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A GRAMMAR
OF THE

ARABIC LANGUAGE,
TRANSLATED

FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI,


AND EDITED

WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS

BY

W. WEIGHT,

LL.D.,

LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

%\

THIRD EDITION

<f\

REVISED BY

W.

*i

ROBERTSON SMITH,

LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

AND

M.

J.

de GOEJE,

PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN.

VOLUME

?
I.

/V

DATE... f?K. 6

CAMBRIDGE:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
1896

(o2)05

v.l

Cambrfofit

PRINTED BY

J.

AND

C.

F. CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION.


rflHE Second

Edition

of

Wright's

Grammar

of

the Arabic

-*-

language had been out of print long before the death of


author, but he was never able to find the leisure necessary
preparing a

New

more and more

Edition.

The demand

pressing, Prof.

for it

its

for

having become

W. Robertson Smith, who

well

deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair, resolved to


undertake this task. He began it with his usual ardour, but the
illness

which cut short his invaluable

At

work.

his

death

life

soon interrupted the

56 pages had been printed, whilst the

had extended over 30 pages more. Robertson Smith had


made use of some notes of mine, which he had marked with
revision

my

initials,

and

it

was

for this

reason

among

others that the

Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me, through


Prof. Bevan, to continue the revision.
After earnest deliberation
I consented, influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent
work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete
that which another dear friend had begun.
Moreover Prof. Bevan

promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in


seeing the book through the press.
I have of course adhered to the

Smith

in that part of the

method followed by Robertson

Grammar which he

revised.

Trifling

and additions and such suggestions as had already


been made by A. Miiller, Fleischer and other scholars, are given
corrections

Only in those cases where it seemed necessary


the responsibility upon myself, have I added my
Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at

in square brackets.
to

take

initials.

all

the end of the Second Volume, Wright had noted here and there

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

VI

on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from
the Nakaid) which have been inserted, unless they seemed quite

any distinctive sign. I have found but very


few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not
with his
definitely revised almost all of these have been marked
superfluous, without

initials.

Wright's

own

text has been altered in a comparatively

number of passages (for instance 252, 353), where I felt


Once or twice Wright
sure that he would have done it himself.

small

"

has noted on the margin wants revision."


The notes bearing upon the Comparative

Grammar

of the

most part been replaced by


to
references
Wright's Comparative Grammar, published after his
death by Robertson Smith (1890).
Semitic languages have for the

I have to acknowledge

who drew my

my obligations

to

Mr Du

attention to several omissions.

Pre Thornton,

But

my

warmest

thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. Bevan,


who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this

revised edition through the press, but

by many judicious remarks


much to the improving of it.
The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands.

has contributed

M.

J.

de GOEJE.

Leyden,
February, 1896.

"A

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


SECOND

Edition of

my

revised and enlarged translation of

-*--*-

Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for, I have


thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book, but to subject
In fact, the present is almost a
it again to a thorough revision.

new work

and much

alteration,

hardly a section which has not undergone


additional matter has been given, as the very

for there is

volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows.


In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of
Arab Grammarians, both ancient and modern. Of the former I

size of this

may mention
the

in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik, with

Commentary

of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. Dieterici, 1851,

edition of 1872);

Broch, 1859)

the Mufassal (jJa4.)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed.

and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal

and the Beirut

JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn

Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. Volck,


Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu

Malik, with the


1866).
'l-Talib

that

is,

f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf ,1CL),


the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat, with

the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut, 1854); 'el-Bistani's smaller


Grammar, founded upon the above, entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah
(9-U0-0J!

f^^*, second

Yazigi's Faslu

'l-Hitab

edition,

Beirut,

(w>LLaJt J-oi,

1867);

and Nasif

'el-

second edition, Beirut,

1866).

Among European Grammarians

have made constant use of

the works of S. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe, 2de eU, 1831), Ewald

(Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse, 1831-33), and Lumsden

(A Grammar

of the Arabic Language, vol.

i.,

1813); which

last,

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

Vlil

based on the system of the Arab Grammarians, and


therefore but ill-adapted, apart from its bulk and rarity, for the
I have also consulted with advantage the
use of
is

however,

beginners.
of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska
of
Spraket, 1869). But I am indebted above all to the labours

grammar

Professor Fleischer of Leipzig, whose notes on the

De

Sacy's

Grammar

(as far as p. 359)

first

volume of

have appeared from time

to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der

Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70), in which periodical the student


will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten

der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das


Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack- und Stoffworter im

Arabischen (1856).
In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of
the Semitic languages, I have not found much to alter, except in
I have read, I believe, nearly everything that
detail.
has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful
lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe, as well as the learned

matters of

and Tegnr. My
the
same
as
it
standpoint remains, however, nearly
formerly was.
The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic, Assyrian,
Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew), and Aramaic (so-called
and scholarly

treatises of Noldeke, Philippi,

Chaldee and Syriac)


as the

are

as closely connected with each other

Romance languages

vencal, and French

standing to them

Italian,

Spanish, Portuguese, Pro-

they are all daughters of a deceased mother,


in the relation of Latin to the other European
:

languages just specified.


tongues, particularly the

some points the north Semitic


Hebrew, may bear the greatest reIn

semblance to this parent speech but, on the whole, the south


Semitic dialects, Arabic and ^Ethiopic, but especially the former,
;

have,

preserved a higher degree of likeness to the


The Hebrew of the Pentateuch, and
original Semitic language.
the Assyrian*, as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions, seem
*

As

I still think,

regards Assyrian, I rely chiefly upon the well-known works


and Schrader.

of Oppert, Sayce,

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

IX

me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic, the
spoken language of mediaeval and modern times.

to

thank the

I have to

tributing the

sum

Home Government

of India for con-

of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses

of printing this work; and some of the local Governments for


subscribing for a certain number of copies namely, the Govern;

ment

of Bengal, twenty, and the

Home Department

the Government of Bombay, ten

twenty-five
and of the Punjab, sixty copies.
;

fellow,

Mr

My

D. Murray (of Adelaide,

friend

(Fort William),

of Madras, ten

and former school-

S. Australia),

has also given

pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office, and thereby
laid me, and I hope I may say other Orientalists, under a fresh
obligation.

Professor

Fleischer of Leipzig will, I

dedication as a

mark

trust,

look

upon the

of respect for the Oriental scholarship of

Germany, whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and


as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help, extending
;

over a period of more than twenty years, from the publication of


my first work in 1852 down to the present year, in which, amid

the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends, he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate.

W. WRIGHT.
Cambridge,
1st July,

1874.

The

Mr

F.

Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of

Du

Pre"

Thornton

for

the copyright of this Grammar, which

he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them


with a view to the publication of a
desire

They
gratitude

to

to

Prof,

take

this

de Goeje

New

Edition.

opportunity of
for

expressing their

the courtesy with which

he

acceded to their request that he would complete the revision

and

for

the great labour which he has expended upon the task

in the midst of

many important

literary

engagements.

l\

CONTENTS.
PART

FIRST.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.


PAGE
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

The Letters as Consonants


The Vowels and Diphthongs
Other Orthographic Signs
Sukun

13

A.

Gezma

B.

Tesdid or Sedda

13

C.

Hemza

16

D.

Wasla

E.

Medda

or

or

13

Nebra

........

or Matta

The Syllable
The Accent
The Numbers

19

24
26
27

28

PART SECOND.
ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
THE VERB.

I.

A.
1.

The Forms

of the Triliteral

Form
The Second Form
The Third Form
The Fourth Form
The

GENERAL VIEW.

First

Verb

29

30
31

32

34

CONTENTS.

Xll

PAGE

36

Form
The Sixth Form
The Seventh Form
The Eighth Form
The Ninth and Eleventh Forms
The

Fifth

38

40
41

43
44

The Tenth Form

The
The

Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth

Quadriliteral

Verb and

Forms

47

Forms

its

49

The Voices

The

States (Tenses) of the

51

Verb

The Moods

51

The Numbers,

Persons, and Genders

B.

The Active Voice


a.

b.

The

of the First

Inflexion

52

THE STRONG VERB.


Form

....

53

53

by Persons

1.

Separate Pronouns

54

2.

Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative

55

3.

Prefixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative

55

Forms

of the Tenses

and Moods

The Imperfect Indicative


The Subjunctive and Jussive
The Energetic
The Imperative

The Passive Voice

Quadriliteral

57

57

....*.

60
61

of the First

The Derived Forms


The

46

Form

of the Strong

....

Verb

61

63
63

Verb

67

Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical

C.

THE WEAK VERB.

1.

Verba Homzata

2.

Verbs which are more especially called


A. Verba Prim Radicalis ^ et ^
B.
C.

3.

Verba Medisa Radicalis ^


Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^

72

et
et

Weak

^
^

Verbs.

78
81

Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak.


Doubly Weak Verbs
Trebly

Weak Verbs

CONTENTS.

Xlll

PAGE

Appendix A.

The Verb

I.

J~J

96

II.

The Verbs

of Praise

III.

The Forms

expressive of Surprise or

Appendix

and Blame

Suffixes,

which express the Accusative

II.

A.

THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.


and

Adjective,

their

106

The Deverbal Nouns.


(a)

The Nomina Verbi

110

(0)

The Nomina

Vicis

122

(y)

The Nomina

Speciei

123

(5)

The Nomina Loci

(e)

The Nomina Instrumenti

()

The Nomina Agentis

et

124

Temporis

et

130
Patientis

and other Verbal


131

The Denominative Nouns.


(a)

The Nomina Unitatis

(/3)

The Nomina Abundantiae

(y)

The Nomina Vasis

(8)

The Nomina Eelativa

II.

(e)

The Abstract Nouns

(C)

The Diminutive

(rj)

Some
of

other Nominal

.148
149

of Quality

149

151

156

.159
165

166

Forms

Nouns

175

177

Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives


are of both Genders

183

The Numbers

187

Forms which
3.

or Relative Adjectives

.Changes in the Vocalisation

III.

The Gender

147
vel Multitudinis

Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants


Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J

I.

2.

98

.100

Adjectives
b.

97

THE NOUN.

The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and


different Forms
a.

....

B.

The Verbal

1.

Wonder

of

Nouns

The Dual

185

187

The

Pluralis

The

Pluralis Fractus

Sanus

192
199

CONTENTS.

xiv

PAGE
4.

The Declension

Nouns

of

I.

The Declension

II.

The Declension

234

of Undefined

Nouns

234

239

Diptotes
of Defined

Nouns

247

Appendix.

The Pronominal

2.
3.

253
260
262

THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns and the

2.

The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns


(a) The Conjunctive Pronouns

Article

...

The

Interrogative Pronouns
The Indefinite Pronouns
(6)

A.

....

264
270
270
274
277

THE PARTICLES.

III.

THE PREPOSITIONS.

The Inseparable Prepositions

279

The Separable

280

Prepositions
B.

THE ADVERBS.

The Inseparable Adverbial Particles


The Separable Adverbial Particles

282

Adverbial Accusatives

288

C.

283

THE CONJUNCTIONS.

The Inseparable Conjunctions


The Separable Conjunctions

THE INTERJECTIONS
PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS

D.

252

The Cardinal Numbers


The Ordinal Numbers
The remaining Classes of Numerals
C.

3.

THE NUMERALS.

B.
1.

which denote the Genitive

Suffixes,

290

.291
294
298

Part

First.

Orthography

and Orthoepy.

8i

PAKT FIRST.
ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.
I.

1.

THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS.

Arabic, like

right to

left.

The

Hebrew and
letters

Syriac, is

of the

written and read from

alphabet (tW*H

^3s*~> ^3J**

are twenty-eight m
LfL^\, aJl^J! o^aJt, or^a^l *-*3j~)
number, and are all consonants, though three of them are also used

They vary in form, according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter, and, for the most part,
terminate in a bold stroke, when they stand alone or at the end of
The following Table gives the letters in their usual order,
a word.
as vowels (see 3).

along with their names and numerical values.

NAME.

The Letters as Consonants.

I.

1]

Rem.

in connection with a preceding


forms the figures
is called lam-elif, and is
V, *>), %.
generally
reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet, and inserted before
a.

This combination

^.

The

a, 3,

from

Rem. b.
The Arabs
sequence

merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel


as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza, I, 15).

object of

elif

it is

The order
of

of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted.


Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different

viz.

from JJ by giving the former a


They distinguish
one above, thus s a f but 9 k
latter
and
the
below,
end of a word these points are usually omitted, ut, <^.
:

single point
k*.
At the

Rem. c. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of


the letters are interwoven with one another, and form ligatures, of
which the following are examples.

^.

hh.

&*

sh.

*!*

gh.

J, fy.
ir

$'

s*& Imh.

j&'%

[These ligatures, in which one letter stands above another, are


very inconvenient to printers, especially when, as in this book,
English and Arabic are intermingled; and most founts have some
device to bring the letters into line.
or, in

Thus

JF

the fount used for this grammar, as

method

is

a recent innovation,

first

appears as
-*

^\&-

The

r+-.

latter

introduced by Lane in his

Arabic Lexicon, and its extreme simplicity and convenience have


caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts, not only in
Europe but in the East. But in writing Arabic the student ought
to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. or in the more
elegant Eastern founts.]

* This

is

not confined, in the earliest times, to African Mss.

some old Mss., on the other hand, k has the point below,
3, i.

3,

In

a, or even

Part

4
a

First.

Orthography

and Orthoepy.

Rem. dL Those letters which are identical in form, and distinin writing only by the aid of the small
guished from one another
dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&}

plur. JeJu), are divided

tJ^j*Jt, the loose or free, i.e.


by the grammarians into &Lo^-Jt
3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0*
m
the bolted or fastened, i.e.
unpointed, letters, and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI,
To the former class belong ., j, j,
j^, h
pointed, letters.
I

and c

O,
x>

w*

to the latter

w> and
called

is

O
^

J, u*> u^>

Sj^^Jt

lUI,

tfAe

and

one point

J tcwft

O-* SU^Jt iUt, ^e

l^iji

lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the


6to

w^A

The

(j)

letters w>,

points above

fa#o

(3)

w^/t two points below

(.>)*;

*> St*

^e

iUU^Jt iUM,

are generally distinguished as follows

j* A* J

>

-,

5,

with three points

(3).

The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished


from the pointed by various contrivances, such as writing the letter
in a smaller size below the line, placing a point below, or an angular

mark

we

above, and the like; so that

manuscripts

cit;

^ ^ ;
Also

etc.

>*>*

a or o

j^ utfcr'c^J

of distinction

by way

^ has only one point

old Mss.

find in carefully written

above, and then

c^U!ug; k %;
from

In some

5.

^ takes

a point

below.

Rem. e. The letters are also divided into the following classes,
which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs
that

is

chiefly instrumental in
&+
3 St

J&'SitOJJjO*

producing their sounds.


* '

<

2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l), the labials (i a


3d

*ui tO

3 3 0*

Ojj^Jt, the

Sj^JtAJI

gingivals,

lip),

w>

Ov* j-

h, in uttering which the

3 sua ^
-pw

tongue
3

Si

is
*

pressed against the

ZO*

gum

iJijj^Jt, the sibilants,


3 * *t0*

4*L^I

(itJUt).

3 J 0*

^o, which are pronounced

with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t).


*

the use of the two points below is optional.


prints, especially those issued at Bairut, always insert
them except when the
represents elif maksura ( 7, rem. b) thus

[With

final

Some modern

^>, ^,

but

J^j.]

The Letters as Consonants.

I.

2]
J

ui

ul

&

13

0,

A$JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI, the liquids ^

nounced with the extremity


j

4jja,

of the tongue

J>jj3Jt, the letters *r

<f..)t

through the open


j

utto

Si

^LxJaJt

are pro-

JmJJI or J^jJ^t).

J* u
a

j o

^, 'which

j j o*

>o

the lips

orifice of
J

j os

Si

\i

which are uttered

(js*m,)\).

O > b, which are uttered

or AjjdauUI, the letters

^jj^Jt

>

by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of


the palate

or

(^t

x5

xfi

i*^l).

* Os

<

^^

the letters

jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a

uvula

is

(SlyAJt)
y 0*

letters

2.

ample

The
9-

and

soft letters,

jSi

0*

Jl*

c,

n uttering which the B

^ are called
0*3

aJLsUt

J^

J Os

it is

f.

ojjoJt, the

gutturals,

>^

c c

O-JJt O^j-a- or d-iJJt J^aJI, the

sijj^.,

^e weak

letters.

some of these

for ex-

letters,

scarcely possible for a European to acquire,

except by long intercourse with natives. The following hints


however, enable the learner to approximate to their sounds.
I

the

with hemza

of the

(t,

t,

Hebrews

see 15)

is

is

will,

tpKH).

^}X?

homme

the Italian dental, softer than our

It

may

be com-

or English hour.

t.

The Turks
pronounced
and Persians usually convert it into the surd s, as in sing. [In Egypt
it is commonly confounded with O, less often with ^*.]
>

is

corresponds to our g in gem.

like the

Arabia, however,
9-, the Heb.

stronger than

d,

it

Greek

0,

or th in thing.

In Egypt and some parts of

has the sound of the Heb.

PI,

is

U, or

our g in

get.

a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate,

but not rough

Europeans, as well as Turks

like -.

and Persians, rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it.


- has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch, or the German Roche.
> is the Italian dental, softer
5 bears the

same

the spiritus lenis of the Greeks,

(as in *)&*

pared with the h in the French word


w> is our b.

*.

J J

correct pronunciation of

and

*^>

brought into play.

3 J

JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI

The

an d

than our

relation to > that

d.

<1>

does to

O.

It is

sounded

j)

Part

Orthography

First.

modern Greeks,

like the 8 of the

Persians usually convert

it

into

and Orthoepy.

or th in that, with.

The Turks and

it is

sometimes z but

z.

[In

Egypt

often er d.]

is

in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r, as in run.

is

the English

z.

the surd s in

is* is

v, the Heb. V,

c^

an aspirated

is

mist; J^, shin shut.

sit,

is

a strongly articulated

s,

somewhat

like ss in

strongly articulated between the front part

6#,

of the side of the tongue

and the molar teeth (somewhat

like th in

The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. [In Egypt


an emphatic d, without aspiration, more difficult to an English
tongue than the true Bedouin u&.]
y, the Heb. ft, is a strongly articulated palatal t.
this).

it is

bears, strictly speaking, the

)o

do to

same relation to

that

*>

and i

O and

It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated


a.
though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua
C [with which it is often confounded in Mss.]. The Turks and Persians
J is somechange it into a common z. To distinguish it from

palatal

z,

^,

times spoken of as aJUmoJI


, the Heb.

JJ,

is

AJaJI.

a strong (but to [most] Europeans, as well as

Turks and Persians, unpronounceable) guttural, related in its nature


with which it is sometimes confounded.
It is described as

to 9-

produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe


and forcible emission of the breath. It is wrong to treat it, in any
of the Semitic languages, as a

a nasal
b

is

mere

vowel-letter, or (worse

still)

as

or ng.

a guttural g, accompanied by a grating or rattling sound, as

in gargling, of

which we have no example in English. The y of the


r, and the French r grasseye, are

modern Greeks, the Northumbrian


approximations to
wJ is our/.

it*.

J, the Heb. p, is a strongly articulated guttural k; but in parts


and throughout Northern Africa, it is pronounced as a

of Arabia,

[Hence L

for bX^xA,

is

sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc

Hamdanled.

Mliller 193, 17 etc.,

and often

in Mss.

De G.]

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

II.

3, 4]

hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum, as 'ultu, ya'ulu, for kultu, yakulu.
& J,>, and tj, are exactly our k, I, m, n. When immediately
;

followed by the letter w>, without any vowel coming between them,

m as w^- gemb, j~& 'ambar, iUw sembd'u,


shibau.
not g&nb, 'anbar,
* is our h.
It is distinctly aspirated at the end, as well as at
sound of

tj takes the

O J

the beginning, of a syllable

grammatical termination
nounced like O, t)*.

The Arabs had

and

The Turks and Persians

#.

>

originally

no signs

la,

rem. a, and

4.

fi

15) for a,

^s kai,

At a

for t

To

for the short vowels.

and diphthongs they made


consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz.

>)

pro-

use of the three

indicate the long vowels

1,

is

THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS.

II.

see

In the

1, the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU]

3 and ^J are precisely our


usually give j the sound of v.

3.

*****

<Ua) 'ahlaka.

^r* hum,

e. g.

and

ai,

for

(without hdmza,

u and

au.

E.g.,

du, ji lau.

later period the following signs

were invented to express

the short vowels.


(a)

French
(b)

L feth (~$)

or fetha (lm*&), a, e (as in pet), e (nearly the

e muet); e.g. (JX&. halaka,

- Bsr

(j~>) or kesra i}j~&)t

resembling the Welsh y, or the


(c)

^-^ shmsun, j9tj=&

L damm

(j^i) or

i (as

in bird)

damma

in pin),

kerlmun.

(a dull, obscure

e.g. <v fo*Ai,

1x5 1

(**), w (as in Zw/Q,

0,

/,

^Bftw.
o (nearly as
**

the

German

o in Mortel, or the French #w in

JUMM)

e.g.

<d

Ww,

O J

ww, *+* 'bmrun.

* In
point of fact, this figure
the ancient

modern

.1

1
(Heb.

(Heb.
jf

),

5 is

H -> H 7),

in

which

merely a compromise between

the old pausal

last the d is silent.

(ah),

and the

Part First. Orthography and

Rem. a. The distinction between the names feth, kesr, damm,


and fetha, kesr a, damma, is that the former denote the sounds a, i, u,
the latter the marks L, , 1.
Compare the Hebrew MH^, *\1&
Ox

and

The terms

V!)3p

endings

a, u,

^^u

De

Ox

and

[Another name

G.]'

mark

is

6.

commonly used

Lin

of the case-

other positions;
S

ywftU ajj^jaJI.

Rem.

*3j,

are sometimes applied to L,

xOj0Oxj2JxO*>

laJI

Orthoepy.

for

damm

is

kabw, ^3.
x

5 x x x

vowel
5

is

called dib^a.,

a motion,

Ox

xO

termed jJXw, form or figure,

plur.

plur.

e.g.
x

x x

Ol&j

its

J J

JULwt or J|yw.

Rem. c.
In the oldest Mss. of the Kor'an, the vowels are
expressed by dots (usually red), one above for fetha, one below for
As rekesra, and one in the middle, or on the line, for damma.
gards the signs L, _,
X

are probably derived from


5.

Rules

for the cases in

and

is

a small j and the other two

and ^ or a.

respectively.

which these vowel-marks retain their

which they are modified,


i,
u,
the
of
influence
the
or
weaker
consonants, into e, e,
through
stronger
or
can
be
laid
down
with
1, o,
0,
scarcely
certainty for the various
original sounds, a,

the third

for those in

from one another in these points


and besides, owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are

dialects of the spoken Arabic differ

uttered, the vowels are in general

The

following rules

somewhat

indistinctly enunciated.

may, however, be given for the guidance of the

learner*.
(a)

When

preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9-

4- c

or the emphatic consonants u u ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a,


though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure,
O O x

approaching to that of the Swedish &;

xx

^sb
*

e.g.

j*. ktmrun, w**J la'bun,

bakiya, jj*o sadrun.

Under the same circumstances kesra

is

[Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good, and who have
of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of

an opportunity

the consonants, will find that the proper shades of sound in the three
vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly

and naturally.

The approximate

rules for pronunciation here given

are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the
mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels.]

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

II.

6]
_

damma

pronounced as

e.g.

^Ac

'ilmun,

^a-

assumes the sound of an obscure

(especially

and e) to o;

9 6 j

sUrtm, ^-3 Bsrun; whilst


inclining with the gutturals

o,

JikJ to/a, JL&J

e.g.

lotfun,

1L hosnun

J
(

or hosnun, w*fc> ro bun,j**fi> 'o'mrun.

In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor

(b)

emphatic consonants, and in open syllables which neither commence


fetha either has
with, nor immediately precede, one of those letters,
a weaker, less clear sound, approaching to that of a in the English

words hat, cap,

e.g.

, s

J ,

C~l>

katabta,

j+&\ 'akbaru ;

or

becomes a

it

simple or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed

by a long one),

e.g.

Jj

seniinun, a-Ljj^ medHn&tim.

and

before

when that

jLoJt

letter is

doubled or follows a long a or

The long vowels

3o

a,

i,

suratun

u, e. g. $j*.

and

garratun,

also in general at the

by placing the marks C


and ^, respectively, e.g.

u, are indicated
I,

^j,

kola, *aj bVa, $$** sukun; in which case these letters are called

The com-

sJ^ja., literae productionis, "letters of prolongation."

binations

though
and

pure sound of a

after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics),

of the short vowels before the letters


15

O**-'

l~> sbnibkun,

It retains, however, its

Zjj* marratun, SjU garatun,


end of a word.

6.

^=>j* m^rkebun,

bdl,

^j

and j L must

after the

always be pronounced

emphatic consonants $

to that of the French

or

and

German

u, e.g.

and

o\

sound of

o,

not

u,

inclines to the

jy, 0^**> nearly

torun, tunun.

more rarely marked than the other


happens that, at a later period, after the
the vowel-points, it was indicated in some very common

a was at
and
hence
long vowels,

Rem.

a.

invention of

first

it

words merely by a fetha;

a&M,

Si

'

e.g. <JUI, ^>j*jJI,

C>^l)t, K+\, oSS or *$, iUi,

"0

^^1,

IJJb,

U^A,

i,

f *.

* '

*>''

03J*>

1J&.

More

in
exactly, however, the fetha should be written perpendicularly
this case, so as to resemble a small elif

Ot^-JI,
w.

<C,JUt

e.g. olUI,

c>**^>

axJ^JI,

from
(^e resurrection, to be carefully distinguished
2

j.

*?

Part

10

First.

Orthography

**JI

The words ^*}U,

JUy

U^A,

"

J / /

2u*$3,
0/1/

5 1/

and ^jj^U, are

frequently written defectively wJi,

also

**\

el-Tdmetu, price, value),


/

and Orthoepy.

aIU,

jj^iu; and occasionally some other vocables, such as 2ux^j and


//
/
J
/
/
/
J
j U/ J
/ / /
0>**3; J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0--)> an(^ other proper names
I

ending in <jt^

Si

>k*wuJ!

