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Vehicle Engineering

Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
The powertrain and the need for gears

Gears, Clutches and Transmissions


Vehicle Engineering (ME30217/ME50223)
Semester 1 / 2014-15
Dr RD Burke

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

The powertrain and the need for gears .......................................................................................... 2


Gears ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Manual Transmissions .................................................................................................................. 16
Automatic Transmission ............................................................................................................... 21
Differentials................................................................................................................................... 28
Clutches and Torque convertors ................................................................................................... 31
Further Reading ............................................................................................................................ 37
Recommended videos................................................................................................................... 37

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The powertrain and the need for gears

1 The powertrain and the need for gears


1.1 Powertrain components and layouts
A powertrain refers to the complete propulsion system of a
vehicle from the fuel in the tank to the tyres contacting the road.
Conventional powertrains are based around an internal
combustion engine which is supplied with liquid fuel from a tank
via a hydraulic pumps and with combustion air by a more or less
sophisticated air management system. The mechanical output
shaft of the engine has linked to the wheels via a transmissions
system comprising a gear box and differential. The transmission
system is designed to match the work generated by the engine with that required to propel the
vehicle. The onset of hybrid vehicle is making the job of transmissions more and more complex as
they are required to control the flow of mechanical power between at least three but possibly more
components (Engine, wheels, electric motor(s), mechanical flywheel,)
A separate section of this course is dedicated to hybrid vehicle layouts, while here we will focus on
conventional layouts. The most common layouts for passenger and light commercial vehicles are
illustrated below. Front wheel drive installation with transverse engine is the most common on
smaller and lower cost vehicles as it is the cheapest installation. However, with larger engines and
gearboxes, space constraints can become significant. Higher end cars and higher power vans will
tend to have a rear wheel drive setup which reduces (somewhat) the space constraints, but
increases the cost and the need for a driveshaft to the rear of the vehicle. There is also the need to a
90o change in power direction at the rear axle.

Differential

Rear Wheel Drive


Longitudinal installation
North/South

Front Wheel Drive


Transverse installation
East/West

4 Wheel Drive

1.2 Why we need gears in a vehicle


Gears in the powertrain fulfil a number of tasks that are vital for the operation of the vehicle. Firstly
they transmit the mechanical power from one location to another. Secondly they allow for the
change in direction of the vehicle (reverse gear). Combustion engines are directional components
and can only operate in one direction, therefore gearing is required to allow for changing the

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The powertrain and the need for gears

direction of rotation at the wheels. Gears also change the rotational speed and the magnitude of
transmitted torque depending on the relative sizing of the gears. In a typical saloon car, the engine
will happily operate between 1000-6500rpm (petrol) or 1000-4500rpm (Diesel), generating a torque
between 0-250Nm. At the wheels, the speed requirement will depend on wheel radius and
rotational speed will typically very between 0-2000rpm (0-180km/h) whilst the required torque may
reach 3000Nm for a steep hill pull away. The gears therefore allow the engine power to be
modulated between different vehicle demands. In rear and 4 wheel drive applications, the gearing
system allow for the change in angle of the shafts.
The selection of gear ratios is a complex problem that needs to take into account a number of
vehicle level requirements:
Achieve pull away in worst case conditions (max vehicle weight including any towing,
maximum gradients) Matching torque to pull-away requirements
Achieve target acceleration in first gear
Smooth progression of vehicle speed from stand still to cruising speed
Good matching of engine operating points at typical cruising speeds to ensure good fuel
economy
At any operating condition, we can apply Newtons law of motions to a vehicle taking into account
rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, acceleration forces
and gradient forces:

Friction between tire and


ground (rolling resistance)

Gradient force

Aerodynamics

Acceleration

And

Torque (axle)

Where Ft is the tractive force (N),


m is vehicle mass (kg),
Cr is the rolling resistance coefficient,
is the air density,
A is the vehicle frontal area,
Cd is the drag coefficient,
v is the vehicle velocity (m/s),
a is the acceleration (m/s2)
is the axle torque (Nm)
is the rolling radius of the wheel/tyre (m)
An engine speed map is defined as the operating
area of the engine in terms of speed and torque.
An example is shown opposite for an engine that
can operate between 800-5500rpm delivering a
maximum torque between 100-140Nm.

Typical engine operating map

This map can then be plotted onto a tractive force curve showing the possible operation of the
vehicle for given gear ratios. The upper part of the tractive force curve plots the required tractive
force against vehicle speed. Firstly, lines of constant power have been plotted between 10-130kW

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ME30217/ME50223
The powertrain and the need for gears

these are the hyperbolic curves that are simply obtained as the product of speed and tractive force.
Secondly, the required tractive force for gradients ranging from 0 to 100% have been plotted. These
are almost flat lines but actually quadratic due to the squared term in the aerodynamic drag
calculation. Finally, for each gear (6 in this case) the tractive force that would be obtained with
maximum engine torque has been plotted. These 6 curves represent the highest tractive force that
could be obtained by running the engine with that particular gear ratio. It should be noted that the
engine does not have to run at its maximum torque level, and could operate anywhere below these
lines. The bottom plot shows the engine speed as a function of vehicle speed for each gear. As the
engine has a limited speed range (in this case 1000-5000rpm), there is a limitation in the vehicle
speeds depending on the gear selection.

15000

110kW
70kW 90kW
130kW

Tractive Force and Running Resistance (N)

50kW

1st
30kW
10000

100%
80%
60%
2nd
40%

5000
3rd

20%

10kW

10%

4th

0%

Engine Speed (rev/min)

5th

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

6th

160

180

200

Vehicle Speed (km/h)

2000
6th
5th

4000
1st
6000
0

20

40

60

2nd
80

100

4th

3rd
120

140

160

180

200

Vehicle Speed (km/h)

Tractive Force plot

The selection of the first gear will primarily depend on the pull away requirements balanced with the
need for the maximum speed in gear 1 not to be too low. The top gear can equally fairly easily be
determined based on the maximum speed requirement of the vehicle. Both these are easily
determined based on the tractive force diagram. Often other gear ratios are selected to promote
fuel economy during cruising and often the highest gear would be labelled an economy gear. To
illustrate the benefit of this we return to the engine operating map previously presented. Now we
can plot on lines of constant vehicle speed (assuming the vehicle is running on a flat surface). These
lines for different speeds indicated all the possibilities of engine operation point as we vary the
transmission ratio. On top of these lines, we can plot the required engine torque to drive the vehicle
across the engine speed range. This is represented for 5th gear by the solid line. The intersection of
this line with the cruise speed lines is the operating point for that given gear ratio. The effect of
including an additional 6th gear with a different ratio is to move the operation point for each of the
cruises to a different place on the operating map. The aim of an economy gear would be to shift this
point to a more favourable location in terms of fuel economy.

