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International/South Africa South Africa is sliding downhill *

Cry, the beloved country


South Africa is sliding downhill while much of the rest of
the
continent is clawing its way up

ot so long ago, South Africa


wasbyfarthemostseriousand
economically

successful
country in Africa. At the turn of the
5millenniumitaccountedfor40%ofthe
total GDPof the 48 countries southof
theSahara,whereasNigeria,threetimes
morepopulous,lurchedalonginsecond
placewitharound14%.Theremainder,
10inraweconomicterms,barelyseemedto
count.DespiteSouthAfricasloathsome
apartheid heritage, solid institutions
underpinneditstransitiontodemocracy
in 1994: a proper Parliament and
15electoral system, a good new
constitution, independent courts, a
vibrant press and a firstworld
stockmarket. Nelson Mandela, whose
extraordinarymagnanimityhelpedavert
20a racial bloodbath, heralded a rainbow
nationthatwouldbeabeaconfortherest
ofAfrica.
Since then, Africa, once harshly
labelled by this newspaper as the
25hopelesscontinent,hasbeguntomake
bold strides. Meanwhile South Africa,
thoughstillatreasuretroveofminerals
withthemostsophisticatedeconomyon
the continent, is on the slide both
30economically and politically. By some
calculations Nigerias economy, messy
as it is, will overtake it within a few
years. What went wrong with South
Africa,andhowcanitbefixed?

has slowed to barely 2%. Rating


agencies have just downgraded South
Africas sovereign debt. Mining, once
theeconomysengine,hasbeenbattered
45by wildcat strikes, causing the biggest
companiestoshedthousandsofjobsin
thefaceofwagedemandsandspreading
violence.InAugustaconfrontationata
platinum mine in Marikana, near
50Johannesburg, the commercial capital,
led to 34 deaths at the hands of the
police.Foreigninvestmentisdryingup.
Protests against the states failure to
provide services are becoming angrier.
55Educationisadisgrace:accordingtothe
World Economic Forum, South Africa
ranks132ndoutof144countriesforits
primaryeducationand143rdinscience
and maths. The unemployment rate,
60officially25%,isprobablynearer40%;
halfofSouthAfricansunder24looking
forworkhavenone.Ofthosewhohave
jobs, a third earn less than $2 a day.
Inequality has grown since apartheid,
65and the gap between rich and poor is
nowamongtheworldslargest.
TherulingAfricanNationalCongress
(ANC) is not entirely to blame. South
Africa has performed worse than its
70Africanneighboursinrecentyearspartly
because its mature economy is linked
moretightlytotherichworld,andthus
to the rich worlds problems. And the
ANC has notched up some genuine
75achievements including housing and
somewelfareservicesoftendeniedtothe
poorblackmajorityunderapartheid.But
the partys incompetence and outright
corruptionarethemaincausesofSouth
80Africassaddecline.

35

Gatheringgloom
InthepastdecadeAfricatothenorth
oftheLimpoporiverhasbeengrowing
atanannualaverageclipof6%,whereas
40SouthAfricasrateforthepastfewyears
1

hm-abo Januar 2013

International/South Africa South Africa is sliding downhill *

SinceMrMandelaretiredin1999,the
countryhasbeen woefullyled.Fornine
years it endured Thabo Mbekis race
tinted prickliness, so different from Mr
85Mandelasbigheartedinclusiveness.Mr
MbekisdenialofthelinkbetweenHIV
andAIDScostmillionsoflives.Afterhe
wasdeposedbyhispartyin2008,there
wasabriefstandin,KgalemaMotlanthe,
90before Jacob Zuma took over the
presidencyin2009.
Mr Zuma arrived with a mixed
reputation.Hehadhadastringofclose
shaves with the law for both grand
95corruptionandsqualidsexualbehaviour;
inhisfavourwerehischarm,homespun
intelligenceandcannyabilitytomediate
between people and the many factions
that make up the ANC. But stuck
100betweentheimpatientmassesstirredup
byracialpopulistssuchasJuliusMalema
ontheonehand,andanxiouscapitalists
andgreedypartybigwigsontheother,he
hasdriftedanddithered,offeringneither
105visionnorfirmgovernment.
Worse,MrZumahasfailedtotackle
the scourge of corruption. The ANC
underhisaegishassoughttoundermine
the independence of the courts, the
110police, the prosecuting authorities and
thepress.Ithasconflatedtheinterestsof
partyandstate,dishingoutcontractsfor
public works as rewards for loyalty
hencethebitterjestthatthegovernment
115isinhocktotenderpreneurs.Thishas
reduced economic competitiveness and
bolstered a fabulously rich black elite.
As a result, too little wealth trickles
down.
120 Nearly two decades after apartheid
ended, South Africa is becoming a de
facto oneparty state. The liberal
opposition the Democratic Alliance
(DA), led by a doughty white woman
125and former antiapartheid journalist,
HelenZillehastherightideas,calling
above all for the ANC to respect the

constitution.TheDAhasmadeelectoral
gains,climbingto17%ofthevoteinthe
130lastgeneralelectionin2009and24%in
local elections last year. It runs Cape
Town and the encompassing Western
CapeprovincebetterthantheANCruns
mostoftherestofthecountry.Butmost
135blacksseetheDAastoowhite,andstill
haveadeepseatedloyaltytotheANC
whateveritsfailingsasthepartyofMr
Mandelaandliberation.Thatstillgives
theANCover60%ofthevote.Forthe
140foreseeablefuturetheDAhasnoearthly
chanceofnationalpower.
Callforcompetition
Somesimplechangescouldhelpspur
145change and integrity. One of the
parliaments worst features is its party
list method of choosing members, who
arethusentirelyinthralltoANCbosses
ratherthantothevoters:aconstituency
150based system would make them more
accountable.AlthoughtheANCstillhas
no obvious alternative leader, the party
shouldlooktochuckoutMrZumawhen
it holds a party election in December,
155thoughpollstersconsiderthatunlikely.
Most of all, South Africa needs
political competition. Its neighbours to
thenortharemovingawayfromtheone
party systems that dragged them to
160corruption and stagnation for decades.
SouthAfricaisheadingintheopposite
direction.Thebesthopeforthecountry
in years to come is a real split in the
ANC between the populist left and the
165fatcatrighttoofferagenuinechoicefor
voters.Untilthathappens,SouthAfrica
is doomed to go down as the rest of
Africagoesup.
[From THE ECONOMIST,Oct20,2012;
1701,027words;reprintedbypermission;all
rightsreserved.]
2