J/
j

djyc*

//

0/

0/

w^aJt, ^^^aJI, and

*y-U,

jX*.,

This
other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt ; jJJ} ; etc.
/
/
/

The long vowel


is more common in Magribl Mss. than in others.
I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word,

/0/

/ 0/

^l^Jt, el-Haft, j>?UM.

e.g.

H-Yemani, for ^yUjt,

of

//0/<

el-'Asi,

^j-^tijt,

* J

->/0

,jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu

^Citf

J^i-ojf for

Rem.

j^.

ojJsu ^j>, Ztow Pedro;


/

Carlo;

j\

i^tj, ^ Wver Guadiaro.


/

The sound of L. inclines, in later times and in certain


from a to e, just as that of fetha does from a to e (see

c.

localities,

j/

4, a,

and

" deflection

This change

5, 6).

is

called aJU*jM,

tl-imdla,

"

of the sound of a and a towards that of % and


Arabs
Magribl
actually pronounce a in many cases as i.

10/

0/

w>l>j/

em,

WMJ,

jjl Zo&tn,

w>b

7.

&i&,

lisin

lisan, are

The
Hence

sounded ri&#,

names

and, conversely, the Spanish

e I

called a*ja)t c*t,

3 forms the diphthongs

sister

& j
khsra, and 3, a^oJI c*.t,
a a

ai

oW*-j cJ^*j

to kesra,

of fetha,

^ stor

o/*

and j to damma
/O/O/0jo|

^, S^JOI

damma.

Jaen,

whence

C^-t, /^ sister of

Fetha before

and au, which retain

and

their original clear

4t
sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics,

Z?e/a,

**!/**

i.

the

corresponds to fetha,
/ O/O/0

is

0/
^LJ

6a6,

Caniles, Lebrilla, are written a.b,

^jJ^JI*.

dJ>l5,

bnu

Rem. 6. The letter o, preceded by damma, is used by the Arabs


North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e.g.

JO

e.g.

0/

o^o

saifun,

final
in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut
graphical irregularity,
expresses a variant pronunciation in which
the final I was shortened or dropped.
See Noldeke, Gesch. d. Qordn's,

[The omission of

p. 251.]

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

II.

7]

11

Jyk haufun; but


o (Heb. ^-)> e.g.

and

become nearly 9 (Heb. *-)

after the other letters

w*** sefun,

Oj* m

otun (almost

motun).

sfTftft,

Rem. a. After ^ at the end of a word, both when preceded by


damma and by fetha, is often written, particularly in the plural of
I

xx

J x x

verbs;

e.g.

0*

This

\^cj, tj>>*J-

tjj-aJ,

in itself quite superfluous

I,

intended to guard against the possibility of the


preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it
It is
belongs, and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and.
otiosum),

(lif

is

x x o&
j
^
called 3u\9^\ oUI, the

*0to

jj>

guarding elif or <LLoUM

j io*
sJU*iM, the

separating

eiif

Rem.

^ at the end of a word after a fetha

b.

**

<*

like

.J3

e.g.

I,

fata, .-oj rama, .Jl Hid*, and


"

///

same position

in the

the elif that


Jx
e&/*,

pronounced

(e.g.

is called, like

x x

J *

*0>O

y*k+)\

L*^j Behnesa,

itself

\j yaza), lj

Ox

\J&*$\,

can be abbreviated, in contradistinction to the lengtliened

s 0*

S^jjlo-oJI

hemza.

is

fO/

v^^t

(see

It receives this

22 and

name

23,

rem.

19,

which

when

because,

with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see

a),

protected by

comes in contact

it

rem. f),

is

shortened in

it is

pronunciation before the following consonant, as are the j and ^ in

and

jjt

j-jf
*^

Rem.
in

.^.1
**

20, 6)f.

added to a word ending


q
sometimes retained according to old custom, as in

If a pronominal suffix be

g.

the
j

before jj/J\ (see

is

or a**), but
<Lm6j

it is

into

commonly changed

[But ^-, with the mark gezma (see


the diphthong ai.~\ The diphthong ai, when

I,

by the

yedai, not

letters

A. suprascript;

e.g.

xx

dUj.

0*0*,
10), as in
final,
XX

old Mss.

as

tL*o

is

marked

in

often

is
Ml

,*^, ^J4!

J^

^J_ XX

U?*^>

i.e.

XX

^J*-

2/ec&&.

would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical
a distinction of sound between ^1. and 1.1, pronouncing
made
usage
the former nearly as e cf. rem. d.
On the other hand many Mss.,
even very ancient ones, write \L where the received rules require yL
in
According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written
words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya
f [It

^L

xOj

In words of three letters, the


world).
must be considered; a "converted Yd" gives
a "converted Wdw" gives U.. See the details below 167, 169, 213
(as

Li^-j

he will

live,

origin of the final a

etc.]

l<Jj

y.

Part

12

Rem.
of

31.1

SyCiLo,

First.

Orthography

S^a- or S^a-, djXo or S^Lo, Sjj or 3>%j,

as

In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead

d.

SyU, and

so also \y>j, t>^Jt for b>,

Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or


of

and Orthoepy.

we ought

writing

j3

bpt

2>^aJ, Sjjwt,

further 2oL for

mode

according to which older

to pronounce the \L

nearly as a or

re-

spectively*.

The marks

8.

when doubled

of the short vowels

with the addition of the sound n,

an,

in,

or

are pronounced

This

un.

iL

is

called

CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun),
p.

and takes place only at the end of a word


C^JJ bintin,

JU

Rem.

malun.

a.

See

takes an

308.

after all the consonants except 3

However, when

l^jj, but 4aJ^.

2jj j*c medlnetan,

e. g.

it

precedes a

^,

no

as in j^jdb; nor, according to the older orthography,

is

as

bb,

written,

when

it

acto ,

companies a hemza, as in 1-w, for which we more usually find U*w.


This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel, which is always
short

bdbdn, rihdn.

Rem.

To one word j

b.

the sound of the ten win,

is

viz.

* ,

genit.

to the proper
4

Amru),

added, without in any

accus.

jj-o*,

name

\j+&,

jj*^

affecting

Amr

(not

JS

rarely

way

\jj-+&,

[or,

when the

tenwln

falls

away

315,

written to distinguish

it

a,

rem. b) j>. in

all

from another proper name that has the


' ' J

J y J

same

radical letters, viz.


O

of $;+

and JJ-+&

[Cf.

the use of

Nabataean

Rem.

is,

three cases], so

j+c 'Omar,

genit.

and

accus. j+.

The

however, often neglected in old manuscripts.

to represent

tenwln in proper names in the

inscriptions.]

In old Mss. of the Kor'an, the tenwln is expressed


by doubling the dots which represent the vowels; z = _ =_,
c.

*
i.

[The prophet said

114. DeG.]

y&\

for

^yts\,

j ju*.

for

l\ J^..

Zamahsari,

^a^

OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC

III.

Gezma

A.

59/

x-

9.

Gezma,

consonant of

Gezma

A.

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

11]

j*e*.

5 x

or Sukun.

SIGNS.

or Sukun.

or a*j^. (amputation),

written over the final

is

-,

shut syllables, and serves, when another syllable

all

JOx

hum, ^&i ~= katabtum,

follows, to separate the two; e.g. Jj bel, j**


OfOJ
x x O x
J~Ji~t sefsefa, <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun).

It corresponds there-

Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew, with which

fore to the

13

its

other

is

called

name

rest, coincides.

\j~i,

Rem.

Ox

A letter which

a.

vi

^L>, a quiescent
See

has no following vowel

rem.

4,

Rem.

letter,

' * J

\J>j*.

as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-,

movent

<*>

letter.

b.

Letters that are assimilated to a following letter, which

b.

receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see 11


and 14), are retained in writing, but not marked with a gezma;
6 W0x
d 5 x
J
J
WW
S Os
wi
B /I
e.g. O-*
<H> 0->
*0 *><>' 2i^j not cX*'.

^'

xx

^J

xx

Rem. c. The same distinction exists between the words gezm


and gezma, as between feth &&& fetlia, etc. (see 4, rem. a).

Rem.
later

Older forms of the gezma are

d.

instead of the

common

or

Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke

10.

is

JL

and

2.

whence the C

In some old Mss.


used,

z.

of the

^j and 3, when they form a diphthong with fetha, are marked

JJ, J**i, ^J=>, ^J^t but when they stand for elif
not take this sign (see 7, rem. b, c, d).
do
productionis they
Rem. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the
with a gezma, as

',

xOxOOJxxO

letters of prolongation,
x x

maksura,

e.g. ^jXt,

O^J

^jJb
B.

11.

consonant that
fl

e.g.

JL3, j>*o, ^
xx

for

^s>,

-*~'

an(^ over * ne ^lif

\^$*>A-

Tesdid or Sedda.
is

to be doubled, or, as the Arabs say,

x J

strengthened (3juL&), without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. a),


is written only once, but marked with the sign -, which is called

Part

14

A JujJLSf,

First.

Orthography

the tesdid {strengthening)*;

/
m8 *
^-Jl fa-semmi, jv semmin,
therefore to the

Rem.

j-oJI

M-kulla, *$d> kullan,

J&\

e.g.

to,

Si

y* murrun.

et-murru,

[11

It corresponds

Daghesh forte of the Hebrew.


solitary exception to this rule, in the verbal forms

The

a.

it

and Orthoepy.

j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila, instead of Jj3 and J>*3, admits
When a consonant is repeated
of an easy explanation (see 159).
in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and
second occurrence, no doubling, properly so called, takes place, and

consequently the tesdid


masc. Perf. of ji

C <*&>,

not required

is

3d pers.

e.g.

Ojji, 2d

sing. fern. Perf. of

pers. sing.

the fifth form

Of CU5.

Rem.

b.

consonant can be doubled, and receive tesdid, only


The cases treated of in 14
follows it.

when a vowel precedes and

form no exception to this rule.


Rem. c. All consonants whatsoever, not even
excepted, admit of being doubled and take tesdid.

elif hemzatum
Hence we speak

and write ^ttj ra"asun, ^Jtt-w sa"dlun, cj-tU na"agun.


Rem. d. - is an abbreviated ^i, the first radical
o

o *

jljj^J, or the first letter of the

name

of the

ojut>,

which the African Arabs


s

use instead of the other.


in the oldest

a-J*^^

secretly

tj-w

Or it may stand

for

jw

(from

and most carefully written manuscripts

Its opposite is

9 a "
,

i.e.

and

sJia*

(from

name

UubL^

r J

,>jut>.),

its

form

since
is *

lightened, single); e.g.

openly.

Rem. e. Tesdid, in combination with -, -, -, -, is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks, as may be seen from
the above examples.
In combination with - the Egyptians write
instead of but elsewhere, at least in old manuscripts, may
;

stand for

,,*,

as well as .
The African Arabs constantly write
for -,, -.
In the oldest Mss. of the Kor'an, tesdid is

expressed by or ^, which, when accompanied by kesra, is sometimes written, as in African Mss., below the line.
In African
Mss. the vowel is not always written with the sedda ; alone may

be

<fec.

[The nomen unitatis

is

3jujl&>.

De G.]

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

14]

12.

TeSdid

13.

The

is

B. Tesdid or Sedda.

either necessary or euphonic.

necessary

which always follows a vowel, whether

iesdFid,

upon which

short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U), indicates a doubling

Thus j*\ (amara) means he

the signification of the word depends.

commanded, but ja\ (ammara),


is

y> (murrun)

15

he,

but a word

bitter,

appointed some one commander ;

j-o

(murun) does not

exist in the

language.

The Arabs do not

Rem.

readily tolerate a syllable containing a

Consequently tesdid
long vowel and terminating in a consonant.
necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^, as in

wJ^M

>>3] though

jjUliu (see

^L

25).

it is

Nor

sometimes found after

does

it

14.

The euphonic

as in jto,

3,>L,

occur after the diphthongs $1. and

save in rare instances, like ilcu^a. and

1,

&*$.> [see 277].

tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant,

which, though expressed in writing,

is,

to avoid harshness of sound,

passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant.


used

It is

(a)

J, 0>

With

the letters

O,

(dentals, sibilants,

k-timru;

0+j**j)\

and

letters,

a.

j,

^,

ui, <>?, yi,

liquids,) after the article

Jl

^qJiaJt

J,

e.g.

&,

j^UI

and Spanish manuscripts, JJI.


solar

the

because the word u~+J*, sun, happens to begin with one of

letters,

letters of the alphabet &>j*JUI

UkjodH, the
because the word j^3, moon, commences with one of

them.

Rem.
and Jj,
(b)

ajj

O-o

*az-zolmu;

These letters are called A*~*Jt ojj^JI,

them; and the other


lunar

>, 5, j,

'ar-rahmanu ; ^-^Jt Ss-semsu;

J-JJt el-leilu, or, in African

Rem.

*>,

b.

This assimilation

is

extended by some to the

especially before j, as C^tj

With the

letters j,

wzfr rabbihi,

JJ

J,

j>,

O*** wjU kitdbum mubinun,

of JJb

Ja.

^,

j,

^>o, JIaj <jt

and

for kiidbun

after

n with ezm,

e.g.

after the nunation, e.g.

mublnun.

The w

of the

Part

16

words v>, >*> 0*>


I*,

D-*>

Rem.

e -g- O-*-

Rem.

6.

*J

is

above

O'

itself,

Similarly

always.

we

find

*$\

for

*N),jt

redundant U) and occasionally Ut for

With the

(c)

letter

after

O*-

w*X&

,jl,

but O-**' O-o-^j U-

certain parts of the verb

'aratta for

e. g.

O^l 'aradta; ^jj^i^l

>, on the contrary,

j,

Ut

for U,jl

v b,

i,

C*J

lebittu for

O,

is

(dentals), in

CuJ

Many

lebittu

si

>}j\

grammarians, however,
rightly, because the

and

absorption of a strong radical consonant, such as >,


servile letter, like

with

attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum, ;

reject this kind of assimilation altogether,

weaker

(i/*,

with redundant U).

(tf/iatf,

basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum.

..

{if not),

U^t

*>,
it

as

for

are hardly ever written separately;

I*,

j^\

^1,

8*

[15

U >*> ^

for

we add

letters

0>^^!
common with

e q ua

^s

W*

O**** or v> ,>,

fr

If to the

a.

and Orthoepy.

not written when they are combined with

^ QYl

mnemonic word

the

Orthography

First.

or

h, by a

an unnatural mutilation of an essential

part of the word.

Rem.

Still

a.

more to be condemned are such assimilations

as js> for Ojcc, k*. for C-slsua..

Rem.
second

If the verb ends in

b.

O,

it

naturally unites with the


is written, but the

O in the above cases, so that only one O

union of the two

is

indicated by the tesdid


C.

as

C~J

for

cJL5.

He^mza or Nebra.

15.

Elif,

when

sonant, pronounced

mark

Mmza

it is

like

not a mere letter of prolongation, but a conthe spiritus lenis, is distinguished by the

(j+A or S^A, compression,

windpipe, see 4, rem. a),


elevation)', e.g.

Rem. a.
and rem. d,

jwl, JL,,

which
\j3,

is

also

^Sj,

In cases where an

viz.

sometimes called nebra (S^J,

\j}\ t

elif

of the upper part of the

juXSI,

Ua*.,^t,

conjunctions (see

ILd..

1 9, a, b,

c,

e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel,


the grammarians omit the hemza and write
merely the vowel ; e.g.

4-U J^4*Jt praise


belongs to

God,

lj.31,

^Jj\, jilf.

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

17]

C.

Hemza

17

or Nebra.

Rem. b. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to


be pronounced almost as ain. In African (and certain other) Mss.
,

sometimes actually written &;

it is

Mss. of the Kor'an, hemza


e.g., \J'\yA\

is

e.g.

In the oldest

cX.l.

indicated by doubling the vowel-points ;

Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W-

= O^J *^'

j j

jt,

**

marked

a ^ so

^s

in

such Mss. by a large yellow or green dot, varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above, 4, rem. c).

Rem.

Hemza

c.

accompanies

we

is

written between the

and the vowel that

or the gezma (see the examples given above)

it,

often find ^jJl*\L. for ^j^-wl^., j5~t for j-w (see 16),

ft

f '

'

wS

ft

sionally Usui, or ltu for U*i, ^j\ or <jt for ^>t,

and the

Ju*>,

Rem.

d.

ear at the

and

but

occa-

'J

for JJL> or

Ji*

like.

The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European


commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word,

preceded by a shut syllable; e.g.

4JL%*,

mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun)

iota,

el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu).

(jlt^iJI,

16.

Jwmzatum*

and j take hemza, when they stand


(in which case the two points of the

in place of

letter

monly omitted); e.g. C*. for Ol., ,j>Jwl. for ^>>L;Ufc.,


e-j

fr

for

uplift

Hemza

17.

^^j

it

e-J

chW, w*33j

an eli/G

are com-

alone

(*) is

written instead of

ft

t,

^,3,

I,

in the fol-

lowing cases.

Always at the end of a word,

(a)

or a consonant with gezma, e.g.


*

><*J> *3~*>
rem.

6 s

a)',

and

after a letter of prolongation

*U*.,

gaa, tbj,

tS>j\

ffi a >

*L5^">
4

uun\ i^o, ^3, l^,

or

more commonly oi

in the middle of a word, after

an

(see 8,

elif productio?iis, pro-

vided the hemza has the vowel fetha, as ^j^t\^J, J0^i\js>\ (but for
J

.-

,.

Ol

^o^sljtf-t and^ftljcfrt the

Rem. Accusatives
*
w.

^ Oft

t~-

Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl).

like

l^

and l^J? are often written, though

[See below, 131 seq.]


3

Part First.

18

O/

\\>j

for

and Orthoepy.

and in old Mss. we

find such instances

Z\}j.

Frequently in the middle of words, after the letters of pro-

(b)

3 and

longation
to,

oi

or after a consonant with gezma, e.g.


o,
*Zo*
j
9io, iiQs
9 -

^,
j

0^34 for oL5^, jit for ^otjj,

for SjjjjU,

On^^ for <jJJl&., ^j^


au, and uu,

for ^Hjjj.

0^

_
c

Rem.

a.

JL*j

and

also

and j of prolongation,

itself; e.g.

e.g.

w&, ua, at, u,

Of J/
6
3
s
Of
.
S$j-* for SjjjXo, PuUr* for

c->
,

which words must always be

pronounced makrit'atun, hati'atun, rn'usun.

a following

for

Hemza between

or &Lla., ^^jj for ^Hji; or ^hj^j

J-~j

StjjJLo

however, more frequently, though improperly, placed

is,

over the letter of prolongation


3 ;kri

and damma before the

after kesra

After a consonant with gezma, which is connected with


letter, hemza and its vowel may be placed above the
J/Of

17

contrary to rule, Lw, l*J*


as

Orthography

3 c

oi

connecting line; as J*t, for JUt.

Rem.

6.

hemza preceded by u or

i,

and followed by a or
s

may

be changed into pure

ojOx
<w

Jtj~>;

diphthong

0^

for A^o,

^eU

may

^;

as

0>^

f r

O^^v

Jtj-"' for
1,

likewise be changed into


Ow->0*0^ J0x

If preceded

a,

^ j

by u or

for ^oU).

the hemza

ai,

j or
0^

or the
or
5

^,
->

1
1
whatever
be the following vowel; as
djjJLo for SjjjjU, from S^a-o;
1

ltv

for

5^

W*

l^'

t~A

from

\^ hh
;

for **o*>

from

*^;

^y

for

^15*1

*0s

f r

If the

hemza has gezma,

power and] be changed into the

it may
[lose its consonantal
letter of prolongation that is homo-

geneous with the preceding vowel, as JLtj for JLjj, J3J for
9
j-o

for^;

necessarily so,

hemza, as ^>ott or
is

^\,

if

the preceding consonant be an

J^/f, ,1^, for

,>*1t,

^t,

lif

oUJ].

J>^J,

with
[This

called Sj-^'
u^^ft^-7]

Rem.

c.
The name j^tj or ^i\y David,
but must always be pronounced Da'udu.

is

often written

^\y

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

19]

When

19

Wasla.

D.

18.

D. Wasla.

the vowels with hemza

(t

commencement

at the

I),

of

a word, are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word, the
elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign - written over the
,

and

Slif,

5x

&L03, or 2X& (see

called J*&3, or

x 0* J'O x

x bi
l

juc abdu

e.g. s2)X(J\

Rem.

&o\

4,

or rather,

i.e.

union;

x x 6*>

juc abdu M-mUiM; dU^l

ois

c-ol;

oe-s

C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka.

f seems to be an abbreviation of

a.

rem. a),

x
c

'l-meliki for *iUJt

x x o

raeitu 'bnaka for

the word

&Ho

yo

x
Ox
in J*.o$ or 4JL0

In the oldest Mss. of the B


Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red), which sometimes varies in position, according to the preceding vowel.
In
ancient MagribI Mss. the stroke is used, with a point to indicate the
it

is

itself.

original vowel of the elided lif; e.g.,


|x X

i.

Sj-o*Jt~,

rr

e.

Hence even

S^-j&JI.

L instead

J-

<tf)L

J~~>

i, i.e. a&I;

jj&

X Ox

of the usual

modern African Mss. we

in

find

I.

sbs.

Rem.

Though we have written

b.

in the above examples ^JUL^I


""

"*

"

and ^wt, yet the student must not forget that the more correct C
x x

orthography
I-

is

*U*Jt

19.

_ x

and

See

*2Jlut.

x x

With

father of

the

a,

and

With the

and

as

xj^'

)i

of the Imperatives of the

>

J 13

d.

jt

x Ox
fr> r

Jij$ yA,

the

<

first

+ *

6 J 07

J 13,

for %+~>\

form of the

he said, listen; JJJ3I

x x

J 13

for

x x

J 13,

(c)

he said,

With

kill.

the

of the Perfect Active, Imperative, and

actionis of the seventh

and

and the

x x x 0>O x J

of the Perfect Passive in the

xxxOxJ
for jbj^j]

^.a,

he

was put

^t^ii'Njt

to flight

j\ ju5^t

j *C*fj
L

/#

;& downfall

for

e.g. j*jir>\

OJOJx

JU*S* 'J

w^

>*

/Ww^f a>& (to do something)

X
,

same forms

OJOAJx

was appointed governor ;


*>*>

Nomen

the following forms of the verb (see

all

35),

rem.

19,

the we~zir.

regular verb; as *-n~>\

J^3t

'OiO

of the article

x b>o

OiOj

rem.

This elision takes place in the following cases.

(a)

(b)

15,

or extinction.

Part

20

With the

(d)

First.

and Orthoepy.

of the following eight nouns

930

,>M, and

Orthography

9'*

9*0

^J\*

or

^j\, a

son.

<vj\,
*

xO

O^'*

9*0

9i*
s
!^*l,

a man.

j*\, orjj-ot,

With

a.

Arabic, the form

3i

and

lj^i\

(fern.).

a woman.

a name.

9t-*0

the article Jj-ol

a x&x

(rarely^wt),

30

two

j^\

the anus.

Cwl,
Rem.

a daughter.

xxO

O^'l, two (masc).


9 J

[19

and

take, in

l\^t>\

classical

0*0*

S\j+)\.
J Oi

Rem.

The hemza

b.

asseverative particle

of j>^-l,

also elided after the

is

oatfAs,

J, and occasionally

after the prepositions *.


Jj

and

^>-

% GW
Hi

aJUI

^,>*-J,

Rem.

omitting the

OA>x

also write

altogether, or,

a contracted form,

in

In the above words and forms, the vowel with hemza


weakened through constant use (as

c.

in part original, but has been


9 3 oi

and

in the article,
is

^>oJ*^

JO*

Hi AS

is

we may

by the oaths of God), for which

(lit.

AS

aJUl

J J Ox

A?

(which then takes fetha instead of gezma); as

in ^>*-jl after J); in part merely prosthetic, that


to say, prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with

a vowelless consonant, and consequently it vanishes as soon as a


vowel precedes it, because it is then no longer necessary.

Rem.

It

d.

is

naturally an absurd error to write

ning of a sentence instead of


3

of
J)

aSi

with hemza, as

* Ot

The Arabs themselves never do

81if is

an

elif conjunctionis (see rem. /),

and express only its accompanying vowel, as


rem. a, and 18, rem. b.
Rem.

e.

In more modern Arabic the

junctionis (see rem.


jl^l5N)l,
*

at the begin-

aSS

* Ota

jlaJI instead

' '

xaJI.

that the

elif

j o

/)

is

so,

but, to indicate

they omit the hemza

<ft

jL^jf.

See

15,

elision of the tlif con-

neglected, especially after the article, as

^t^iiNjI
JA>.\ but the gramma^,^0-MvNjt
J^,^r^\^AJ\
'
* S
x
x x

nans brand

fe

this as Ji*.\*

>aJ 5

w^*Jt

jt>*b> yjs. s-Jj^--

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

20]

Rem.

The

Jmo^JI, iK/" or

which takes wasla

elif

hemza

is

D.

called

Wasla.

JUI or Sj^Jb

J*a^t

conjunctionis, the connective elif

21

the opposite

being sJgJUl oUI, elif sejunctionis or separationis, the disjunctive

elif.

20.

The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short


a
To
vowel,
long vowel, a diphthong, or a consonant with gezma.
these different cases the following rules apply.

(a)

vowel

short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with

(b)

down

#\

'abib

its

c.

long vowel

the rule laid


jj>j^\

and

see 19, b

shortened

is

in

25;

e.g.

according to

pronunciation,

^UJI ^3 ft

among men;

'n-nasi,

father of the wezir, for ft and 'abu.

the

'l-wiziri,

in

This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when


the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that
vowel, but begins the next syllable, in consequence of the elision
of a following elif (either according to 19 or

Hence gtj^t ^3, in


e

tjuJi; u*f$l

? (f r

an

and

elif conjunctionis.

elif

^^t )^o*J my

as

pronounced

w^,

letter),

as

as

ujJi

J*Wi.

license).

if

written

J^*^M

In the

The

3$

first

suffixes of the 1st pers. sing.,

article the older

^_

forms

grace which, J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide

way, instead of .JJt <Zju and lUoJI .yju&t, which

latter

and

me on

the J)

forms are

equally admissible.

diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels, according to the law stated in 25, viz. at into ai, and au into cm as
(c)

II

/Oil

iU*JI

.^s-s

l^-3

O^Ox

4^5^

AJJt j)BJn.rfi,

Wwcw

s O 'QlO

L5~*

'

-*>*^

mustafdu

'l-meliki,
s

L5"***"*

'lldhi,

silent elif ( 7, rem. a)

conjunctionis; in the other two

assume before the

^, may

e.g.

an

weak

by poetic

but has been changed for the sake of the

elif separationis,

metre into an

^_

is

is

fo

l^)9)i wpow

of these examples the


it is

beginning,

subject to change (a

J^U^t),

(for

the

in

the eyes of the king, for

s^scw

the elect

'l-kauma, fear

of God,

the

people;

for <UJt ^aJsucuo.