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Disadvantage of 6th gear:

ME30217/ME50223
Gears

Torque margin

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

th

- lines were designed for


flat surface and if driver
encounters gradient, the
torque margin reduces and
therefore acceleration
required for that gradient
will not be possible

Possible 6 Gear
5th Gear

A factor that needs to be considered when selecting an economy gear is the torque margine. This is
the amount of reserve torque available to the engine to allow the vehicle to accelerate from the
cruise condition in the case of an overtaking manoeuvre, or that may be required if the vehicle is
confronted with an uphill gradient. Typically engines operate more fuel efficiently nearer to their
maximum torques (as engine friction becomes a lower proportion of total work), therefore a more
economical operating point will typically result in a smaller torque margin.
In older vehicle applications, intermediate gears were selected typically around one of two criteria:
Arithmetic progression: Constant vehicle speed increase for each gear.
Geometric progression: Constant engine speed range for each gear.
However, with the importance of fuel economy for todays vehicles, intermediate gear ratio
selection has become similar to the selection of economy gears in order to provide good fuel
economy at intermediate cruising speeds. Typically these points will be chosen to match those
required by the legislative procedures which in Europe will be the New European Drive Cycle.

2 Gears
2.1 Gears types and geometry
Different types of gears exist and are suited to different applications. The simplest form are spur
gears which have straight teeth and allow transmission between two parallel shafts. However helical
gears are more commonly used in automotive gear boxes. Helical gears have the advantage that
they can be used to transmit power between two non-parallel shafts; in automotive gearboxes they
are used as they are less noisy than spur gears. One disadvantage is that they produce an axial
loading on the shaft which must be supported by an appropriate bearing system.

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Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts using teeth on conical surfaces where
the teeth can be straight or spiral. Hapoidal gears appear similar in shape, however they can operate
between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are an additional example of transmission between
non intersecting shafts and offer a high speed ratio (typically greater than 3), however they can only
be driven from the worm to the wheel.
The main terminology for gear systems is shown in the figure below. The pitch diameter is the
diameter of which a pure rolling action would transmit the same motion as the gear. The teeth are
split into two parts by the pitch line: the addendum is the radial length between the pitch circle and
the top land and the dedendum is the radial length between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Gear nomenclature

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Gear teeth shapes are most commonly involutes extending from the base circle. This ensures that
the teeth are thickest at the root (giving good strength) and maintain a constant pressure angle (see
below). The involute geometry is an unwinding of a cord of a circle and best described by
considering a spool of wire. If a pen is attached to the end of the wire, and it is unwound whilst
maintaining the wire taut, then the shape that will be drawn is an involute.

The involute curve defining the shape of a gear tooth is obtained by unwinding a circle arc

The number of teeth on a gear (N) depends on the diameter of the gear (D) and the size of the teeth.
The circular pitch (p) is defined as the arc round the pitch circle between the same point on two
teeth:
Assume diameter always refers to pitch diameter

The diametral pitch (pd)is the number of teeth per unit diameter

And the module (m) is defined as

Standard modules exist in the metric system ranging from 0.5 to 6 and typically gears are designed
with a minimum of 12 teeth.

Standard gear teeth sizes

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Gears

2.2 Forces and Stresses in Meshing gears


In a pair of mating gears, it is common to refer to the smaller gear as the pinion (the larger gear
having no such special name). When the mating gears are operating, the speeds of the two gears are
related by the gear ratio i as a function of speeds ( ), pitch diameters (d) or number of teeth (N):

Gear ratios are easily combined in gear trains as


follows:
(

)(

)(

The forces acting on the gears are as follows if it is


assumed that the larger gear is the driving gear:
A torque is applied to the input shaft. The
meshing teeth cause a desirable force Ft at
the interface which results in a torque
on
the output shaft.
A somewhat less desirable force Fs tends to
separate the two shafts. It will be shown this
is a result of the shape of the teeth and the
angle of pressure
Finally, if the gears are helical, then opposing
axial forces Fa will apply to each shaft.

Looking closed at the point of contact between the


two gears, the force is transmitted along through the
involute profiles at the point of contact along an axis
at an angle with the tangent to the pitch circle at
the point of contact.
If frictional losses are neglected, then the tangential
force is related to the input and output torques:

The total force at the contact area is

Therefore:
Torque 1/ Torque 2 = - R1/R2 = 1/i

Richard Burke

But, in practice: Torque1 / R1 > Torque 2 /R2


due to friction losses

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And

The power input is given by

And the output, where

is the efficiency of the transmission

A simple efficiency model is the Tulpin efficiency which states:

Another important point is the effect gears have on the inertia of the total system perceived by one
end of the drive chain, this is referred to as reflected inertia. If two shafts A and B, with total inertias
IA and IB, support mashing gears with NA and NB teeth respectively, then the perceived inertia of the
total system at shaft A is given by:

Similarly, the total inertia perceived on shaft B will be given by

Why internal gears preferred over external gears?


- Contained in a sealed unit. This means theyre completely protected from water, dirt, road salt and grime
- Internal gear hubs are easier to maintain than standard external gears
- With an internally geared hub you can actually shift gears while stationary

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Gears

During the operation of gears, two major key stress locations on the tooth can be identified: the
contact stress on the face of the tooth and the bending stress at the root of the tooth.