hm-abo Januar 2013

Annotations:
11 loathsome......................formal:extremelyunpleasant;disgusting.
12f. tounderpinsth.............formal:tosupportorformthebasisofanargument,aclaim,etc.
18 magnanimity.................formal: tobe kind,generousandforgiving,especiallytowardsan
enemyorarival.
19 toheraldsth..................formal:tobeasignthatsomethingisgoingtohappen.
26 treasuretrove................aplacecontainingmanyusefulorbeautifulthings.
38 togrowataclip............idiom:togrowquickly.
42 sovereigndebt...............bondsusedbythestatetoborrowmoneyfromitscitizens/foreign
investors.
45 toshed............................formal:toletsth.fall,tolose/getridofsth.
73 tonotchsth.up.............informal:toachievesomethingsuchasawinorahighscore.
81 woefully.........................verybadly,inamannerthatyoudisapproveof.
82f. racetintedprickliness..here:beingoffensivetowardsotherethnicgroupsduetoonesown
racialbias.
94 squalid...........................involvinglowmoralstandardsordishonestbehaviour.
95 homespun......................simpleandordinary;notcomingfromanexpert.
96 canny.............................intelligent, careful and showing good judgement, especially in
businessorpolitics.
103 todither.........................tohesitateaboutwhattodobecauseyouareunabletodecide.
106 scourge...........................apersonorthingthatcausestroubleorsuffering.
107 undersb.s/sth.saegis. withtheprotectionorsupportofaparticularorganizationorperson.
113 jest..................................formal/oldfashioned:joke.
113f. tobeinhocktosb.........idiom:toowesb.sth.
114 tenderpreneurs.........aspecialtermforSouthAfricangovernmentofficialsorpoliticians
whousetheirpowersandinfluencetosecuregovernmentbidsand
contracts.
122 doughty..........................oldfashioned:braveandstrong.
146 inthralltosb./sth.........literary:controlledorstronglyinfluencedbysomebody/something.
151 tochucksb./sth.out......informal:tothrowsb.out/togetridofsb.

175

180

185

[http://media.economist.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/fullwidth/images/printedition/20121020_FBP001_2.jpg]

190

WorksheetCry,thebelovedcountry
I. Pre-and Post-Reading Activities
1. PreReadingtasks:ASongbyEddyGrant
a. Beforelistening:(1)Think: Writedownthefirstfivethingsthatcometoyourmind
whenyouthinkaboutSouthAfrica. (2)Pair: Thencompareyoursolutionswitha
partner.(3)Share:Finally,compareanddiscussyourresultsinclass.
b. Whilelistening:Listentothesongtwice:(1)Duringthefirstgo,justlistentothemood
ofthesongandguesswhatintentionstheartistmayhavehadinmind. (2) Forthe
secondround,yourteacherwillgiveyouthelyricsofthesong.Therearesomewords
missing.Fillinthegapswiththeappropriatewords:
195

GimmeHopeJo'anna(byEddyGrant)

WellJoannasherunsa_________________
Ihearshemakesallthegolden____________
SherunsinDurbanandtheTransvaal
Tobuynew____________,anyshapeofguns
Shemakesafewofherpeople
225WhileeverymotherinablackSowetofears
_________________,oh
The_________________ofanotherson
200Shedont______________abouttherestatall
Sneakinacrossalltheneighboursborders
Shesgotasystemtheycall_______________
Nowandagainhavinglittlefun
Itkeepsabrotherinasubjection
Shedoesn'tcareifthefunandgamessheplay
Butmaybe_________________canmake
230Is_________________toevryone
Joannasee
Chorus
205Howeverybodycouldaliveasone
Shegot_________________inhighupplaces
Chorus:
Whoturntheirheadstothecitysun
Gimmehope,Joanna
Joannagivethemthefancymoney
Hope,Joanna
235Ohtotemptanyonewhodcome
Gimmehope,Joanna
Sheevenknowshowtoswing
210Forethemorningcome
_________________
Gimmehope,Joanna
Ineverymagazineandthejournals
Hope,Joanna
ForeverybadmovethatthisJoannamakes
Hopebeforethemorningcome
240Theygotagood_________________
Ihearshemakesallthegolden____________
Chorus
215Tobuynew____________,anyshapeofguns
WhileeverymotherinablackSowetofears
Eventhe_____________whoworksforJesus
The_________________ofanotherson
TheArchbishopwhosapeacefulman
Sneakinacrossalltheneighboursborders
Togethersaythatthe_________________
Nowandagainhavinglittlefun
245Willovercometheverystrong
220Shedoesn'tcareifthefunandgamessheplay
Iwannaknowifyoure_________________
Is_________________toevryone
Joanna
Ifyouwannahearthesoundofdrum
Chorus

Cantyouseethatthe_________________is
250turning

10

Ohdontmakemewaittillthemorningcome
Chorusx2

c. Afterlistening:
(1) Lookingatthewordcloudbelowandcheckwhatwordsfromyourlistofassociations
andfromthesongappearthere,aswell.Speculatewhatatextrepresentedbythatword
cloudwillbeabout,especiallywhenyouthinkaboutitstitleCry,thebelovedcountry.

(2) ResearchActivity: Divideupintofourgroupsandprepareshortpresentationsonthe


followingtopics:
1.GeneralfactsaboutTheRainbowNation
2.TheANCanditshistory
3.SouthAfricasPresidentssince1994:NelsonMandela,ThaboMbekiandJacobZuma
4.ThenovelCry,theBelovedCountrybyAlanPaton
Giveyourpresentationsinclass,tryingtoactivateyourfellowstudentswhiledoingso.
2. PostReadingtasks:
a. Workingwithapoem:
(1) Analyze the theme of the poem Invictus (by W.E. Henley) andinterpret it with
referencetoNelsonMandelaandhisfightagainstapartheidinSouthAfrica.
(2) Chooseonemodeofartisticpresentationforthepoem(e.g.asadialoguewiththe
personthepoemisaddressedto,afreezeframe,amodernizedversion,arapsong,
scenic reading, etc.) to bring it alive. Perform your versions and discuss any
differences,questions,etc.
Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.
In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.
Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds and shall find me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate,


How charged with punishments the scroll.
I am the master of my fate:
I am the captain of my soul.

b. Workingwithafilm:Invictus(2009)
(1) PreViewingActivity:Judgingfromthecoverofthefilm,whatdoyouthinkthefilm
willbeabout?Fromyourknowledgeofthetext,trytoidentify/characterizethetwo
protagonistsonthecoverandguesswhattheirrelationshipis.Thinkaboutthetitleof
thefilmaswell.
(2) WhileViewingActivities:
Whilewatchingthefilm:
Followthedevelopmentofthetwomaincharacters.
Analyzethereasonsforthisdevelopmentandhowitinfluencestheirsurroundings.
Determinethefunction(s)thepoemabovehasinthatfilm.
(3) PostViewingActivity:WriteafilmreviewaboutInvictus.

