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Abstract

Cement production has been one of the most energy intensive industries in the world. In order to produce
clinker, rotary kilns are widely used in cement plants. This paper deals with the energy audit analysis of a dry
type rotary kiln system working in a cement plant in FCCL. The kiln has a capacity of 3000 ton-clinker per day.
It was found that about 40% of the total input energy was being lost through hot flue gas (19.15%), cooler
stack (5.61%) and kiln shell (15.11% convection plus radiation). Some possible ways to recover the heat losses
are also introduced and discussed.
THE IMPORTANCE OF HEAT BALANCES
The heat balance calculation is basically a calculation where heat inputs and outputs are measured, calculated
and compared.
The heat balance calculation provides a snap shot of the specific heat consumption of the kiln system with the
kiln in stable operating conditions. The purpose of the heat balance calculation is to:
Establish the specific heat consumption of the stable operating kiln
Yield information about where the heat losses occur in the system
Gather information on the size of heat losses where they occur.
With this information, the plant personnel can decide if any action is required and identify the points where
attention might be needed.
The specific heat consumption of a kiln is calculated based on the calorific consumption and the clinker
production. The calorific consumption can be calculated when the fuel consumption and the net heat value of
the fuel are known. The kiln clinker production can be calculated either from weighing the clinker, from
calculations based on the consumption of raw meal or from the amount of cement that is produced. The figure
for specific heat consumption is often available on the factory calculated on a weekly or monthly basis.
However the value for the long-term specific heat consumption will always be higher than the corresponding
figure for the periods of stable kiln operation, as it includes the period where the kiln production is low.
The approach taken here in performing a heat balance emphasizes the practical aspects and uses simplifications
to permit a rapid set-up and calculation. The simplifications will limit the accuracy of the heat balance to
approximately + 2% relative. This must be considered satisfactory as many of the measured values in the plant,
such as air flows and surface heat losses, will have a greater margin of relative error.
For the practical use of the results where also the historic changes are evaluated, the absolute figures might not
be so important. The important thing is to ensure that the values are reproducible. If, for instance, the surface
heat loss from the pre heater is continuously underestimated in the balance, the trend in the specific heat
consumption and other heat losses over a time period will still be clear.
HEAT BALANCE PROCEDURAL STEPS
When a heat balance is performed, the procedure is as follows:

Define the system


It is customary to draw the boundary just after the pre heater cyclones before the ID fan and just after
the exit of the clinker cooler.
Define input and output material flows
Inputs include raw meal, the fuel and the air. Outputs are smoke gas, the dust with the gas, and can
also include by pass gas and excess air in the cooler. The flows are often expressed as kg material / kg
clinker.
Define input and output energy flows
Define the temperatures and specific heat content of the material streams.
Define other sources of energy input or output.
Other sources include heat of reaction of the raw meal and radiation losses from surfaces.

Calculate the energy flows. This is often calculated in kcal/kg clinker but can equally be joule/min or
other units.
Air Balance in System
Calciner

Kiln

Excess air

Radiations

Tertiary Air
Secondary Air

Crusher

False Air
False Air

Cooling Air
Set point of K10 Fan

135 Nm3 / min

Density of Air

1.293 kg air / Nm3

=
=

135 x 1.293
20.83.3

.084 kg air / kg ckr

.084 kg air / kg ckr

0.199 kg air / kg ckr

0.199 kg air / kg ckr

0.323 kg air / kg ckr

0.323 kg air / kg ckr

0.323 kg air / kg ckr

0.285 kg air / kg ckr

0.285 kg air / kg ckr

0.317 kg air / kg ckr

2.565 kg air / kg ckr

710 k cal / kg ckr

333.75 K cal / kg ckr

Air from
K10

K11

K12

K13

K14

K15

K16

K17

K18

K19

K20

135 x 1.293
3000 ton/D x 1000/ 24x60
135 x 1.293
20.83.3
135 x 1.293
20.83.3
320 x 1.293
20.83.3
320 x 1.293
20.83.3
520 x 1.293
20.83.3
520 x 1.293
20.83.3
615 x 1.293
20.83.3
460 x 1.293
20.83.3
460 x 1.293
20.83.3
510 x 1.293
20.83.3
Total

