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Flow Measurement

FLUID MECHANICS LAB CIE 321

LAB REPORT # 5

Lebanese American University

Instructor :Mirla AbiAad


Done by :
Omar Nammour 201300900
HadyTouma 201305704
Hussein Haidar 201100896
Tarek Alhajj 201205768
Jerome Jeitany 201302545

Date of submission : 3/10/2015

Contents
Abstract..........................................................................................................................3
Introduction....................................................................................................................4
Equipment......................................................................................................................5
Procedure.......................................................................................................................6
DATA COLLECTED...........................................................................................................7
CALCULATIONS...............................................................................................................8
1- Calculating Q using the definition of volume per unit time :...................................8
2- Calculating Q using the venturimeter :................................................................8
3-calculating Q using the orifice plate where losses are considered:.......................9
4- Calculating through the rotameter....................................................................10
RESULTS.......................................................................................................................11
DISCUSSION.................................................................................................................14
Conclusion....................................................................................................................15
REFERENCES................................................................................................................16

Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

1- readings collected............................................................................................7
2-measured flow.................................................................................................11
3- venturi calculations.........................................................................................11
4- coefficient of discharge and error...................................................................11
5- head loss in venturi.........................................................................................11
6-orifice calculations...........................................................................................12
7- flow calculations from rotameter....................................................................13
8- coefficient of discharge vs. error.....................................................................13

Figure 1-venturi meter , orifice plate,rotameter.............................................................5


Figure 2-piezometric readings........................................................................................6
Figure 3-bob of rotameter..............................................................................................7
Graph 1- coefficient of discharge vs discharge............................................................13
Graph 2- rotameter reading vs dischrage....................................................................14

Abstract

Water flow is measured to assess how much water is available for a supply and to
check the quantity of water flowing through a system. Based on Bernoullis principle,
flow can be measured using Venturi meters, orifice plates, and rotameters. In this lab
work, the flow rate, mass flow rate, velocities and coefficient of discharge of each
section of the combined apparatus were computed as well as the head loss due to
friction. The results obtained are compared and analyzed in function of the coefficient
of discharge and the error and plotting the readings vs. the discharge in order to reach
an acceptable conclusion for this experiment.

Introduction

The most important characteristic that distinguishes a fluid from a solid is the capacity
of a fluid to flow. The flow rate of a fluid is an important parameter that provides the
means to calculate the velocity of the fluid at a point in a tube. The Venturi meter is a
device to measure the flow rate along a pipe. The first large-scale Venturi meters to
measure liquid flows were developed by Clemens Herschelat the end of the 19th
century. The fluid moving through the Venturi meter accelerates in the direction of the
tapering contraction with the highest increase in the velocity in the throat. A fluid's
velocity must increase as it passes through a constriction to satisfy the principle of
continuity, while its pressure must decrease to satisfy the principle of conservation of
energy. That is, the velocity of the fluid increases as the cross sectional area
decreases. This increase in velocity leads to a fall in pressure. The drop in pressure
depends on the flow rate. In this experiment, energy losses and flow rates will be
analyzed using the Venturi meter, then the continuity equation will be used to
compute velocities at several points in the tube. The Bernoulli principle is also
essential to be used with the Venturi meter results to determine the discharge. The
Bernoulli equation is important because it provides the means to calculate the fluid
pressures from the velocity. The principle of the equation was stated by Daniel
Bernoulli in the eighteenth century and is based on the conservation of energy. orifice
plates are most commonly used to measure flow rates in pipes, when the fluid is
single-phase (rather than being a mixture of gases and liquids, or of liquids and solids)
and well-mixed. they are also used to reduce pressure or restrict flow, in which case
they are often called restriction plates.

Equipment

1. A Venturi meter connected to an orifice plate and a rotameter (Bernoulli


apparatus).
2. An orifice plate.
3. A water supply.
4. A chronometer (stop watch).
5. A Hydraulic bench, on which the jet apparatus rests.

Figure 1-venturi meter , orifice plate,rotameter

Procedure
1. Set the flow rate.
2. Determine the piezometric head by recording the level in the piezometer tubes.
3. Measure the flow rate by measuring the time needed to fill 5 L and dividing the
volume (5 L) by the time obtained.
4. Take the reading of the bob on the rotameter.
5. Change the flow rate and repeat the same procedure for three trials in total.