II. Language and Vocabulary


1. Underline the correct alternative of the words in bold print:
255

260

265

270

275

280

Over the rainbow


South Africa (1) makes/made/has made progress since it (2) became/has become/had become a
full (3) democratic/democracy/democrazy in 1994. But a failure of leadership means that in (4)
much/many/any ways, South Africa is now going backwards. Three thousand South Africans
gathered (5) in a dusty square in Soweto, a sprawling black township on the outskirts of
Johannesburg, on June 26th 1955/on June 26th 1955 in a dusty square in Soweto, a sprawling
black township on the outskirts of Johannesburg/in Soweto, a sprawling black township on the
outskirts of Johannesburg, in a dusty square, on June 26th 1955. Members of the African
National Congress (ANC) (6) were congregating/congregated/had been congregated alongside (7)
there/their/theyre anti-apartheid confederates to proclaim a new vision of the future. The next day
police broke up the meeting (Nelson Mandela and some fellow leaders of the ANC disguised (8)
themself/theirselves/themselves to escape). But the dream (9) was already declared/has already
been declaring/had already been declared. The people shall govern, announced the Freedom
Charter. South Africa would belong to all of its people, no matter what ethnic group they belonged to.
There would be work, education and security for all. (10) Anyone/Everyone/Each one would be
equal (11) before/in front of/prior to the law. It was an (12) extraordinary bold/extraordinarily
bold/extraordinarily boldly affirmation, full of hope and the promise of a better future.
(13) Even/Even though/Nevertheless, the South African people has made much progress in the 18
years since black-majority rule began and South Africa became (14) an entire/a whole/a full
democracy better access to clean water and electricity, a sharp decrease in the proportion living on
less than $2 a day fell from 12% in 1996 to 5% in 2010, the abolition of the racist legislation of
apartheid, an inspiring and liberal constitution in other ways South Africa is in a (15) worser/more
worse/worse state (16) then/than/as (17) in/on/at any point since 1994. In August police shot dead
34 miners on strike at a platinum mine near Marikana. (18) Many thousand/Thousends/Thousands
of miners have been sacked. In September Moodys cut the (19) countrys/countries/countries
sovereign rating, citing the declining quality of the (20) goverment/government/governing,
growing social stresses and deteriorating conditions for investment. Meanwhile, South Africas
leaders have floundered. The ANCs leadership is up for re-election in December. President Jacob
Zuma faces possible ejection as party leader, (21) what/whom/which would prevent him from (22)
to be/be/being the presidential candidate of the ANC in (23) votes/polls/elections in 2014.
The industrial strife (24) during/while/in course of the past two months is a symptom and symbol

15
285

(25) for/of/off the deep malaise of South Africa. The ANC was dealt a bad hand in 1994, and it has
played that hand (26) bad/badly/worsely. South Africas (27) difficulty/difficulties/difficultys are
now so entrenched that the ANC looks incapable (28) to solve/to solving/of solving them.

2. Gapped Summary: Fill in the gaps with words from ll. 1-65 of the text.
President Zumas response to the Economist article Cry, the beloved country: South
Africa is getting many things right!
290

295

300

305

310

315

320

325

Hugeassertions in the article published by the UK magazine the Economist on 20 October


(Sad South Africa - Cry the Beloved Country) cannot go unchallenged as they are so
misleading. It is grossly incorrect to suggest that South Africa is
________________________. The country may have been _________________________
by two rating agencies because of the amount of its _______________________ and a
slowing ______________________, but so have many other countries even in Europe and
elsewhere. It is the sign of the times. The world is going through a period of serious
economic upheaval.
South Africa was privileged to have an icon like President Nelson Mandela whose
_______________________ and inclusiveness helped prevent _______________________
strife on a large scale as its first democratically elected President. However, this does not
make the country immune from economic, social or political challenges at certain periods,
more so given the legacy arising from _________________________ colonial oppression
and decades of _________________________.
Despite these challenges, South Africa is getting many things right: On the economic front,
we possess the necessary dynamism to position the country as a competitive player in a
difficult global economic environment. In direct contrast to the Economist article, South
Africa has attracted strong flows of _________________________. Our intention is to boost
job creation in six pillars tourism, infrastructure, _________________________,
manufacturing,
agriculture
and
the
green
economy.
The
violent
_________________________ that we have experienced in Marikana and elsewhere in the
country are a worrying factor. They should, however, not be exaggerated, as intimated by the
Economist, to conclude that South Africans economic fortunes will decline majorly against
its African counterparts. Any such reckless conclusion would not have taken into account the
_________________________that have been made in anchoring economic growth that have
weathered the storms that even the developed countries of the North could not survive.
At a social level, government policies have extended basic _________________________
like water, electricity, sanitation, housing or social security to millions of people for the first
time in their lives, in the past 18 years of freedom. We are also planning ahead, towards the
next 30 years. Our National Development Plan outlines our vision of dealing with
_________________________, social injustice, and the developmental challenges of our
South Africa, leading towards a prosperous society.
At a political level, we have consolidated _________________________ and have strong
_________________________ formed in line with the countrys progressive
_________________________. South Africa is moving forward towards prosperity.
We will face hiccups here and there, and now and then because of existing problems and the
economic climate globally, but we remain firmly focused on building a united, non-racist,
non-sexist democratic and prosperous South America?

III. Reading Comprehension


Multiple Choice: Tick () the correct answer(s).
1. SouthAfrica...
a. usedtomakemorethanathirdoftheGDPofallAfricancountries.................................r
b. hasaboutathirdofNigeriaspopulation..........................................................................r
c. hassuccessfullymastereditswaybackintotheglobalcommunity..................................r
d. hasaworkingdemocracywhichcanserveasamodelforotherAfricanstates................r
2. Inthepastfewyears...
a. SouthAfricaseconomicpotentialhasbeengrowingbyasolid6percent......................r
b. therehasbeenlessandlessinvestmentfromabroad.........................................................r
c. thestatehasfailedinmeetingitsmostbasicresponsibilities............................................r
d. allSouthAfricanshavesufferedincomelossesduetotheabysmaleconomic
situation..............................................................................................................................r
3. TheAfricanNationalCongress(ANC)
a. istoblameforanunfortunatechoiceofleadershipintheyearsafterNelsonMandela....r
b. istoblameforallofSouthAfricasproblems...................................................................r
c. istoblameforitslackofcompetenceanddegreeofcorruption.......................................r
d. istoblamefornothavingdevelopedavisionforabetterfutureforSouthAfrica...........r
4. TheDemocraticAlliance(DA)...
a. istheconservative,nationalistoppositionoftheANC......................................................r
b. isledbyacapablewhiteantiapartheidwoman................................................................r
c. islikelytobringaboutachangeinleadershipinthenextelections..................................r
d. hasproventhatitwouldbethebetterrulingpartyonalocalandregionalscale..............r
5. ThefollowingcouldhelpSouthAfricatohaltitsslidedownhill...
a. achangeinthewaymembersofParliamentareelected...................................................r
b.thereelectionofPresidentJacobZuma..........................................................................r
c. thereconciliationofthedifferencesbetweentherightandleftwingsoftheANC...........r
d. movingawayfromthedangeroustrendtowardsaonepartysystem................................r
330