Total Heat Consumption


Ratio of Heat Consumption
Kiln 47 %

710x47/100

Calciner 53 %

376.3 K cal / kg ckr

Primary Air

.084 kg air / kg ck

Kiln 9% of Lmin

where L min

Combustion air

Calciner 3.6 % of Lmin

Excess Air
Note for calculation

Kiln 18%

( ( 1.18=

% of O2 in Lab by

Calciner 10%

( 1.10=

orsat apparatus
L min

=
=
Combustion air =
Primary Air
=
=
Total combustion air = L

1.14 x 333.7 x 1000 x 3000


24x60
1000
1.14 kg of air / 1000 k/cal x 333.7 /1000 k/cal / kg ckr
470 kg air / 1000kg ckr
L min
=
0.471 kg air / kg ckr.
9 % of L min
0.09 x 0.471
=
0.0424 kg air / kg ckr
* L min = 1.18 x 0.471
=
0.556 kg air / kg ckr.

Secondary Air
Secondary Air

=
=

Total combustion Air (Primary + False air)


0.556-(.042+.03)
=
0.484 kg air / kg ckr.

Tertiary Air
L min

0.531 kg air / kg ckr.

1.41 x 376.3
1000
3.6% of L min

Primary Air ( Calciner)

.019 kg air / kg ckr.

L (Calciner)

x L min

1.10 x 0.531 = 0.584 kg air / kg ckr.

Tertiary Air

L (Primary + False Air) =

0.565 kg air / kg ckr.

Air Balance

Syste
m

AIR IN

Cooling Air + False Air crusher


2.565 + .01
Excess Air

AIR OUT

Tertiary Air + Sec Air + Excess Air

0.565 + 0.484 + Excess Air

1.526 kg air / kg ckr.

HEAT BALANCE FOR COOLER.


INPUT
Clinker from kiln
Cooling Air + False Air
Electrical Power Air
Clinker dust

383
15.30
6.00
7.65

OUTPUT
Secondary Air Heat Content
Tertiary Air Heat content
Clinker dust
Radiation

151.80
127.10
20.66
6.00

280 C0
875 C0
25 C0
?
1450 C0
105 C0

Temp Excess Air


Temp Tertiary Air
Temp Cooling Air
Temp Secondary Air
Temp Clinker from Kiln
Temp Clinker Out

Specific Heat

A + (B x T x 10-6)

Table 1
Sr. #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Element

A
0.196
0.443
0.244
0.218
0.237
0.206
0.186
0.262
0.420

CO2
H2O Vapor
N2
O2
Air
Raw Meal
Clinker
Coal (30% Vol.)
Oil

INPUT
Sr. #
1

Clinker from Kiln

1.00

Temp
Co
1450

2
3

Clinker Dust 2 %
Cooling Air + False
Air
POWER

.02
2.575

1450
25

kg / kg ckr

B
118
39
22
30
23
101
54
390
0
CP T

0.264
0.238

0.264

C
-43
28
0
0
0
-37
0
0
0
Heat content k cal /
kg ckr
1450 x 0.264 x 1
383
1450x0.264x.02

7.63
15.30
6.00
409.3

Total Input
OUTPUT
Sr. #
1

Secondary

Tertiary

Excess

4
5

Clinker dust
Radiation

Amount
Temp kg
0.484
0.484
0.565

T Co
1200
1184
875

0.265
0.265
0.257

1.526
1.526
1
25

280
25
105
0.187

0.343
0.243
0.1929

CP

K cal / kg ckr.
153.70 value is not correct
151.80 correct
127.10

104.01
9.04
20.66
6.00
Total Output 409.3 Kcal/ kg ckr

HEAT BALANCE KILN


1
2
3
4
5
6

HEAT IN
Fuel Oil
Raw Meal
Cooling Air
Primary Air
Combustion Heat
Electric Power

3.51
21.04
15.30
0.51
700
6.00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

HEAT OUT
Exit Gases
Dust loss
Evaporation of H2O
Radiation Pre-Heater
Radiation Kiln
Radiation Cooler
Clinker Temp
Excess Air

143.37
10.06
5.37
33
35.04
6.00
20.66
104

Heat of Reaction

747.3

392
749.50

Heat Out
Exit Gases (Dry basis)
4.5% O2
30% CO2

(Analysis by Orsat Apparatus)