The

does not prevent the resolution of the diph-

Part

22

xx

First.

0*>

Orthography

xx

and Orthoepy.

20

thong, as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hidrata, they threw the stones ;


x0<0.xfixx
v
J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma, and after they saw the star.
Ox

Oi

But jt and

take kesra,

JjOms
as a^wt jt or his

s,6,0*>

name ; J*iXwt

if he went

to meet.

consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel, if


had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis
(d)

it

or adopts the lightest of the three vowels, which in its nature ap-

proaches nearest to the gezma,

Hence the pronouns of the

kesra.

viz.

jo

B 2d and 3d

pers.

plur.

and^A

masc.,^0^ you,

they,

the pronominal

suffixes of the

e j

same pronouns, j* your, you

them, and the verbal termination of the 2d

(accus.),

damma

which they originally ended)

(in

jA- jjxxx

the liars; aJJt ^v***

The same

man.

is

maV @d curse

C fetha

The

&

>o

nouns having the ten win, as ^J^\

^o

the pronoun yj*, as w>tJoJt

cJlS,

iJ**jM

such as

"

^ ave SPn th#

jA\j Ve

preposition ,>*, from, takes


as

J^JjT
x

XXX

^>-o, yj*t>

ezma take

ke'sra

o a < >

j^^o MohammMuni

mani l-kadddbu;

'n-nWiyu;

verbal forms like

xxx

v~k*.\, as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati


Ox
Ox
Ox

^Sj,
x

ji"

^j

J jOt

<5

J J bis

u> *

All other words ending in a consonant with

x xx

as \jy*>\&\ ^>\ ye are

before the article, but in other cases kfera

djj\.
viz.

contracted for Ju*.

it is

their,

the case with Jco, since, from, which time forth,


j

because

them

^A

pers. plur. masc. Perf.


x

take

and

'r-Rumu; and

particles,

sjs., ^j\,

Rem.

a.

Jj, jS, J*, ,>),

etc.

In certain cases where

rem. b) the wasl

may be made

becomes ^tb

either with

damma

(see 1 85,

or kesra,

^A

or^A.
Rem. b. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma, the wasl is
sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the
preceding vowelless
i

consonant or
b-o

^3J&>\

Rem.
is

tenwm

OJO^Jxxx
J^ /T^* CJUj

as tjjiaST jj, for


IjjjkTt Ji, instead of

c.

The

final

J J 0
;

t^J^.>t ^o^L*

of

seldmunu dhulu.

the second Energetic of verbs (see


97)
by the preceding fetha ; as

rejected, so that the wasl is effected

Other Orthographic Signs.

III.

21]
sO*

D.

Wasla.

23

&Jj\ w^-*aj

la tadriba 'bnaka,

*$

and not

siitot

^jjjJsJ

*$ la

tadribani

'bnaka.

21.

(a)

altogether omitted in the following cases.

is

In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j, for aJUI^wb,


?^m<?

omission of the

As a compensation

DVHXPt DEO-

6JW,

<?/

for the

the copyists of Mss. are accustomed to prolong


the upward stroke of the letter w>, thus: j^.
t,

In the word

{b)

when the name


the genitive

son, in a genealogical series, that is to say,

^t,

and that of

of the son precedes,

provided always that the said

a whole, forms

series, as

part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence.


,

lira

aUI

^ ja*

j^s- ijj sjj.

struck Sa'd, the son of

But

J Os

his father follows in

For example,

< s

jl. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid, the son of Halid,

'Auf

the son

of 'Abdu

'lldh.

315, rem.

[Cf.

b.]

the second noun be not in apposition to the first, but form


part of the predicate, so that the two together make a complete senif

*>
t

tence, then the


W

OMS

J OiO

'Amr; oUaaJI

J 0*>

retained; as jj>* t>^ *H)


*

is

Zeid

(*) the

son

ofC

J s 3

^t j+s.

'Omar

son of el-Hattab.

(is) the

to

Rem.

Even

a.

word happens

in the first case the

^t

of

is

retained,

if

that

to stand at the beginning of a line.


O

Rem.

name

If the

b.

-<

grandfather, the
J

Mary ; jy&J*o
wise,

if

is

'Ammar

oo>o

OOs
3j*o*)-

Or

if

name

<jjt

of el-Aswad,

an adjective;

e.g.

the

(pronounced
(c)

(a)

of

Like-

of the father, but a J)

Mikdad

>!**,

the son

of

"the black," being Amr,

son of Meirnun

like

J OtO

,0*

J 0x>

s O

by the preposition

it is

to,

preceded
as

J^pJ

^0

^yiy* &\ ^JCJ^


the word zirba) the son of Musa.

In the article Jl, when

'

O^**-* H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd


-

the noble,

the son

the series be interrupted iu any way, as by the


J

interposition of

^^s>, Jesus

name

real

j o*>

surname or nickname; as jj^l


(the real

<j->t

(yrand)son of Mansur.

the

name be not the


s

U-Aswad

be that of the mother or

J O/O

^jj\ jU.c,

the following

Os

as^j^*

retained;
Z

1 0>o i

^t

following

ls**J>

Ridha,

to the

man,

for

J*^).

Part

24

First.

Orthography

and Orthoepy.

the noun be J, then the

If the first letter of

22

of the article

also

is

omitted, as aJUJ to the night, for 2JJJJ, and that for alJJN).

by the affirmative

()

interrogative particle

Oj-Jull,
for

is it

I
;

as &*>\, for

^UjM,

iOn,

is

f& OTfer

The

Rem.

a.

In this

elifs

xxOjx^o^

as ,*)juft

thy oath

may

son1 O^Xit,

is

for

received!

may however

be

often written llJk

when the second

blend into one with medda (see


j

is

^.>..,aJt,

^j^}\,

^iui2S\js\

thy

last case, according to some,

has fetha, the two

below)

is

the article

elif of

for

S&JJ,

when preceded by the

(fem.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t, for^5JoJtt, ^aw?

retained, so that 'X^S with the interrogative

elif

as

verily,

truly,

In nouns, verbs, and the article Jt,

(d)

B *0',

particle

s o,Z

el-Hasan in thy house

he ofKorei's or he of Takif?

by God'? (see 19, rem.

b) for dXM

for

^)..

dlLo^

a>,)tt

,>^>

is

y>^tf.

Rem. b. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>, to ask, is


frequently omitted, in Mss. of the Kor'an, after the conjunction

sj; as Jlli, for

JUS.
E.

When

22.
is

elif

preceded by an

[Cf. 140, rem. a.]

Medda

or Matta.

with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin


prolongation (ti.), then a mere hemza

Slif of

(t, I,

is

etc.)

written

instead of the former, and the sign of prolongation, 1 medda or matta


5/
o *
3/
j) (jto, 5jL or aJsh, i. e. lengthening, extension), is placed over the latter
;

*X*~>

e.g.

semdun, *U- gaa, ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna,

Rem.

a.

As mentioned above

Mss. such forms as

Rem.

6.

1U*.,

tbj,

17, a,

rem.),

for

we

llo-*,

find in

^*>,

old

for *l., Ih..

In the oldest and best Mss., the form of the medda

is

(i.e.

ji*).

[Note also the

Its opposite is
j*oA

(i.e.

j-o3, shortening)^ though

cases, in poetry, cited in 358, rem. c

contracted tribal names j++*X>,

OjJU

for j~i*)l

j-ij,

wj^aJI

further the

yJ De G.]

III. Other

23]

Medda

E.

Orthographic Signs.

or Matta.

25

but rarely written. In some old Mss. of the Kor'an medda


expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z

this is
is

23.

at the beginning of a syllable, an Slif with

When,

and fetha

(t)

followed by an elif of prolongation or an

is

hemza

elif

with

hemza and gezma


by a

(I),

then the two are commonly represented

single elif with

S'f

St

tul for

'

0>^'

e.g. alwt for }tL*l,

medda;

f r

in writing

Ol^H>

e-i-

U*M

rem.

(see 17,

In this case

h).

medda.

either the hemza, or the vowel, along with the

times find U, see

Rem.

not usual to write

it is

[But we some-

174.]

a.

is

called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t, the lengthened or long

elif,

in opposition to
ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t, the elif that can be abbreviated or

shortened

Rem.

rem.

( 7,

b).

Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is


written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha, instead of with

medda

b.

(see 6, rem. a)

Rem.

Medda

c.

prolongation, $ and

e.g.

tut instead of L*t or tutt.

sometimes placed over the other letters of C


^, when followed by an elif hemzatum, only
is

the hemza being written

( 17,

a)

as ly~J
j jo

final

5-

Si'*

St*\

Also over the

l^a***.
j

vowels of the pronominal forms jj\,j*,

j j

or t,^**,^* or ^**,

and the verbal termination j, when they are used as long


poetry;

e.g.

Rem.

^2J\ j&.
,

The mark

d.

-,

often written over abbreviations of words,

has nothing in

common with medda but

jJUj, He (God)

is

exalted above all; j^>

upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU

him

peace ! du&j for

gracious

to,

upon him/

W for LS

in

ajx. aJUt

him/ mj
>JI

jo*-,

Cfor J^a-.

^y^j,

or a-j for

for 6j.\ .jt or

Ae narrated to us
tfAew.

aJUI

The

for^JLJI

^JLo,

GW

may God be
<*JUI

a^a-j,

U^-l .J I,
Ut or

letters j* j

So

the form.

Jfess

Jtj

for

<*JLc, 'peace be

him and grant

well pleased with, or

may

to the

GW

end of

for Uh*l,

/*e

Aave mercy
it, i.e.

etc.;

informed us;

are written over words or

verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript, for

w.

Part

26

First.

Orthography and Orthoepy.

24

On the margin
j**>o, to be placed last, and jajJLc, to be placed first.
the
letters
with
words
find
of Mss. we often
*f~,
^, and ~~*a over

O *

these indicates a variant, and stands for < ~*J,


a copy, another manuscript ; the second means that a word has been
indistinctly written in the text, and is repeated more clearly on the

The

them.

first of

margin, ^)L^, explanation; the third implies that the marginal


reading, and not that of the text, is, in the writer's opinion, the
fix

correct one

o <

5*-o, it is correct, or

Written over a word in the

that the word

is correct,

form or vocalization.

its

^!wa1,

correction, emendation.

text, -*~o stands for

though there

may

Iao

(i.e.

Again

^o, and

denotes

be something peculiar in
la*,

together) is written

over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels

emendation

word on the margin implies a conjectural

dJbd over a

are correct.

<x\x),

perhaps

THE SYLLABLE.

IV.

The vowel of a

24.

it is.

syllable that terminates in a vowel,

which

we

call an open or simple syllable, may be either long or short; as


J13 ka-la.
25. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant,
which we call a shut or compound syllable, is almost always short
;

kul, not

as

only in

Jy> (Heb. Vlp)- Generally speaking,


JU
pause, where the final short vowels are suppressed, that the ancient
it is

Arabic admits of such syllables as

Rem.

in, tin,

an, etc.

Before a double consonant a

(see 13, rem.).

is however not
infrequent
[Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma

sometimes receives a medda, as

O^^-]

26.

syllable cannot begin with two consonants, the first of


which is destitute of a vowel, as sf or fir. Foreign words, which commence with a syllable of this sort, on passing into the Arabic language,

take an additional vowel, usually before the


J

anroyyos

an

*0t

^^b >l|, IIXaTwv

elixir, to fypov

27.

0*0

first

consonant

as

0*

*-Jj*y\, the

y^M,
'

Franks (Europeans) j*~>]


;

(medicamentum siccum).
end in two consonants, which are not

syllable cannot

either separated or followed

by a vowel (except in pause).

The Accent

V.

31]

THE ACCENT.

V.

28.

The

last syllable of

does not take the accent.

The pausal forms

(a)

remains unaltered

27

a word consisting of two or more syllables

Exceptions are
of 29 and

in

30,

which the accent

as ya-kul, kd-nun, mu-mi-nfn, kd-ti-bdt, Jl-rfnd,

ma-fdr, ku-beil, bil-ldur, bu-nei.

'a-kdl,

But words ending

^-

in

*'

ul-J

uf

Rem.

**

*"

x*

and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms;
j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun

becomes

Ko-ra-sl,

wun, d-du;
'I'

j_, *!_ or

*3j** mak-ru-un, mdk-ru ; g^lsu ba-ti-un,

bd-ti.

Monosyllables in combination with

which retain their original accent

\S> ka-dd, ,>*) li-mdn,

bi-hi,

hdm-ra;B

'

(b)

j js- a-du-

ilj-o^. ham-rd-'u,

' '

ne-bi-yun, ne-bi ;

^.J

'ik-ti-nd

%\js\ 'ik-ti-na-un,

2t_, *j_,

as

w>, i),

I,

*^l 'a-ld, *fe\

Vj

la-nd,

J, j, and vJ,

'a-fa-ld,

l^

bi-md,

wa-ldm, 15 fa-kdt,

J.33 wa-kul.

The only exception

Rem.

as

interrogative enclitic j> ;


X

bi-ma,

29.

See

UJ ^-rad

The penult takes the accent when


*

Oy\$

% i

The penult has

it is

long by nature,

as J15 kd-la,
9

kd-nu-nun, ,j-*Uj^
mu-mi-m-na,
XX

30.

oU3l^
X

likewise the accent

and consequently long by position; as


biir-un, c*~k-l
X
X
Wx Jx

'ig-lis,

i.e. is

Jyu ya-ku-lu,

kd-ti-ba-tun.

when

it is

a shut syllable
9 6

^S3

kdl-bun,

^3

5x

5x

df-bun,

'a-kdl-lu, ji-o ma-fdrJ*>j*


XX fi-rm-dun, J3I
xOxJ
Wxx
S0j3
bu-neiku-bei-la, j>V, bil-ldu-run,
i

m, i>*>^

ya-kH-ldn-na,

^^

J*J

yun.

When

31.

the penult is short, the accent falls upon the antepenult, provided that the word has not more than three syllables,

has four or more syllables, that the antepenult

or, if it

xxx

nature or position

w,

'

Ox

lj-4

the

351, rem.

an open syllable containing a long vowel


5

is

li-ma, in contrast with

^i

bi-ma,

Uj

^J

to this rule in old Arabic

Oxx

^Jl^

as ^. ^r* kd-ta-ba,

kd-ti-bun,

^JU

Oxxx

C<%.

xx Of

is

long by

Jx x

kd-ta-bat,

^y fr ka-taS

Jxxx

td-la-bun, U-^t 'ei-na-md; ly-|p fa-?-a-

Part

28

First.

Orthography

A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum, Ulytfn


accent

is

U^f>

kd-ta-ba-td, &v.>.

l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd, \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md.


On deviations from these principles of accentuation,

Rem.
Egypt and among the Bedawin,

German

as

[32

In other cases the

ka-tdb-tu-md.

thrown as far back as possible

mds-a-la-tun,

and Orthoepy.

Oriental Society, vol.

same journal,

vol. xii., pp.

see

iv.,

Lane

in

in the Journal of the

pp. 183-6,

and Wallin in the

670-3, [also Spitta, Grain, des arab. Vul-

59 sqq.]
gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880), p.

THE NUMBERS.

VI.

To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the

32.

letters of

In the former case, the


the alphabet, at other times peculiar signs.
numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order
of the

Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets

(see 1).

They

are written

from right to left, and usually distinguished from the surrounding


words by a stroke placed over them, as jut*a, 1874. This arrange-

ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged, and


tained in the barbarous words

is

con-

iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw Hr&

^J**- jj*

J^'

(otherwise pronounced:
--

s y x

s s

vl

*J-i Jck^ Cvij.5 t/UUUi h*X=>


^Jaoor, as

usual in North Africa

Si

JjA

y Oi-

J**j\)

J^kk j*J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^- j> A J"*^


The

special numerical figures, ten in

number, have been adopted

by the Arabs from the Indians, and are therefore called i^J^t^pt,
the Indian notation.
They are the same that we Europeans make use
of,

calling

them Arabian, because we took them from the Arabs.

Their form, however, differs considerably from that which our ciphers
have gradually assumed, as the following table shows.

Indian:

Arabic

:\

Europ.:

They

are

123

compounded

e.g. tAvt, 1874.

8
(ffct

^^^x^^o
9$-i
5

in exactly the

67890

same way as our numerals

PART SECOND.
ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
THE VERB,

I.

A.
1.

33.
that

is

(^Wj)
34.
literal

to

say,

General View.

The Forms of

The great majority

JjuJI.

the Triliteral

Verb.

of the Arabic verbs are triliteral

contain three radical letters,

(jyfitj),

though quadriliteral

verbs are by no means rare.

From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms, which

express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the

35.
fifteen in

The derived forms

first.

of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned

number, but the learner

may pass over the last four, because


the
of
the
(with
exception
twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence.
juSt

>&

XL

VI.

JiS

I.

VII.

II.

JiliA

JiL

XII.

JjiSl XIII.

Ji^t

JJuilt XIV.

Jm

JU**t XV.
Rem. a. The 3d
of the verb, is

we always

J**t

VIII.

Ju&

IX.

Jili IV.

X.

J*tf V.

III.

pers. sing. masc. Perf., being the simplest form


commonly used as paradigm, but for shortness' sake

render

it

into English

instead of he has killed.

by the

infinitive;

Jl3

to kiU,

Part Second.
Rem.

Etymology

The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\

b.

paradigm, whence the

by them

or the Parts of Speech.

as

radical of the triliteral verb is called

first

O* ^' ^e

second

the fa, the

l\i)\

36

'

a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI


t

lam.

tJie

Rem.

As

c.

the above order and numbering of the conjugations


all the European Lexicons, the learner should

are those adopted in


note them carefully.

The

36.

first or

J//J

JO

j*M oyjj*$) in

intransitive (j*Zo

which accompanies

to hill,

JuS

vowel

intransitive verbs

v** J

t 9^ve

y^3

>

to

is

e.g.

most of the

in

w>o

transitive,

to beat,

go away, jJ*j to go

w-l
tJie

to

right

to sit.

way, t^~U.

same position has generally an intransitive


u invariably so. The distinction between them is, that i

The vowel

38.

signification, according to the

of the second radical

and not a few of the


write,

generally transitive (juCU ) or

second radical.

its

The vowel

37.

is

ground-form

signification,

in the

indicates a temporary state or condition, or a merely accidental quality


in

persons or things

naturally inherent quality.


sorry, *t or
to

old,

JJu
.

to be

blind;
si*

J*

ugly,

^j+e

to be safe

to be heavy,

j *

but

sound,

yj****-

or a

0>*-

to 0*

become whitish,

s^^

to fe

u*j^

glad,

to

be sick, j**

to be beautiful,

to

~J> to be

' 1 '

to be

high or noble*,

Ja*

to be

low or

* j *

mean,j+&

to be large,

Rem.

a.

to our

*^w

j**o

Many

way of
e.g. jj&> to know
upon,

sJj&

JJ^

insolent, j*y\ to

and

state,

a permanent

indicates

E.g. *-ji or

proud and

o fo

become gray, j^~*

become

Jau

whilst

to be small.

verbs of the form

thinking,
(scire),

J*9

are transitive according

and therefore govern the accusative,

^v^a.

to think,

^o^g

to

pity or have mercy

to hear.

*
[Or, to become noble, for the form with u of the second radical
often means to become what one was not before, Kamil, p. 415.
De G.]

41]

I.

The Verb. A. General View.

1.

Forms of

Triliteral Verb. 31

Rem. b. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic,


though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly
marked. [See Comp. Gr. p. 165 $eq.~\
/S/

39.

X Xx

The second form (J*$)

formed from the

is

first

(J*3) by

doubling the second radical.

The

40.

form in respect of being

signification agrees with the

XX

intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (tCJJ).

XXX

Originally

it

implies that

done with t/mrf violence (intensive), or during a long time


(temporally extensive), or to or by a number of individuals (numerically

an act

is

w>o

to
extensive), or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative).
E.g.
xxx
x*5x
x 5 x
to break in pieces;
fo, w>j~o to ## violently ; j~> to break,

j*&

ala.5

JS3

*IaJ

to cw,

to Mil,

Js3

to

to

cut in pieces

massacre ;

Jjy

JU.

to separate, Jjji to disperse

or <J\h to go round,

to

#o round much or often;

J>-

Sx

xx

^J to weep, ^^

to w&?jt?

or J>j4?
x OxJ

fl

much; JU*M O^-o

^)

m/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a numbers (OU to


;
i)^
j/5" x5x
J^aJt A< camel kneeled down,
^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels
kneeled doum.
ftta

j x x 0<

^A\

From

41.

this original intensive

first

form become transitive in the second


X

XJ X

to

gladden;

UbtA

second

as^Xft

to

St

more usual C

to teach;

as 9-ji to be glad, 9-j*

Ubt^

become doubly

know,^jiz

xxx

wnto /

fo wca&,

to

transitive in the first

arises the

meaning

Verbs that are intransitive in the

causative or factitive signification.

Those that are

weaken.

to

transitive or causative in the

w-A

to

wWto,

w i^

to toacA to

J- to carry, Jt*- to ?raa#0 carry.

Rem.

a.

The causative or

factitive signification is

common

the second and fourth forms, the apparent difference being that
original in the latter, but derived in the former.

Rem.

b.

The second form

than factitive in the


to

often rather declarative or estimative

strict sense of the

think or call one a liar

one

is

tells the truth, to believe

term; as w>Jt>

the truth,
Jf juo to tell

him.

to J)

it is

JJjlo

to lie, w>Ji=
to

think that

Part Second.

32

Rem.

Etymology

The second form

c.

or the Parts of Speech.

42

frequently denominative, and ex-

is

or doing of, or being


presses with various modifications the making
from which it is
noun
the
the
thing expressed by
occupied with,
,i,
j&j*- to pitch

derived;

e.g.

to coZ/ec2

an army

P ave ***& marble

(c*)> sr**j to
x

G x

'fl *

tent (**), to dwell in a place,

(_>U.j),
x

5 x

J***-

^^3
5
x

nurse the sick (^jouja), jl*.

to

become bent

to

" to
skin an animal, to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin, compare our

like

bov)

(^^5), jbj*

to

stone fruit" and "to stone a person"), *j3 to clean an animal of

^J3

ticks (>tji),

a mote (^j) out of

to take

the eye.
j x

Hebrew

}fc^, ^UT,

T^

him

*iU

Uju*.

thy nose, or the like, be cut

him

aDI

^)U. (may

(??i2/

etc

/|3B

GW prolong

in

Compare
x

Similarly, agju*. he said to

thy

life),

x x
x5 x
sJLJL^^Hw (peace be upon thee), j*> he
i j x
3 s
'x 5 x
xxx Ox
xx

off),

oL> Ae said

dukz^X** he said

to

him

to

// x

shouted the Moslem war-cry,

(^^J&t

<*M),

j-o>

jUl>

J^O

-0

^e

w; ^

en ters (the city of) Zafar,


JxO

m^s

Himyaritic (the language of Himyar, jQ+m.).

sjpea&

like the fourth form, it expresses movement


/fix
x fi x
6 x
Aa*3 to se ow2 til w-y direction (a-^), JJjJ* to

Sometimes,

towards a place

fi

oji
C

to

go

Rem.

to the west

d.

JUi

#o

to 2Ae eas

as

fi

(Jij^Jt),

J/0/

(w^iil).

corresponds in form, as well as in signification, to

the Heb. ^fap and Aram,


hfap,

^&0 [See Comp. Gr.

42.

The third form (J*U) is formed from the


lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical,

p.

first

as

is

198

sea.]

(J**) by
indicated

by the elif productionis.


43.

It modifies the signification of the

ground-form in the follow-

ing ways.

(a)

When

Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object

(direct object or accusative),

perform that act upon


J X X

J^li expresses the effort or attempt to


which case the idea of reciprocity

the object, in

X J Cx

(i&jll^JI)

mutual

is

one.

added when the


E. g.

fought with him

a&3

ojlL

effort is necessarily or accidentally

he killed him, iisiS he (tried to kill


he beat him,

him

or)

jJU* he fought with him ; isj-o

The Verb. A. General View.

I.

43]

1.

Forms

he threw him down, ac,Io he wrestled with

aJU

he tried

with him;

to

overcome him

<uuw he outran him, dJuL* he ran a race

him in

glory,

he strove to do

o^Sh

him in rank and glory ; d^xw he


X

excelled

(b)

A^ol*. he went

lawsuit,

When

the

first

of which to an object
object), the third

is

to

he vied with

so,

him in composing poetry,

J , ,

ojsMt he competed with him in doing so;

him in a

alii he overcame him,

4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank, aijli he strove to do so;

t>j he surpassed

->X

him

of Triliteral Verb. 33

oa. he got

rt

the better

of

law with him.

or fourth form denotes an act, the relation

expressed by means of a preposition (indirect

form converts that indirect object into the immediate

The idea of

or direct object of the act (accusative).

more or

as in the former case,

less distinctly implied.

x A

X */

*iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king,

corresponded with him;


conversed with him

<*J

J 15

^U-Jt

>*io^

Jt

^jafe

him

(something),

aljlS he

crJ^- he sat beside the Cornj+a\ juc


'

t*Z . t
mander of the Faithful, ,^-0*3^1 j~t>\
;

^t

he wrote to the king,

he sent (a message) to the sultan,

's

him, attacked him, axStj do.

E. g.

here,

^Jl^

he said to

^UxLJt ^t J^jl

jjUsuLJI J^wtj do.;

X X

is

reciprocity

aAs.

^U. do.

jlS>t

o *i he fell

upon

he advised him, d^jti> he con-

sulted with him.

When

(c)

Jjii denotes a quality or state, Js>& indicates that

one person makes use of that quality towards another


,

or brings

JX X

he,

E. g.

into that state.

sj**.

treated

him harshly ;

him kindly ; f$

>*~j*- to

to be

of doing

to

be good or kind, Aiwl.

life,

a^pU

he procured

him

him
the

or

it ;

means

a.