Contact Stress on
tooth face

Bending Stress at
tooth root

The bending stress

can be estimated using Lewis formula:

Where:
is the tangential force on tooth (N)
is the face width
is the Lewis Form Factor
is the module
is the dynamic factor
The dynamic factor can be estimated simply from:

The Lewis Form Factor is given from tables:


N Teeth
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
26

Richard Burke

Y
0.22961
0.24317
0.25531
0.26622
0.27611
0.28508
0.29327
0.30078
0.30769
0.31406
0.31997
0.33056
0.33979

N Teeth
28
30
34
38
45
50
60
75
100
150
300
Rack

10/37

Y
0.34791
0.35511
0.36731
0.37727
0.39093
0.39861
0.41047
0.42283
0.43574
0.44931
0.46364
0.47897

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The contact stress can also be calculated from the empirical formula

Where
The dynamic factor accounts for the impact of the
teeth as they mate, even during steady speed
running. This is caused by the inevitable clearance
between the gears. As two mating pairs separate
there will no longer be any force transmitted
between the two gears and the driven gear will
decelerate until the next pair come into contact. It
is this impact that is being accounted for. Although
a simple equation is suggested above, this factor
depends strongly on the quality of the gear and the
pitch line velocity and charts are available based on
gear quality classification.
In Helical gears, there is an additional axial force
induced by the angle of the gears. Although this
geometry can reduce impact effects which will both
reduce noise and can improve durability, it is more
expensive and the axial force must be supported by
a suitable bearing system. These gears create an
axial force on the shaft such that:

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Gears
EXAMPLE

A gear A has a diameter of 50mm with module 2.5mm and a face width of 30mm. An input torque of
100Nm is applied to the shaft. Assuming low speed operation, what is the bending stress on the
tooth? What would the bending stress be if the input speed was 5000rev/min?
When the speed is low, the dynamic factor Kv1
The tangential force is given by:

The number of teeth is given by:

Hence from the table, the Lewis ford factor is 0.30769

At 5000rev/min,
(

So

Therefore the bending stress would become

It should be noted that the bending stress is above that for mild steel meaning careful selection of
materials and heat treatments are required.
Now, let gear B, meshing with gear A, have a diameter D=100mm, assuming all other conditions are
equal, calculate the contact stress.
Firstly we calculate the ratio of diameters, h in the contact stress equation

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Then, taking values from the previous calculation

The contact stress is three times greater than the tooth bending stress

The stresses in gears cause different failure modes, the most common being pitting of the surface
and root cracking of the teeth. Both were discussed in more detail in the Tribology section of this
course. It should be noted that quite often root cracking will be initiated at a point of pitting where
the surface has already been damaged.

The gap between the teeth that causes the need for dynamic factors when calculating the stresses
can also cause errors in motion when gears change direction. This gap must be closed before force
can be transferred in the new direction, and causes a level of hysteresis where the driving gear will
move without any response from the driven gear.

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2.3 Gear Materials


A range of materials can be used for manufacturing gears for a range of applications in the vehicle
from the transmissions gears in the powertrain to small gears in a servo motor controlling the
actuator of a VGT mechanism. The material of choice depends strongly on the applications and the
table below summarises different materials that have been used for gears.
Material
Acetal (Delrin)

Non metals
Notes
Wear resistance, low water absorption

Phenolic laminates

Low cost, low quality, moderate strength

Nylons
PTFE

No lubrication, absorbs water


Low friction and no lubrication

Material
Cast Iron

Ferrous Metals
Notes
Low Cost and easy to machine with high
damping

Cast Steels

Low cost and reasonable strength

Plain Carbon Steels

Good machining and can be heat treated

Alloy Steels

Heat treated to provide highest strength and


durability

Stainless Steel
(Aust)
Stainless Steels
(Mart)

Material
Aluminium Alloys
Brass Alloys
Bronze Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel alloys
Titanium alloys

Good corrosion resistance and non-magnetic


Hardenable, Reasonable corrosion resistance,
magnetic

Non- Ferrous Metals


Notes
Light weight, non-corrosive and good
machinability
Low cost, non-corrosive, excellent
machinability
Excellent machinability, low friction and good
compatibility with steel
Light weight but poor corrosion resistance
Low coefficient of thermal expansion. Poor
machinability
High strength, low weight, good corrosion
resistance

Di Cast Alloys

Low cost with low precision and strength

Sintered powder
alloys

Low cost, low quality, moderate strength

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Applications
Long life low load up to commercial quality
High production, low quality to moderate
commercial quality
Long life and low loads with commercial quality
Special low friction gears to commercial quality

Applications
Large to moderate power in commercial
applications
Power gear with medium rating to commercial
quality
Power gears with medium rating to
commercial/medium quality
Highest power requirement in precision and high
precision applications
Corrosion resistance with low power rating up to
precision quality
Low to medium power ratings, up to high
precision quality

Applications
Light duty instrument gears up to high precision
quality
Low cost commercial quality gears up to medium
quality
For use with steel power gears. Quality up to high
precision
Light weight low load gears. Quality up to
medium precision
Special gears with thermal application with
commercial quality
Special light weight, high strength gears to
medium quality
High production, low quality gears to commercial
quality
High production, low quality to moderate
commercial quality

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The surface hardness of the gear determines the


limiting contact stress that can be tolerated. For
metal gears, various treatments can be applied to
modify the properties of the gear for particular
applications. These are listed in the table below.

Surface
treatment

Carburising

Suitable base
metal
Steels less
than 2%
carbon

Description
Carbon content of
surface layer increased
using solid, liquid or
gaseous medium

Typical
hardness
(Vickers Hv)
800

Nitriding

Nitriding
steels

Diffusion of Nitrogen in
o
the surface (520-560 C)

900-1150

Plasma
Nitriding

Alloy Steels

Bombarding surface
with nitrogen ions at
o
400-600 C

900-1250

Sulfinuz

All ferrous
metals
including
stainless

Salt bath treatment at


o
540-600 C introducing
carbon, nitrogen and
sulphur

400

Boriding

Steels, cast
irons

Formation of borides in
surface layer at 800o
900 C

1200-1760

Electroplated
Chromium

All metals

Electroplating

950

Typical size

Advantages and
disadvantages

0.5mm depth

0.3mm depth

0.3mm with
surface groth
of 25m
Size change
from -5m to
+3m.
Effective 425m

Increases surface hardness


and leaves residual
compressive stresses in
surface. Give good
resistance to scuffing
As for nitriding. Also give
low distortion
Gives good scuffing
resistance and some
reduction in friction but
reduces corrosion resistance

30m to
0.3mm

Gives good sliding wear


resistance

Thickness
increased
0.01-0.5mm

Appropriate plating
conditions are needed to
avoid cracks in the plating
which are undesirable and
any detached particles
become abrasive

The material selection for transmission gears requires a number of factors:


-

Hard and wear resistant surfaces


Resistance to tooth root bending fatigue
Resistance to surface fatigue to avoid pitting
A tough core
Dimensional accuracy to reduce noise, vibration and harshness through smooth meshing
Ability to transmit high loads within sensible size and weight constraints.