IV. Text comprehension


1. Summarize ll. 1-65 of the text and explain the title Cry, the beloved country.
2. Point out the main reasons for South Africas slide downhill according to the author.
3. State the simple changes the author proposes to help spur change and integrity (ll. 142 ff.).

V. Text analysis
1. Analyze three examples of metaphoric language in the text and determine their function.
2. Analyze the way the author uses contrast/antithesis in his text and point out the function of
this device for the authors intention/line of argument.
3. Examine the authors use of style and register in his text and characterize the audience it is
directed at.

20

VI. Interpretation of cartoons


Interpretthefollowingcartooninabout150200words.

[Source: http://africartoons.com/cartoon/9811]

VII. Descriptive Writing


Interpret the diagram below in about 200 words.

335

340

[Source:http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21564829ithasmadeprogressbecomingfulldemocracy
1994failureleadershipmeans/print]

VIII. Mediation German-English


You have to prepare a presentation on Soweto in your English class. Your teacher told you to put
particular emphasis on
(A) Sowetos historical significance for the history of South Africa, and
(B) Sowetos ambiguous atmosphere as a tourist-attraction and a hotspot of crime and violence.
You have come across an ideally-suited article in the Sddeutsche Zeitung and are summarizing its
most important aspects for your presentation in English. Write about 300-350 words.
Tour zwischen Armut und Geschichte
Einst wagte sich kein Auslnder freiwillig in das South Western Township bei Johannesburg. Doch seit
dem Ende der Apartheid hat sich in Soweto vieles gewandelt. Davon knnen sich Touristen auf gefhrten
Touren berzeugen.
345 Einst wurde hier Strom fr ganz Johannesburg produziert. Heute ist das Kraftwerk von Soweto eine
Attraktion fr Touristen und Einheimische. Zwischen den beiden riesigen Khltrmen hat ein
Unternehmen eine Brcke gespannt. Wagemutige strzen sich von dort am Bungeeseil in die Tiefe. Doch
auch von unten sind die Trme eine der Sehenswrdigkeiten des South Western Townships - dafr steht
die Abkrzung Soweto. Knstler haben die Kltze mit Alltagsszenen aus ihrem Viertel bemalt. Das
350Kraftwerk ist ein Symbol fr den Wandel von Soweto. Nach wie vor verbinden die meisten Besucher von
Johannesburg mit dem Township vor allem Armut und Kriminalitt. Die gibt es auch - an vielen Stellen
sind rmliche Blechhtten zu sehen, mitten auf der Strae schlachten Mnner eine Kuh, an einem
Brunnen stehen Frauen Schlange, weil es in ihren Husern kein flieendes Wasser gibt. Viele Ecken von
Soweto sollte man vor allem nachts meiden.
355Aber es gibt auch die andere Seite von Soweto: Eine Mittelschicht hat sich etabliert, viele Huser werden
saniert - und Touristen haben Soweto entdeckt. Zahlreiche Auslnder begeben sich mit einem Fhrer zu
Fu oder im Kleinbus auf Besichtigungstour. Vor allem tun sie das natrlich wegen der spannenden
Geschichte von Soweto, das als Synonym fr das Aufbegehren der Farbigen gegen das ApartheidsRegime steht. Lange Zeit hatten Schwarze und Weie in Johannesburg ohne grere Probleme
360zusammengelebt. Erst als mit dem Goldfieber immer mehr schwarze Arbeiter in die Gegend strmten,
beschloss die Regierung, Schwarze in Townships umzusiedeln. 1963 entstand Soweto offiziell als
Zusammenschluss mehrerer schon bestehender Townships.
Der 16. Juni 1976 ist ein Wendepunkt der Geschichte von Soweto. An diesem Tag wurde der Schler
Hector Pieterson von einem Polizisten erschossen. Gemeinsam mit seinen Mitschlern hatte er gegen den
365Beschluss der Regierung demonstriert, Afrikaans als Sprache an den Schulen einzufhren. 500 Menschen
starben bei den folgenden Unruhen. In Soweto erinnert heute ein eindrucksvolles Denkmal an Pieterson.
Direkt nebenan zeigt ein Museum die Geschichte des Aufstands.
Vor allem ist Soweto aber wegen eines Mannes bekannt: Nelson Mandela. Sein ehemaliges Wohnhaus in
der Vilakazi Street 8115 beherbergt heute ein Museum. Im Jahr 2009 wurde es renoviert und wieder in
370den Originalzustand versetzt. Noch zu sehen sind Einschusslcher von Polizeikugeln an der Auenwand.
Im Inneren finden sich unzhlige Briefe, Bilder und persnliche Gegenstnde des sdafrikanischen
Nationalsymbols. Im Gegensatz zu Nelson Mandela, der heute in Johannesburg wohnt, lebt der zweite
Friedensnobelpreistrger aus der Vilakazi Street, Erzbischof Desmond Tutu, noch immer in seinem
ursprnglichen Haus - nur ein paar Schritte von Mandelas Haus entfernt. Zu sehen ist davon allerdings
375nur eine groe Mauer. Freiwillig drauen bleiben Touristen wohl auch beim Chris Hani Baragwanath
Hospital. Es ist angeblich das grte Krankenhaus der Welt. 3200 Betten hat es, 6760 Angestellte
arbeiten hier. Unter angehenden Medizinern ist es trotz seiner Lage sehr beliebt. Wo sonst haben sie
schon die Mglichkeit, regelmig Schuss- und Stichwunden zu behandeln? Da ist sie wieder, die dunkle
Seite von Soweto.