The third form is sometimes denominative, but the


and reciprocity are always more or less clearly

of effort

x x

implied.
w.

him

to be soft or gentle, AiS*) he treated

lead a comfortable

so.

Rem.
ideas

rough or
JX X

gently ; tli to be hard, oLAS he hardened himself against

**j or^xJ

him

affects

Si*

d-wla.
he treated

him

and

E.g. \J&\+b to double, from

++ t

06

Julc

the like or equal ; Ji;U

well,

StOip

197

44.

Thus J*.lj, Jailw

I,

(Gl. Geog.s.v.

d^U

dUU.,

is

J}). Zamahsari, Faih,

for ojuul

Also *Jb=aXjt,

ec.

G.]
(

in consequence of

formed by prefixing to the root

is

ji$t)

which the

intransitive in the first form,


if transitive in

E.g.
to

Heb.

used in the sense of

first

radical loses its vowel.


If the

Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS).

fourth.

C c/~^t

De

The fourth form

45.

ojicb,
52.

xiii.

the syllable

fourth

In a few verbs the third form

c.

cites

Aghdni

is

to the

the fourth.

verb

44

b.

[Rem.

i.

J^li corresponds in form and signification


(Arab, a = Heb. 6) see Corap. 6V. p. 202 seq.

Rem.

thee safe
Jj) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep
from *LdU robust health ; jiL to go on a journey (jsu>).

double, fold

to

and

or the Parts of Speech.

Part Second. Etymology

34

bid one

him bread

to

to

\Jj**
sit

the

it

becomes transitive

in

the

becomes doubly transitive in the

make run; v~y**

run, tj>.t to

down;

eat; z^y^l

first,

it

to sit

down,

J*^t he ate bread, j*s*J\ aXs\ he gave

>*swJt

^j he saw the thing, t^&S

*tjt

he shewed

him

the thing.

Rem.

When

a.

are causative

both the second and fourth forms of a verb

41, rem. a), they

significations, in others the same.


^oAfct to

inform one of a thing ;

UJ

have in some cases

different

know, ^s-

to teach,

E.g.^JU

to

to escape,

^.aJ and

<<&>*>! to set

at liberty, to let go.

Rem.

The fourth form

b.

J' s

like the second

niggardly
,* ot
oj*+*\

a ;..,<
,

as

is

sometimes declarative or estimative,

Of.

alsLjt

he thought him, or

he thought him, or

found him

found him

to be,

to

be,

cowardly ;

sjof^\

he

found him,
he

\S^

Rem.

c.

found

or

it,

to

be praiseworthy or

the district

commendable;

abounding in fresh herbage.

The fourth form comprises a great number

of denomi-

which are apparently intransitive, because the


Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. Such verbs
combine with the idea of the noun, from which
they are derived,
natives,

many

of

that of a transitive verb, of which

it is

the direct object.

E.g. Jjbl

to

The Verb. A. General View.

I.

45]

produce herbage

(Jiu),

give or

(j^j), jJsuot to
O , , ol
, ,*

fruit

JJjj'

P ui

yiefr?

Forms of Triliteral

1.

ram

oui

leaves

(jJa-o)

(t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?"


to 6e<?e

w-^/'t

Verb. 35

a noble
,it>i

a male or a female child, C-^Ui sAe


son, 0>>t,
" to
6ore )Mts (compare "to flower," "to seed,"
calve," "to lamb");
sAe 6ore

wwt,

* ot

x * ot

and

iX>\ to speak eloquently, -~oit to speak with purity

a proof

jJUl

to give

to act

well or

ill,

tardy; pj~i\

sin, Usui.

or say what

to cto

make

<

of his prowess in

commit a

to

haste;

t* at
right; Usui to 6e

is

*L>I,

sto

or

outstretched neck;

become fullgrown (from >*i a tooth)

~ ,1

s i

>~.l,

commit a blunder,

to

&

i^~t\ to

battle ;

run with

to

JUfct

* i

correctness,

,i

fault or error, w>Lot


to

(*ib)

*^J,it

"

*0i

dwell or remain

j*\$\ to

Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"), the entering

in a place.

of time (being, doing, or suffering something therein),


a
state or condition, acquiring a quality, obtaining or
into
getting
having something, or becoming something, of a certain kind*.

upon a period

ssoi

* soi

^3t

E.g.

(compare, in Hebrew, J^D^H,

to

Aoi
go

,oi

advance, jj>\ to retire ("reculer"), j*j&\

to

to the left)

3% 5 x

j*{2t\ to

to

go

Syria

to

go on boldly

and 7*XKTl,

the right,

to

go

x x oi

i>*->t to

(j*lJ\),

go

el-Yemen

to

J X

(0-**^)>
Jijfrt

to

**^t

to eb-

go
x

territory ;

io

t el-JVegd (jLa.,^,11).

9
i

Irak

oi

^f~dy

to enter

JO i *

mid-day

(j^JaJt),

the

summer

go

upon

haram

(*uly3),

or sacred

or evening (lL+S\)

JO 3 x

UkyjJt)

*x

wl

time of morning

tJie

*x xOx

(-U-aJt),

upon

^^il

Tihama

to

* ot-

j^\,

9-~o\,

to

(Jjtj*M), j>j**\ to enter the

, , o t

I 4(S o

uiLoi, ^wl, to enter

J^^t

x x

or winter (iUJt)

x 0

to Iiave

many

xx of

camels,

***>t

abound in
5x

to

*"'

devoured by them,

xx

(oLc)

jJl$\

people) or

*r*ot to

to

of prey or

beasts

abound in

xxf
;

to

become

desert,

oe

aVy

a season),

(of

to

lizards

X J

his face,

^
J

I.

^ Ae

Thus
AetoJ

/wm

Aave one's flocks


X

(v~*) or

f99y

to suffer from drought (of


w>J^t
'
xxd
j^JLil to become penniless (to be

of

VII. or VIII.)

Ae ^Arew

^ctcA;,

^ oe

Of

[Hence in a few cases IV. serves (instead

as the pjtU* of

to

^ ^.^

Amu

orc

his face,

Ae c/re^ 6ac&, Ae

Wxf

^Jl

lie

re^'reo?.]

fell

on

Part Second.

36

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

46

o ex

reduced

to the last

want; jm\
garment)

to
xx e

Kjt\

become cloudy

JJJL.t

',

j^\,

become dubious or confused;

to

become possible.

to

^>Cot

may

took

away

its

GV. p. 204

of the h are

text of) the book, literally,

...

form and

signification to the

Aram. SftpK,

(*&*J),

See

^4^1.

Heb.

Comjt?.

it will be observed, has J"J as the


Some traces
the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X-

XXX

for
to give
discoverable in Arabic; as
*-t^l
p-IjA

still

x xx^
x x
x xx
x xP
,
to wish; JJtjJh for
to pour out
rest to , to let rest; }\jA for
}\j\
JJt^t
X
xP
X XX
X x
P>
1
^or
^ mar& a cloth ;
owe, for
(rad. .Jl,
(P *^) ;

J^

nnNj

&>

OU

J^
X

come)

O-o-Jb

Ot

= P0XTI

Forms

believe.

treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see 67,

>JxJ

imperf.
5 xDxJ

46.

,/?/fcA

47.

f rm

(J**3)

*s

and

QxxJ
JJIjv*

XXX
\j& are
118), e.g.
<3

or

->

3!/v>

formed from the second (J**) by

This form annexes to the significations of the second the


x J

is

like

O.

reflexive force of the syllable

that

69,

O'J

Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. patient.

or

JJjj^-j

The

OJ

prefixing the syllable

remove one's cause

The Hebrew,

seo/.

prefix, instead of

^g

Phcen.

h*ppn,

to

4*a*, obscurity or toani of clearness.


in
^JasI corresponds

d.

shade of meaning

"Z
Rem.

become plain

St

^jZ>\

of complaint; w>UM j*+&\ he pointed (the

to

x x Oi

tiO

be exemplified by such words as jAoJ,


x

..

(of

^\A

Another

break one's compact with a person;

to utter

become worn out

to

(iJ-.Of, deprivation)
to

reduced

to be

x x

or clear;

uJS),jij^\,

farthing,

to say,

it

it is

the pjUa-o of the second form,

expresses the state into which the object of the

action denoted by the second form


effect or result.

In English

it

is brought by that action, as its


must often be rendered by the passive.

E. g. j~3 to be broken in pieces,

'*'.',
to

in pieces, *->j*o3
,

terrify),

be

JxGxx5xx

jJu

to be dispersed,

moved or agitated; \Jy*3


~
C x

x x

to be

person)

^S3,

'jJojS, to be

afraid (sJj.

to

ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword


(Ulw djXi

himanother

%JoJu to be cut

xWxx
lie

girt

a sword upon

proud; J~l&, '&,

to side

47]

I.

The Verb. A. General View.

with Kais or Nizar, jj3,


or

(*3j\j*$\)
jj^j*

fo

Si' a

fo

o/*

(j^w^a^o), j^tfUj to become

a prophet

or to

a Christian

*xwU

(J^*J),

affect,

clemency,

an Arab,

L^j to grww oneself out

(^jtj-cu),

z * i

to

become as bold or

to

\f^,

***,

^ra?

as a

foora (jut),

^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire,

courage or manliness,

affect

to

sm

abstain from, or atvta*

or crime, j^j^ to

amid

jj

^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience; j**\3, 2*j-**3,

^a>J

become a fire-worshipper

to

become as savage as a leopard (j+1)

to

^^o-tf

%^3

cr

of the 'Azarika

ca// oneself

to

w>jjo

(&**&)!),

Verb. 37

* Sti*

as

Forms of Triliteral

to aefop A<? tora<?s

~J,

Jew (^O^),

become a

1.

blame.

Rem. a. Th idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases


where it seems, at first sight, to have wholly disappeared, leaving
the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth.

Thus ^UJt

and

JJ^aj

^Ut

are both translated

Jjj^*t

2/te

people

Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation, Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions.

dispersed, but

Rem.

The idea

b.

verbs as govern an

especially in such

pursue

by

step

step (literally, to

pursuer of something),

&~3

understand,

may

^X^j

make

to investigate

to look at

or listen

duties of

jjjj
*

Thus

under

to speak,

8 * *

fj>s*3

one's

to take

as

sJjjo

to

try to
it

ascertain a thing ybr certain,

ihorougldy, J9+ji& to smell leisurely

to

and

carefully,

to

of,

to discJiarge the

& + *

swallow by mouthfids,

arm, jew jj

an

have cliarge

to

jJ>>

<3>aj to milk or sz*c& a intervals,


to&e

earnestly,

examine or study a thing carefully, so that


to

to

long or repeatedly, to examine or study, **-~J to liear

j$S3

to,

accusative; e.g.

oneself or turn oneself into, a

seek

to

be quite clear, ^>a*j, Jiia^J,

tJ*M3
j^suJ

to

of reflexiveness is often not very prominent,

JJjJO to

pwtf

to

ywfcj
gnaw,

sip

la->L>

to

or sup,

/m or

under ones head as a pillow,

abode, i<*jJ to adopt as a son*.

[In some cases the difference between II. and V. entirely disappears.

for ^^3, a.j (41, rem.


without change of sense.]

c)

we may

substitute ryu, *>>

Part Second.

38

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

48

c.
The above examples show that the subject of the fifth
sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative), sometimes

Rem.
form

is

the indirect object (dative).

48.
which

Out of the

is

original reflexive signification arises a second,

even more common, namely the

the passive in this

that

It differs

effective.

from

the passive indicates that a person is the


or
the
effect of, the action of another ; whereas
object of,
experiences
the effective implies that an act is done to a person, or a state pro-

duced in him, whether

it

be caused by another or by himself.

ILo-*^ to know, j^s. to teach,


different

j^jo

from ^o-Ls (passive of

a^ij^3j^, he was taught


-

(become learned)*.

make

clear, explain, 0-++> to

become learned,

^i^)

to

to learn,

be taught.

We

quite

can say

(received instruction), but did not learn

^G

Again,

to

E. g.

to be separate, distinct, clear,

appear clear or certain ; JJUJ

to

o-o

to

become,

or prove to be, the reality or fact.

Rem.

only of

Such

a.

of these verbs as govern

an impersonal, but

an accusative admit not

also of a personal passive;

^laJI he learned the art of medicine,

^Ljt

J^XsO the art

e.g.

JJJo

of medicine

was learned.

Rem.

b.

whence we

Jjj&J sometimes

see its identity with the

and the Aram. 7fc3pntf

49.

The

likewise

50.

I kept

sixth form

(J*U5)

It is the

pjlk*

is

formed from the third (Jil3),

O.

(or staid)

aloof The

throw oneself down at

to neglect

111),

se 41, rem.
d).

transitive in the third form,

e.g. ^>*\j3 to

a thing,
g^ibb I)Jt5

Using a Scoticism, we might

did not learn.

is

Heb. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil

(see 47) of the third form, as

him abof and he kept

ones guard,

^JoZ]

by prefixing the syllable

attempt, which
sixth

assumes the form JjJo\

say, he

d3 j&b,

idea of effort and

becomes

full length,
to

J^l3

reflexive in the

Jili5

to be off

draw a good omen from

was learned (=

taught), but

50]

I.

The Verb. A. General View.

the thing,

jjULj

to

sickness,

OjUj

to

pretend

to squint,

pretend

JaUJ

to

1.

Forms of'Trilateral

to be dead,

^j^W*

to

j^Uj

pretend

to cry,

pretend

oUJ

feign ignorance,

to

to

Verb. 39

to be blind,

to

^jloJ

pretend

feign

to be deceived.

Further, the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes

a necessary reciprocity, inasmuch as the sixth form includes the


object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence

upon one another

e.g. aJjti

he fought with him, *$3\J3 the two fought

with one another ; *UJl the two spoke


conversed together;

from him,

*->$%

him, t^oJlio they (the three)

w>>3t <vM he tried


the

W^^-3

to

to

pull

away

two pulled the garment

to

the

garment

and fro between

them; w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them, si^jj^JI l^jU3


they conversed together or argued with one another ; gUaiJI oL>U he
tried to

make him forget

the hatred between them, gl

og-J UwU3
I

frrgot their mutual hatred; whence in the passive, w>>^'

the two

VJ3* \
^

CmiJmJS fj*, and lUaaJt C~~*y3.

Rem.

When

a.

used in speaking of God, the assertory (not

and .JU3 are examples

optative) perfects )j(+3

of

the reflexive

this form
<rtM
2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is
and through Himself) blessed, or perfect, above all;
aS)\
\Jb God has made Himself uplifted, or exalted, above all ;
^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all)

signification of

become of

has said
the thing
Z^pti

vol.

[cf.

made

&^o\jJ

itself greater

ii.

1 f

rem.].

Somewhat

similarly, j-o^t a^]o\jo

itself (became or was) too great, or

difficult, for him ;

yk it is a matter than which nothing makes


more
(or
important), with which nothing can vie in

j*\

importance.

Rem.

As

b.

the reciprocal signification requires at least two

the singular of the sixth form

subjects,

collective;

another,
jLa*N)t

e.g.

duo

^UJt

, ,

<u

jUxo^l CajU3

C*

jtjL3

a-oLo
the

is

in

this case

always

* *

the people

heard of

rains followed

it

from one

one anotlier

the tidings followed one another rapidly, aJI

closely,

C~U3

Pakt Second.

40

(^

t^kP

Etymology

tr^ oe f)

%ore

came

or the Paris of Speech.

t0

'**

a ^ f

>

^iem

[51

following one

anotlier.

Rem.

The

c.

and the same thing;

of one

e.g.

colnerentes," to be of compact

as it were, supporting,

J*\+j "partes habuit inter se

and firm

and

threatened

jtf-jjt^

[Hence

the

cloud lightened

this

form

piece, J*olaJ to

Rem.

fall (as

^\*>3

its

if

parts

side,

JljJW

3jla->

and thundered from

the

<+>\j3

every quarter).

appropriate to actions that take place bit

is

by

carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i, in walking*).]

J^Uj

d.

The

prefixing a

sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\

seventh form (jiiul)

jj, before which

pronunciation (see

Rem.
18 and

to

consequently identical with the Heb. /tOipriPl ( see

51.

J,

C^J^Uj m

or by successive (and painful) efforts, as JaJM**J to fall piece by

bit,

is

Slj^t

on one another to do so; compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ

enemy advanced against him from every

build;

and so strengthening, the others)

iUJt the building cracked


called

confined to the parts

became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body,

woman

may be

idea of reciprocity

19,

52.

is

is

added a prosthetic

c,

and

^3,

rem

first

(J**) by

)-

to facilitate the

26).

For the cases in which


19,

formed from the

111),

this

becomes

I,

and why,

with rem. c; and as to the orthography

see

instead of

rem. d.

The seventh form has

also originally, as

pjUx*

of the

first,

It must be remarked, however,


a middle or reflexive signification.
(a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect

object (dative), to which


sative),

may be added

but always the direct object

another direct object (accuand (b) that it never

itself;

assumes the reciprocal signification. By these two points the seventh


form is distinguished from the eighth, and approaches more nearly
*

De

[See Gl. Geog.

G.]

s.v.

Ji*>,

Hamasa

p.

20

first

vs.

and comm.

54]

The Verb. A. General View.

I.

At the same

to a passive.

1.

Forms of Triliteral

Verb. 41

time, the effective signification

often

is

5 x

developed in

out of the reflexive.

it

lit.

to split itself;

cut

off,

to be ended, to

(intrans.), to be

end; UUJQI

to be

open (of a flower),

to

JUJt

broken;

uncovered, to be

jJbJLit

made

x O

x x

to

break

to

j~j\

E. g.

appear ; ^mm*J

manifest,

become broken,

to

break into pieces ; JUul

to

to be

to be

uttered or spoken.

53.

Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows


in reference to him, or an effect to be produced

an act to be done

upon him

e.g. J>}^>\ to let

oneself be

oneself be led,
Si

be docile or

pJ^Jt

submissive;

let

to

oneself be

let

x b

jaJ\

deceived;

to

jUJt to

to flight, to flee;

put

to let oneself be

drawn

or dragged.
x x x

Rem.

Hence

a.

clear that such

it is

x J x

to 6e

.,

stupid or foolish

words as J^.s*

from

,'t,

x /S

jtjM

to be

non-existent or missing,

not to be found, from^jcft wo to Aave; ^>fjt, from ^3-fc to sink


x

to

down,

xx

to

fall; jUjIX

6e repeated,

from

>U

to

x 6

return; JjLaJl
x

to

fee
straits or distress, from JjUj to 6e narrow; are incorrectly
formed, though in actual use, especially in more recent times.

Rem.

Sometimes, particularly in modern Arabic, the seventh

6.

xx

form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth;


x^xog

from JiAt

to

xxo
60^; UJsul

to fo

e.g.

<

extinguished, from

xxxO

x x

from *JLot

to fo |?w to rights,

9ftJJt,

JUJxil, *a..sul, the last in a tradition,

63. De
Rem.

p.

215

c.

ULl

to

extinguish;

^Ltful

i.

JUdtil to 6e bolted,

to jw to rights.

and

so ancient, ^\Ji7b

G.]

jilit corresponds to the Heb. 7fcDp3> see Comp. Gr.

seg.
X XX O

54.

The eighth form

inserting the syllable


first

(Jj*t)

is

between the

formed from the


first

radical in consequence loses its vowel,

to prefix the prosthetic

w.

[Similarly j)

and second
and

it

first

XXX
(J**) by

The

radicals.

becomes necessary

( 51, rem.).

Part Second. Etymology

42

55

to be placed before the first radical,


and sixth forms, and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ].
see Comp. Gr. p. 208.]
explanation of the actual form

One would expect

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech

as in the fifth

[For a possible

The eighth form

55.

of the first.
(ftjUft*)
^" '
* **

The

mice
properly the reflexive or middle

is

reflex object is either (a) the direct object

J^t

place (something) before one, u6jZ*\

B Jji

to beat,

' '' *

or accusative, as Jjji to divide,

to

to

go asunder,

put oneself in

move oneself

to

L>jL*o\

to

to

and fro,

the

way,

to be

* *

part ; uj*
to

to

oppose;

agitated (com-

or (b) the indirect object or


pare the French battre and se debattre);

own advantage,

dative, implying for oneself, for one's

a prey

in pieces, wj&\ do.

thing, to seek for it

and ^.Jgt

......f>

and w*kl.l
*

earn one

common

to n>as

to this form with the sixth

one another,

= UuLJ

*******

lo*a\ai*j

**o

UttO

*, **

*
;

as
**

to

measure corn;

si*

^UJI

***^

tJ^St the people


,

Lp-au^l the two disputed with

U*I*I the two tried

were neighbours, =

to

j*

tjj^jfc.1 they

yJa*

of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification, which

* *

s living ;

meat.

fought with one another, =^\^\ J3\Ju

**

about for a

' *

'

is

to tear'

-'

Out

56.

to

^ji

to feel

firewood; Jt and JUt

collect

to

and ^>Zwl

^>w

* *

u~+2\

to touch,

J~+l

as

outrun one another,

* *

\jj ju*3

*
Cf
\yu)\ they

met one

* * *

another,

57.

l^i^J.

Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the

passive, especially in verbs

113)

which have not got the seventh form

(see

as *sU^l to be overturned (from ibt), sJ^jt to be turned back,


l**

* * *t

u3t to be helped
(by

Rem.
like the

tjtfudt, to
*

to be victorious ;

^U*t

to be full.

In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree,


Greek active and middle voices, so closely in their signifi-

cation, that they

and

God),

may be

translated by the same

follow one's track,

to relate ;

US and

word;

e.g.

to follow
*&),
*^
*

* * *

and uUI* t,

to

^oS

snatch away, to carry off by force.

I.

59]

The Verb. A. General View.

The ninth form (jiit)

58.

doubling the third radical

is

Forms of Triliteral

1.

formed from the

the eleventh

first

Verb. 43

(J*3) by

JUit) from the ninth

by-

lengthening the fetha of the second syllable.

Rem. As the third radical, when doubled, draws the accent


upon the penult, the first radical, being more rapidly pronounced,
loses its vowel, and therefore requires the prosthetic
(see 51,
t

rem.).

59.
is

Neither of these forms

the rarer of the two.

is

very common, and the eleventh

serve chiefly to express colours and

They

defects, these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and

things

and hence the doubling of the third

the proper signification of both


a

*>

and jUot

a *

}y**\

ft>fct to
* o

be crooked ;

and

yuo\

black ; u^tf^ an d

$\y~t\ to be

to squint,

/o

u^W

to be

wrymouthed or wry

Jt^^t

* o

' o

become verdant; jjj\ and jljjl

to

*d

to

gloomy;

wOjt or w>b)'

to be scattered or
*

confused, or languid ;

disordered; jl;t to become commingled,

u^j^

to be dispersed, to

* o
to

jJ>jl

E.g.

/{

retire from; jo>t to be ash-coloured, to be stern or

away or

*o

j o

St

j*+*&\ and>U*ot
x

necked; Jj^-t
turn

yellow

a * o

show that

white; vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape); j->t

to be

and

to be

intensiveness (aaJLoJI).

is

*o

to

radical,

>o

J*Ut

run quickly,

to

hasten;

drop or flow (of tears),

* o

<jUt

to

be dishevelled (of hair);

, o

j\^j\, the

Rem.

night reached its middle point.


If the third radical of the root

a.

is

and eleventh forms take the shape

yJJUit

to

to be blackish

/(

^,

on

the tips

brown or blackish

the ninth
' '

and ^JJUit

(for ^5*Xa-t, see 167, 2, a) to stand or rest

^j^.l and i^jt^^t

or

**

* * xa

as

^jju^t

of

the toes,

green, ^Jj*j\

refrain or abstain.

Rem.

According to some grammarians, the distinction between


is, that the ninth indicates permanent

b.

the ninth and eleventh forms


colours

or

mutable

qualities,

as

at one time

{J^-\

and

the

j&Hj

eleventh those that are transitory or

j^

jU^i J**v

yellow at another.

ft

began

to

become red

a
[Others hold that XI. indicates

Part Second.

44

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

60

so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX.


work
but this view was
of
this
editions
and
the
former
;
marians,
:

The better view seems to be


ultimately abandoned by the author.
see Hafagl's
that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense
comm. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. A. H. 1299) p. 50 seq.]
:

" '

C*w

tenth form (Jjtl

The

to the first (J**).

26 (compare

B back upon

The

60.

fourth into the reflexive or middle.


to give oneself

^~Z~t\

oneself ready, to

be

radical

thrown

is

make

factitive signification of the

to grieve or distress,

^*^^t\

to

ready, prepare, equip, juCwl to get

ready ; ^aJ^.\

to

to yield

up {something)

wholly,

claim (something) for oneself, to take entire possession

" * ^

one's

* "

(of it); U-t to bring to


for

first

jaXMmZ~t \

necessary, according to

E. g. ^J~t to give up, deliver over,

up; cA.jt

be grieved or sorry ; js.\ to

' *

letters

O of Cwl.

The tenth form converts the

61.

is

prosthetic

and the fetha of the

51, rem.),

the

formed by prefixing the

is

t)

own advantage
)' *

to

life,

osUj

preserve alive, Lo^Zwt to preserve alive

He

w>UJL>t

(God)

or

answered,

* *

accepted, his prayer, a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire, or obeyed

him, in doing something.

62.

The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that


a certain thing possesses, in reference to himself or for his benefit,
the quality expressed by the
*>

be

necessary,

D &mm*Z*

to

that

^^^nt

think him,

was lawful

it

he

or
a * *

it

or

form.

E.g.

JU-

to

be

lawful,
,

he thought

J^~>l
to

first

* * *

it,

despise,

one; J*lwl

Rem.

to

it

himself to do)

was necessary

(for

good or beautiful; jUjL>l

to

w*.j

him)

think

good or excellent; *Jl*JL*\

to think one

thought

(for

to

find

think
it

it

light,

to

think lightly of

heavy, oppressive or troublesome,

bore.

In

this case the factitive is

combined with the middle

sense; for as the fourth form (like the second)

is

frequently not

65]

The Verb. A. General View.

I.

but estimative or declarative

strictly factitive,

Hence

also the tenth.