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The manufacturing process for gears requires a combination of forging, machining, heat treatment
and surface treatments. This complex route is continuously put under pressure to reduce costs by:
-

Better prediction of the distortion effect of heat treatment to eliminate hard machining
Reducing heat treatment times by using higher temperatures
Improving machinability

Equally, the manufacturing process must provide materials that have:


-

Controlled hardness: ensuring repeatability of mechanical properties


Controlled low silicon steels: improve the bending fatigue life by reducing internal oxidation
during carburising
Optimised sulphur content: balances the conflicting benefits of low sulphur for improved
bending fatigue and high sulphur for improved machinability
Inclusion modified steels: improve machining throughput rates with reduced tool wear
Clean steels: provide good fatigue resistance from a low overall inclusion content.

3 Manual Transmissions
3.1 Overview
Manual transmissions are transmissions where the driver has full control over the gear change both
in selecting when gear changes should occur and in providing the actions and forces to undertake
the gear changes. These gearboxes have a high mechanical efficiency and are relatively cheap to
manufacture. They also can be made relatively small and light weight. The fact that the driver has
control over the gear changes can be a highly subjective topic, however the driver dependency of
the system requires more involved learning to use the machines (gear change is a complex
manoeuvre) and this can result in a tiring driving experience. In addition, the gear ratios which are
set to deliver good fuel economy and emissions will be somewhat compromised if the driver selects
the wrong gear for any given driving conditions. Finally, manual gear changes means the driver
becomes a factor in drivability of the vehicle: firstly, this can limit the total number of gears to 6
using a selector fork mechanism and secondly this compromises the gear ratios as it should be
avoided the need to up shift too frequently during acceleration.

3.2 Layout and Components


Manual gearbox design is usually made up of two or three shafts. In a single stage gearbox, the gear
ratio is undertaken with a single set of gears for each gear. In a double stage, the gearbox will
incorporate a third layshaft and each gear ratio will be made up of one fixed gear ratio and one
variable. The example below shows a double stage layout where an initial fixed ratio exists between
the engine input and the layshaft, followed by the selectable ratio. All of the gears are then
constantly meshing, but not all rigidly linked to the output (or lay) shaft. In the example below, when
the vehicle is stopped and in neutral, but the engine idling, all of the gears will spin on the stationary
output shaft. When 1st gear is selected and the vehicle moving, the 1st gear on the layshaft will be
engaged with the output shaft and drive it; the other gears will all be spinning depending on their
respective ratios with the layshaft, however they will all be slipping on the output shaft.

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A gear ratio of 1 is referred to as direct drive,
where the output shaft of the gearbox is rotating
at the same speed as the engine input shaft and in
this case power is typically not passed through the
layshaft (although it does continue to rotate).
Gear ratios of less than 1, where the output shaft
rotates faster than the input shaft are referred to
as overdrive.

Example layout of a manual transmission

An excellent demonstration of a manual gearbox


is available at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOo3TLgL0k
M

A key point in the design of manual transmissions


is the selector mechanism. In road vehicles, the conventional route is to use a synchromesh which
synchronises the speed of the gearbox input shaft with the output shaft (linked to vehicle speed)
before the gears are engaged. Transmissions without a synchromesh do exist, using a crash or dog
engagement where the engager is forced into the gear directly. The output torque for both options
is shown below during a gear change:

In both cases, the initial gear selected is gear1, giving a similar torque output.
Synchromesh engagement: First the clutch pedal is depressed, causing a drop in torque and an
eventual torque reversal. The clutch remains depressed throughout the synchronisation process
whilst the shafts in the gearbox and the output plates of the clutch are accelerated or decelerated
depending on the ratio of the gear being selected. Note, the torque to accelerate/decelerate the
input shaft comes from the shift force. After synchronisation and engagement, the clutch can be reengaged giving a smooth torque recovery. This processes results in a smooth change which reduces
noise and wear in the gear box and improves the vehicle ride.
Dog engagement transmission: The clutch is again depressed causing a drop in output torque,
however with the dog transmission, the engagement must happen very quickly to ensure the teeth
are forced into the gears correctly. In this type of transmission, the clutch is also not fully depressed
and is reengaged very rapidly. This causes a spike in torque due to the inertia of the engine and
rotating parts, because they change speed quickly top match that of the output shaft. This inertia

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spike can be used to positively accelerate/decelerate the vehicle and also reduces the time when no
acceleration occurs due to clutch disengagement which is useful in racing applications. However, this
results in a harsher and noisier gear change.
The performance effect of a Dog engagement vs. synchromesh is shown below: The synchromesh
transmission causes a noticeable halt in the vehicle acceleration that can be avoided by the faster
shifts with the dog engagement.

Comparison of transient performance of a


synchromesh transmission and a crash
engagement transmission

When the vehicle is moving in a particular gear, as it has already been described, the selected gear is
locked with the output or layshaft. When a gear change is required, the current gear is disengaged,
however the new desired gear is sliding on the shaft, and this gear and the engaged shaft need to be
accelerated or decelerated to the same speed as the output shaft. This is the role of the
synchromesh that acts somewhat like a clutch.
The synchromesh is formed of a number of key parts as shown below. Firstly, the gears are rigidly
attached to a ring of drive dogs and an external cone, these are usually one part. The mating external
cone is usually a separate part called a baulk ring and may typically be made of bronze. The baulk
ring is attached to the hub of the synchromesh and rotated with the hub and shaft. An outer sleeve
with mating dogs moves towards the gears, compressing the baulk rings and then engages with the
drive dogs.

Richard Burke

18/37

2014

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
Manual Transmissions

Disengaged position
In the disengaged position, for example neutral
of an alternative gear selector, the hub of the
synchromesh is rotated with the shaft on which
it is mounted and the gears slide on this shaft at
different speeds depending on their relative
sizes.

Engaging

As the sleeve is moved towards the gear, it engages with


and compresses the baulk ring against the gear, engaging
the cone clutch. This provides a high torque for a given
axial load to accelerate or decelerate the gear and
connected shaft.

Engaged Position
As the sleeve moves further towards the gear dogs, it
engages fully with these due to the chamfers on the dog
teeth. This ensures the final stage of the gear engagement
and locks the gears together for power transmission
allowing for the clutch to be re-engaged.