380Informationen:
Anreise: Mehrere Fluggesellschaften bieten Verbindungen von nach Johannesburg an.
Tour durch Soweto: Zahlreiche Anbieter nehmen Touristen mit auf Tour durch Soweto. Sie holen sie
meist direkt am Hotel ab. Sicherheit: Viele Teile von Soweto sind tagsber ohne Bedenken zu besuchen.
Die gefhrlichen Gegenden kennen die Fhrer und meiden sie. Doch nicht nur deshalb sollte man
385Soweto nicht ohne Guide besuchen: Zu schnell verliert man in dem Straengewirr die Orientierung.
[Source: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/reise/township-soweto-tour-zwischen-armut-und-geschichte-1.1510018]

25

IX. Listening Comprehension


Readallthestatementsfirst,thenlistentothetexttwiceandtick()thecorrect
statement(s).
1. GLOBALCOMPREHENSION:Themostsuitableheadlineforthetextwouldbe:
a. TheProblemofUnaccompaniedChildreninAfricancities.............................................r
b. PovertyontheIncreaseinSubSaharanCities.................................................................r
c. UrbanAfricanKidsRiskExploitation..............................................................................r
d. NGOsalarmedatgovernmentsindifferencetoproblemsofAfricanteenagers.............r
2.LISTENINGFORDETAIL:Answerthequestionsandtick()thecorrectstatements:
a. HowmanychildrenliveinAfricancities?_____________________________________
b. WhatsCarolMillersjob?_________________________________________________
c. Interviewswithhowmanypeopleisthereportbasedon?_________________________
d. Globally,howmanypeoplewillliveincitiesby2050?__________________________
e. BywhatyearwillonebillionpeopleliveincitiesinAfrica?______________________
3. AccordingtoSavetheChildren...
a. thereisanoverallimprovementonAfricanchildrenslivingconditions............................r
b. therearemoreandmoreAfricanchildrenlivingunderpovertyanddestitution.................r
c. Africangovernmentsaretryingtoimprovethesituationbutareunabletocope................r
d. governmentsdonotpayenoughattentiontoAfricanchildrensproblems.........................r
4. Thenewreportwasbasedonresearchin...
a. Ethiopia,Malawi,Nigeria,Zaire,andGhana.......................................................................r
b. Ethiopia,Malawi,IvoryCoast,Kenia,andSouthAfrica.....................................................r
c. Ethiopia,Malawi,Mali,SouthAfricaandZambia..............................................................r
d. Ethiopia,Malawi,Mozambique,Sudan,andTunisia..........................................................r
5. Accordingtothenewreport...
a. morethanhalfoftheglobalpopulationarecurrentlylivinginurbanareas........................r
b. everyyear,thenumberofpeoplelivingincitiesincreasesbymorethan60million..........r
c. thenumberofyoungpeoplebetween15and24isgrowingthefastestinAfrica...............r
d. thegrowthrateinsecondarycitiesismuchlowerinAfricathanallovertheworld..........r
6. AccordingtoCarolMiller,therearefourprioritiestoprotectchildren:
a. basichealthandfoodprovisions..........................................................................................r
b. basicpoliticalfreedoms........................................................................................................r
c. basiclivingconditions..........................................................................................................r
d. basiceducation.....................................................................................................................r
e. basicincome.........................................................................................................................r
f. basicsafetyforchildren.......................................................................................................r
7. Whatdangersarethereforunaccompaniedchildren?
a. beingmistreatedbyrelatives................................................................................................r
b. beingpreyedonbysexualoffendersonarrivalinthecities................................................r
c. beingathomeunsupervisedandunprotected.......................................................................r
d. havingtogobegginginthestreetstobeabletomakealiving...........................................r
8. Whatproblemsdopoorchildrenfaceaccordingtothereport?

a.
b.
c.
d.

healthproblemsduetomalnutritionandlackofhygiene....................................................r
lackofeducationduetolackofmoneyandaccesstoschools.............................................r
beingbulliedandexploitedsexually....................................................................................r
beingmistreatedbythepoliceandotherstateauthorities....................................................r

Lsungsvorschlag Cry, the beloved country


I. 1. a. individual student answers
b. The song can be found on YouTube:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuaVSoSKW2Q
Lyrics:
Gimme hope Joanna (by Eddy Grant)
390

395

400

405

410

415

Well Jo'anna she runs a country


She runs in Durban and the Transvaal
She makes a few of her people happy, oh
She don't care about the rest at all
She's got a system they call apartheid
It keeps a brother in subjection
But maybe pressure can make Jo'anna see
How everybody could a live as one
Chorus:
Gimme hope, Jo'anna
Hope, Jo'anna
Gimme hope, Jo'anna
'Fore the morning come
Gimme hope, Jo'anna
Hope, Jo'anna
Hope before the morning come
I hear she makes all the golden money
To buy new weapons, any shape of guns
While every mother in a black Soweto fears
The killing of another son
Sneakin' across all the neighbours' borders
Now and again having little fun
She doesn't care if the fun and games she play
Is dang'rous to ev'ryone
Chorus
She got supporters in high up places
Who turn their heads to the city sun
Jo'anna give them the fancy money
Oh to tempt anyone who'd come
She even knows how to swing opinion
In every magazine and the journals
For every bad move that this Jo'anna makes
They got a good explanation
Chorus
Even the preacher who works for Jesus
The Archbishop who's a peaceful man
Together say that the freedom fighters
Will overcome the very strong
I wanna know if you're blind Jo'anna
If you wanna hear the sound of drum
Can't you see that the tide is turning
Oh don't make me wait till the morning come
Chorus x2