Figure 2-piezometric readings

Figure 3-bob of rotameter

DATA COLLECTED

Table 1- readings collected

Manometer levels (m)


Volume
(m3)
0.005
0.005
0.005

Time
(s)

rotame
ter

32.28

0.32
8

0.30
4

0.32
2

0.32
6

0.32
8

0.3

0.30
4

0.20
2

0.055

22.53

0.28
8

0.23
8

0.28
2

0.28
4

0.28
8

0.22
8

0.24

0.23
8

0.098

17.49

0.23
2

0.15
4

0.22
4

0.22
6

0.23
2

0.14
2

0.15
6

0.15
4

0.111

CALCULATIONS

1- Calculating Q using the definition of volume per unit time :

Q=

Volume filled
time

For trial 1 :
V1 = 5 L

5103
Q = 32.28

t1 = 32.28 s

= 0.00015489

m3
s

2- Calculating Q using the venturimeter :


Assuming that : z = 0

The Bernoulli equation becomes:

V 12
2g

h1 +

= h2 +

V 22
2g

= h2 +

Q
A2

where

V1=

Q
A1

and V2 =

Q
A2

h1 +

Q 2
)
A1
2g

2g (h1-h2) =

Q=

Q2

1
1
2
( A 2 - A 12 )

2 g (h 1h 2)
1
1
( 2 2)
A2 A1

For trial 1 between B and C :

Q calculated =

2 g (h 1h 2)
1
1
( 2 2)
A2 A1

2 g(0.3220.304)
1
1
(

)
2
dC
dB2
4
4

= 0.000129101

m
s

Q me asured 0.00015489
=
=
Cd = Q calculated 0.000129101
1.199794269

%Error =( |1Cd| )*100=( 1.1997942691 100= 19.97942685

Head loss:

H 1 H 2= h 1+

H (A) H (D) =

0.354+

V 12
V 22
h 2+
2g
2g

)(

0 .3310136112
0. 3261898072
0.348+
2 9.81
2 9.81

)(

= 0.004823805 m

3-calculating Q using the orifice plate where losses are considered:


after similar derivation as above :

P 1 V 12
P 2 V 22
+
+z 1=
+
+ z 2 + H

2g

2g

(accounting for losses)

P1 P2
V 22 V 12

H =

2 g 2g

P1 P2
V 22 V 12

C 2=

2g
2g

2g C

Q=

(h1-h2) = Q

(V1=

Q
A 1 ; V2=

Q
A2 )

1
1
( A 22 - A 12 )

2 g (h 1h 2)
1
1
( 2
)
2
A2 A 1

10

For trial 1 between F and G :

Q=

0.601

29.81(0.240.228)
1
1
(

)
2
0.000314159 0.002115562

m3
s

= 5.35 E-05

Q me asured 0.00015489
=
=
Cd = Q calculated 5.35 E05
2.9

%Error =( |1Cd| )*100=( 2.91 100= 189.5946196

Head loss: H (E) H (G) =

0.328+

0.253 2
0.2532
0.304 +
2 9.81
2 9.81

)(

= 0.024 m

4- Calculating through the rotameter

Mass flow rate is deduced from graph .


For trial 1:
Manometer scale reading = 5.5cm corresponding to 0.175 kg / m3
mass flow rate
0.175
=
Q Rotameter =
= 998.2
water

0.000175316 m3/s

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Cd =

0.000175316
=
0.883519207
0.000140252

%Error= (0.883519207-1)*100= 11.64807931%

RESULTS

Table 2-measured flow

Time (s)
32.28
22.53
17.49

Flow rate: Q
measured (m3/s)
0.000154895
0.000221926
0.000285878

Table 3- venturi calculations

hc (m)

Area B (m2)

Area C (m2)

g (m/s2)

Q calculated venturi (m3/s)

0.322
0.282
0.224

0.000201062
0.000201062
0.000201062

0.000530929
0.000530929
0.000530929

9.81
9.81
9.81

0.000129101
0.000201846
0.000254591

Table 4- coefficient of discharge and error

Coefficient of
discharge Cd

% Error

1.199794269

19.97942685
12

1.099484298
1.122891339

9.948429832
12.2891339

Table 5- head loss in venturi

hD
(m)

Velocity A
(m/s)

Velocity D
(m/s)