The tenth form

63.

it so or say it
think or say that

to

to

s *

to

45,

to

make something

is so ;

but w**-^t

to

make

to

w>U

to

pray for rain;

to

^l*2wt

help,

E. g. jk> to

first.

.JLI*1

drink,
\J}>\

to

to

permit,

call

for help ;

to

desire that

&

* *

j-oA- to be present, j

6),

it is so.

meant by the

is

drink,

ask permission;

to

iJ*\Z*j\

so

ask pardon; ^jiw to give one

ask for something

rem.

45

likewise often expresses the taking, seeking,

asking for, or demanding, what

pardon, jsJCU>\

means

think
to

necessary for others,

Verb.

' 0*

^.y^x^JiwI literally

to

necessary for oneself


it

Forms of Triliteral

1.

<\r* Z

to require one's presence,

he should be fetched.

Rem. This signification is also a combination of the


and middle to procure a drink, permission, &c.,for oneself

factitive

64.

In

it

tenth form has apparently a neuter

the

verbs

many

more minute examination shows that

sense, but in such cases a

,
lit.

E.g. ^oUiwt to stand upright,

was, at least originally, reflexive.


hold oneself upright ;

to

s ,

to be

^Ui*t

a * *

humble,

lit.

to

humble, to conduct oneself humbly ; JU*wt to be worthy


lit.

to

cause something to be due to oneself as

of, to deserve,

right or desert
*

Zwt

be

to

65.

ashamed,

to

lit.

The tenth form

is

make

oneself G

make

oneself ashamed

J^)

be

to

(^j**-

frequently denominative, in which case


//

it

to

unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses.

make

oneself master

(^ j)

of a thing,

E.g.

take possession of

to

**^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy, successor, or caliph (Zsul*.)


* s O * O

0*

Joju~>I, L5

.gt

or judge (utylike)

Further, j+**Z*
x x

stone (j****)

GO*
(u**3 )

J '
5

J-o-^t

jJ*)\

(j-*j^),

* o

C%y5U#1

become

like

the she-goat

(lit.

became

j)y~t\

Ox

to

make

like

itself

a he-goat
9 x x

* * 0*

Jy^wt

it ;

governor (J*^),
t

to

Al> l, to appoint one as wdzir

\Jy~i\

^<? he-camel

became

like

a she-camel (3iU)

Part Second.

46
os

*x

x
* *6* 2
%>l*JI jjl

ei

Etymology

AjmJZmj U*jb

or the Parts of Speech.

the kite in our country becomes

66

vulture

(j~J, our geese are all stvans).


xx

The tenth form

Rem.
which

and

same

not in use, corresponding to the Aram.

is

its

xO

stand in exactly the

wJJu>

the back,

eighth.

dash

to

to the

xx

JUL

ground, and

down flat on

and

first

x x

*aJL> to throw

^)*k~t,

"&<"> ?

7fcpflfc^ }

one another as the Arabic

to

relation

v>5dAj| which

/tOpDt^K

passive

Perhaps

probably the reflexive of a form

is

two more, may be

swallow, with one or

to

regarded as traces of the form JjuL*, since they are nearly identical

jj

x0

in

x 6i

x ,oZ

xxx

meaning with JUt, vJUH> and tJbJt (IV.

and obd).

of ,JU, s^JIS,

xxx

xO

which has the same signification as ^iXw, must be a

If so, JU~>,

later triliteral formation.

Of the remaining forms

66.
sufficient

formation. XII.

#o 60 arched,

curved, or
x

6/ac& (^U-

<fo.)

bear oneself erect

to

humpbacked

Ox

to

^)^l.t
fe

blackish green

x x

be rough)

efo.)

XX

^jjj^t
x

be naked);

to
J

luxuriant herbage (^*ts)

<#o.)

to

ride on

horse

^^wj-u^l

be covered with

to

xxx

x 6

^^03-aftt

xx

without a saddle (^Jj*

become

to

^j&^&oS

become blackish brown

to

j*j-aJ

become moist (= Ja.t)

to

60 ji^

to

^iAJ^JU-t

5x0

r>>*j>-\X

become soft or tender (j-a.

to

(=ja.\),

J^^o ^t

of

xxOxO

xxdxO

xJx
be sweet (>^-

2x0
or

be

xx dx

(*->***- do.)

x x

row#A (o^*-

(tju*. do.)

XX

xJx
vm/

may
mode

it

xx

iCijJ^.1X

xxx

of the triliteral verb

give a few examples, so as to exhibit their

to

#0

60 gathered together

(v**^

x x* x

to

foW)

&}jj\X

thick (of the hair).

/l\

(rad. /*)

fo &&rc?)

XIII.

iy^-l

green and rank (of a plant),

to be long

and

b^jj*.) to be long or last long, to go quickly

XX

xrtx*

^t*
x

to

to be

to last long (rad.

*U)

j>Ut

to be

heavy (jJU.

ax

mount a camel

J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly, to

(rad. IxXft).XIV.

J&L^A

cfor, to fo obscure (rad.

to be

*iU*w)

big (rad.

iJlCJU.) to

JU**.)
fo?

Ac^lJt

j** black

(JSL

to fe

do.)

67]

The Verb. A. General View.

I.

The Quadriliteral Verb. 47

2.

x x Ox

x Ox A

*iUliUt #o 00

awe? thick (of the hair, rad.

/o/z^r

x x

quickly (rad. jj-as)


x x o x o

trJ&jj^t, v~x

do.).

^.a^icl

to ^ro

x O

Aa^ a hump

*x3t to

.>

JLU)

XV.

xOx

in front (the reverse of

xx

and

to be stout

^juXftt

(jJlfc to

strong

be

x Ox

^arc?)

swollen

be

to

^Jsu^.1

or inflated,

to

be filled with rage

do.).

(LfL

Rem.

All these forms are habitually intransitive, but there are


xxxO/0

a few exceptions, as XII.

xO

\)}j*\ he mounted the horse ;B

u*jA3\

Ox

^JL*.1X

found

7<,e

j jo v:o x o

j j ox x

aZjju^t =

AJt^JU

Ibn Doraid, JT&

7%<?

2.

sweet (but also ,JJl.t,


^^
X

it

67.

Quadriliteral

and

its

Forms.

verbs are formed in the following ways.

expressing a sound or movement,

is

to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement.

say baba (papa),

xxOx

ji-ji-

to gargle,

^^3

to

to

xxOx
to rwi^A, ^x-

^o^-oxfc.

XV.

x J

(^Wj)

A biliteral root,

(a)

sweet).

al-Istikak, p. 227.

Quadriliteral Verb
W

was

it

bellow,

to

whisper,

jUfc A*

shout,

bb

E.g.

to

to shake,

Jjjij

xxOx

repeated,

Mttfo rws&

to

or rattle.

(b)

fourth letter, generally a liquid or sibilant,

or affixed to, or inserted in the middle


E.g.

XXX

xxOx
jdm*&
x'x
;

*^
xxx

jvo^

to

prefixed

with soft words a ^J^.


JxA.
XXX
md^
^
retire).
(c^*y
j

xx

*"-)

XXX
drive back ( J^y

(perhaps connected with

#0 00 scattered =
Ox
-*^y to *S afow<7

J*o

xxx

*#** (compare ^- and

hasten

is

triliteral verbal form.

xxOx
to be high)

proud (f~o
^

(w-iy to advance slowly), to


xxOx

cr**^

of,

xxx
be

to

Ox

>

<kX*.

deceive

to

s&w^ the head

to

to retire)

withdraw,

xxxxxOx
c^) c"<'*

J^*^

to

rmv

(c)

They

are

denominatives from nouns of more


X X

letters,
9 x x

some of them foreign words.


x

0x0

xO

0?

xOx

xxOx

j^j**-^

and ^^XS

>

E.g.

three

oj^.

to

put

stockings

^ S^rW

wj>^) ow

(w>j^., Pers.

a wjIJ^

than

to

put on one the garment called


x J

to

put on one

the

*,''

cap called a lymiJj

Part Second.

48

A oj**
xx

to Pitch,

cfj

or the Parts of Speech.

&X>3

pitch ;

xx

wear a Sij J**

J jJ>+j

or tunic ;

J*jui mantile)

>X>.o fow&/, humble, poor)

(t

or humility,

lowliness

a^c

to

^jl3

xx

(***)

J^JJ

ULJU3

to

w*a*W

philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ,

They

common
x x

Gtod)

0/ 6W)

wa?rc<2
xx

to /<?//ow

abase
x

^^m)
0/ Ma add

&?c (

nfo

</>iA.oo-o<os)

a farrier,

to

jisuo

practise

nriaT/>os).

x x

ij0

to

are combinations of the most prominent syllables or

letters in certain very

(t

pjJmoJ

become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U, Heb. Tlb/J?)

the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o


(d)

x x

>Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress, etc.) to

xx

wipe ones fingers with a napkin

to

oneself

<

<m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**, Pers. jt^Xw)

fo jpw

68

put on a girdle ( * ik ;)

to

JjU~J
to

from

Etymology

xxOx

Ox

XX

say <w jl*JI (praise belongs

to
I

t/<

x Ox

Jj^

E.g. J^-**J to say aDI ^-^


X

formulas.

<*

ui

JP^- and J3>- #0 sa# a&W ^t" 5^3

^3 Jj^.

Ox
^U J^i

to

xOxx

xx

(there is no

*s)

xx

C power and no

strength save in God)

saying t*xbj tj^fb *JJJ^ this then

The derived forms

68.

and

is so

of the

so

up an account,

cast

to

much.
verb are three in

quadriliteral

number.

Jiii

Ju/tIV.
The

69.

first

I.

JJtUlt

III.

II.

JJUtf

form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation


triliterals, and is both

and conjugation to the second form of the

XX

transitive

and

intransitive

in

signification.
X X

ripe dates, also to be active or nimble

xxOx

xx Ox

7rj^>

to roll; JjjJbj

to

laugh much;

Jjj>yk to

agrees in formation

the fifth of the triliteral verb.

xxOxx

vW^ &J**J3
')

to ac
like

E.g.

xx
to roll

(J&A,

to

gather

pluck unripe dates ;

along ; ^jJbJLj

pfe>).

xO

run

and

quickly.
signification with

x x

^4*%3

to jt?w

<m or wear a

O'x x

as e/ owe were sultan, to lord


devil

to

f-j~*>

0x0

JX+&

xxOx

The second form

70.

E.g.

it

ma^ oneself sultan


over another

(^)UslL),

Q^eA*

to

act

The Verb. A. General View.

73] I.

The third form

71.

the quadriliteral verb corresponds to


with this difference, that the characteristic
not prefixed, but inserted between the second and third radicals.

the seventh of the


ij

The Quadriliteral Verb. 49

2.

is

of

JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower), to bloom or flourish

E.g.

triliteral,

^afJjM*\ to be

< ' O "

gathered together in a mass or crowd ; J*cu^.l


0/

/ /

of a bird);

(ilo^fc.,

ground;

pULwl

^JfcJ

to lie

E.g. j9-^>\ to be very

vanish

wa#0

away ;

to be

dark; j~t*\

tffo

Si.,

*?

^aw

sitive verbs of

act, state,

or quality.

very high or proud ; Ja. o

j**M

to

fo scattered or

Si*

Jt>-I to

7%

JU-^t

^A;

Wse

1 oe

a^ C

w^t^t

to rata*

very hard.

to be

Voices.

and the passive

the form

and 15th forms

Jii

(cf.

38)

with the exception of intran-

and of the

9th, 11th, 12th, 13th,

66, rem.) as well as of those verbs of the

forms J*3 and J*3, which designate not an act (transitive or intran-

but a state or condition (being or becoming), as j*s&.

sitive)

become green, nearly =j-c^.t or j*oya*J\


order,

fJ*&

JuJ

of the active voice

to be
is

*J~o

bad, wrong, in disorder,

to

to be good, right, in

= Ju-3.

The

subject

always an agent (person or thing), whose act

voice is either
object, or not ; the subject of the passive
the object of the former (personal passive), or the abstract idea of the

may

affect

an

act (impersonal passive).

w.

All the verbal forms, both primitive and derivative, have

voices, the active

14th,

the

to flow.

back);

3.

two

/ac#, stretched on

shudder with horror; \j\+^^

to

jU^t

A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck;

73.

crop

and expresses an extensively

dispersed ;

* i o ,

o^

its

jk.>t to to stretched out on one's side; Jjc*t to

dispersed; jjUJ\ and


rest (from

<Ws

an intransitive

60 scattered or

to

Aaste,

puff out

the quadriliterals, which answers to

of

triliterals, is intransitive,

or intensively high degree of

to

to <w

to

on ones back ; j*++*.A

The fourth form

72.

the ninth of the

to

* *

Part Second.

50

The

74.

Etymology

especially used in four cases

is

passive

or the Parts of Speech.

namely

[74

(a)

when

indicated as the author of the act

God, or some higher being, is


when the author is unknown, or at least not known for certain

(b)
(c)

name him

or writer does not wish to

when the speaker

the attention of the hearer or reader

directed

is

more

(d)

when

to the person

by the act (patiens, the patient), than to the doer of

affected

it

(agens,

the agent).

The

Rem.

**

'G0O

the agent,

called

is

mould or form of

the

A*frO
J^UJI
X
X x

voice

active

XXX

category of the agent,

the

and

^UJJ

that

the

J^UJI J*i

x biO

xx

Ox

cj.oqM) j^i^JI

put into

the action (or verb)


J^cUJt,
X X

&

xO/O

of

x0./O

w>b

action of the agent,

the build

jUUJt iUj

the agent,

J*fcUJt

by the Arab grammarians

Jj^AJt,

form of which

or

^s-

the agent
J X

is

The passive voice

the subject.
J

ft

called rtjLwo

Sx J

mould or form of

the patient, etc.;

Ox

JO

Uc

also^-^^J

Jji

J J

4-Uli the doing, or

&em#

done, of that, whereof the agent has not


j j

named,

feeerc

more

or,

xx

a x j

U, though this latter

shortly, 4Afcl3^~*>^)
J J

to

aJlfcls

x J

Ox

is,

strictly speaking, equivalent

^e

patient whereof the agent has not been named,

The

subject.

active voice
J

'x

J J
*
d-U-li

x 0<

J J

J 10 x O<0

and dxUti J^a.


J

,)|

i^JJl

x Ox

the passive

i.e.
J

JjyoLpJt,

x Ox

x Ox

also shortly called


^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt,
JO Ox
forms
of
elliptical
expression for J*i)t

is

/W

OjjAoJt,

(^ft^XatoJI)

5.*>

^o~j ^J

<

and the passive J^^^JI,

manner

x 0-a

J|yuLoJt 2Ae

in like

is

^e

action of which the agent is known,

Ox

unknown.

JjuUI, 2Ae action of which the agent is


x Ox

x Ox

These terms, U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and

x Ox

Jj1ra*-oJ!,

are also used to

designate the subjects of the active and passive voices.

75.

which

is,

Verbs that express a state or condition, or signify an act

by

its

very nature, confined to the person of the subject, and

cannot pass to another individual as

j&

to sleep), are

its

object (as

Jo^a

to be sick,

aptly called neuter verbs, since they are neither really

active nor really passive, but something between the two.

grammarians cannot

class

them otherwise than among the

The Arab

active verbs,

78]

I.

The Verb.

A. General View.
J'

vi" JO*

The

3.
J

JwNjI,

51

<Scc.

/(/

and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt,


ajjuiIoJI j*.

Voices,

intransitive verbs, or

transitive verbs, from

A^Ut

JUi^l, wrfo to

are confined to the subject.

76.

The

idea of the passive voice

must not be thought


and eighth

to be

absolutely identical with that of the fifth, seventh,

These

strictly speaking, effective (see 48), whilst the

are,

4.

77.

The States (Tenses) of

The temporal forms

of

forms.

other

is

the Verb.

the Arabic verb are but two in

number, the one expressing a finished act, one that is done and
completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) ; the other an
unfinished act,

one that

is

just

commencing

or

in

progress

(the

Imperfect).

Rem.

a.

The names

Preterite

and Future, by which

these

forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately


Semitic Perfect or
correspond to the ideas inherent in them.

Imperfect has, in and of itself, no reference to the temporal


relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions
which are brought into juxtaposition with it. It is precisely these
relations which determine in what sphere of time (past, present, or

future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies, and by which of our


tenses it is to be expressed
whether by our Past, Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future-perfect; by our Present, Imperfect, or Future.

The Arabian Grammarians themselves have

not, however, succeeded

in keeping this important point distinctly in view, but have given


an undue importance to the idea of time, in connection with the

verbal forms, by their division of

it

the
into the past
(^aLoi\),

present (JlaJt or j-oUJt), and the future (J^fc^Jt), the

first of

which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect.

Rem.

b.

will

Syntax
and use.

On

the forms of these tenses see

give more

5.

78.

91

etc.

The

precise information as to their meaning

The Arabic verb has

The Moods.
five

moods

namely, the Indicative,

Subjunctive, Jussive or Conditional, Imperative, and Energetic.

Part Second.

52

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

[79

Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and


to the imperfect
imperfect states the second and third are restricted
a
the fourth, or imperative, is expressed by
special form; and the
79.

fifth

can be derived not only from the imperfect, but also from the

imperative.

On

Rem.

the forms of the moods see

treats of their significations

The Syntax

91 etc.

use.

Instead of the Infinitive, the Arabs use nouns expressing the

80.
-d

and

action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi).

In place of participles,

adjectives, the one denoting the agent (nomen


agentis, active participle), and the other the patient (nomen patientis,

they have two verbal

[Cf. 192.]

passive participle).

The Numbers, Persons, and Genders.

6.

81.

There are

three

j^tyi), the Dual (3ui^S\ or


s-joaJl,
(first

cj),

H, or jJ&JI)

,a>..

the

person), ^oJiXoJt,

sD,

numbers, the Singular (>j&\,


^^IloJI),

and the Plural

Js

0*

*j*+3\,

or

(*aJt, *WJ1,

and likewise three persons, the speaker


individual

spoken

to

(second

person),

^JsU*-*)!, and the individual spoken of (third person), wsSliJt (the


absent).

The genders

are two,

namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and

Z jo*

but they are not distinguished from one


the feminine (wJ^-oJt)
another in some of the persons (1st pers. sing., 2d pers. dual, and
;

1st pers. plur.).

The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum).

B.

82.

Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba
We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in
infirma).
the former class

the second (see

83.
strong,

in

the verbs which have

for

one of their radicals, in

128).

Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are
and consequently neither undergo any change, nor are rejected

any of the

inflexions,

but are retained throughout.

I.

89]

Rem.

The Verb.

free

from

defect,

weak

a sound

verb.

verb which has

designated by the special term *a.o


treat

for one of
is

J*s

but some grammarians

and^oJL* as synonyms.

The Active Voice of the First

1.

Form

in the Strong

Verb. Table I*

THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS.

a.

84.

'

^a.o

is

opposed to ^JL Jji, a ver6 $Aa

verb, as

or which belongs to the class med. rad. gemin.


(V"y),

its radicals,

53

verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r<

called ,JJ^t Jji5, a


is

The Strong Verb.

B.

The numbers,

and genders of the verb are expressed


by means of personal pronouns, annexed to the various moods and
persons,

tenses.
9

9 *

The personal pronoun \jt+, j+**

85.

x*J

see

separate [J^aii*], standing by

The

prefixed or suffixed.

190,/]
9

itself,

is

either

Sj

or connected [J-cu*],

that

is

separate pronouns have longer, the con-

nected shorter forms.

The

86.

suffixed

pronouns

are

partly verbal,

partly nominal

suffixes.

The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative, partly the


accusative.
The former are much more closely united with the verb
87.

than the

latter.

The connected pronouns which express the nominative

88.
the verb

are also in

part prefixes.

Rem. On the verbal suffixes which express the


and on the nominal suffixes, 317.

185

89.

to

accusative see

The

following tables give

a general view of the separate

personal pronouns, and of those pronominal

prefixes

and

suffixes

which express the nominative to the verb.


* The nomina
with
verbi, agentis, and patientis, are given along
the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables.

54

Part Second.

Etymology
1.

or the Parts of Speech.

89

The Verb.

I.

89]

The Strong Verb.

B.

55

Rem. c. Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t, used in


poetry, and also in the wasl ( 20, d, and 23, rem. c).
[Though
written defectively this terminal

is

commonly scanned

as a long

vowel.]

Rem. d. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the


Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. Gr.
p.

95

seq.

Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative.

2.

jj

Singular.

Common

Masc.
3 p.

p.

1 p.

O
.

thou.

ol

...

O (<**k c-)

Fern.

...

she.
t ^ou -

Dual.
3 p.

p.

lp.

t-

(of->
.

1-)

ftflfc

L5 (o'->

'-)

tf#

^- (o'->
y*

**

'-)

^y *wo.

...
Plural.

p.

2p-^
1 p.

Rem.

(o>> *>)
.

c4

The forms within brackets are those

a.

The

b.

tlwy.

(6) s

U w&
of the Imperfect

the others those of the Perfect.


suffix of

and written

in poetry (no)

3.

and Imperative

Rem.

...

I> (o>, !>) *%

the 1st pers. plur.

is

sometimes shortened

defectively, <j.

Prefixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative.


Singular.

Common.

Masc.
3

p.

{J

p.

lp.

...

he.
.

...

thou.

!/.

Fern.

she.

j)

56

Part Second.

Masc.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

90

The Verb.

I.

91]

To

The Strong Verb.

B.

indicate the assimilation, the

57

takes tesdid, and the geznia,


is omitted.

with which the third radical ought properly to be marked,

Ojuc, / have

Thus, Ojufc for


i

C^,

served; C-Jaj) for

d x

* t

bound ; ^jjui.1 for^J^t, ye have

On

taken.

thou hast

this assimilation see

c.

14,

Rem.

When

c.

the third radical

is

unites with the

^j, it

s **

the suffixes into a single


a **

tut we

believed,

with te&did; as
* o

believed, for

**

* o

(women)

they

yj**\

^ of

**

y*\ and Uut.

For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and


in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with
Indicative
Imperfect
Arabic see Comp. Gr. p. 165 seq.
Rem.

d.

When

91.

the second radical of the Perfect has fetha,

damma

take either
to

, ,

w*>- to strike,

verbs admit of both forms


s s

M*j

to stick

to

v~ke*

sit

down,

as ^Jes. to sneeze,

<

remove the hair by scalding,

to

J**-*

Jux

* * s

to kill,

J^5

*j>j-**i

Many
*

as

may

it

0*

\j*

j*j

w-^^-j

write,

c^Aa*^.

and

or Jcesra in the Imperfect

J J

x ^

^.Zfr*

"

FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS.

b.

m+~i

or

upright into the ground, j&j-ia

Rem. a. Verbs, of which the


guttural letter, are an exception to the rule, for they commonly
second or third

retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect


x x

J x Ox

iJmu

*Ja3

%bJu

to cut,
jI o ,

,1 ,

to

JL

ka.JL>

JL^j

ask,

to

--J

Ox

J x

x x x

jU*

to

^Jfcj

throw,

o,

go away, ^JbJu

Not

p-jb.

know, jaLj

O*^*

t0 sa V>

>

J**J

good,

right,

^.JUj

J&J*

J^aLi

or 2?mW away,

to ,/fow,
0*

cJJJ

jmS
x

to

sit,

jjlsu

xx

^*

ascend, *J*i

j**

attain

teg

to,

to

reach,

to return,
J

to

'

* e
'

t"

%X+t

transpierce, j)

**<

as j*J*

'

y**J^
* *

"

'

to

*Jl>

look at,

to

*. or t

is

O**

J{
t0

<>

a few, however, conform to

x x x

^JLcu

w.

JJ-x

JiaJ

the rule, particularly when the second radical


x
jj*
jjo,
,,,
to perceive,
x xx
J J
x

I'O*
to create, \j+j

tjj

is

as Jji to do,

$ **

*-^

to hinder,

,,

'0'

radical

"

, 7

*-iJ to blow,

%+jj

sound,

cp

to

aVaw

bray, j*****.

Some verbs have two


8

Part Second.

58

forms

as

Etymology

to croak,

Jpo

JpU>

or the Parts of Speech.

*-U

give as

to

[92

present, ^i->

* * x

~j

marry, 9J&0

to

V
ijj to tan,
xx

%j j^>

done with,

io,
C^mmij

to

'

-^.Iw to ./toy,

'

'C

Co>J

and even three, as

to

x '

**~*i

at leisure,

be

to

cji

> ' '

9-Ja-L;

i^u

dye,

cut or hew,
' "
'*'
%+$ to
;

to
J

a scale of a balance),
~e*jj

to incline (of

?-**)

6m#,

'

Ox

^i.jsu

x '

to

J x

*.-o

J x

Jiave

*Jx>

xx x

X dx

J '

* s *

Ox

j
J

gush

x*x

*~^>.

out,

x x *

x x x

Rem.

SJLiJI

Verbs

6.

the form

of

JljJ! (see 43,

j-U

a),

Jx$ denoting

always have

superiority, Jjii

damma

(the
jx

el-Kisa'I alone

grammarian

x x

admitting fetha with a guttural), as ojj& he excelled

JJJOxJxxx

him in composing

poetry, ^jaLj

oja+i he surpassed

him in

glory,

J J J Ox

oj.a>A.j

unless they be primse rad. j, med. rad. ^j, or tert. rad. ^$,

when they take


**

"

dl>

7ie

him in promising,

kesra, as ojlcj he outbid

..
excelled him in

shooting with arrows,

goodness, oj*a*J>

Excessively rare are cases like

c.

O-^j, v>%iS> and

When

is

J x

O^j

See

O^Ji-

J x

a.

be sorrowful, )}*~i

175

',

* drink,

*->*

^^Jm-j

or

tf/iiwA;

,j^j

and flourishing,

x
;

Oj-^
J x

fo
x

or suppose,

^stJo

^^j

x
.j

or

to be

w...,a>

-j ;

^jij
x

in distress or poverty,

to,

^Lj.

Rem.

*-Jj**i

w >

green

J x

^^i

J 0*

few verbs may retain in the Imperf. the kesra of

the Perf., as w^*>^.


o 6e

rem

>

uj-* to be sick, u^j-^i ',^~* to be safe,^~*i-

j)

lean

^ incline to,

probably a combination of the two forms

as j^s- to know,

/^^ ;

Rem.