30

c. (1) individual student answers


(2) Information on the topics:
Group 1: General facts about the Rainbow Nation:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa
Group 2: The ANC and its history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANC
Group 3: South African Presidents since 1994:
Nelson Mandela: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandela
Thabo Mbeki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thabo_Mbeki
Jacob Zuma: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Zuma
Group 4: The Novel Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cry,_the_Beloved_Country
2. a. (1) On the poem, cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invictus. In the movie, Mandela said
that this poem was the source of his strength during his decades of prison, since it
enabled him to keep his dignity, his unconquerable soul.
(2) individual student works.
b. (1) individual student answers
(2) Relevant information on the film and the answers to the questions can be found
under http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invictus_%28film%29.
(3) A sample-review can be found under http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/invictus/
II. 1.South Africa (1) makes/made/has made progress since it (2) became/has become/
420
had become a full (3) democratic/democracy/democrazy in 1994. But a failure of
leadership means that in (4) much/many/any ways, South Africa is now going
backwards. Three thousand South Africans gathered (5) in a dusty square in
Soweto, a sprawling black township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, on June
26th 1955/on June 26th 1955/in a dusty square in Soweto, a sprawling black
425
township on the outskirts of Johannesburg/ in Soweto, a sprawling black
township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, in a dusty square, on June 26th
1955. Members of the African National Congress (ANC) (6) were
congregating/congregated/
had
been
congregated
alongside
(7)
there/their/theyre anti-apartheid confederates to proclaim a new vision of the future.
430
The next day police broke up the meeting (Nelson Mandela and some fellow leaders
of the ANC disguised (8) themself/ theirselves/ themselves to escape). But the
dream (9) was already declared/has already been declaring/had already been
declared. The people shall govern, announced the Freedom Charter. South Africa
would belong to all of its people, no matter what ethnic group they belonged to. There
435
would be work, education and security for all. (10) Anyone/Everyone/Each one
would be equal (11) before/in front of/prior to the law. It was an (12) extraordinary
bold/extraordinarily bold/extraordinarily boldly affirmation, full of hope and the
promise of a better future.
(13) Even/Even though/Nevertheless, the South African people has made much
440
progress in the 18 years since black-majority rule began and South Africa became
(14) an entire/a whole/a full democracy better access to clean water and electricity,
a sharp decrease in the proportion living on less than $2 a day fell from 12% in 1996
to 5% in 2010, the abolition of the racist legislation of apartheid, an inspiring and
liberal constitution in other ways South Africa is in a (15) worser/more
445
worse/worse state (16) then/than/as (17) in/on/at any point since 1994. In August
police shot dead 34 miners on strike at a platinum mine near Marikana. (18) Many
thousand/ Thousends/Thousands of miners have been sacked. In September

450

455

460

465

470

475

480

485

490

495

500

Moodys cut the (19) countrys/countries/countries sovereign rating, citing the


declining quality of the (20) goverment/government/governing, growing social
stresses and deteriorating conditions for investment. Meanwhile, South Africas
leaders have floundered. The ANCs leadership is up for re-election in December.
President Jacob Zuma faces possible ejection as party leader, (21)
what/whom/which would prevent him from (22) to be/be/being the presidential
candidate of the ANC in (23) votes/polls/elections in 2014.
The industrial strife (24) during/while/in course of the past two months is a symptom
and symbol (25) for/of/off the deep malaise of South Africa. The ANC was dealt a bad
hand in 1994, and it has played that hand (26) bad/badly/worsely. South Africas (27)
difficulty/difficulties/difficultys are now so entrenched that the ANC looks incapable
(28) to solve/to solving/of solving them.
[Source: http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21564829-it-has-made-progressbecoming-full-democracy-1994-failure-leadership-means/ (adapted and abridged)]
2.Huge assertions in the article published by the UK magazine the Economist on 20
October (Sad South Africa - Cry the Beloved Country) cannot go unchallenged as they
are so misleading. It is grossly incorrect to suggest that South Africa is sliding
downhill/on the slide. The country may have been downgraded by two rating
agencies because of the amount of its debt and a slowing economy, but so have
many other countries even in Europe and elsewhere. It is the sign of the times. The
world is going through a period of serious economic upheaval.
South Africa was privileged to have an icon like President Nelson Mandela whose
magnanimity and inclusiveness helped prevent racial strife on a large scale as its
first democratically elected President. However, this does not make the country
immune from economic, social or political challenges at certain periods, more so given
the legacy arising from loathsome colonial oppression and decades of apartheid.
Despite these challenges, South Africa is getting many things right: On the economic
front, we possess the necessary dynamism to position the country as a competitive
player in a difficult global economic environment. In direct contrast to the Economist
article, South Africa has attracted strong flows of foreign investment. Our intention is
to boost job creation in six pillars tourism, infrastructure, mining, manufacturing,
agriculture and the green economy. The violent wildcat strikes that we have
experienced in Marikana and elsewhere in the country are a worrying factor. They
should, however, not be exaggerated, as intimated by the Economist, to conclude that
South Africans economic fortunes will decline majorly against its African counterparts.
Any such reckless conclusion would not have taken into account the strides that have
been made in anchoring economic growth that have weathered the storms that even
the developed countries of the North could not survive.
At a social level, government policies have extended basic services like water,
electricity, sanitation, housing or social security to millions of people for the first time in
their lives, in the past 18 years of freedom. We are also planning ahead, towards the
next 30 years. Our National Development Plan outlines our vision of dealing with
inequality, social injustice, and the developmental challenges of our South Africa,
leading towards a prosperous society.
At a political level, we have consolidated democracy and have strong institutions
formed in line with the countrys progressive constitution. South Africa is moving
forward towards prosperity. We will face hiccups here and there, and now and then
because of existing problems and the economic climate globally, but we remain firmly
focused on building a united, non-racist, non-sexist democratic and prosperous South
Africa.
[Source: http://www.moneyweb.co.za/moneyweb-soapbox/president-zumas-rebuttalto-the-economist (altered and abridged)]

35
III. 1.South Africa...
b. has about a third of Nigerias population.
d. has a working democracy which can serve as a model for other African states.
2. In the past few years...
b. there has been less and less investment from abroad.
c. the state has failed in meeting its most basic responsibilities.
3. The African National Congress (ANC)
a. is to blame for an unfortunate choice of leadership in the years after Nelson
Mandela.
c. is to blame for its lack of competence and degree of corruption.
d. is to blame for not having developed a vision for a better future for South Africa.
4. The Democratic Alliance (DA)...
b. is led by a capable white anti-apartheid woman.
d. has proven that it would be the better ruling party on a local and regional scale.
5. The following could help South Africa to halt its slide downhill...
a. a change in the way members of Parliament are elected.
d. moving away from the dangerous trend towards a one-party system.
IV. 1.In ll. 1 to 65 of the text, the author contrasts the hopeful beginnings of modern South
Africa after the end of the apartheid regime with the enormous problems that have
developed in the Rainbow Nation in the last couple of years, threatening to set back
505
everything that had been reached so far.
Until a couple of years ago, South Africa used to be the strongest economy in SubSaharan Africa, just before the much more populous state of Nigeria. Moreover, the
country seemed to have mastered the difficult transition from a nation torn by statediscrimination of the black majority towards an inclusive democracy for all South
Africans under the leadership of Nelson Mandela (ll. 1-21).
However, in the last few years, South Africas once strong economy has been
dragged down by striking miners once the backbone of South Africas economic
growth as well as by a massive decrease in foreign investment, which has resulted
in accumulating debt and, thus, a downgrade of South African state bonds by
American rating agencies, making it much more difficult for South Africa to borrow
money on the international financial market.
This situation is even made worse by deteriorating political and social stability in
South Africa due to the states apparent failure in providing basic and vital services to
its citizens, such as good education, as well as because of massive unemployment
rates and soaring inequality between the few rich and the many poor (ll. 22-65).

