cargas y permite que el aerogenerador vuelva a arrancar en un tiempo
mnimo. El motivo para desconectar el aerogenerador y activar el modo de
funcionamiento en vaco se explica en el mensaje de estado.

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2.5 Parada del aerogenerador


El E-82 puede detenerse manualmente mediante el interruptor de arranque y
parada (start/stop) o el botn de parada de emergencia. Si se produce una avera, o
si las condiciones del viento no son las apropiadas, el sistema de control detendr
automticamente el aerogenerador (consulte la ilustracin 2).

Detener

Funcionamiento
normal

Fallo

p.ej.
Parada rpida
Parada emergencia
Bloqueo rotor
Freno rotor

p.ej
.
Vibraciones
Prdida de red
Velocidad excesiva
Fallo ngulo paso
error

Cambiar control de
ngulo de paso a
alimentacin de
emergencia

Giro rpido
de la pala
a posicin
posposicin
de bandera

p.ej.
Eliminacin carga
shedding
Fallo bus datos
datos

p.ej.
Generador hueco aire
Exceso temperatura
del cojinete
Fallo del condesador
acumulador

p.ej.
Oscilacin del torre
Exceso temperatura
del generador
Exceso temperatura
del convertidor
Fallo de red

p.ej.
Parada por
sombras
Turbina
parada manual

p.ej.
Tormenta
Falta de
viento

Cambiar control de
ngulo de paso a
alimentacin de
emergencia

Giro rpido
de la pala
a posicin
de bandera

Giro rpido
de la pala
a posicin
de bandera

Giro rpido
de la pala
a posicin
de bandera

Giro de la
pala a 60
(en vaco)

Giro de las
palas a
posicin
de bandera

Giro de la
pala a 60
(en vaco)

Aplicacin del
freno mecnico
del rotor

Ilustracin 3: Procesos de desconexin del E-82


2.5.1

Parada automtica
Durante el modo de funcionamiento automtico los aerogeneradores de ENERCON
slo pueden detenerse de forma aerodinmica ajustando adecuadamente el ngulo
de paso de las palas. Mediante el ajuste de las palas del rotor, se minimizan las
fuerzas de impulso aerodinmico y se frena el rotor. Los accionamientos del
sistema de control del ngulo de paso son capaces de girar las palas hasta la
posicin de bandera en tan slo unos segundos.
Por otro lado, el aerogenerador tambin se detiene automticamente cuando se
producen averas o incidencias concretas en el funcionamiento, as como cuando
las condiciones del viento lo exigen. Algunas averas activan una parada rpida
mediante el sistema de control del ngulo de paso (Pitch system) haciendo uso de
los acumuladores para el suministro de energa en caso de emergencia. Otras
averas provocan una parada normal del aerogenerador.

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En funcin del tipo de avera de que se trate, puede que sea posible volver a
arrancar el aerogenerador automticamente. En todo caso ante una parada
automtica los inversores se aislan galvnicamente de la red.
2.5.2

Parada manual
El E-82 puede detenerse a travs del interruptor de arranque y parada (start / stop)
del armario de control. Cuando esto ocurre, el sistema de control coloca las palas
en posicin de bandera y el aerogenerador baja de velocidad hasta que se para. El
freno mecnico no se acciona en este caso y el mecanismo de orientacin de la
gndola sigue en marcha, por lo que el E-82 puede colocarse de modo ptimo a
favor del viento.

2.5.3

Parada manual en situaciones de emergencia


En caso de peligro para las personas o los componentes que se encuentran en el
aerogenerador, se puede detener rpidamente el aerogenerador pulsando el botn
de parada de emergencia. En el armario de control se encuentra un botn de
parada de emergencia que provoca una frenada inmediata del rotor con un ajuste
rpido del ngulo de paso de las palas por medio de las unidades de emergencia
de control del ngulo de paso y de los frenos. A su vez se procede al freno
mecnico. En este caso el resto de los componentes siguen recibiendo tensin de
alimentacin.
Los botones quedan enclavados al activarlos, por lo que, al superar la emergencia,
es preciso tirar de los mismos para colocarlos de nuevo en su posicin inicial y, as,
volver a poner en marcha el aerogenerador.
Si el interruptor principal (Main switch) del armario de control se coloca en la
posicin de apagado (Off), todos los componentes del aerogenerador dejan de
recibir tensin, excepto la iluminacin de la torre y del armario de control, as como
los interruptores de luz y los enchufes independientes. Del mismo modo, el
aerogenerador realiza un ajuste rpido del ngulo de paso a travs de las unidades
de ajuste de emergencia. El freno mecnico no se activa al accionar al interruptor
principal.