O^)

the second radical of the Perf. has kesra, the Imperf.


x

takes

in

Ox

upon, v>*=tH> which

92.

a~ojji.
*

Rem.

him

Ae surpassed

*\+j

',

ojjlj

x x

See also

Very

b.

142 and 146.

rare are cases like jJx*. to be present,


,

<o incline to,

lean upon,

o.

O^Ji

.
'>

\J*<** to be

in excess, abound,

J-cub ; j^u

j*mm

'.

to be affluent, comfortable,

j^j

',

^jj to be clear, quit,

The Verb.

I.

94]

l J Ox

or innocent
is

of,

I,

OU,

viz.

O^j.Similar cases
When

93.
vowel

v^P

is

to die
(for

in Syriac

retained in the Imperf.

With

Rem.

Oji,

o^J

as

o*LL

has

damma,

that

p'-m;

jJ<j to be dull or stupid, jJL>.

the above forms compare the Heb. 3h)3*


in o usually take

nS&^ B

a in the Imperf.,
J Jx

73B*,
J

ft?p*,

whereas in Arabic instances like

C^J /

became

/ became

wise, C-***>

ugly, <Z>jjt

I became

bad, Jjl, j**\, j\, are


it

Some

very rare.

94.

Gr. p. 180*.

to be beautiful,

of this kind

1st p. sing. Perf.


cL),

and Hebrew, Comp.

In Heb., however, verbs

*l%y.
as

The most common example

the second radical of the Perf.

to be high, noble,

59

jj+j or t^.

a verb med. j,

The Strong Verb.

B.

The

'it

itii

authorities admit the forms ^Jl, ^ot,

2ttl

j-*t.

between the Perf. and Imperf. in regard to


that the marks of the numbers, genders, and persons,
are only suffixed to the Perf.; whereas they are both suffixed and
difference

their inflexion

is,

prefixed to the Imperf., more generally the latter.

Rem.

a.

In the Perf. the

act is placed conspicuously in the

foreground, because completed; in the Imperf. the agent, because


still occupied in the act
If we look upon the
(see 77, rem. a).
root

may

^3

as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing,"

regard

cJU5

as

meaning

"my killing," = " I have


= "I am killing."

"

"
killing-of-me

Hi

(i.e.

we

done by me),

killed;" and J*3I as meaning "I-killing,"

Rem. b. In the Imperf. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j)


or tense, and to some extent the gender; whilst the suffixes serve
J J Ox

solely to indicate the gender.

Thus, the 2d pers. sing. masc.

^JO

is
sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. sing. masc. \^Sj by
the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers.
sing. masc. from its fern, a suffix is necessary, and accordingly we
;

get masc. w*2o, fem.

*
in
*

[Anbarl, Nozhat el-alibba

Yemen and Higaz


a x

Jmu

p^lC

j j Ox

and Jaaj.

De

p.

459 states from personal observation

that in some dialects every verb


G.J

J*5 makes

Part Second. Etymology

60

or the Parts of Speech.

95

Rem. c. In the active voice of the first form, the prefixes of


the Imperfect are pronounced with feth.
But a pronunciation with
kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some

Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^, save in


the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. j).

of the old

That

one must not say

is,

^\

jsyu,

^ojit,

for j^S\

etc.

is 0*

nor ^Xju
J J

ft

j^ju ; but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and


*
*''**.
^fflZmj in Sura i. 4, and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. 60 are recognized as

for

legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai

Dialectically,

vowel of

the

too,

the

JJ

assimilated to a following

95.

The

ft

damma,
x J

Cy^,

ft

ft

prefix
J J

might be

Ox

as in juxi for juau.

distinguished by the third

is

the Subjunctive by

its

having fetha ; as Indie.

The Jussive

w-I&.

Subj.

damm,

Indicative of the Imperf.

radical having
J J

case,

suppose, the pronunciation with kesr is generally


The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix

preferred.

(^Xju).

In one

etc.

Jl^-t for Jl^.1,

is

ft

vowel with the third radical, as

denoted by the absence of any

Ox

wi&

whence

it is

sometimes called

the apocopated Imperfect.

Rem.

The damma and fetha

a.

of the Indicat.

Imperf. in the verb, correspond to the


Nom. and Accus. in the noun (see 308)

and Subjunct.

damma and
j

fetha of the

for the Imperf. is closely

akin to the noun, and its government in the Subjunct. falls under
the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus.
J

Hence the

name

technical

the Imperf.,

of

resembles the noun.

Rem.

The

b.

along with

it

to have been

96.

is
.-

*x

it

j * - -

called cji^Jt, the Subjunc-

<.

peculiar

meaning

of

the Jussive has brought

the rejection of the final vowel, which seems originally


i.

[Cf. vol.

The forms

At
ii.

least the poets

make

use of the form ^J^sb in

247.]

of the Indicat. which end in

syllables in the Subjunct.

and persons are

and the Jussive >j>%^H.]

tive w>^.o.;. 0l H,

rhyme.

[The Indicative

j xftx

cjLa*H, because

^ and

<j reject these

and Jussive, because the genders, numbers,

distinctly indicated even after their omission.

The

2d and 3d
because
pare

The Verb.

I.

98]

\j~S3, with

them
mark the

pers. plur. fern, are exceptions, for in

absolutely necessary in order to

it is

0>A

The Strong Verb.

B.

^y^k

Cm^>

with \y=>

oW^J

61

retained,

and Q*tS&,

Hi

The Energetic

97.

is

is

elided,

Sj^^t

etc.

corroborative n)

If the Jussive ends in I or u, the fetha of

in a shut syllable:

I^jXj

<jy^> or

<j- or ,j-

and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened, because


vt

is

formed by adding the termination ,j_ or

(J- (called by the grammarians


to the Jussive.

Com-

gender.

^2u> with Ll^

is

i b,

j * *

0~$3, 0*+&>

fr

6*

j j *^

* j

it

jo ,

i^-*^; t>*^!> 0*&i> from

first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1- B


and the second weakened into a kesra through the

In the dual, the

of the termination,
influence of the

same long vowel

oW^&>

oW^>

from Ll>, U3.

In

the 2d and 3d pers. plur. fem. the fetha of the verb unites with the
fetha of <j into a long a, and in consequence the second fetha

initial

of ,j- becomes kesra

Rem.

a.

The

O^*^ (?)

syllable

fr

^_ of

m O-A CO-

the second Energetic

only to those persons which have, in the

is

appended

Energetic, a short

first

&

vowel before
and not to the dual, because its forms would then
;
coincide with those of the singular, nor to the fem. plur., apparently

because the sound of the syllable ,jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to


the ear.

Rem.

b.

Before an Uifu 'l-wasl

O s

^_
for

is

rejected

20, rem.

as j-Ju)l

c),

t>W>> from <jUl, IV.

of

Rem.

c.

in pause I.

The

syllable

19) the

xDA> x

of the termination

*
f

t>*H

*^,

despise not the poor,

^U.
is

often written

!_,

and pronounced

Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative

in

Gomp. Gr. p. 194.


j o ib*

98.

The Imperative

(j-*^t the order or

command) may be described

by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. sing.


Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but,
since it begins with two consonants, it takes, according to 26, a short

as formed from the Jussive

Part Second.

62

Etymology

A prosthetic vowel. When


or kesra, this vowel
0^0
Jjtil,

^ 19, 6

Fetha

b.

Rem.

is

form JUS; as j\Jx*.

of

)\y

from

is also

j\3jS
the

and

game

is

called

99.

!=

see

elision

j\j&. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~>

corresponds

and the

to

announce

the

the death

Hebrew

vowel dropped), which

final short
<m

In quadri-

])^ remember I*
T

thy thunder crash,

ar ara.

S}*.j.\,

where that

(I),

the Arabs also use the indeclinable

Occasionally

it

and

j^Z/Z, come

seems to take

from one of the derived conjugations, as


overtake

vowel

very rare, the only examples mentioned being

let

jSj*}

in cases

1,

w>b.j creep along / Asu

This

<<J.

form

= *MgJW

E. g.

d.

be present

alone

let

used in the same way; as

literals this

damma.

it is

never employed as a prosthetic vowel.

;>top (o for a,

absolute

rem.

19,

As an Imperative

c.

pronounced with fhtha

elision of the prosthetic

and on the orthography

Rem.

listen

Regarding the

a.

is

when with damma,

t.

does not take place,

the second radical

kesra

[99

*&&, wRem.

is

or the Parts of Speech.

?*t>^-

its

and play
meaning

bring out! j)\j$

t^&ipt, Imper. IV.

The same remarks apply

to the energetic forms of the

Im-

perative as to those of the Imperf. (97).

[Rem.

The common phrase asuc Wj-^j

strike off his head, is

sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d

is

then explained by

the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense


(^J^ *+*
ju>yJt,

cf. vol.

ii.

35, a,
<-

Similarly Kor'an

1.

rem. b) in addressing a single person.

bi

23, Lilt

with a various reading

at

,>*A)t.

De G.]

[And again the phrase JjUc C*aa Tab. i. 1842, 1. 15


parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. Abs. with the finite verb.

DeG.]

is

The Verb.

I.

106]

B.

TJw Passive Voice of

2.

The Strong Verb.

the First

Verb. Table

Farm

63

in the Strong

II.

100.

The Perf. and Imperf. Passive are distinguished from the


corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels.
In the
Perf. Pass, the first radical has damma, and the second radical kesra.
In the Imperf. Pass, the prefixes take

damma, and

the second radical

fetha.

Rem. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the


same, whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf.
and Imperf. Active.

101.

There

is

no special form to express the Imperative Passive, B

the Jussive being used instead.

3.

102.

The Derived Forms of

The second

the

Strong Verb. Table III.

radical of the Perf. Act.

is

pronounced with

is

pronounced with

fetha in all the derived forms.

103.
fetha

The second

in the fifth

Rem.

radical of the Imperf. Act.

and sixth forms, with kesra

The Imperfects

for JXz&j

and eleventh forms, J^Jb

of the ninth

and Ju>, are contractions

in the rest.

and JJUaj.

This

may be

seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j, and the Imperatives
jjUSI and jjull.

See

106 and 120.

104.

In the second, third, and fourth forms, the prefixes of the


Imperf. Act. are pronounced with damma, in the rest with fetha.

105.

The

another letter

[Rem.

characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears

is

prefixed

But we

as J^aj, not J^SIj, from JJ3I.

find S\Juyc jjJ,

^Ju^j, Sibaweih,

i.

Sij^i, 118, rem.

b. De

106.
JJUil.

9,

when

1.

21,

a pot

where the

set
is

on

tlie

fire,

and

also

treated like the o of

G.]

The ninth and eleventh forms were


But, by a rule of the language (see

originally JJjisI

120), if

and

the last radical

Part Second.

64

A in

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

such words has a vowel, the preceding radical loses

its

vowel, and
// *

fix

the two are combined into one letter with tesdld


vi

e.g. j**a\ for jj**e\,

uncontracted

no vowel, the word remains

If the last radical has

jJuau for jjslaj.

107.

107

as >jj**o\, jj^aj, jj**o\ (see 120).

of the Perf. and Imperf. Passive in the


exactly analogous to that in the ground-form.

The formation

derived forms

Rem.

is

a.

The Imperfects

b.

The Imperfects

and fourth forms are

Pass, of the first

identical.

Rem.

Pass, of the fifth

and sixth forms are

distinguished from their Imperfects Act. only by the vowel of the


instead of. fetha.
prefixes, which is damma

108.
the

Since the idea of the Perf. Pass,

is expressed by pronouncing
of the third form by
and
the
idea
damma,

radical with

first

lengthening the vowel of the

there results in the Passive

first radical,

of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form
*

JJy

and

j j

hence in the Pass, of the sixth, J3>>.

109.

In the Perf. Pass, of the

the fetha of the

radical

first

of the characteristic
*VtJJ

forms)

and sixth forms, not only

(which expresses the reflexive idea of these


In like manner, in the Perf. Pass, of the

seventh, eighth, and tenth forms, not only


characteristic
*

e.g.

JOJ

O, pronounced
J

Oj

When

111.
u>

sjo,

b, or

first

),

the

98 and rem.

first radical,

or the
Slif

a.

[to fifteenth] forms,

have of course no passive (see

the verbal root begins with

occasionally (in the

the

Compare

The ninth and eleventh

in their signification,

is

with damma, but also the prosthetic

J3ut, J^St, J^&wl.

110.

is

JJ

J3&, J^j>.

e.g.

fifth

changed into damma, but also the fetha

the characteristic

Koran

O of

O,

the

being neutral

73).

., >, 3,j,

*Z,

u*,

and sixth forms

fifth

frequently) loses its vowel,

and unites with

The forms thus originated


when they happen to commence with two

radical to form a double letter.

take a prosthetic

Slif,

consonants

(compare

54).

E.g.

fi

"

jjW, Jibl,

*ip

jJ>t,

Z'>
\j\>\,

fifi

Oij^

The Verb.

I.

114]

The Strong Verb.

B.

UC\, j^i, ^L\; j\, for i3 JjvS,


f^, ^UJ, j^x3 j>i, Jf*H> jl^i,

j.5jj,

65

ijijj,

J^p, iJu5,

.*&>, for j> j,

^ji,

The language in its later stages admits this


verbs of the fifth and sixth forms, merely rejecting the vowel
Jj^aJ, rJ*k

preformative

Rem.

as

See

wn,

n^n,

112.

The

u~*\

48,

for ^r**^

rem.

to take breath.

Gr. P

Ci

and

i s

ss

j~j, Jn^. >, j^lo,


!

[and

and

plur. masc.

Ji //

*+

necessarily

iioy.

of the fifth and sixth forms

in those persons of the Imperf. Act. to


sing. du.

fern.,

*s

*jU3

for

3d

which

for

j~&3,

&&3

(Faik

sometimes omitted

is

pers. sing,

Z s**

ijycjJJ,

in all

of the

and compare such Hebrew forms as

b,

ComP

*v\ton;

is

fern.)

J*W^>,

130)De

e.g.

"'
&ytjj&

is***

Jb+aJg
i.

prefixed (2d pers.

and du.

Z s *s

Zl

These

G.].

shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the


prefixed

and of the second radical from the same persons


and third forms (j~&, J^tJ)

active voice of the second

the fetha of the prefixed

in the

and by

from the same persons in the passive of

the second and third forms (/*>, J^W3).

113.

Verbs of which the

no seventh form in

radical is

first

classical Arabic,

t,

j,

but use the

^, j,

J, or o> nave

fifth or eighth, or

the

In the (so far as we know) solitary


first,
of
the
seventh
form
from a verb beginning with ^, namely
example

passive of the

to

v~<oJ\,

the

lie

instead.

concealed,

the

characteristic

united by teSdid to

is

first radical.

Rem.

a.

Some grammarians regard u~+i\

as being of the eighth

form, by assimilation for ^**j\.

Rem.
p.

b.

569, note

114.

In modern Arabic such forms as J^.Ut,


i.),

ujj\. j-cut,

jJjJt, are of

common

(Kamil,

occurrence.

If the first radical is^, the characteristic ,j of the seventh

form often unites with


w.

J**yl

jio\j\

it

into j>

as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from

Part Second.

66

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

115

y sO

A j-a^^JI

150*^1 from U~, l*it

or

t^JUt from c*JU

^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from

A for JJa^J^I. ,a*-t for

j\j

or

>xL.

.-a^ct, bj*\ for bjZ*\,

O or
O into

If the first radical be

>Z>.

or :>pt from j>p

* *

as

^,

116.

is

and with an

ijj*
;

changed into

from

jtj

for

^jt,

>,

Jpt,

^>\,

or ybjt, for

ji>3j

from

w> into

from

for jUJI,

.^w.

or j, the characteristic

j,

which unites with an

initial 3 into > or 3.

jbjl, for 3j\;

ji.S

for *-2wt,

**~>t,

jUt or jUt,

initial

the

sometimes extended to the

is

* *

If the first radical be

eighth form

C from

St

O of

ji?t orjJul from jju.

The same assimilation

Rem.
letter

with the

w,

etc.

the characteristic

*t>,

from %+j

*.Jt, for **M,

E.g.

j^jt

or

eighth form unites with the initial

^-U-it

Jsuco,

These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form

Rem.

115.

from

or Jaa-ei

for

from

initial > into 3,

E.g. >Ojt, for j^Jjl,

from

*S)j3>\,

U> JXjt
;

j&, from Ji>}

Jp

O of the

from j^j

<jjjt, for tj>^l,

or j^>l, for j^iit, from

c\

or

cjjl, for

ipjl,

from cji.

Rem.

a.

Whether the form with

depends upon usage


j-i.it

for instance,

and j^jt, but Lane gives in

The unassimilated jib*}!

^jit.

> or 3

is

to be preferred,

J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to


his
is

Lexicon only

*.^it, Jjjit,

also said to occur,

aud

as well as

tfcSt
Rem.

b.

Some grammarians extend


'

letter

Rem.
initial

J**.!,

Si

*0

j, as q\j\, for ^Ijkjl, from

c.

The
e.g.

letter

is

this

assimilation to

^j\j.

sometimes changed into > after an

j **J, jJ^I, *JlJ, instead of the usual

from j*., j+,


***>j,

the

+*..

jl.l,

118]
117.
is

If the first radical

The Strong Verb.

B.

into

or , and occasionally with


x x x

x x

^aUo

^Uxot, ^A k o

l,

x x

from

t,

initial

ui

xxx

*$&

from^olb
^aI?, j^-U

xxx

w>jJxot, or

Rem.
IS

from jUo

v>^^
i

x x x

fr

into ^6.
x

^L^,
;

j,

JJ&\, JJJLl, or JJSJiS,

*&

xx5

//

"

from

|>Jtt, jifat, j^Jt,

*r>j*

initial

E.g. ^Jbuot,
x x,,I
*Jo\. 3pt,

x x

-*.Lo

with

The

''

0*k>

ft* *>^i or g/'^i from

xxx

sometimes assimilates the following

xxx XXX
a.

letter

xui

X X

XI?

as j^ot,
^jA-ol, ^y-ol, 2~^t,
y^

Rem.

From a-o

6.

J^t,

for j*Jxot, etc.

the characteristic

and unite with

lose its vowel

may

i?

XX X

the form *aXt also occurs.

If the second radical be

[117*.
eighth form

*XJxot, from j-o, *.lo.

jJxot,

//

xSx

Jte\, or jUxbt,

5^0
;

,i ,

into

x x

U^>.

%+.*o.

initial

^it, from lJ*, i>, v>ii, ^JLL

,Sit,

67

be ^a, ^6, b, or &, the characteristic

changed into h, which unites with

x x

?ta-o

The Verb.

I.

then necessarily assumes a vowel, either a or

i,

The

it.

first

of the
radical

and the helping vowel

x xx

x3x

ft

unnecessary and disappears. Thus for jJ~>t we may have jZ*


xii
Jul J/
JWxx Jul X
JW
or jJ^; Imperf. j~j, j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra
1

is

to the first radical)

rem. a).
J
ii.

Part.

act.

jZ~* (jZ~**)

Inf.

^Uw

Similar forms from verbs whose second radical

occur (or are recorded as variants) in the

Koran

(see 202,

is z, h,

(Sur. x. 36,

u
ix.

or
91,

19, xxxvi. 49).]

4.

118.

The Qiiadriliteral Verb. Table IV.

The

four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout


their inflexion the second, fifth, seventh and ninth forms of the
trilateral (see

Rem.

a.

6972).

The O, which

is

prefixed to certain persons in the

omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral


verb, just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see 112).

Imperf. Act.,

Rem.
Jfljt),

to

b.

pour

is

As mentioned
out,

and

in 45, rem. d, words like Jl^b (for

are treated as
^>o-Jb, to believe,

quadnhterals:

68

Part Second.
The

Etymology

latter is inflected exactly likejixoi,

The form
elt,

JfJJbt,

q/*

radicalis

geminatw

120.

differ

They

we

find

j\1a~*c for jU*a-~.J

Table

V.

When

t^lo^t

J**Jt, fo doubled verb.

from other strong verbs in two points.

both the

and third radicals have vowels, the


and unites with the third, so as to

first

radical rejects its vowel,

form a double

to

J^A.

tenth form of

The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\

(]}"]}).

jro*)\, the solid verb, or

for jj9

The

These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce

119.

(a)

also used.

which the Second and Third Radicals are


Identical.

C second

irregular:

aSI^A, Perf. Pass.

sometimes shortened into alkwt or

[Also, in verse,

Imperf. *Jx~j.

F^rfo

is

[119

**1a~j or **1~>, and then converted into c Ik*!,

cliLt, Imperf.

5.

is

Imperf. J^->,

clLLrft, to obey, is

viz.

but the former

Norn. act.

Imperf. Jgj^, Imperat. JjA,

or the Paints of Speech.

letter,

which

marked with

is

JU> to split or cleave, for Jii

smell,

for j*+Zt

^^

become dear

to

v**

tesdid.

E.g.

j*

to flee,

j^
v^ ^

to touch, for yj~~~t>

(to one), for

v***-

become wise or intelligent, for wJ.


(6)

If the third radical

has a vowel, but the

the second radical throws back


j)

its

combines with the third, so as to form a double


for J-U^j,

j^

for >j^i,

J-ft-j

no vowel, the second retains

for

its

JX+j.

But

if

without one,
first, and then

first is

vowel upon the

letter.

E.g.

J^

the third radical has

vowel, and no contraction takes place

as Ojji, oJA., w^J,jjiL, >jk+j.

Rem.

damma

Transitive verbs of this class, of the form JjtJ, have

a.

in the Imperfect, with the exception of

admit kesra

absolute, jtj

to repair,

viz.

C*j

to sever

jJ* to

or separate entirely

make hard or firm,

six,

make

tie

which

also

decisive or

firmly, J*c

to

The Verb.

I.

120]

B.

water (camels) a second time, j^>


0*

it

jjb to abhor,

w*.

viz.

kesra,

Rem.

Cw,

or

One verb has

etc.

common IV.

(instead of the

weak in

as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or

abound in

to

w*J

the hocks,

a she-camel, ewe,

Forms

c.

like

in

times contracted

//

first radical
Os
s

as,

)}j,

2.

flf]3 for ftTT3)

The third

for

vowel
iss

)ttj,

C^

as

Ct

Os

C%

for

Outs s

C*yJt3,

is
5

uncommon

not
ss

i'

Oj

O^thJ

efc.*J.

and a vowel-sound

may

be either

i //

woj-~wl

for

(a) the
S

t>S

Oj^-^wl, a

for

0 ss

05 <" *

'

for PODSDfl); or (b)


ftTSDM
t
t v \
s
s s
sSts
as Otjc for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew
The form described under 2 a is the usual one

the

vowel

long

rt^lD where 5 =
in
J

!_,
a).

modern Arabic, but


OS*

Co3).
p. 227

"

wvUlsu,

*Z>jjJS,

(compare in the Hebrew Imperf.


s

N. Africa ai becomes

in
s

Ol

Such forms as C g >.>fct

for

i,

ol

C*w

also occur.

as redctit for

C/ow/?. Crr.

se?.

[See

De

02 ss

in the fifth conjugation, as


s

s s

CXolU,

C-.~oiJ,

*A,

form which

is

(compare the Aramaic


s

This

S S

for C-wcua5,

CgdJ

si

d M*M

f r
OjJ"*^> O-ih!

^or

radical

transferred to

is

however, some-

are,

radical is united with the second,


s

tlie

its

OlA

[also

of

orifices

The second

6s,

inserted before the pronominal suffix.

diphthong

(of a horse,

1.

O^j,

for cJULk, CU-~* for


^

form

ways.

Os

O^j,
s

cJLb

or

o , ,

vowel, or else

its
s Os

the

have narrow

to

Ojji, Co***, C~Ui*,

different

dropped, along with

cJLb

the eye),

6e sore (of

fo

etc.).
.

Rem.

to smell badly,

hoof worn at the edges

in one's dotage, jjs-

to be silly,

teats (of

only

be vrise or intelligent,^*} to be uyly, jj to be bad,


sj s

to

S J *

*iU3

m aJ

lizards (^-*o),

la Us to 6e mrfo/, <&. to have its


etc.);

^-^.1), Imperf.

Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse), JJ1

yMd

secretly,

it

Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some-

b.

times occur
to

to fove

69

spread abroad or divulge

to

is

Cw

Imperf.

detest,

The Geminate Verb.

5.

Goeje, foss. to

Ibn al-Fakih

s.v.

oj.]

Part Second.

70

121.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

[121

In the Jussive, however, the second radical not unfrequently

vowel upon the first, and combines with the third, in


which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel
In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf., this vowel may be
( 27).
either fetha or kesra ; in those that have u, it may be any one of the
throws back

its

three vowels.

j&i or^Aj, ^-^-j or s^-j, for


or *ji, for

^o-o-i,

122.

J^

or u*xkj,

E.g.

jj*j>,

or

for

J*-,
vi

^aJsju, JA*j

>IJ/

i '

J s

ul

j^j, j^j, or

ulJ

'

v)i*

j^^t, >ji, ij-i,

j->*.

Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical


fern., dual, and plur. masc), sometimes do not follow

has a vowel (sing,

the rule given in

as ^jj*\,

third;

but keep the second radical apart from the

120, b,

tjj-*t,

When

hjj*^

place, the prosthetic elif is obviously

the Arabs say ^Jj*,

The masc.

etc.

Jussive

( 121),

sing,

tjji

no longer necessary, and therefore


tjjil,

ij!j*\, l/*t,

instead of ^jjit,

undergoes exactly the same contraction as the

rejecting at the

Iji,

not

the usual contraction takes

same time the prosthetic

e.g.

sj*

6 J 6j

for ^a-ofcl, j3 for


jjtt, j*c for jjl*I.

Rem.

If the verb has a suffix, the choice of the supplemental

vowel depends to some extent upon that of the


4Jos> (a*oc),

but U^j,

* 6 *6iO uij

y 6 s0>O

j6^\
123.

or^e^l

S|

The same

ly-oft,

eighth,

say

In the wasl

oj

(*>j)y

20) say

Sj

>j.

rules that apply to the Active of the first form,

apply also to its Passive,

not U^j, ly-ac

suffix

and tenth forms.

and to the

third, fourth,

But in the second,

fifth,

sixth, seventh,

ninth,

and eleventh,

the second or third radical cannot be united with the other, because
is

already doubled.

contraction.

[But

Consequently jj,jj*>,
cf.