By putting above values in formula


=
1
1-79 x
O2
21
100-102-O2
=

1
1- 79
21
= 1.346

4.5
100-30-4.5

Table 2
Stoichiometric Combustion Air and Combustion Smoke Gas
per 1000 kcal fired
Oil
Coal
Stoichiometric
Combustion Air
Kg air / 1000 kcal
1.41
1.39-1.43
Nm3 air / 1000 kcal
1.09
1.07-1.10
Combustion gasses at
Stoichiometric combust
Nm3 smoke gas / 1000 kcal
Gas density kg / Nm3

1.16
1.30

1.12-1.18
1.35

Combustion Gas =
1.16 x 710/1000
Excess Air (1.346-1) x 1.09x710/1000
Total
Convert into kg / kg ckr.
Again from table gas density
= 1.3x1.092
Again from table 2 Co2 from Raw mix
Total
Amount of Gases
Gas consist of O2, Co2 & NO2
O2%
1.97x.045
CO2%
1.97x0.30
NO2%
1.97x(1-0.49-0.3)

Gas
1.43
1.10

1.22
1.24

=
=
=

0.824 Nm2 / kg ckr.


0.268 Nm3/ kg ckr.
1.092 Nm3 / kg ckr.

=
=
=

1.42 kg/ kg ckr.


0.55 kg / kg ckr.
1.970 kg / kg ckr.

=
=
=

0.088 kg / kg ckr.
0.591 kg / kg ckr.
1.291 kg / kg ckr.

=
=
=

0.218+(30x300x10-6)+(0x3002x10-9)
0.196+(118x300x10-6)+(-43x3002x10-9)
0.244+(22x300x10-6)+(0x3002x10-9)

Now we calculates specific heat Cp


Cp = A + (BxTx10-6)+((CxT2x10-9)
From table 1 = Put Values

Cp for O2%
Cp for CO2%
Cp for NO2%

Hence,
Cp O2%
Cp CO2%
Cp NO2%

=
=
=

0.227
0.2275
0.2506

Now, we are capable of calculate Heat content


Heat content
=
O2 % x Temp x Cp
Heat content in O2
Heat content in CO2
Heat content in O2

=
=
=

.008x300x0.227
=
-0.591x300x0.2275 =
.008x300x0.227
=
Total Heat in Exit Gases

5.99
40.34
97.04
143.37 Kcal / kg

Heat in dust loss


To calculate Heat in dust loss we have two possibilities.
(A)
Clinker Production & Back Calculation
(B)
EP dust to trucks
But according to design figure we know 17.7 tons / clinker dust hour
By Formula

17.7x24 hours x 1000 (conversion into kgs)


3000 (total production) x 1000 (tons into kgs)
=
0.142 kgs / kg ckr.

Heat Capacity in Raw meal Dust:


Cp
Cp dust
Heat content Raw meal dust

=
=
=

0.206 + (101x300x10-6)+(-37x3002x10-9)
0.2362
0.2362x300x0.142 = 10.06 K cal/ kg ckr.

H2O in Raw meal


Heat Loss in Raw mill
Assuming that 0.5% H2O in Raw meal
Temperature of water 60Co
Calculation of water
= 210 Tons/h x0.5 H2O%x24hoursx1000 kg into tons
100 x 3000 tons/D x 1000 tons into kgs
Now we have to temp increase

60Co ~ 100 Co
1 Kcal

Heat .008x1(100c-60c)

.008 kg of water / kg ckr.

=
=

1 Kg H2O at 1Co
0.32 Kcal/ kg ckr.

4.312 Kcal/ kg ckr.

Evaporation of H2O
By definition we know 539 Kcal/ kg water
Heat of evaporation, 0.008 x 537
Heating of Water Vapors
100C0----- into 300Co
Heating capacity Cp 100Co
Cp 300Co

=
=

.443 + (39x100x10-6) + (28x1002x10-9)


.443 + (39x300x10-6) + (28x3002x10-9)

So
Cp 100Co
Cp 300Co
Heat content

=
=

0.447
0.457

=
=

.008 (300x0.457-100x.447)
0.739

Now total Heat less due to evaporation of H2O will be by combining above three values.
=
0.32+4.312+0.739 =
5.371 Kcal/kg ckr.
Heat Content In Radiation
A. In Calciner
Surface temperature of Calciner
=
250Co
Ambient temperature
=
30Co
From Pose 15 we can calculates Radiation =
4019 Kcal/m3 L
From Pose 1 we know surface area of each part of the Calciner
I.e.