2.6 Falta de viento


Si el aerogenerador se encuentra en funcionamiento y la velocidad del rotor
disminuye notablemente debido a la falta de viento, el aerogenerador pasa al modo
de funcionamiento en vaco mientras las palas del rotor modifican lentamente su
ngulo de paso hasta situarse a 60. El aerogenerador vuelve a ponerse en marcha
automticamente en cuanto se alcanza de nuevo la velocidad de arranque.
Si debido a bajas temperaturas (< 3C) existe la posibilidad de que el anemometro
se congele, y si al mismo rato se detecta una falta de viento, el aerogenerador
intentar arrancar cada hora para comprobar si la velocidad del viento es suficiente,
siempre y cuando la veleta se encuentre en funcionamiento. Una vez el
aerogenerador arranque y comience a generar energa, pasar al modo de
funcionamiento normal. Las velocidades del viento no se habrn registrado
correctamente, dado que un sensor congelado no puede transmitir datos fiables.

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2.7 Temporal
Cuando las velocidades del viento son superiores a 31 m/s, el aerogenerador no
abandona el modo de parada o el modo de funcionamiento en vaco. Asimismo, si
la velocidad media supera los 31 m/s o se alcanza un valor mximo de 34 m/s, el E82 dejar de operar en el modo de funcionamiento a potencia regulada. El
aerogenerador tambin dejar de operar en modo de funcionamiento normal en
cuanto se supere el mximo ngulo de paso de la pala permitido, por lo que, incluso
si el anemmetro estuviera congelado, esto no representara ningn riesgo. En
cualquier caso, el aerogenerador conmuta a funcionamiento en vaco.
Los componentes del E-82, como son las palas del rotor, la gndola, la torre o la
cimentacin, estn diseados para resistir altas velocidades de viento.
El aerogenerador arranca automticamente si la velocidad del viento se encuentra
por debajo de la velocidad de corte (31 m/s) durante 10 minutos.
Gracias al sistema de control de rfagas, el aerogenerador no se desconecta de
golpe al superar los 28m/s sino que se reduce la potencia mediante un ajuste
gradual del ngulo de las palas. Slo si se rondan los 34 m/s se reducir a cero la
potencia. Este mtodo estratgico mejora el comportamiento elctrico de la red y
aumenta consecuentemente la produccin.

2.8 Sistema de orientacin de la gndola


El E-82 tiene instalado en la parte superior de la gndola un equipo de medicin del
viento. Dicho equipo consta de una veleta que determina continuamente la
direccin del viento, y de un anemmetro que mide la velocidad del mismo.
El sistema de orientacin de la gndola del E-82 se pone en marcha por debajo de
la velocidad de arranque de 2,5 m/s. Incluso cuando el aerogenerador se
desconecta, por ejemplo debido a velocidades de viento demasiado altas, sigue
orientndose hacia el viento. Este ngulo y el perodo de medicin dependen de la
velocidad del viento y de la potencia del aerogenerador.
Mecanismo orientacin

Gndola girada
ms de 3 vueltas
izda.

Gndola girada
2-3 vueltas
izda.

Divergencia entre
orientacin gndola
y direccin del viento
mayor que cierto
ngulo mnimo

Poco viento
(v < 3,5 m/s)
Orientacin
dcha.

Aerogenerador
desconectado
Estatus 22:1

Divergencia entre
orientacin gndola
y direccin del viento
mayor que cierto
ngulo mnimo
Orientacin
izda.

Desenrollado
de cables
dcha.

Gndola girada
2-3 vueltas
dcha.

Gndola girada
ms de 3 vueltas
dcha.

Poco viento
(v < 3,5 m/s)

Desenrollado
de cables
izda.

Aerogenerador
desconectado
Estatus 22:2

Ilustracin 4: Esquema de los procedimientos de orientacin de la gndola

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El procedimiento de orientacin correspondiente se determina en funcin del


nmero de vueltas que ha dado el motor y de que el tiempo requerido para esta
operacin sea admisible. Si el sistema de control detecta irregularidades en la
orientacin de la gndola o en el desenrollado de los cables, se detendr el
aerogenerador.
2.8.1

Desenrollado de los cables de potencia y de control


Los cables de control y de potencia que se encuentran en la torre del E-82 se
conducen desde la gndola por medio de una polea de reenvo y discurren sujetos
a la pared de la torre. Los cables tienen suficiente capacidad de movimiento como
para permitir que la gndola pueda girar varias veces alrededor de su propio eje en
el mismo sentido. De este modo, los cables se van enrollando poco a poco. El
sistema de control del E-82 se encargar de volver a desenrollarlos.
Cuando los cables han dado entre dos y tres vueltas, el sistema de control
emplear el siguiente perodo con viento dbil para volver a desenrollarlos. Si las
condiciones del viento han aplazado esta operacin y el cable se ha enrollado ms
de tres vueltas, el aerogenerador se detendr para desenrollar el cable,
independientemente de la velocidad del viento. El proceso de desenrollado de
cables dura una media hora aproximadamente. Una vez que el cable se ha
desenrollado, el aerogenerador retoma el funcionamiento de nuevo.
El sistema de sensores que registra el enrollado de los cables se encuentra en el
llamado interruptor cuentavueltas que, en el caso del E-82, est situado en el rea
de la trampilla de acceso al stano de la gndola. El sensor est conectado a la
corona dentada de orientacin a travs de una rueda dentada que engrana en la
misma, y un engranaje. Este sensor transmite las modificaciones de la orientacin
de la gndola al sistema de control.
Adicionalmente, este dispositivo incluye dos interruptores de fin de carrera, uno a la
derecha y otro a la izquierda, que detectan si se sobrepasa el margen de ajuste
admisible en una u otra direccin (interruptor de fin de carrera cuentavueltas
derecho o izquierdo). De este modo, se evita que los cables de la torre sigan
enrollndose. En este caso, el aerogenerador se detiene y no puede volver a
arrancar automticamente.