120, rem.

c,

jj*\,

and

jtjit,

it

undergo no

for Conj. V.]

[The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of


De G. Cf.
Higaz, the contracted to that of TamTm, Faik ii. 566.
Slbaweih ii. 443.]

The Verb.

I.

128]

The Weak Verb.

71

In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for

Rem.
tlamraa, as

J^.

for

the vowel of the

damma

C.

J*, (contracted from

first

radical a sound

(technically called

j*\*&)*$\,

01

between those

namely
case oi

fWia

such as
9 *

jj{~*,

uoclJ,

and

giving the one vowel a scent or

German

ii

or

and eleventh forms, a long vowel,

In the third, sixth,

a, precedes the double

alone

of kesra

flavour of the other), as jj, jew, rildda, sudda (with the


French u), instead of rudda, Sudda.

124.

Jl-), whilst others gave

consonant, which

is

25, rem.).

J>SU>, 5>--^, s-*jI~j>,

-^fc.U.,

allowed in the

However, the uncontracted forms,

* J

Forms

Aa*A.U*o, not unfrequently occur.

W>
JJ

like x>jj, jj>*3>

**i !**,
*

and

j<ij*\

are not contracted.

125.

The Jussive

of the derived forms

may undergo

exactly the

same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form, by throwing back


the vowel of the second radical upon the first, combining the second
radical with the third, and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel.
jo ol
j-p
for aJUjt,
E.g. <djl
*
*

form of

Ji and

J.3

Z l

aJLSI
*

j o

ol

for aJULSI, the 1st pers. sing. Juss. of the fourth


*

C.

The Weak Verb.

Weak

126.
radicals

is

rejection

Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the


subject, on account of its weakness, to transformation or

and which consequently

differ

more or

less, in

some parts

of their inflexion, from strong verbs (see 82 and 83).


^, and

127.

The weak

128.

There are two sorts of weak verbs.

(a)

letters are

I,

^.

Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza,


These are called verba Jidmzata.

the weakest of the gutturals.


(b)

Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con-

sonants ^ and {, which approach very nearly in their nature to the


vowel-sounds u and i. These are more particularly called weak verbs.

Etymology

Part Second.

72

or the Parts of Speech,

129

The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata

Rem.

among the weak verbs, restricting this appellation to those that


contain a $ or
(83, rem.).

129.

In a root there

may

be two, or even three weak letters

Verbs that have two

as ^j\j,

^Sj, e$t.
weak; those that have

These

be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs.

may

Hemza among their Radicals (Verba


mmzata). Tables VI., VII., VIII.

Verbs that have a

1.

130.
is

radicals are said

three, to be trebly weak.

to be doubly

weak

the

These are divided into three

classes,

according as the hemza

second, or third radical (verba primse, mediae, ultimae radi-

first,

The

calis hemzatse).

following sections point out wherein they differ

from the strong verbs.

131.
(I),

If the elif

be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels

it is

converted, after the

into

^ with hemza
-

with hemza and gezma, at the end of a syllable

Pass, of Ijj

damma,

of jj\,

Oyj

Act. of

y>

jj> for jjL

and

and

Cs^

^y*,

for

for

^ with hemza

Hence C*5jj
*

(^).

into

3d

pers. sing.

Olo

and

to and Ui

damma and
(J)

kesra,

after the kesra,

for Ol^, 1st pers. sing. Perf.

masc. Imperf. Pass.

oUi,

2d

I.

or IV.

pers. sing. masc. Perf.

(see 133).

132. The ^ and


represent in these cases the sound to which
the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*.
*

[This is a convenient formula, and cannot well be improved upon


without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing, a

consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic
grammarians, to whose method of exposition this work, for good

But from an historical point


practical reasons, is closely conformed.
of view, when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J,
or

by alone without a kursl, or supporting letter, we must distinguish


between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone,
which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary
It is known
signs, and that indicated by the later points, such as *.

The Verb.

I.

132]

The hemza

is

Verba Hemzata.

retained, not only to

remind us that the syllables

J and
the commencement

their origin from

>1 and {j-

pronunciation with j_, u, and


short, whilst

show

^_,

73
but also to

are not to be confounded in

The damma and

1.

I,

are pronounced like

kesra remain

itself; that

is to
say, at
of a syllable, with the spiritus lenis between the
t

preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi,
at the end of a syllable, with a
slight emphasis

danu-a, not danu-wa)

and resting of the voice upon the

soft breathing (as

cJLi,

sani'-ta,

not kani-ta).

Rem. a. In modern Arabic, h&mza in the middle and at the


end of words has so completely disappeared, that
and
when

fc,

preceded and followed by vowels, become j and


;
except when
the former has damma
and
the
latter
kesra
as
(j)
explained in
(^),

133-4.

The modern Arab

j_ u and ^jamong the poets, we

long vowels
especially

also pronounces

Even

jl and

^_ like the

the ancient language,


find traces of a softer
pronunciation,
i.

in

^ O s

or total rejection, of the hemza [Sj^JI

s_My?

17, 6,

rem. b];

and hence the custom, at the present day, of resolving the verba C
tert.

rad. hemzatse into

verba

Hebrew, and

yd, as

tertice

C*Jji for Ol^3, ^JjJu for \jju.

^Ji

for

[Ji,

to read,

This change has already begun in

almost universal in Aramaic.

is

that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave


up the
original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other

Arabs

still

preserved

it.

Now

the rules of Arabic orthography were

mainly fixed by the Kor'an, which was originally written down in the
Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. This pronunciation
did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area, but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with, having the character of a
sacred tradition.

The

they said bawusa,

ylta, {jaka (or

prevailed, however,

first

scribes wrote

was bdusa,

^^J, *%<*, ^Uk. because


The pronunciation that
d aka and this was expressed,

nearly

so).

gi'ta,

without touching the old consonants, by writing ^yf, w^., j)t[+.


Rules for writing hemza as J, $ or are therefore really rules for
preserving the old guttural ', in cases where
transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an.]
w.

it

was already

lost or

10

Part Second.

74

Rem.

an

or the Parts of Speech.

rem.

6,

Hence

b).

of

not ,jJt, Imperat.


-

q$\

' '1

Act.
pers. sing. Perf.

3d

VIII. of j+\

conjunctionis

Juepf 3j*i)

Pass. IV. of

0+\

'0

O^l

oU^J, not

When a word

'

0+*3*> not

with

all

^1,

elif

not 0-*3^ 3d pers. sing. Perf.

&*$%

Act.
jjj\, 1st pers. sing. Imperf.
(*iaJUI tt*fc)

VIII. of

Pass.

Perf.

sing.

pers.

,J*M'

Jijt, not JLijt, Imperat. of Jit

3d

$1

v>*$jl,

after

away

of j~>\
j~j\, not j-Jt, Imperat.

*,0

^t, not jH^t,

falls

132

because of the impossibility of pronouncing it


o

( 17,

The hemza gezmatum over ^ and

b.

hemzatum,

elif

Etymology

'

Innn

IV. of jj\

IV

with

all

of

O-?
elif

>

y&

not

separationis

beginning with the

of this sort,

elif

the eiif conjunctionis falls away


conjunctionis, comes into the wasl,
In Imin pronunciation, though it may be retained in writing.
peratives,

when preceded by ^

Oti (from

j-^t^, ,jili, ^l-oli,

A*

^>*jli.

In other cases

it is

or sJ, and,

C^jt,

it is

Imper. of

retained,

usually rejected

^1

and the

to come),

radical

in its altered form


,

ba'da'tilqfin,

/it/

0X3

U5I

J); as

(,

OjjpU fa'tazarat,
J </
/W
_

as

\&\y

hemza

O , ,,0*3*

is left

0*

, 0*

kJ*j&\
S/

UhuddHina, ,jjut J^aj yakulu'dan, ^JJI

^J^t

^JJt) Uladfitumina. In later times the


pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the
e. g.
hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel
elhudatina,
written ^>*l5t
i>jj$T (also

yakulildan, elladztumina (as

Rem.

c.

is

if

Os

,J0,

written LSIj^t,

>,

w>

O^V^J' cX^N^)*

always retained after fetha in the ancient lan-

guage, as j-wb

but in modern Arabic

J ,

it-,

it
J

passes into the

elif

of

C/

J^U

[And so even of old


prolongation, as ^*b, J^b, for j*\j,
in Mecca, Noldeke Gesch. d. Qordns, p. 250, 257, whence with
10

8criptio defectiva ( 6, rem. a)

Sura

xlix. 14.]
,

said^LJ

Those who used the form ^JU3


JsO

for >#J>,

from

^j

t
I.

JO %,

such variations as^iL> for^oXJLj


(see 94, rem. c) also

The Verb.

I.

135]

133.

Verba Hhmzata.

75

In the same way, passes into 3 or ^, when it is pronounced


with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha, or with fetha and pre1

damma

ceded by

or kesra;

damma

kesra and preceded by


brave ;

^J^t

and into ^, when

to be

to,

was

asked, for

JU,

J&Jl,

for

of

Perf. Pass,

J^

for J*>b, to be

jjb, an impression
Infin. VIII. of

>lUl,

JL

Imperat. VIII. ofj*$;

to,

for

mean, worthless; yyi,

Imperf. Pass. II. of j3l

pronounced with

agrees with, Imperf. III. of j>*$

it

j\, for^UI, agree with, be reconciled


for

Eg.

(see 17, b).

for j^*i or j\%i

it is

j peace

is

J)\

made

is

y>,

made,

J^

hsB

(between

them), for^tjJ, Perf. Pass. III. of J$.

At

Rem.

the end of a word,

I,

I,

^Jb,

But the
as

%Z*i

from

Imperf. Pass. II. of

\j+j

latter

form

is

I,,

1,0

as \jJu from \j3, U^j


l,o, l,o, l~,>
instead of jj*i, y^i, $y*t-

usually left unchanged

is

preceded by fetha,

damma and

pronounced with

^j,

commonly used before the accusative

suffixes,

*j)/aj-

134.

Finally,

comes J or

pronounced with

damma

at the beginning of a syllable

or kesra

which

J I o*

a syllable ending in a consonant.

/^

J35~~*>

\j*yi>

f r

E.g.

Pass.

of^oU,

to

Oj

groan, to twang; jj&i,


*>

and meanly, Imperf. IV.

of

JL*
j

or

I),

h,
Imperf. of

JO*
;

be-

j^t,

for

^U>,

oj

for^Lj, he

acts stingily

0,0

Is

j>^

of

Particip.

(t

preceded by

^Uj,

sir

't*

Imperf.

u*>-, for

Jj^*

is

^o-LUwt, put on armour, Imperat.

X.of j&
Rem.

at the beginning of a

in the cases stated in 135.

135.

At the beginning

the radical

I,

the two

Slifs

word remains unchanged, except


J)

E.g. jj\, j\j\.

of a word, if an Slif productionis follows


are combined into one, which

is

written

either with medda alone, or with medda accompanied by a hemza


to the right of the Slif, or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular

fetha (see

6,

rem. a); as j*l, y>\>, or j*\, for ^11,

to consult, III. of

Part Second.Etymology

76

"

A j*\
is

or the Parts of Speech.

136
%

The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I)
preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare 132, rem. b)
to order.

In old Mss. we often

as Jjf, J3u, or J3f, for Jiff, to prefer, IV. of jj\.


find

J-itl,

jjll

136.

In a more modern stage of the language,

elif

elif

hemzatum

preceded by fetha and followed by an

with fetha passes into $, when

of prolongation (compare 17,

rem. b)

b,

3d

or tjj-U, they deliberated together,

as Ij^tjJ, for tjj^U3


Perf. Act. VI. of

plur.

pers.

L.tU or LA3, tfc wo became intimate friends, from

j-t; Ufc.tj.3, for

U.t (for ^il).

The same change sometimes takes place even with the

Rem.

the third form; as ^^-tj

initial &lif of

or 'parallel

to be opposite

for

It commenced, of course, in the Imperf. and the


etc.
agentis and actionis, where, according to 17, b, rem. b,
xJ

$ took the place

of
,

x J

and SUly*.

xx

,t
to take,

y>\ to order, and


J

first

radical in the Imperat.,

making

When

(JC/
elif,

d J X

to eat, reject

J**., j*o,

and

J^.
X

^,

preceded by ^ or

rally recovers its radical

J^l

138.

x J

as .-wt^j, u*\yo,

The verbs J^l

137.

j)

along with,

L^tt,

Nomina

the

to eat

J^tj

to console,

to, i**tj

intimate with, ^jtj

to be

6W&<#,

the Imperative j- gene J

J x

j-otj or jj

but not so

and

J^

J X

which make only J^j, JXs.

For the rule as regards other verba

prim. rad. hemz., see 132, rem. b

and on the Imperative of ^yl,

to

come, see also 175, rem. a.

139.

The

first radical

to the characteristic

of

J^t

O of that form

is

assimilated in the eighth form


Jk3\, for

^O

132, rem. b),

to take for oneself.

"%
Rem.

a.

The same

assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\,

Ox

to

put on one

which makes

the article

of dress called

jJZj\ or jjJt, to

j\j\,

x x 2

and

j^,\, to give wages,

put on an Hzar, and j^Sj\ or jj*JI

to

The Verb.

I.

141]

give alms, to receive wages ;

Verba Hemzata.
more

still

v>*3t, for O-oJut, to JrwsJ or confide in,


o?o.

J^jt,

The

tenth form of J^.t

77

rarely in J^l, to be safe,

and

may

Jjbl, to

marry, ^j\, for

also lose its

e"lif

and be

written Jd^wt.

Rem.

From

6.

the above assimilated forms are derived the

secondary radicals
rem.

Jtffc

in

Compare

b).

Syriac

*Jl\

from the rad.

;-kjA_|, if

i,

and j**j,

JdL3, to take,

to

i-it^M>

trade

(see

iKl!^;

148,

an^ with

j_kj|.

140. Verba med. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med.
an elif of prolongation instead of the
( 149, etc.), and take
3 et

rad.

radical

JL

to ask,

for

Jl~i

J~*.

hemza with

This

fetha.

which has Jlw

for

is

particularly the case with the verb

JL>, 2d

pers. sing.

m. cJ~ [not cut*],

JI~j, J-~> for JI~j, J~> for JLJ (Imperat.), Perf. Pass.

Sometimes the

elif

hemzatum

vowel being trans-

is elided, its

Kg. J-~> C

ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant.


for

jtl>, from

^t,

JC

whence ^-U,

Rem.

JuTj
Rem.

and

or

J^U, an

for

6.

^C,

When

etc.

The

141.
^

to see;

the rule

see

in the fern.

( 21,

d,

rem.

These likewise

is

the

secunda), tertise rad.

fall

first,

et

\jj).

into

6),

du ^U,

^, we may

or I^LLs.

happens in Hebrew,

Gr. p. 46, p. 282.

Verbs which are more especially called

or

^^Xw,

preceded by ^ and

Comp.

128,

iUt to send, for

p]X a?)-

elision of the elif occasionally

is

letter

from {j\j

angel

J-^, I^LTi, IjjLi

in Syriac it

2.

for \j\ji,

The Imperative Juj makes

a.

plur. t^JL>, not

say

^jJ

Weak

Verbs

b).

three classes, according as the

second, or third radical (verba prim,

Part Second.

78

Etymology

Verbs of which the First Radical

A.

rad.

142.
ristic
xx

Those verbs primae

to

OOO

Ox

jaA

the Imperf.

n J}

and hence

cjj

lawful),

to

inherit,

>jj

^jj

c*3 * ^ e

n 9d

xx

from (what

firm and hard

of,

and handsome,

condition

^.C

form

JUj

0 fove, Ji*J.

JxOxxx

Of these cjj has

of, j**~j,

(of ground), jju,

jX^j j^-j
j

J^yi

to 6e

cowardly, to forget, J^->,

The Imperat.

6.

morning !

x x

%\~~*

j^

in

aJLj,

diyj

J x Ox

J-fcjj.

the phrases l.Uo

^
'

^ooc?

x x x

good evening

xxx

Jx

JxJxOx

j^

^ ^ e

to, angry, jJv,

XX

Rem.

J^

<dj 0 6e stupefied with grief, to be melancholy,


fo 6e

to be

xxJxOxxx

JxJxOxxx

ro^/i and broken

^3

and a few more admit both forms

pj^

6e angry with, full of hatred

2o

,JJu

un-

(of fat),
X

is

ja.^

Jjbj

to be

or confide

to trust

also dialectically the

',

Jmj

cjj to abstain

J X

jtyi

j)$ to swell, jbjj

near, to be in charge

e.g.

I'lldown

elide their first radical

xx

L&H

^>J3

>

form Ja3, have in

of the

(contrary to the rule laid

Jmu

instead of

Jmu

(jM)>

(jue^l).

JxOx

Ox

in 92),

Eight verbs primae rad.

a.

E.g.

Ox

promise, Imperf. juu for j^-^i, Imper. js- for

Rem.

(verba prima?

which have kesra as the characte-

rad. j,
J

bear children, Imperf. j-b for jJ^, Imper. jJ for jJo\

to

j&3

is

142

vowel of the Imperf. and Imperat., reject the 3 in these forms.

x x x

3 or
(). Table IX.

et

jJ$

or the Parts of Speech.

seems to come from j^-y but

is

Ox

in reality from ^su, Imperf. ^o**i> t oe happy, comfortable.

This

is

the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the


which is so common in Heb. and Aram.
Imperat. of verbs

j)

|",

143.

But those verbs primse

rad. ^,

as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf.

xx

in these forms.
or

Ox
J*hI

E.g. j^.^ or

0x0

(for j**}\ or

0x0

xx

J^
xx

J^t); ^3

to be

which have fetha or

damma

and Imperat., retain the j


JxOx
JxOxOx

afraid, j**$i or J*->>,

JxOxxx

to be in

pain, *->;;

J^

j^l

to stick

in the mud, J*-^j


J0_

rain, y>i

Verba

The Verb.

I.

144]

t perish,

(jJ.yi

by the mur-

to be visited

$>$

Jibuti,

y J s

to be
Ox

Jjj

79

et {J.

$**+%*

S>3

pr. rad.

unwholesome or insalubrious, Jjy>

>oj

to be

I J

clean

and fair, yoy*.

The same

j and medise

are at once primse rad.


is
lorn,

Jx Ox

*yt for toy*

the case with those verbs which


rad. geminatse

as 3j (for jjj) to

OxO

x
,

is

jjul for 335I

In verbs primae rad. ^, of which the second and third


and in which the Imperf. has fetha, some Arabic

Rem.

radicals are strong,

J x

dialects

change the ^ into

from
x

or
x

^.

E.g. J**.lj

x Ox

Ox

J x

and J**u,
J

Ox

"x

<Jj*.j, 0 >e

afraid ; %o\i and


J x

j) ; ^Ab

or

.ai, t,j

JxOx

and

J x

r% jj.

for %a*yi,

Ox

for ^*A>j,

tfi

a mistake.

Others even use the forms Jjwj, Xs*

144.

^v->j,

**,

from

from j*b},

%.j, to 6e

Ox

Jj^j, B

for

to

moke

and - ov-jj.

In a few verbs, of which the eight following are those that


initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. and

most commonly occur, the

Imperat., notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms


is

fetha.
x x x

s>j
x

, *

ju,
J x x

Ox

to let alone,

jSj,

ji.

to restrain,

jJ,

xx

3
xx

gjl
x

c>.

to let alone,

Ox
#J.

xx

*~>3

to be

wide or spacious,

^^5
x

#0 ^?w

?ww

or

-y,

2 x x

Usy,

U.

fe)

/Off,

-"

Ox

xx

y^i,

to give,

Ji},

xx

^Jbj

jt?/ac^,

trample upon,

xx

3^

J x x

x x x

jt-oj

~i,

s-**.

Rem. a. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably


the fetha of the Imperf. and Imperat. owes its existence
that
is,
fact of the second or third radical being in each case a
to
the
only
guttural or semiguttural

Rem.

b.

(j).

the Perf.
cjj and jj are not used in

Part Second.

80

145.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

vowelless j, the

changed into

is

Hence

the preceding vowel.

and X.

IV.

XL;

for jjtjjt, Perf.

s^^-yi for

changed into

I,

Verbs primse rad.

J J 6s

* J y

JiAj do.

Rem.

u-^-rf.

gg,

and

^U*

vowelless ^, the

to

92,

or

^sb,

is

t,

,0

*0*

^^^

rem.
for

changed into

Hence

See

or

j~*>\

fetha,

Oj

and

a promise ; j~3\, forj-wt

Rem.

a.
it,

J '

'

rem.

143,

damma

Imperat.
J

for

to despair,

precedes a

productionis, according to

and X.

j-~>$i,

I.;
J

and

jl~>t
J

OJ

&*>>, for j~~*i,

^ are assimilated to the charac* *

approve of

awake,

^J,

....

for j~~t,

In the eighth form, ^ and

to be

and

or y^^-o,

^Uj.

and &Ju

#0 receive

%yi

0*

<

producing

'.*

jibs

'

teJuj , Imperf. Act. IV. of j~j

O,

'

Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for

a.

Infin. IV.

teristic

or

to be gentle, easy,

'

or
become ripe,
%yi

L+Z~>\,
jLmjUA, for jL~>| and j

148.

is j^ajec?

ft

See

the preceding vowel.


,

sometimes

is revealed.

In those forms in which a kesra or

147.

<i

*^

lit

grown up, **> JaJb


JO*
J ' 0'

to be

**

jt

*0s

is

<*3j,

play at hazard, or

j~> to

JO,
or

for

are inflected in almost all their forms

v~*ii i0 oe dry, has

jb*

^Uo

for

C*5t,

e.g.

* uJC

hill),
*

J*a*j

w^jt, * J^**',

J s

*Ju to ascend (a

sb<

Jiio

e. g.

JO*'"
J

Infin.

on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to

like the strong verbs


;

t>Jl, ^tSjlll,

of verbs primse rad. ^, the

for
determined (of time);
^*-j,
^^-l,

j^d

I.

and X.

146.

to

OsO

b ,

Imperf. Act. IV.

w^>j,

the sound of the syllable

j productions, according

ctjuzll, for

ctjut,

In the Passive

Rem.

precedes a

Jo^-jl, *J^], for J***], JJjt, Imperat.

Perf. Pass. IV.

ws^jt, c>^iwl,

or
s

b *

Jl^jl

damma

In those forms in which a kesra or

145

Co

* * *

* ,,

as judt, for ju*Z>I, (juujl),

(^jlI), to

play at hazard.

Sometimes, however, although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O, but pass after
^ and

damma, and

kesra, into the

homogeneous

letters of prolonga-

The Verb.

I.

150]
tion,

j^J\^

j,

I,

for

^.

radicals

from

for J15jt, JJjLl

Jajfcl (

^*^j j-^

From

b.

to

melancholy

JJ^y

147), in the Perf.

^rw

to

*~3

oneself towards, to face

*$3,

lean, to

or

145),
for

J~a3b

Compare

^L~

to

to suffer

fear (God)

to be hereditary, inherited,

djj to be stupefied by grief to

upon;

to

^Jj,

wide or spacious ;
^"t

to be

born in one's house (of a slave),

make one

for

these assimilated forms are derived


secondary

such as Aa^j

81

^j.

for j-^ri, in the


Imperf.

or long possessed ; ^JSj to rely


be

et

a.

indigestion ;

>>S3 to be

for

j~i^, j^jl

J-^*J> *w^
139, and rem.
Rem.

J^Ll

E.g.

f r

Verba pr. rad. j

follow ;

and in the fourth form, Uul

prop him up ; ^Jo\

to insert ;

Compare 139, rem. b.


Rem. c. For the inflection of verbs

j^\

suspect a

to

person.

languages, see

Comp.

Gr. p. 234

seq.

Verbs of which the Second Radical

B.

media? radicalis

149.

Verba mediae

et

rad.

Tables
yj).

3 or ^j (verba
X. XIII.

is

^ (called by the Arab grammarians

et

JaaJI, the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the

sJye^\

fourth, seventh, eighth,

first,

of this class in the cognate

and tenth forms.

The

following sections

indicate the principal points of difference.

150.

If the first radical

is

the vowel of the second radical


or

without a vowel, and the third has one,

thrown back upon the

is

first,

and the

changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous


to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed.
E.g.

is

its

6'

Jyb,

he says,

becomes

*l,

he goes,

j~~i,

do.

^J^arJi, he is afraid,

^^i,

do.

w^v-;, he is afraid,

*r>^>

do.

j *

Jyu,

it is said,

J*j, pardon
w.

Jy^t, Imperf. Act.

is

granted,

I.

, j

J^>> Imperf.

Pass.

JUj, Imperf.

Pass. IV.

I.

11

82

Part Second.
J$*-i,

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

becomes

he remains,

151

Imperf. Act. IV.

03

0*k,

he softens,

do.

0*k,

t^-j3t,

soften,

t^lJI,

do.

j\, he remained,

^\i\,

Perf. Act. IV.

O^jl,

do.

oj

\yyi\, remain,

Imperat. Plur. IV.

3 oi

1^-iJI,

x xOg

v>Jt, he softened,
0,$,
fo stands upright,
ji} ;

,. >

03

ij*A*~i\,

he

was thought

OJ&X,

gentle,

3,0,03

, x

is

J*l~j, pardon

151.
I-,

^s&Im.j, Imperf. Act. X.

But

^J $,
,

the third radical loses

if

Imperf. Pass. X.

JU^j,

asked,

Perf. Pass. X.

its

vowel, the long vowels

are changed into the corresponding short ones, because

a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel


03,

3,

e>

Jyu

Jju, for
,

(J>*j), Jussive Act.

E.g.

I.

^^%-j

do.

(j-j**,;),

x x

( 25).

03 o,

yJU*->

do.

(o^-),

J*,

(J3.AJ), Jussive Pass.

I.

(j*yy), Jussive Act. IV.


t

oi

^1
2

(C^ll), 2d

J OJ

OjuSI
x

Oxg

(^Vt),
''

S^-s^,*x.a*)

O^Ut
x

Rem.

t>NT

m. Perf. Act. IV.

do.

Pass. IV.

).

do.

Pass. X.

3d

p. plur.

f.

Perf. Act. IV.

(CM^)j 2d

p. plur.

f.

Imperat. IV.

3 ,

f r

(o-o^St),

t.

l>o*3I
Jx

p. sing.

*|

C^UXtaWl
x

Ojit,
x

do.

