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A microscope (from the Greek: , mikrs, "small" and ,

skopen, "to look" or "see") is an instrument to see objects too small

for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using
such an instrument is called microscopy. Microscopic means invisible
to the eye unless aided by a microscope. Microscopes are mechanical
devices used for viewing objects and materials so minute in size that
they are undetectable by the naked eye. The process conducted with
such an instrument, called Microscopy, uses the combined schools of
optical science and light reflection, controlled and manipulated
through lenses, to study small objects at close range.

Parts of Microscope

Eyepiece Lens: the lens at the top that you look through. They are usually 10X or 15X
Tube: Connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses
Arm: Supports the tube and connects it to the base
Base: The bottom of the microscope, used for support
Illuminator: A steady light source (110 volts) used in place of a mirror. If your microscope
has a mirror, it is used to reflect light from an external light source up through the bottom of
the stage.
Stage: The flat platform where you place your slides. Stage clips hold the slides in place.
If your microscope has a mechanical stage, you will be able to move the slide around by
turning two knobs. One moves it left and right, the other moves it up and down.
Revolving Nosepiece or Turret: This is the part that holds two or more objective lenses
and can be rotated to easily change power.
Objective Lenses: Usually you will find 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope. They
almost always consist of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X powers. When coupled with a 10X (most
common) eyepiece lens, we get total magnifications of 40X (4X times 10X), 100X , 400X
and 1000X. To have good resolution at 1000X, you will need a relatively sophisticated

microscope with an Abbe condenser. The shortest lens is the lowest power, the longest
one is the lens with the greatest power. Lenses are color coded and if built to DIN
standards are interchangeable between microscopes.
Rack Stop: This is an adjustment that determines how close the objective lens can get to
the slide. It is set at the factory and keeps students from cranking the high power objective
lens down into the slide and breaking things. You would only need to adjust this if you
were using very thin slides and you weren't able to focus on the specimen at high power.
Condenser Lens: The purpose of the condenser lens is to focus the light onto the
specimen. Condenser lenses are most useful at the highest powers (400X and above).
Microscopes with in stage condenser lenses render a sharper image than those with no
lens (at 400X).
Diaphragm or Iris: Many microscopes have a rotating disk under the stage. This
diaphragm has different sized holes and is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone
of light that is projected upward into the slide. There is no set rule regarding which setting
to use for a particular power. Rather, the setting is a function of the transparency of the
specimen, the degree of contrast you desire and the particular objective lens in use.

Different Kinds of Microscopes & Their Uses

The microscope is an instrument used to magnify small objects. It has led to important
biological discoveries and has undergone many innovations and improvements. There
are a variety of microscopes including the compound microscope, dissecting
microscope, Scanning Election Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope.

Compound Microscope
1. Compound microscopes can be found in most biology and science classrooms. They
are electrically operated and use light to enhance the image of a cell. They will have
multiple lenses for viewing.

Dissecting Microscope
2. Dissecting microscopes are also known as stereo microscopes. They have low
magnification and are also light powered. These microscopes can view objects larger
than what a compound microscope is able to handle, in three dimensions.


3. A Scanning Electron Microscope uses electrons instead of light to create an image.

These microscopes produce three-dimensional images with high resolution and
magnification. They also have a larger depth of focus.

4. Transmission Electron Microscopes use electrons instead of light to create an image.
The material prepared must be very thin. The beams of electrons that pass through it
give the viewer high magnification and resolution. These give two-dimensional images.

Optical Microscope
5. .Also a common type of microscope, the optical microscope uses light to illuminate the
specimen for the observer by way of refractive lenses and glass eyepieces. Fluorescent
microscopes work by the same principle but use a different wavelength of light.

Simple Optical Microscope

6. Uses one lens, the convex lens, in the magnifying process. This kind of microscope was
used by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek during the late-sixteen and early-seventeenth
centuries, around the time that the microscope was invented.

Compound Optical Microscope

7. Has two lenses, one for the eyepiece to serve the ocular perspective and one of short
focal length for objective perspective. Multiple lenses work to minimize both chromatic
and spherical aberrations so that the view is unobstructed and uncorrupted

Digital Microscope
8. A digital microscope is composed of a microscope, a video camera and a screen for
viewing. Eyepieces don't come into play as the image can be put on a video screen.

Electron Microscope
9. Instead of light, electron microscopes use electrons to make the specimen visible by way
of electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses. The electron microscope is among the most
powerful types of microscopes, with scanning electron microscopes producing 3-D images
and transmission electron microscopes producing 2-D images.

Stereo Microscope
10. Also known as a dissection microscope, the stereo microscope has two objectives to
capture light and create a three-dimensional effect for the observer.

Inverted Microscope
11. This kind of microscope views objects from an inverted position than
that of regular microscopes. The inverted microscope specializes in the
study of cell cultures in liquid.

Petro graphic Microscope

12. This kind of microscope features a polarizing filter, a rotating stage,
and gypsum plate. Petro graphic Microscopes specialize in the study of
inorganic substances whose properties tend to alter through shifting

Pocket Microscope

13. This kind of microscope consists of a single shaft with an eye piece at
one end and an adjustable objective lens at the other. This old-style
microscope has a case for easy carry.

Scanning Probe Microscope

14. This kind of microscope measures interaction between a physical

probe and a sample to form a micrograph. Only surface data can be
collected and analyzed from the sample. Types of Scanning Probe
Microscopes include the Atomic Force Microscope, the Scanning Tunneling
Microscope, the Electric Force Microscope, and the Magnetic Force

Sub. by:
Jayvee Leo Cabello

Sub. to:
Ms. Gladyann Castaneda