Cylinder part of Calciner Area = 223.9 m3


= 4019 (total surface area) x 223.9 x 24
3000 (tons /D) x 1000

B. for Roof

C. For Cyl. Port outlet

D. For bottom cone

E. for connection to Cyclone

F. from Pre heater to Calciner

4019 x 44.2 x 24
3000 x 1000
4019 x 145.7 x 24
3000 x 1000
4019 x 55.7 x 24
3000 x 1000
=
4019 x 78.9 x 24
3000 x 1000
Total
= 17.69+15.3 approx

7.26 Kcal/kg ckr.

1.42 Kcal / kg ckr.

4.68 Kcal / kg ckr.

1.79 Kcal / kg ckr.

2.54 Kcal / kg ckr.

=
=
=

7.26+1.42+1.79+2.54
17.69 Kcal / kg ckr.
33.00

G. From Kiln
From page 15
Kiln

Surface Temperature
Ambient Temperature
We noted radiation
Volume of Kiln By Formula

=
=
=
=

5689 x 692 x 24
=
3000 x 1000
H. from Smoke chamber=
5689x78x24
=
3000 x 1000
Total Radiation

300Co
30Co
5145 Kcal/m3 L (brick lining)
(4.15-0.44)2 x 64 = 692m3
4
31.49 Kcal/kg ckr.
3.55 Kcal/ kg ckr.
=

35.04 Kcal / kg ckr.

Total Heat from Cyclone to Pre-Calciner (Roughly Calculated) = 33 Kcal/Kg ckr.


Total Heat from Kiln
(

)
= 35.04 Kcal/Kg ckr.
Total Heat from Cooler (

)
= 6.00 Kcal/Kg ckr.
Heat Capacity in Clinker Outlet
Cp
=
0.186+(54x80x10-6)
+ (0x80x10-9)
=
0.186 + (.00432)
Cp
=
0.192
Heat Content
=
3000x(105-30)x.192
=
20.66 Approx. Kcal/ Kg ckr.
1000x60x24
Excess Air
For further calculation we know that first calculates secondary air def: secondary air:- combustion air coming
from the cooler to the kiln is called secondary Air.
From Table 2
Main
Furnace Oil

=
.00141 kg of air / Kcal.
=
10,000 Kcal / kg ckr.
=
.00141x10,000 =
14.1 kg of air / kg or oil
700 Kcal / kg of clinker ( FCCL Design figure)
Air needed per kg of clinker.

M kg of air
kg of clinker

700 (Kcal / kg ckr.=

Practically we need 10 % extra Air


= 0.987 x 10
From cooler Heat Balance Equation we know
Heat of Reaction
By Raw meal Analysis in X-Ray

.00141 =

0.987

=
=

1.09 kg of air / kg ckr.


104 Kcal / kg ckr.

392 Kcal / kg ckr.

HEAT IN
Fuel oil
Temperature of oil
Oil requirement Approx

=
=

Heat Content

=
=

Cp Oil
Heat content

=
=

120C0
4.7 Tons / h in Calciner, 4.0 tons / h Kiln
(4.00+4.7) x 24 x 1000
0.0796 kg of oil / kg ckr.
3000 x 1000
0.42
0.42x120x0.0696 = 3.51 Kcal/kg ckr.

Heat in Raw meal


210 tons / h and temperature 60Co
210x24x1000
3000 x 1000

1.68

Cp material

=
=

0.206 + (101x60x10-6) + (-37x602x10-9)


0.212

Heat in Raw meal

=
=

0.212x60C0x1.68
21.4 Kcal/ kg ckr.

=
=
=

0.042 kg / kg ckr.
0.019 kg / kg ckr.
35 Co

0.061

FOR COOLER AIR BALANCE


Primary Air Kiln
Primary Air Calciner
Temp
(0.019+0.042)x24x1000
3000
Cp Primary Air
Heat P.A
=

=
0.237
.061 x 0.237 x 35

0.51 Kcal/Kg ckr.

Heat Of Combustion
Oil used
8.9 tons of Furnace oil

700 x 125 ton/h


9750 Kcal / kg oil

700 Kcal / kg of clinker

8.9 tons Approx