Richard Burke

19/37

2014

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
Manual Transmissions

Some improvements to the synchromesh can be implemented to improve its performance and are
described below.
The cone surface can be threaded to allow for the removal of oil from between the two surfaces.
Special channels can also be manufactured to allow better oil flow. The surface is manufactured to
have a high coefficient of friction and surface treatments such as paper or metal spraying can be
used to enhance friction further or control wear.
The torque that is achieved from the cone surface is provided from the axial force provided by the
driver and dictates the time required to accelerate or decelerate the system before gear
engagement. It is therefore often desirable to increase this torque either to reduce the effort from
the driver or to reduce the synchronisation time and hence the shift time. This can also be achieved
by reducing the inertia of the clutch and shaft assemblies, but this will be limited by the power
transmission requirements of these components. To increase the synchronisation torques, a number
of routes are possible:
1. Increase the diameter of the synchroniser: This increases torque but is usually difficult due
to space constraints
2. Increase the lever ratio: This produces more shift force from a given driver effort, however it
will increase the travel distance of the lever
3. Change in lubrication oil: this can be impractical as single lubrication oil also lubricates gears
and transmission bearings
4. Increase friction of surface: increasing the cone friction is beneficial, but is usually a trade-off
with wear resistance
5. Use a twin or triple cone synchro: This increases the number of friction surfaces and is very
effective, however it does increase complexity and number of parts (and hence cost).
With manual transmission, if the effectiveness of the synchroniser is increased too greatly and it can
make shifting too easy which may result in inappropriate gear selection from the driver.

Comparison of single and triple cone synchromesh

Richard Burke

20/37

2014

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
Automatic Transmission

4 Automatic Transmission
4.1 Overview and types of transmissions
Automatic transmissions are transmission systems where the shifting of gears or the varying of gear
ratio is controlled by an automated process with no direct input from the driver. By removing the
need for the driver to change gears, the driving experience can be made more relaxing and cause
less fatigue, especially during city driving where gear changes occur frequently. By removing the
driver input, the gear shifting can be set by the vehicle manufacturer and used as a way of improving
fuel consumption and emissions by better matching the engine operating point to the vehicle
requirements. This may seem surprising as conventionally automated transmission were known for
poor fuel economy compared to manual. However, this was a result of the limited gear ratios in
older automatic transmissions which were limited to 3 or 4 ratios. However the latest gear boxes for
passenger cars have 8 or 9 gears- this number of gears would be difficult to implement in a manual
setup using a conventional shifting mechanism. Various types of automatic transmissions exist for
passenger vehicles and each will be discussed separately:
-

Conventional automatic
Automated manual transmission (AMT)
Dual Clutch transmission
Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

4.2 Automated Manual transmission


As the name suggests, this type of transmission is based on a manual transmission as described
above, however the clutch and shift forks are actuated by an electronic or hydraulic control system.
This approach maintains the high efficiency of the manual transmission but adds the ability to
dictate gear selection. The system is relatively inexpensive as the base manual transmission can be
used with an add-on automation system. The complexity of the automated manual transmission
stems entirely in the control of the gear changing process. The control system of an automated
manual transmission has to cope with the highly non-linear behaviour of the clutch yet still provide a
smooth transition. This is difficult enough for human drivers and is made more complex through the
aging of oils and clutch plates. Particularly challenging aspects can be hill starts and avoiding
aggressive launches. The clutch control during shifting is also of concern, and the tine required to
smoothly control the clutch is directly felt by the driver as an interruption in available torque from
the engine.

Renault Quickshift and Opel Easytronic are examples of automated manual transmissions

Richard Burke

21/37

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Vehicle Engineering
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ME30217/ME50223
Automatic Transmission

4.3 Dual clutch transmission


Dual clutch transmissions have, at some location
within them, a dual shaft arrangement whereby the
even gears are connected to one shaft and the odd
gears to the other. Each shaft can be connected to
the engine via a dual clutch arrangement. In this way
the gear box has two possible power paths. An
example layout is shown beside.

nd

2 clutch

Consider the situation where first gear is selected


and we will shortly be moving to 2nd gear. In this
case, the 1st clutch is engaged and the second clutch
depressed. The engine is therefore providing power
to the odd gear group and as the 1st gear is engaged
st
1 Clutch
on the layshaft, power is transferred through this
gear. The other gears are all slipping on the layshaft
as with a manual transmission. As the engine speed
Output shaft
increases and the transmission controller anticipates
an upshift to 2nd gear, this gear can be engaged on
LuK PSG (Parralel Shift Gearbox)
the layshaft whilst still transmitting power through
Transmission
the first gear. As the second gear is engaged, it will
start to drive the even gear group which is free to turn as the 2nd clutch is depressed. In the layout
above, the even group will then slip around the odd gear group shaft. With second gear preselected, the actual gear change consists simply of disengaging the 1st clutch and engaging the 2nd
clutch simultaneously. The final step of the upshift is to disengage 1st gear in anticipation of engaging
3rd gear for the next upshift.
The advantages of the dual shift transmission are clearly a very quick shift time with little or even no
torque interruption. It gives very good drivability such as a conventional automatic transmission, but
with the efficiency of a manual transmission. The down side is that these transmissions are
expensive, complex to build and the control of the two clutches can be problematic. Some example
designs are shown below.

Example Audi and Mercedes dual clutch transmissions

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22/37

2014

Vehicle Engineering
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ME30217/ME50223
Automatic Transmission

4.4 Conventional Automatic


Conventional automatic transmissions are typically built around planetary gear systems. These
planetary gear systems are made up of or a sun and ring gears contained within a ring gear. In some
cases more complex plant arrangements are designed to vary further the ratios. Planetary gears
arrangements have very high torque densities due to the large number of meshes.