510

515

2.According to author, there is a variety of reasons for this slide downhill (cf. subtitle):
First of all, he partly blames South Africas ruling party, the ANC, for widespread
incompetence and corruption at the highest level of government, and particularly
deplores the lack in quality of leadership as provided by Nelson Mandelas successors
as President, namely Thabo Mbeki, Kgalema Motlanthe, and Jacob Zuma who have
combined a total absence of the inclusiveness and magnanimity that characterised
Nelson Mandela with personal flaws of character and affairs. President Zuma in
particular has damaged the office of the President of South Africa massively, and has
failed in fighting corruption and cronyism (cf. favours for tenderpreneurs, ll. 114).
Apart from that, the ANC itself is deeply split along the lines of racial populism and
unfettered capitalism. Another reason the author gives is South Africas tendency
towards a one-party system, which deprives its political culture of healthy political
competition. Although Helen Zilles Democratic Alliance has proved to be a capable

520

525

V.
530

opposition, it lacks support among black South Africans whose political loyalties still lie
with the ANC as the party of Mandela (ll. 91-139).
3.The author suggests a limited number of fairly easy solutions that could halt South
Africas fall: First and most important of all, it would be vital to bring more real
competition to South Africas political process, e.g. by having Members of Parliament
chosen by their constituents rather than by party bosses. Secondly, the ANC should
get rid of Zuma in the December party elections in order to make a fresh start
possible. However, the author sees this as very unlikely and concludes his article by
expressing his hope for a split in the ANC that would result in two parties and thus
grant voters more genuine choice (ll. 141-166).
1.The author uses a lot of metaphors in order to illustrate his line of argument and make
it more convincing for his audience. Examples are:
-

subtitle: South Africa is sliding downhill, i.e. the economic, social and political
situation of South Africa is rapidly deteriorating.

ll. 25 ff.: South Africa is still a treasure trove of minerals, i.e. South Africa is
abundantly rich with these resources whose sale on the world market can bring
huge profits.

ll. 50 ff: Foreign investment is drying up, i.e. foreign investment is gradually
decreasing just like a well is drying up during a draught.

other examples: while the rest of the continent is clawing its way up (subtitle),
race-tinted prickliness (ll. 82 f.), had a string of close shaves with the law
(ll. 92 ff.), dishing out contracts (l. 111), the fat-cat right (ll. 162 f.), etc.

2. The author uses contrasts/antitheses throughout the text in order illustrate the stark
contrast between what South Africa started out as under President Nelson Mandela,
and how it is now, in order to show that South Africa is really sliding downhill, just
as the subtitle suggests. You can see that from conjunctions as while (e.g. South
Africa is sliding downhill while much of the rest of the continent is clawing its way
up, subtitle), whereas (At the turn of the millennium, it accounted for 40% of the
total GDP of the 48 countries south of the Sahara, whereas Nigeria [] lurched
along in second place. cf. ll. 4-8), concessive constructions (Meanwhile, South
Africa, though still a treasure trove of minerals [], is on the slide both economically
and politically. cf. ll. 25-29), and contrastive lines of argument such as the following:
For nine years it endured Thabo Mbekis race-tinted prickliness, so different from Mr
Mandelas inclusiveness. (ll. 81-84), which not only work by explicitly stressing the
Mandela is so different from his successors, but also by the authors use of
antithetic vocabulary, like in this case inclusiveness vs. race-tinted prickliness, as
well as in the characterization of Jacob Zuma as having charm, homespun
intelligence and canny ability to mediate as opposed to having drifted and dithered,
offering neither vision nor firm government. (ll. 91-104), followed by the dialectic
emphasis: Worse, Mr Zuma has failed to tackle the scourge of corruption. (ll. 105
f.).

3. For the most part of the text, the author uses very formal language, which points to
the fact that he expects a fairly educated audience to read his work. This is in line
with the focus of the magazine The Economist, which is a weekly British political and
economic affairs magazine directed at intelligent people interested in political
matters. This can be seen from the register of the vocabulary used throughout the
text, which is very high-brow, as can be seen from words like loathsome (l. 11), to
underpin (ll. 12f.), magnanimity (ll. 18), to herald sth. (l. 19), to shed (l. 45), and oldfashioned vocabulary like jest (ll. 113) and doughty (l. 122), as well as literary style,
such as in thrall to (l. 146). On the other hand, there are also a few instances of
informal register, such as in to notch sth. up (l. 73), and to chuck sb. out (l. 151),
whose purpose is probably to make the statements in question sound more
expressive and forceful, and thus emphasize the authors point once again.
As far as style is concerned, the text seems to be more expository rather than
argumentative: Giving lots of statistical evidence, i.e. hard data, the author
develops his line of argument that South Africa is actually going south and that this
development is all the more surprising given the sound foundation laid by President
Mandela after the end of the apartheid regime. The only part that can be labelled as
being more argumentative is the last paragraph in which the author brings forth his
suggestions for easy and quick change that, if heeded, could stop South Africas
sliding downhill (ll. 141-166).
VI. The cartoon shows that there are a lot of white people in South Africa in whose opinion
another term of office for incumbent South African President Jacob Zuma would be a
disaster for the country.
535
You can see two white men who are obviously on their way home from work, as you
can see from the fact that one of them is carrying a briefcase. At a corner, there is a
very ragged, barefoot, dirty, unshaven white man holding a sign which says Prepare to
meet thy doom! The man walking on the right-hand side says that either the man is
one of these nutcases that keep predicting the end of the world over and over again, or
540
someone warning people of alleged disastrous effects of another term of Jacob Zuma.
The two men do not seem too shocked about these warnings, but rather indifferently go
about their daily business. They obviously neither take the mans warnings, nor himself
all too seriously.
Thus, the author seems to encourage a more sober and less sensational and panicky
545
approach towards South African politics in his audience, no matter how polarizing
Zuma and his conduct of office may be to some people. [197 words]
VII. The graph shows the percentage of change in the Gross National Products of South
Africa and all the other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa year by year from 1992 to 2012.
550
You can clearly see the years of global recession from 1996 to 1998, briefly after 9/11,
and, most deeply, from 2007 to 2009 in the wake of the credit crunch and at the dawn
of the Euro crisis. Another period of global economic downturn is already indicated from
2011/12 onwards.
It is noteworthy that until the year 2000, the peaks of economic development of South
555
Africa and the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa used to be nearly on the same level. Once,
between 2000 and 2002, South African growth even seemed to be more pronounced
than that of the rest of the region. Since then, however, the gap between the South
African and the Sub-Saharan GDPs seems to have become wider and wider, with the
economic development of South Africa as shown by its annual GDP literally going
560
south, i.e. deteriorating. Also the new recession seems to be more pronounced for
South Africa than for the rest of the region, which does not bode well for South Africas
economic future. [199 words]