0.32
6
0.28
4
0.22
6

0.24316055
1
0.38017469
3
0.47951907
2

0.06102462
2
0.09541028
3
0.12034217
8

g
(m/s2
)
9.81
9.81
9.81

HA(m)

HD(m)

Head loss HA HD
(m)

0.331013
611
0.295366
605
0.243719
599

0.326189
807
0.284463
972
0.226738
137

0.004823805
0.010902634
0.016981463

Table 6-orifice calculations

h at G
(m)
0.304
0.24
0.156

Area F
(m2)
0.00031415
9
0.00031415
9
0.00031415
9

Area G
(m2)
0.00211555
6
0.00211555
6
0.00211555
6

g
(m/s2)
9.81
9.81
9.81

C
0.60
1
0.60
1
0.60
1

Q calculated orifice
(m3/s)
5.35E-05
9.26E-05
1.00E-04

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Coefficient of discharge Cd
3.50E+00
3.00E+00
2.50E+00
Coefficient of discharge Cd

2.00E+00
1.50E+00
1.00E+00
5.00E-01
0.00E+00
4.00E-05 6.00E-05 8.00E-05 1.00E-04 1.20E-04

Graph 1- coefficient of discharge vs discharge

Table 7- flow calculations from rotameter

rotameter scale Reading


(cm)

Mass Flow of Water


(kg/s)

Density of water
(kg/m3)

5.5

0.175

998.2

9.8

0.24

998.2

11.1

0.31

998.2

Q
rotameter
calculate
d (m3/s)
0.000175
316
0.000240
433
0.000310
559

14

rotameter scale Reading (cm)


12
10
8

Manometer scale
Reading (cm)

6
4
2
0
0

Graph 2- rotameter reading vs dischrage

Table 8- coefficient of discharge vs. error

Q calculated
rotameter (m3/s)

Coefficient of
discharge Cd

% Error

0.000175316
0.000240433
0.000310559

0.883519207
0.923028555
0.920526015

11.64807931
7.697144548
7.947398513

DISCUSSION

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Using the venturi meter to measure the flow , we obtained a value of 0.000129101
m3
s corresponding to an error of 19.97 % for trial 1. This error increased immensely
when we used the orifice plate to calculate
the flow , where we obtained for trial 1 a flow of 5.53*10 -5 corresping to an error of
189 % .In the rotameter
we reached a flow of 0.000175316 m3/s corresponding to an error of 11.64 % .
These results obtained showed that the orifice plate has lead to the highest error percentage. Besides the
sources of error during the experiment , which could be reading errors while measuring the flow or
instrumental errors from the hydraulic bench itself , the cross section of the orifice is very small which
results in high error values in the slightest deviations. But when using the rotameter, the acceptable
percentage of error is the result of using a theoretical given graph and relatively big values ( 5.5 cm ) .
Moreover , only in the rotameter we obtained coefficients of discharge smaller than
unity (0.88 , 0.92 and
0.92) while in the other methods the coefficients were larger than one ( 1.19 , 1.09 ,
..).
Both observations show that the rotameter makes the best way between those three
methods to measure the flow. Nevertheless , sources of error must always be taked
care of to make this rotameter as accurate as possible taking in consideration the
losses in the heads .

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Conclusion

Flow measurement is necessary for the transportation of fluid and is nowadays


possible due to the invention of the Venturi meter, the Rotameter and the Orifice
Plate. Head loss due to viscous effects generated by the surface of the pipe which can be computed using
to Bernoullis equation should be taken in consideration in the planning stage, knowing
that the losses in vertical pipes are by far higher than in horizontal pipes.
The Venturi meter, the orifice meter and the rotameter play important roles in
computing several characteristics of fluids such as velocity, head pressures, and flow
rates... Taking into account the many types of errors that could have occurred during
the experiment, and after comparing the values of coefficient of discharge and
percent error, it can be concluded that the results obtained show that the rotameter is
the most accurate among all three methods.

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REFERENCES

Flow Meters. (2014, 10 29). Retrieved from Gilson Engineering Sales of Florida:
http://www.gilsoneng.com/reference/flowmeter.pdf

Kambe, T. (2007). Elementary Fluid Mechanics. World Scientific Publishing.

Abiaad,M. (2014). Instructor. Flow Measurement. LAU.

Street, R. L., Watters, G. Z., & Vennard, J. K. (1996). Elementary FLuid Mechanics. New
York: John Wiley and Sons.

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