The three shafts connected to the sun, carrier and annulus (ring) can all rotate at different rotational
speeds s, c and a. The ratio of speeds between the three axes is given by:

Where

Typically
The transmitted torques can be obtained by considering conservation of power and balancing of
torques on the device which if efficiency is assumed to be 100% is given by

If the carrier is clamped to the casing, then we have:

The input to output speed ratio is given by:

The output torque is therefore given by

And the clamping torque on the carrier

Richard Burke

23/37

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Vehicle Engineering
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ME30217/ME50223
Automatic Transmission

Similar expressions can be derived by considering the cases where the sun or annulus is clamped to
the casing. For each of these cases, the torque relationship is given by:

If two of the rotating elements are clamped together, then the transmission behaves as a direct
drive. For example, if the sun is clamped to the planet carrier:
The input to output speed ratio is given by:

The sun torque is 0Nm as this is not


connected to an output. Therefore:

A variety of other ratios are available using different combinations of locking of the planetary gears.
The following table list 6 possibilities where one of the shafts is held stationary with respect to the
casing.
INPUT

OUTPUT

LOCKED

Sun

Carrier

Ring

Sun

Ring

Carrier

Carrier

Sun

Ring

Carrier

Ring

Sun

Ring

Carrier

Sun

Ring

Sun

Carrier

RATIO

TYPICAL RANGE

Automatic transmissions make use of a number of these components arranged in sequence. In


manual transmissions, each gear ratio has its own corresponding meshing pair of gears. In an
automatic transmission, the gear ratios are achieved by restricting the motion of certain gears in
different sequences using clutches. A good example of a how the clutches are varied in a 6 speed
automatic gearbox is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ByVBBfEXWk. Some
examples are shown below and specifically notice the 4-wheel drive transmission (you should be
able to identify the Torsen Differential after reading all of these notes!).

Richard Burke

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Automatic Transmission

The automatic transmission also requires a flexible coupling between the transmission and engine to
allow modulation of engine speed as the clutches selecting the gear ratio are varied. Such device is
usually a torque convertor or a fluid flywheel which will be described later.

Example modern automatic transmissions

4.5 Continuously variable transmission


CVTs are special types of transmissions that allow stepless changes in gear ratio without torque
interruption over a range of ratios. As all ratios can be achieved, it is possible for the transmission to
hold the engine at a constant operating speed throughout the vehicle acceleration. As such, CVTs
offer improved benefits over automatic transmissions by increasing the number of ratios further.
Equally, the gear changes are automatic and therefore do not require driver intervention. However,
CVT drives are less efficient than gear systems and this offsets somewhat the benefits from
operating the engine at a high efficiency point. They are also more complex than gear systems and
result in an unconventional driving experience (vehicle accelerates at constant engine speed).
Two main types of mechanical CVTs exist: Traction drives and belt drives. Other forms of CVT can be
implemented through hydraulic or electrical couplings.
An illustration of the principle of a traction drive is shown below. Torque is transmitted through
elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication between the rollers and the input/output discs and no metal to
metal contact should occur. Under these lubrication regimes the fluid viscosity increases significantly
due to high pressures of the magnitude of 0.7-3.5GPa which cause it to behave somewhat like a
solid. So high are the pressures that the metal parts also deform locally to provide elliptical contact
patches.

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ME30217/ME50223
Automatic Transmission

Traction CVT in speed increasing setting

Traction CVT in speed reducing setting

The area of operation of the traction CVT can be plotted on a curve similar to the stribek curve seen
in the tribology section of the course. With low contact pressures, the rotating discs are able to form
a relatively large film thickness that corresponds to hydrodynamic lubrication. Under this regime, the
parts are well lubricated, and the traction coefficient is low. The coefficient of traction is identical to
the coefficient of friction, that is:

That is to say in a CVT, that the coefficient of traction determines, for a given clamping force holding
the rotating members together, the maximum torque that can be transmitted. It is always possible
to transmit lower torques, however if it is
attempted to transmit a higher torque, the
transmission will slip causing unwanted
shearing of the traction fluid resulting in
heat losses.
As the fluid film is reduced by applying
further contact pressure, the coefficient of
traction begins to rise to allow the
transmission of power. It continues to rise
throughout the hydrodynamic regime. The
coefficient of traction can rise further in the
boundary lubrication regime; however
operation in this regime will result in
contact and wear between components.

The variation of film thickness and traction coefficient


with contact pressure for traction CVT.

In a belt drive CVT, the variation in transmission ratio is achieved by varying the diameters of the
pulleys as shown below. The V shaped pulleys can be pushed closer together or further apart to
change the size of the pulleys. As one increases in size, the other will reduce as the belt cannot be
stretched. In order to have the necessary strength to transmit the engine power, the belt is made
from steel consisting of flexible bands supporting trapezoidal plates.

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Automatic Transmission

Belt driven CVT varies the transmission ratio using varying diameter pulleys. The belt is made from steel as it
needs to be strong enough to transmit full engine power

Another category of CVTs are infinitely variable transmissions which allow the transmission to pass
through zero and to reverse the output speed. They are typically achieved by combining a CVT with
an epicyclic transmission and these transmissions allow for the vehicle clutch or torque convertor
required for vehicle launch to be omitted. It is in fact the clutch within the epicyclic gear that allows
for the pull away characteristic.
The major disadvantage for the CVT system is that is has lower efficiency than a manual
transmission. Crucially, the efficiency of the transmission typically varies with the gear ratio with a
maximum which can approach the efficiency of a manual transmission. This lower efficiency tends to
offset the gains in engine performance from the CVT.

Efficiency of a CVT as a function


of gear ratio and transmitted
torque

There have been a number of CVT applications in vehicles. The most high profile perhaps being in
1993 Williams F1 tested a CVT system in their all-conquering 1992 car. This employed a belt drive
system and the key limit in development was building a belt strong enough to take the full engine
power. This could have changed the way the sport sounded with the cars continually operating at

Richard Burke

27/37

2014

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ME30217/ME50223
Differentials

high engine revs. However, the technology was banned before even getting to a race through two
rule regulations: The first imposing that cars have between 4 and 7 distinct ratios and subsequently
explicitly banning CVTs.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3UpBKXMRto
The Williams belt driven CVT could
have revolutionised Formula One.
Rule changes meant it never saw
competitive racing.