Document information:
Author/date:
Department:
Checked/date:
Revision:

S. Anlas / 21.10.05
Translator/date:
VI
Revisor/date:
M.Kuhlmann / 27.04.07
Reference:
4/110.07.07

A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

page

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

18 of 19

FICHA TCNICA
Tipo de aerogenerador:

ENERCON E-82

Potencia nominal:

2000 kW

Dimetro del rotor:

82 m

Altura de buje:

78 108 m m (segn tipo de torre y


cimentacin)

Concepto de aerogenerador:

Sin multiplicadora, velocidad variable,


sistema de control del ngulo de paso
(Pitch)

Pala con sistema de control del ngulo de paso


Tipo:

Rotor a barlovento con control del


ngulo de paso activo

Sentido de rotacin:

Agujas del reloj

Nmero de palas:

rea barrida:

5 281m

Composicin de las palas:

Resina epoxy reforzada con fibra de


vidrio y proteccin contra rayos
integrada

Velocidad de rotacin:

Variable, 6 19,5 rpm

Velocidad de punta:

25 - 80 m/s

Control del ngulo de paso (Pitch):

Un sistema independiente de control


del ngulo de paso en cada una de las
palas ENERCON con suministro de
energa de emergencia

Generador con sistema de transmisin


Buje:

Rgido

Cojinetes principales:

Un cojinete de rodillos cnicos y un


cojinete de rodillos cnicos en dos filas

Generador:

Generador sncrono en anilla


ENERCON con acoplamiento directo

Document information:
Author/date:
Department:
Checked/date:
Revision:

S. Anlas / 21.10.05
Translator/date:
VI
Revisor/date:
M.Kuhlmann / 27.04.07
Reference:
4/110.07.07

A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

page

Technical Description
ENERCON E-82

19 of 19

Sistema de conexin a red:

Convertidor ENERCON

Sistema de frenado:

- tres sistemas de control del ngulo


de paso autnomos con suministro de
energa de emergencia
- Freno mecnico de rotor
- Bloqueo de rotor

Control de orientacin:

Activo mediante motores de


orientacin, amortiguamiento en
funcin de las cargas

Velocidad de corte:

28-34 m/s (control de rfagas de viento


ENERCON)

Sistema de control remoto:

ENERCON SCADA

Document information:
Author/date:
Department:
Checked/date:
Revision:

S. Anlas / 21.10.05
Translator/date:
VI
Revisor/date:
M.Kuhlmann / 27.04.07
Reference:
4/110.07.07

A.Robles/12.01.06, F.Petrucci
VI-Technical Description E-82-Rev004ger-spa

SUBSANACIN P.E. EL SALINERO II

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II

a) Memoria Resumen.
El Parque Elico El Salinero II, se ubica en terrenos disponibles por el promotor Generacin
Elica Internacional, S.L., en el municipio de San Bartolom de Tirajana en la isla de Gran
Canaria. Se adjunta un plano de ubicacin de los terrenos en el anexo a.3. La superficie total
del terreno cuyo derecho para uso elico es exclusivo del promotor, supera las 25 hectreas.
El Parque Elico Salinero II, se considera una de las alternativas diseadas por el promotor
para instalar en el cordal norte una instalacin elica, considerando en esta alternativa el uso
de la tecnologa de Enercon, modelo E-82 de 2.000 MW de potencia nominal y 82 m. de rotor,
conformando un parque elico de 12 MW.
Toda esta informacin y ms esta reflejada en el anexo a.2 con el modelo establecido
debidamente cumplimentado.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero I

e) Localizacin geogrfica.
1. Se facilitan los siguientes planos en formato papel y digital a la escala adecuada y con la
representacin de la direccin del viento dominante, tal que permitan la localizacin del parque
elico a travs de coordenadas, indicando adems los trminos municipales afectados:
Plano sobre hoja de cartografa indicando:
- Localizacin geogrfica y codificacin de cada aerogenerador perteneciente al parque elico,
con la representacin de la direccin del viento dominante recogida en la Cartografa del
recurso elico de Canarias.

Todos los aerogeneradores se encuentran ubicados en el trmino municipal de

San Bartolom de Tirajana. Se adjunta como anexo e.1 la localizacin geogrfica y


codificacin de cada aerogenerador. Asimismo, se adjunta en formato digital el
citado plano.
Segn la codificacin adoptada para cada aerogenerador en la hoja de cartografa, se realizar
y cumplimentar una tabla que conteniendo tantas filas como aerogeneradores tenga el parque
elico.

Se adjunta tabla de codificacin de los aerogeneradores requerida en anexo e.3.

PLAN ELICO

P.E. El Salinero II