40

VIII. Modern Soweto is a South African township with many facets, many of them
565
contradictory. On the one hand, the Southwestern Townships of Johannesburg are an
historic icon of black South Africans struggle for freedom against apartheid, as well as a
community ridden by severe poverty and an alarming crime rate. Historically, Soweto
came into existence in the course of the resettlement of the increasing amount of black
workers during the 1960s Gold Rush, when previously existing townships were
570
combined. Especially in the 1970s, Soweto became the focal point of the fight of black
South Africans for their rights, and thus saw many riots, most infamously those of June
16, 1976, when a black student called Hector Pieterson was shot, who had been
protesting the introduction of Afrikaans as the only language to be spoken at South
African schools. Another 500 people died during the resulting riots. Last but not least,
575
Sowetos historical significance also stems from the fact that it is the home of two icons
of black South Africans peaceful struggle against the injustice of white dominance:
Nelson Mandela, long-time prisoner and first President of the post-apartheid era, and
Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
On the other hand, Soweto has not only turned into a tourist-magnet in recent years, and
580
has also experienced a certain degree of re-gentrification by the establishment of a
thriving middle-class in this part of Johannesburg that used to be a manifestation of
everything that was wrong in apartheid South Africa. The Soweto Power Plant attracts
many bungee-jumpers and art-lovers due to its murals, and there are guided tours that
show the more beautiful face of a changed Soweto. However, the ugly sides of Soweto
585
are still there: poverty, crime which were also responsible for the establishment of a
monstrously big hospital (allegedly the biggest one in the whole world), the Chris Hani
Baragawanath Hospital. Therefore, tourists are strongly advised not to explore Soweto
on their own, but to rely on the expertise and experience of South African guides to
experience this place full of contrast. [339 words]
590

IX. Listening Comprehension


1. GLOBAL COMPREHENSION: The most suitable headline for the text would be:
c. Urban African Kids Risk Exploitation
2. LISTENING FOR DETAIL:
a. How many children live in African cities? about 300 million
b. Whats Carol Millers job? Deputy Area Director for Save the Children in Africa
c. Interviews with how many people is the report based on? over a thousand
d. Globally, how many people will live in cities by 2050? two thirds
e. By what year will one billion people live in cities in Africa? by 2040
3. According to Save the Children...
b. there are more and more African children living under poverty and destitution.
d. governments do not pay enough attention to African childrens problems.
4. The new report was based on research in ...
c. Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, South Africa and Zambia.
5. According to the new report...
a. more than half of the global population are currently living in urban areas.
c. the number of young people between 15 and 24 is growing the fastest in Africa.
6. According to Carol Miller, there are four priorities to protect children:
a. basic health and food provisions.
c. basic living conditions.
d. basic education.
f. basic safety for children.
7. What dangers are there for unaccompanied children?
b. being preyed on by sexual offenders on arrival in the cities.
c. being at home unsupervised and unprotected.
d. having to go begging in the streets to be able to make a living.
8. What problems do poor children face according to the report?
a. health problems due to malnutrition and lack of hygiene.
b. lack of education due to lack of money and access to schools.
c. being bullied and exploited sexually.

45
Transcript: Urban African Kids Risk Exploitation (by Joe DeCapua, VOA News)
A humanitarian group warned that children living in African cities are at increasing risk of
595exploitation, abuse and disease. Save the Children says most of the continents children
eventually will live in urban areas.
A new report says right now about 200 million children live in African urban areas, and the
numbers are steadily rising. Save the Children said that social and development policies
are ignoring the reality that more children are living in slums with devastating impacts.
600The report said sub-Saharan African cities have the highest degree of urban poverty and
prevalence of slum populations in the world.
Voices from Urban Africa: The impact of urban growth on children is based on research in
Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, South Africa and Zambia.
Its the voices of children in communities. Because we talked to over a thousand children
605and their families and community members about what are they experiencing? And to me
that makes it really urgent when you hear what some of the things that children said to us in
this report. I mean one little boy: When my father cannot find a job to do, he fails to buy
food and we stay hungry at home. On and on. The report is very rich in the voices of
children, and its something that we need to take seriously, said Carol Miller, Save the
610Childrens deputy area director for programs for Africa.
The report says: More than half the worlds population now lives in cities, and each year
the number of urban residents increases by nearly 60-million. It added that by 2050, twothirds will live in urban areas. In Africa, about one billion people are expected to live in
urban areas by 2040.
615Miller says: Africas youth population is the fastest growing ages 15 to 24 in the world.
So the growth rate in secondary cities caused us to pause to think, all right, what are we
doing, and what do we need to know to really impact the lives of children?
The report said many governments underreport the size of urban populations, especially in
slums and informal settlements.
620Miller says there are four priorities that must be addressed to ensure the health and safety
of children in urban settings: health and nutrition; livelihoods; education and child
protection.
As we talk to local NGOs, non-governmental organizations across Africa, this issue of
unaccompanied children, children on the streets talking about buses pulling in to Addis
625Ababa and there are actually people watching to see if a boy or girl is unaccompanied, and
then preying on them for sexual purposes, or others. There is a household in Malawi one
that we interviewed with four children out of school, no adult in the household relying on
an uncle to give them some money now and then out in the streets begging, she said.
Urban settings often lack the community protection that exists in rural areas.
630In a rural setting youre likely to have a grandparent or an auntie or an uncle. People in
your community know you. You move to an urban setting and that disappears, Miller said.
The report says poor children are often not in school because they face many barriers such
as fees, disabilities, lack of food, bullying and sexual harassment. Their health is put at risk,
it says, from a lack of clean water and sanitation, poor nutrition and a lack of access to
635health care due to cost, travel, waiting times or other reasons.
Miller says, When you have young people moving into urban settings and needing access
to reproductive health, for example, and some clinics say, no, were not going to provide
family planning to this young girl. So what choices does she have?
Youth unemployment is also a major problem in African cities. Miller said high youth
640unemployment was a factor in the uprisings during the Arab Spring.
Among its recommendations, Save the Children called for holistic child protection systems
like those in developed countries; enhanced hygiene and sanitation awareness and
practices; trained community health workers; linking youth skills training to the awarding of
grants and loans; better access for the disabled; and quality control, standards and training
645to support early child care development.

[Source: http://www.voanews.com/articleprintview/1559532.html]