Other areas receiving current interest include the application of CVT systems to auxiliary
components such as superchargers, water and oil pumps where the power transfer is not so great.
Also, CVT are being trialled in turbo compounding applications, where the CVT links a turbine in the
exhaust system to the output shaft in order to capture otherwise waste heat from the exhaust gases.
In this case, the lower efficiency of the device is less problematic than without this system, the
efficiency of exhaust heat recuperation would be 0%.
The VanDyne SuperTurbo

1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbine
3. High speed drive
4. Compressor
5. CVT
6. Engine connexion

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D
Mz4MATUJxE

5 Differentials
The differential is a key component that allows two wheels on the same axle to rotate at different
speeds whilst both being able to receive power from the engine. This is crucial to allow different
wheel speeds during cornering for the inner and outer wheels. Before differentials, a single wheel
would be connected to the drive shaft, otherwise one of the wheels would be forces to slip on the
road during cornering.
A typical differential is shown below. The differential incorporates the final drive ratio through the
relative sizes of the drive pinion and the ring gear (also called crown gear). The ring gear is rigidly

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ME30217/ME50223
Differentials

connected to the housing, but free to rotate along the axles. The housing supports the differential
pinions which engage with the side gears. If the vehicle is moving straight with equal traction on
both wheels, then the pinions will not rotate about themselves but instead act as a rigid bevel gear
with both axles, rotating them at the same speed. If the vehicle encounters a corner, then the wheel
on the inside will slow down. This will cause the housing and ring gear to rotate about this axle. The
arrangement of the differential pinions will therefore accelerate the opposing axle which is driving
the wheel on the outside of the corner. The whole process is automatic requiring no external control
and this design is called an open differential.

Layout of an open differential. This allows wheels to rotate at different speed which is useful when cornering,
however if one wheel loses traction, the differential will promote wheel spin

The principle is best illustrated through a video and it is recommended to visit:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4JhruinbWc
However, in the situation where one of the wheels encounters a low traction situation, for example
an ice patch, the open differential will direct torque to that wheel as it will represent the path of
least resistance. In extreme cases, it can be imagined that the high traction wheel could stall whilst
the low friction wheel spins freely on the low traction surface.
To solve this issue, limited slip differentials have been invented. These allow for some difference in
angular velocity between the output shafts, but impose some mechanical limits on the difference in
speeds. The basic design is similar to that of an open differential, however an additional mechanism
is incorporated that resists the relative motion of the two axles. This resisting force can be provided
in a number of ways:
- Clutch mechanism between the axle gears and the differential housing. This mechanism can
be spring loaded (fixed slip limit), passively activated (varying slip depending changes in
driving torque) or electronically actuated.
- Viscous effects (tends to give a limiting response relative to shaft speed), although these
systems are more gradual than mechanical clutches, they tend to be less reliable and wear
out sooner.

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Differentials

Limited slip differentials have a mechanism to induce friction between the two axles and the housing to
limit speed difference between axles and avoid wheel spin in low traction environments that is
encountered with open differentials

A special type of limited slip differential is the Torsen (TORque SENsing) differential. As with other
types of limited slip differentials, the limiting slip is provided by a frictional force between the axles
when rotating at different speeds. This device uses a series of helical gears that create axial loads on
the different shafts of the differential depending on the level of torque being transmitted through
the differential These axial loads tend to push the different shafts against each other or against the
supporting housings. The resulting frictional forces tend to limit the slip between the axis. The
limiting slip ratios can be defined by the friction characteristics of the different surfaces and the
shapes of the helical gears (that affect the magnitude of the axial forces). There are four major
sources of friction as shown below:
1. Between Worm gear and worm wheel teeth
2. Between Worm Wheel face and differential housing (Between axle and diff housing)
3. Between Worm wheel face and worm wheel face (directly between axles)
4. Between the spur gears on the layshafts and the differential housing.
Worm wheels cause
faces of spur gears to be
pushed against
differential housing

Worm gears and worm


wheels engage and slide
against each other

The TORSEN differential is a purpose built limited slip differential

Richard Burke

30/37

Worm gears cause their faces


to be pushed against each
other (both axles) or against
the differential housing

2014

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
Clutches and Torque convertors

An alternative way to achieve a similar effect to a limited slip differential is to use the vehicle braking
system to independently brake one of the wheels. Although this is less complex from a differential
perspective, it does result in brake wear.
Finally, for off road vehicles which encounter low traction environments more often, fully locking
differentials can be implemented. These mechanisms effectively stop the differential from behaving
like a differential by linking the motion of the two shafts. Some systems may need to be manually
engaged by the driver whereas other system may use electronic or mechanical control systems to
engage the locking automatically if excessive slip is detected between the two axles.

6 Clutches and Torque convertors

6.1 Friction Clutches


Clutches and torque convertors are required in
manual and automatic transmission to fully or
partially disengage the engine from the gearbox
to allow shifting.
In a manual transmission vehicle, a clutch,
controlled by the driver, allows for the smooth
transition of engine speed during gear changes
and for the vehicle to start from rest. The clutch
is composed of a number of friction plates that
are splined to the gearbox input shaft. These
plates rub against mating surfaces attached to
the engine flywheel. Spring clamps compress
these plates together when the clutch is
released to link the plates together and transmit
the engine torque.

Layout of a typical friction clutch used in


conjunction with manual transmissions

The driven plate is splined to the input shaft to


transmit the engine torque when engaged. This
driven plate should be designed to have minimal
inertia to improve pick up from the engine but
also it is this inertia that must be overcome by
the synchromesh during gear changes. The plate
also incorporates torsional damper springs that
provides a level of compliance during
engagement and reduces shock loadings on the
gear box.
Further springs are installed between the plate and the friction material. These springs assist in the
modulation of torque during engagement giving a progressive increase in torque. Older clutches to
not have these features and are noticeably vicious to modern drivers.

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Clutches and Torque convertors

Clutches can be either wet or dry. Dry clutches offer better friction because the oil used in wet
clutches reduces the coefficient of friction. However, this oil also reduces the wear of the clutch
during slipping and offers liquid cooling of the clutch. Wet clutches are more controllable than dry
clutches, meaning they are often used in automated transmissions.
The torque capacity of a clutch can be calculated if
the friction coefficient, clamping load and
dimensions are known.

Where Torque capacity is in Nm, is the friction


coefficient, N is the number of friction surfaces
(normally 2 per plate), F is the axial load (N) and Rm
is the effective radius of the friction lining.
The mean effective radius is given as a function of
the inner and outer radius of the lining material, Ro
and Ri respectively:

When designing a clutch, clearly it needs to be able to transmit the maximum torque of the engine
without slipping. If a clutch was designed to exactly meet the maximum engine torque, it would be
said to have a cover factor of 1. However, in practice engine torque fluctuates as individual cylinders
fire and the instantaneous peak torque is somewhat larger than the average peak torque over a
number of firing cycles. The problem is accentuated at lower engine speeds where more time occurs
between firing. Typically a cover factor of 2 is sensible.
To influence the torque capacity of a clutch, the designer can:
-

Vary the number of plates: in practice, increasing the number of plates can have an adverse
effect on the clamping force because of wedging and friction between them and their
holders. Therefore clutches with more than 6 plates (N=12) are uncommon.
Increase clamping load: In a dry clutch this is a spring load that must be overcome by the
driver when depressing the clutch pedal. In a wet clutch this is often provided by a hydraulic
piston and is therefore related to the area of the piston and the supplied pressure. Although
there a less limits on the pressure, the friction material will have a limit not to be exceeded.
Choice of friction material: This is highly specialised and the subject of much research.
Sintered metals offer food heat and wear resistance and can withstand high clamping loads.
Other materials are used that combine different fibres and fillers that can produce higher
friction coefficients, better static to dynamic friction ratio and help reduce clutch judder.

During clutch engagement, heat will be generated owing to the friction whilst slipping occurs. The
heat is generated by the transfer or torque between the slipping plates of the clutch. This can be
calculated by calculating the friction work done on the clutch plates during engagement. In dry
clutches, conduction to the casing and ultimately external convection is the cooling route. If

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ME30217/ME50223
Clutches and Torque convertors

excessive temperature levels are reached in the clutch (high heat generation and low external
cooling), then the friction material can degrade and the pressure plate can warp. In wet clutches the
oil is a considerable cooling route.
The total heat generated during a slipping manoeuvre will depend on the shift time. The shift time is
typically a target time for a given manoeuvre and determines the acceleration required through the
gearbox. If the input to the gearbox is spinning at a constant speed
and the driven side is
initially spinning at a different speed
, then to achieve a shift time
, the output must be
accelerated at a rate given by:

If the shaft to be accelerated has an inertia I, then the required acceleration torque will be given by:

The total torque to be transmitted through the clutch during the engagement must also include any
loading on the shaft due to friction in the engine or due to tractive force on the vehicle.

EXAMPLE
During a downshift, the engine is to be accelerated from 2000rpm to 2500rpm in a shift time of 0.3s.
The engine has a total inertia of 0.4kgm2 and a friction torque at these speeds of 30Nm.
In this case, the acceleration torque is to be transmitted from the wheels, driveline and gearbox to
the engine and its flywheel. The acceleration torque is given by

Hence

The total torque to be transmitted is given by:

Now, during a vehicle pullaway, the gearbox input is to be accelerated by the engine from rest to
1000rpm in 2s. The driveline has an equivalent inertia at the flywheel of 0.5kgm2 and a torque of
3Nm is required to overcome rolling resistance.

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Clutches and Torque convertors

Again the acceleration torque is given by:

And the total torque by

The heat generated in the clutch during the manoeuvre is simply equated to the friction work on the
clutch during the manoeuvre

Where the friction work can be equated as

With

Assuming as with the case above that the acceleration torque is constant, then the actual speed over
an engagement manoeuvre is given as a function of time t by:

Combining the above equations yields:

And therefore the heat generated during the manoeuvre is given by

And assuming that all torques are constant with respect to time
(

Richard Burke

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Clutches and Torque convertors
EXAMPLE

Calculate the heat generated during the downshift event described above.
(

Calculate the heat generated during the pull-away manoeuvre above


(

During this manoeuvre, around 3kJ of heat is generated in the clutch which must be dissipated by
the respective cooling mechanism. Increasing the duration of the engagement has only a small effect
on the overall heat loss due to prolonged exposure of the clutch to the rolling resistance torque. This
is because the longer engagement time is accompanied with a lower acceleration torque. However,
prolonged engagement times usually occur when trying to make a smoother engagements and this
will also require a higher synchronisation speed. In this case the acceleration torque will remain of
similar magnitude but over a longer engagement time. With an engagement speed of 2400rpm and
an engagement time of 6s the heat generated would become 15.2kJ. During gear shifting, the
difference between initial and sync speed is much smaller than at pullaway, resulting in much lower
heat generation.
A key component that works in tandem with the
clutch to damp out vibrations for the engine
powertrain are dual mass flywheels. As the name
suggests, these are composed of two masses,
linked by a spring damper system. The output
from the engine is linked to one mass whilst the
other forms part of the clutch and is ultimately
linked to the input to the gearbox. The aim of the
device is to produce a much damped torque to
the gearbox and in achieved by carefully setting
the two masses, spring stiffness and damping
rate. These devices can be very effective and the
benefits include a smoother torque delivery
which improved comfort but also durability of the
gearbox

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Dual mass flywheels damp torque vibrations


from the engine

2014

Vehicle Engineering
Gears, Clutches and Transmissions

ME30217/ME50223
Clutches and Torque convertors

Engine cyclis operation causes significant torque variations at the crankshaft. Without a Dual
mass flywheel these are transmitted to the gear box and can cause discomfot and damage. Using
a Dual mass flywheel reduces these pulsations

6.2 Fluid couplings and Torque Convertors


Fluid couplings are a transmission which uses a fluid to transmit power between the input and the
output. The input shaft is connected to an impeller which causes fluid flow whilst the output shaft is
connected to a turbine which is driven by the flowing fluid. Because there is no mechanical link
between the two, it is possible to stall the output shaft whilst the input shaft continues to rotate.
There will be a small residual load on the input under these conditions. An improvement to the fluid
coupling can be achieved if an additional stator is included between the output of the turbine and
the input of the impellor. The additional stator creates an additional torque on the turbine that
increases its output torque. The torque convertor, like all fluid couplings, operates with a level of slip
between input and output, that is the output shaft rotates slower than the input. The advantage of
the torque convertor is that it recovers some of this slip as a torque and therefore acts as a
reduction gear ratio.

Basic operation of a torque convertor

Torque convertors have a peak efficiency of around 85% and therefore cause losses during cruising.
To avoid these losses, an additional locking clutch can be included which engages for the final 15% or
slippage and ensures a 100%, no-slip 1:1 transmission between input and output shafts.

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Further Reading

Layout of a torque convertor with lockup clutch and powerflows in turbine mode and
lockup mode

7 Further Reading
Advanced Vehicle Technology, H. Heisler, ISBN 075651318, Lib loc: 629.2.HEI

8 Recommended videos
Manual Transmissions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOo3TLgL0kM
Differentails: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIGvhvOhLHU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4JhruinbWc (a little old)
Torsen Diff: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z9iPqIQ_8iM
Automatic Transmission: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ByVBBfEXWk

Richard Burke

37/37

2014