(>>*!),

131
x

Oi

(J**t), Imperat. IV.

Jit,

xx

Oy^J Jussive of <jl^,

farther abbreviated, especially

to be, is

by the poets, into *sL.

sometimes

still

I.

153]

The Verb.

Verba med. rad. $

83

et ^.

152.

In consequence of the changes produced by the operation


of the two preceding rules, the Imperative of the first form loses its
prosthetic

(see 98

and

122).

E.g.

3 03

JJ>3t

33

becomes successively

* jj

a j

J^l,
J>5I,

3*0
3*0

153.

If three

succession, the

first

open syllables follow one another in immediate


of which has fetha and the last any vowel, then

the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis,


without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it.
E.g.

Part Second.

84

154.

or ^

But

Etymology

the vowel of the

if

or the Parts of Speech.


syllable be

first

damma

accompanied by kesra, the

is

so

becomes

' O

(^tfui),

^JOIj), that

Perf. Pass. VIII.

do.

scent or flavour

of

the

cJ*-

c^^
I

u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja.

French u in tune (compare

in kitten or the

(JiyOj

Kor'an give the vowel

of the

to say, they pronounce it with the

is

I.

jifi^t

some Readers

like,

an^o-aMvoU^t, a

il

Instead of J*3 (J>3), J**. (Jj^)j

a.

and the

German

c*~A

(j**^)

j-~-\

Perf. Pass.

(&*)

Rem.

^ becomes

J**>

(J>*)

j^t
s

and the kesra

E.g.

J>3

154

damma, and the

elided

which the ^ or

substituted in its place, in consequence of

(J productions.

is

sound of the
123, rem.),

hula, hula, suka, giida.

Rem.

Some

b.

Arabs take another method

of the

of forming

^, and

the Passive, namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or

changing those letters into j productionis

si

si

J^*.

(for )y*, Jjo),


s

sis #

The verb JL>,

-is

(for

siila,

In forms

c.

J^S

admit

sOi

j-^l).

of the

forms

^J[$**>.

O i

like Ji^Xwt, j-m^.1,


s
s

of the prosthetic elif to the following


i

*j, 2*J), j^6.\ (for j#*.\,

some assimilate the vowel


s

Jji, J>$),

(for

si

and

"

Rem.

as

(see 140), is said to

JL

sj^^i

cJ"**'>

for

sisOisiOi

si

* 6 i

i,

J^~>t, j*X.l, pronouncing

or &.

155.

If the first radical has fetha

and the third

is

without a

vowel, three cases arise.

The second

(a)

second radical

is

radical

is

or

with fetha.

to change the fetha of the first radical into

enough
and into

kesra, if it
s

was ^.

for

dj~

E.g.

o~ji, 2d pers. sing. m. Perf. Act.


s

,,

damma,

ss

C-s^5

In this case the

elided along with its vowel, but its influence

Os

Oj-j~>,

do.

I.

is

if it

strong

was

3,

The Verb.

I.

157]

The second

(b)

radical

case the second radical


influence

vowel.

homogeneous

cJJ
"

^ with damma

is

cJ^b, 2d

for

j with

change the fetha of the

first

C^*, 2d
x

c>

radical into kesra.

C*s-u

for

its

Perf. Act.

Ci^l

seventh, and eighth

first,

vowel, the
25.

productionis

154)

E.g.

2d

m.

pers. sing.

Perf. Pass.

I.

do.

OJ

do. VIII.

(sZ*$yl*>\),

In verbs mediae

a.

I.

do.

(c^J),
x

Rem.

(c-ouj),

rad.

^,

and

the form J*5, the 1st and 2d pers. m. and

in those mediae rad.


fern. sing,

Rem.

Ci4

Those who pronounce in the 3d

6.

xJxJ

Jy>,

0JX

liadith

al-wahy says wd^i.

157.

Most verba mediae

C-o*->

Oxx

for Cou,*

c).

pers. kuta, bU'a, etc.,

kiiltu, bii'tu, etc.;

who

whilst those

Osju.

pyj, say CuXS,


J

e.g.

for C-s^*. ( 155,

say in the 1st and 2d persons


prefer

form

xdx

and C* **.*

155, a)

identical in

of

dual and plural

JO
and Pass, are

Perf. Act.

Kg.

shortened into kesra, according to


o

m.

pers. sing.

In the Perfect Passive of the


the third radical loses

CJtt*1

I.

In this case the same

kesra.

^>* (^y*),

*,

**;

Perf. Act.

is

m.

pers. sing.

radical is

c*a> for

if

radical into the

first

but the influence of the characteristic vowel

x O

forms,

[The prophet himself in the

De G.]
rad.

j take damma, and most verba

mediae rad. ^j kesra, as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. e.g.


xxx
xx
xxx
JJxJJOx
xxx
from Jtj (Jjj), to move away, comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>), to
;

grew

(J>J,

present,

93)

E.g.

The second

156.

In this

elision takes place,


suffices to

85

^J.

^ with kesra.

or

change the fetha of the

3JLik
(c)

et

elided along with its vowel, as in a, but its

is

to

is sufficient

Verba med. rad. ^

J X

JyJ

J}/

(Jyi)

from o!i (0*j)>

XX
from JU

^ adorn,

x'J X
(

JjJ), to fo

fo/i#,

J>ix>

fr

m jh

(s*~*)>

njl (O^k)

Part Second.

86

to go,

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

'

'

158

But

j~~j ijv~i).

which are of the form J*, the

in some,

X X

J X X

Imperf. takes fetha ( 92)


e.g. from J\j (J^tj), to cease, comes Jtj*>
j xx
Jxx

x
x x
*x
x x
j//
from JU ( J*J), to get, obtain, JU; (J~o) from *U> (^-w),
( J-j-)
;

*x x

to tc?M&,

lUu (Uj)

xx6x

co^
XX

Cy,

Jxx

from ^JU (tj^*.),

^^,

jsUj {j*&^)-

jb\J {j*y), to sleep,

(for

XX, xx

G x

Heb.

to ./ktr,

from

has usually the form

to die,

3*

in

Syr. A__Lo)
I

Jlft,

JxOx

^JU^; ((J^d^j)

the Perfect, and O3-0I

Syr. ZoLqj) in the Imperfect, though w~o, oU->, and


(Heb. TVlD*,
T

also C~*->, are

158.

or

mentioned by the lexicographers.

In verba mediae rad. 3 et ^j, of which the third radical is


in the proor
letters combine with an initial

Q, these

ul

nominal suffixes so as to form

xx

O 30 3

ifa night

(O3-0) to

C guard ;
See

xO

U>, for

90,

Uu, and

rem. a,

an d

^>?j, for

(C-*u) to pass

m 0^

fr

m OW

(l>^)

(0>)

to fo separate.

b, c.

3 productions

108) does not coalesce with the second

radical into 3, for, if it did, the peculiar feature of these forms

be effaced,

and they would become identical

second and

fifth

J>*> J>*3-

it)

XX

and

vt

33

write J33.S, Jjl**5

not

For the same reason, no coalition takes place in the same

^, which

are always written, for example,

JJ

>*3.

See

11,

rem.

Some verba mediae

160.

Hence we

would

in appearance with the

33

J>3 and J>&>).

forms of verba mediae rad.

j>j

to

In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med.

159.

rad. j, the

xx

->x

xx

fr

Ob

O-^j

f r

xdx
o**^

Out 3

xx

'

O^*

E.g. C-*o, j***, for C^Zc,

<j.

WJx

for t>*0,

it

C*o, for CJj, from

<$**;

xOJ

j>o,

and

OU

^*, from

mJ

a.

and a few mediae

rad. 3,

rad.

^,

of

the form }3, are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo
xx
JxCx
JxCx
xx g
curved or forctf, Imperf. >jV( >>* to 60 6M;, Imperf. j^^ IV. *y~>\
;

jj*

to be one-eyed, Imperf. jj*>i, IV.

Of

j^\

^J^o

to fo woolly,

Imperf.

Jx Ox

<Jyau

Jx Ox

Oi

x x

xx

-x

Jx

j^h

W0c, Imperf.

Some verba mediae

ju*.

and flexible,

xx

xx

et

x
;

JL*

follow in the fourth form


x

X X "i

weak

thing, from m\j do.;jfe>\ or^^l, to be cloudy,


xx Ot
J-jj, to watch a rain-cloud, from Jl..

Imperf. juou

*-***->.

rad.

return

have a long, slender

to

inflection.
E.g. wUt or <^^j\, to reward,
X X02
x x
or p-jjl, to perceive the smell or otfow of a
*-\j\
x x
xxO?
XX
X X

either the strong or the


fo

'

JxOx

be tender

have a slender waist, Imperf.

162.

*'

*>* 1

wanting,

ju.o to have a particular disease (ju-, the

Jx

from w>U

to be

glanders), said of a camel, Imperf. ju.a.j

161.

j^z

87

^.

Imperf. J>*j, IV. J>fct

to

et

Ofc

Imperf. J^a*->, IV. J>-t

to squint,

J^a.

Verba med. rad. ^

The Verb.

I.

163]

from^U

do.;

JU-I

or

few verba mediae rad. ^ have only the strong inflection in


xxx

the eighth form, used to denote reciprocity

XX
from the rad.

xxxxxO
rad. 9-lj

j>^t

from the rad.

163.

*~3>)\" to pair, to

or intermarry, from the

marry

*"

borrow, from the rad.

to

as jy**\ to be neighbours,

XX*

jlr*.

jU

x
;

xx

o>^

Mjo one

to

another,

O^verba mediae rad. 3 admit in the tenth form of either

Many

inflection, but they generally prefer the weak, with the exception of a
few, [chiefly denominatives], which almost always adopt the strong.

E.g.

w>

U*

rad. w>Uh"
x x

or w>j a, M .>t, to give

..>t

or w> Ua^..t, to consider right, from the rad.

uj^uwl

an answer, grant a prayer, from the

^}su~t\ to be

bent with age, from ^*^S

a bow ; Jf^wt

xxOx

Similarly, from verba med. rad.

she-camel (*$U).

xxOx

Ox

#0 a he-goat (v~*>)
a.

J**^!

xxO

On

^, u

6e a&Je to do,

M U >t 0 become
.

become

like

an elephant

xxO

(J**).

xxxO

elixwt or cUwt, shortened from cl :^l, to


0*
cllxwl,

X.

of sU,

and on the secondary

oftey, to

see 118,

b.

Rem.
the

rem.

become like a

to

9 x x

Rem.

w>L

xx OxO

first

b.

On

the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of


rad. j et
^, see 240-1.

form from verba med.

Rem. c. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y


Aramaic see Comp. Gr. p. 242 seq.

in

Hebrew and

Part Second.

88

or the Parts of Speech.

Verbs of which the Third Radical

C.

^SUT

jet fj;
164.

Verba

tertise rad.

or raid, for^j

Verba

(b)

^j

namely

j of the form

for^oj

tertise rad.

Verba

(d)

Jjtf

Verba

(e)

of the form

of the form

165.

Jii

Ja$

^ of the form Jj*i

tertise rad.

tertise rad.

of the form

resolves itself into a vowel, or

At the commencement

Namely

place.

as

The

as

to be

^oj

pleased

J*J

as iJD- to be ashamed.

sis
as jj~> to be noble.

retains its

it

power as a consonant,

it is elided.

of a syllable, one of two things takes

third radical maintains its power as a consonant between

the vowels a a
as also

s ss

IJJS*,

***J

s s

s s

(tj_,

f
;

sis

s J s

&3J">

s J

si

syllable

s i

Os

bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ**

(S3-),

The

letter

LTf> **f>

j between the vowels

(I5 ) always passes into

In the

first

and second

I.

and

II.

classes,

the 3d pers.

s s

and, not being able to say C>!j and

0>

letter

fern. sing,
ss s '

ss s

in the sing, the masc. forms tj,


O

stituted

and
s ss

w-j^j,

is

the analogy of C*^j, C-oj^., and Ojj-w; but the


ss

ss

The

a, u a.

Arabs followed

(yJ) and

might have been O^j^, UjJ^,

sss*
I!**), etc., after

J>>*>

'

E.g.

W?3 OW*

dual of the Perf. Act.

as ^^>j, lJ^> for ^o>, jjx.

never found between the vowels u

Rem.

Os

O^y^j-

),

ends with a consonant.


s

a ((^ a (U-)
s

* J

b), ua ($), u a

when the preceding

s s s

is

throw, for

to

^oj

(a)

is*J*

make a foray

to

\j>

There are three things to be noticed regarding the third

166.

166, a).

radical of these verbs; namely, that

as

sis

it

XIV. XVIII.

/?, a).

tertise rad.

Verba

(c)

or

164

167, a, ft a).

with,

167, a,

kinds

five

^ (verba tertiw radicalis

3 or

is

J*A)i the defective verb). Tables

These verbs are of

(a)

Etymology

s s

^cj

s s

\s

OU>

or *++}

167, a,

25),

/?,

a),

they sub-

* ss

and C-j.

In the

dual,

on the other hand, where they

The Verb.

I.

167]

might have

Verba

but

(b)

The

third radical

and

u,

The form UUj

03J* ano

WfJ' 0**Jl and


,X>*j and ^^^xj

0**P

{, as

b^>*^

and iS3j*3, lS/*

fr

0***P and

with the

^U^t

the influence of the

yi into j_, as
t^-oj-j,

0^>*i and

Cxs>*3

and

It

l-> as

L5-~ mto

***j\.

(as in the masc. 'ugzu), or

and 154, rem.

owing to

a),

as

0>i>*i and \&j*-i

for

\jt*y*,

Ijj^fc

fr

L5^""

CK/***

for

tj.*j

=
^j*jji

(a)

in *

an(^

LP^

Hence

When

third radical

is

L5~^ ;
j

for

arise the following cases.

standing naturally at the end of a syllable, the

vocalised in two ways.

If the preceding

vowel be homogeneous ( or -), ^ and

letters of prolongation, that is to say,

pass into

^ u and

c^j for C^
w.

fr

a.

become

^~'

the end of a syllable, the third radical is either vocalised


may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally, as

Jjtij.

(a)

^
;

U>*-^H and

Ojjx. = cJjii, or after dropping a short vowel, as in ^^-j


s

^J^t may be pronounced

0>-^! and (^^H

O^e-^P and

ugi*3, lT^J

At

167.
or elided.

!>*;,

IjJaj for
fr

f r Li>*'

namely jj into 3,

lyj for

0**^p and ^-^p

(see 123, rem.,

m *

in the second syllable.

Into a diphthong

/?.

in

^-, as t>oj for

C3-

',

for t^JjJ,,

\^jl*

j^^^P, ^-jl for

pers. sing. fern. Imperat.

either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the


'*#*,

one of two ways.

m*o

3d

>

OlX'^H and \yt*H

for 0-i3J*3

and j^5^p

in

namely j^_ into ^-, as

for

l>H

The 2d

Rem.

fern. sing.

said to occur dialecti-

elided between a short vowel and the long

is

L?>*^ i r <J3 3J*i an0-

is

and the two vowels are contracted

Into a long vowel

a.

89

^.

condemned by the grammarians.

cally,

vowels

et

and UU,, they followed the received

said b\j

in adopting \jj and o>.


is

rad, 3

tert.

t -d;

7.

E.g.

O^j-j

j- uw and

^- ty

for Ojj-, ^*j> for C*j>.,

(from ^^>j for^-oj, according to 166, a, and 168).

12

Part Second.

90

Etymology

168

If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (), it forms with


x Ox^
Ox
Ox
the diphthongs 3 and (J
E.g. Oj^fc, gazauta, for

(b)

j and

xx

for

gazawta ; <u#cj, ramaita,

When

(3.

or the Parts of Speech.

ramayta.

the third radical stands at the end of a syllable, not

naturally, but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped


3
x x
J
x
J x
Ox
x x
for

(j

j_

^_

^J and ^_, j_

for

lib
^_

for

##

for

is

it

^-),

vocalised in three different ways.


X

j aw and

(a)

we

^ tf# become a, but for the sake of distinction


t_ for aw, and ^
rem. 5) for ay. E.g. t> for jj,
X?J
/J
/J
XX

write

( 7,

SS

^Jaj and

^aj, ^JJJu for

for

X^J

(b)

3 ww becomes j ;

(c)

^ # becomes ^-

as

The

(b)

fi

third radical

^^H

and Imperative,

in the Jussive

the form produces the abbreviation.


jjj

xOx

for

-f>H> -**}

OxOx

When

^jt

L5^

L5?x>j

Ox

jJaj
xOx

(ujlp

^^

Ox

(jj-xt),

xO

V%&

(Jf*|0*

does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable.

it

Ox

(see 236), before the

tenwln of

damma and

same time, but the tenwln

0->

w x J

J^U

etc.

J***, J**-,

80),

These vowels are

kesra.

thrown back upon the kesra

is

signification of

00

(L5f^)'

This happens in the nomina agentis,

elided at the

Ox

0x0

ujj (^Ji),
/?.

for

Ox

This

a syllable.

which the

in

E.g. Jju, j\, for

fx

Ox

J Oj

(j**0

Ox

^p.

3&

Jx^xJjOx

for j>*j, 3j~~>-

f r

and ^ajj.

^^j

standing naturally at the end of

"When

a.

C happens

elided

is

as

I ;

for

^^m

.$>*, j>j-~>,

J">X

^JJaj,

x
>

of the second radical.

^jU
WxJ
t>**

jjU, 3jU,

168.

^5-^*^

It

third radical

166, a)

5wxJ
for

E.g.

*x

and

for

jo f,

^j*\j

for

and

^tj

OJ

^5^*-*

jt>\j

j,

it

t>** f r 1^5**-*

and

0,

final

OOJ

and

for (j?jU.

(^o!;, ^-Stj)

^lj

an0

1^5***

e^c

166, a) that

passes between the vowels

[At the end of a sentence the

often protected by a

has been already mentioned


is

^\j jU

when the

(j_) and

vowel of the Imperative

is

The Jussive

is

as oJaaS go on, 4J}\ approach.

sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. Vol.

ii.

230).

D. G.]

pers. sing. masc. Perf.,

inflection, as far as

from ^j*oj

169.
verb

Verba

(for

Final

it

maintains

yj) the forms

is

as

changed into

fr

jfc, ^o\j, J}^\, JLLj, ^ijp, ^J^l \JJ&[, ^jZ-,1


Rem. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule,

and not

170.

^.tjt (Ji*J1,

j 5

as $jsu> for jji>-.

In verba

in-

The Arabs say ^JjZjl

into j.

In the nomina patientis, Jyta*

3, the 3 of the long vowel


;

in all the derived forms of the

abstain or refrain, for ljtj

Consequently, we get

^j-i, ^>j^, C>*"^P

C-*-;,

waws

into

91

throughout the whole

itself

the above rules permit.

stead of contracting the two

rad.

rad. j et J.

tert.

After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the

(tj) into i^.

3d

The Verb.

I.

171]

see 59, rem. a).

of verba tertiae

80),

to

coalesces with the radical

the influence of

tertise rad.

^,
^, the two coalesce
damma becomes kesra Q

the third radical converts this secondary j into


into
as

and, in consequence, the preceding

(j?,

^*j*

for

^jj*c,

Such verbs

\Jy*j+.

as

^*oj,

in which the final

stands for

166, a),
g it/

admit of either form, though ^oj^>

is far

more

common than $^y>.


Rem.

a.

The form ^>*-o

rad. 3, instead of

lw

^jk*;

e.g.

is

occasionally found in verba tert.

c^t

i^i-*^

or 5yL*

u^j^

Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o

land,

from

/ am

from
(&&e) the lion, whether attacked or attacking,

mra

to irrigate,

a, to attack,

Rem.

b.

Imperf. ^L^j

Imperf. ^jnu (IjjU in

For verbs

final

3 and

for

rhyme
as

irrigated

w*JJt
I

^Xc

Ut,

j^c to

u^U).

compared with the correp. 255 seq.

sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. Gr.


3.

171.

Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly

Doubly weak verbs are

divisible into

which comprises several varieties. The


an e'lif hemzatum and

wliich have both

the second of those in which the letter

two

( 129).

classes,

first class consists

a^or^

Weak

or

among

each of
of those

their radicals

occurs twice.

Part Second.

92

Rem.

There

Etymology
no

is

or the Parts of Speech.

172

verb that has more than one radical

triliteral

hemza.

(a)

Of the first class there are three sorts


Verba hemzata and primae rad. 3 or ^j

(b)

Verba hemzata and secundae

(c)

Verba hemzata and

172.

The

173.

and

to

which they belong

l^JL-j or
L^JJt.

174.

[also

(j-rfU-!,

Imperf. j&, tju,

See

J x x

and u~jb]

The second

verba

XX

VjO ^

tertiae rad.

to come, t\L (for

Ua-j (

132

3,

and

is

^l-a-j,

more

rarely

OS.
^

its

Imperat.

^bt,

rarely

sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. hemzatae,

XX?

s^^)

X<

XX

return, Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return;


.XX

(/?)

smooth,

146, rem.

f
X t*
as w>t or w>' g (f r
X

to

3 i 6 x

^sb

bj

follow in their inflection both the

of u~-*-^> to despair,

J$

D x

^.

tertiae rad. hemzatae, as

The Imperf.

Rem.

or

of (a) verba secundae rad. hemzatae, as

e.g.

142, 144).

or

varieties, according to the position of

Such words

tread upon.

classes to

verba

(/?)

rad.

tertiae rad.

first sort consists

jt$ to frighten;

J^3

Each of these admits of two


the &if hemzatum.

hemzatae, as slw (for *>*) to illtreat,


to wish.

the two classes to which

it

Each variety unites the

belongs.

and

^XPXX

XX

t^a*.

(for U*.)

peculiarities of

a.

176]

J>\,

I.

The Verb.

Doubly Weak Verbs.

93
of.

Part Second.

94

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

Rem.

The

b.

Perf. Pass,

^j

is

(like

z^Jj*. In the Imperf. Pass, the hemza


,3

,3

,1

si

always elided

is

Active

tjj.

signifies to show,

it

st

<

0>l. C-^jl

^jj\,

by transposition,

elided, just as in the

is

In the fourth form, when

c.

or,

^^j)

03

it>3

voice; e.g. ^jjj, jj, for ^tjj,

Rem.

[177

S3

* J

^jj

jj

the hemza

Otherwise

jl

it is

retained.

177.

Of the second

are two sorts


radical, as

a horse)

^*ft to have

178.

(/?)

^$

radical, as

to

^Sj
and

class, in

guard,

The

to roast,

first sort

and

****J

ij?>

<^3>

^3

^j

0^3

179.
whatever.

*J3^>

In the second
E.g.

is

occurs twice, there

the

to be strong,

and third

to be sorefooted

^j^-3
is

first

(of

the second and third

^^

(for >**)

to

live,

in one's speech.

follows in its inflection the verbs of the

^h>

^3.3

tertiae rad.

^h>

those in which 3 or

an impediment

classes primae

or ^j

to be near,

^3

which j or

(a) those in which

or

^.
L5^

sort,

^
^3-;

two

E.g.
'

or

A*

or

a).

-^

(for

175, rem. a).

gjl).

the second radical undergoes no change

for

^fc.

nomen

in the Imperf.
j^**.; (b)

actionis IT. ( 80

elision of the second

nines

Doubly Weak Verbs.

The Verb.

I.

181]

to feel

and

^ in

I.,

as

j^^j, ^a+j, >t**!;

20'2, rem.),

the Perf. and Imperf. X.,

also admits of being contracted into .-,


,-ft

in the

(c)

* t a*3 for 4****J; (2) of the

shame, as ,.a*J.wt, >.****>, for Lal>t.

forms ... and

95

and

when
*

-i-.

it sig-

^c.

l.ou into

are said to occur (compare

^au.
123, rem., and

The

153,

rem.).

180.

Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes


namely
(a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^
and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or $.
;

Rem.

We

pass over the second class, as

only one verb, which


letter

Verbs of the

which the hemza


to

and

<J3^ jt>

first class

the

is

(/?)

as (^lj to promise.
e -g-

hardly ever used

seems to consist of

viz.

LL>

to

ivrite

the

^.

181.

repair

is

it

are of two sorts, namely (a) those in

first radical,

as

^jt

those in which the hemza

The former

^j'>

ljW,

*A

to
is

betake oneself

are inflected like j-^t and


;

the latter like

e.g.

Perfect.

to,

to

the second radical,

^j^>

179),

Jtw and ^5$

178),

Paet Second. Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

182

The Verb. Appendix A.

I.

183]

Verbs of Praise

Blame.

97

The Verbs of Praise and Blame.

II.

wi

183.

&

X5

uj

Ox 0^

x*

The wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t

J *

J **')

are

and

j**j, to be good,

and are generally

^-4, to fo 6ad.

are used as exclamations,

They

though the

indeclinable,

and the

(and, it is said, the dual U*J, Uju,

fern.

juj ^^a-LsJI

excellent as

an

excellent companion,

a companion

is

U ^^Jj

^U, and ^^j. If followed by l,


U-Jb, and U ^oju or, by contraction, I^ju.

or

Rem.

we may

These forms are to be explained as follows.

b.

xj

4/

Ox

^-i>j,

jt^

x J x

forj^aS,

x J x

and

for jl^w

x x

v^ for^cjib,
x

also be

JLy,

^>~- for

J x

^>~,

is

xOx"

w>>*

xx

j^

for

"

may be

j^,

(3)

The form

xx

for ^Jb$.
^^Jbi
'
X

^^JU

^or

for

Vj^' >^

sometimes extended

XX
Hence ^ai and

If the second radical be guttural,

(2)

vowel, instead of being elided,

for

x ix

xSx

^-^ become j^d and ^1^.


radical; as

for^U, ^i>j

to the passive Ja9, as


Jxo for
^isuo (from U*).
L5
x

XX

Ox

pronounced Jjti

x A x

a contraction which
x

Every C
x

may

as *-Ju for -Ju, jjj for jjj, jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc
x

(1)

of

write

Arabic verb of the form Jas or ,J*$

its

must

manner ^Jj admits

like

the forms ^JJ,

transferred to the

xx
Hence ^ju for^^,
x

first
x

^^

ft

Jj*i,

which has been thus attained, may

take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii); as


j^JSj,

p.

s^&y

Hence ^*j, J*2J

166, juJj becomes


X

Ju
XX by

to
[or rather, according

Comp. Gr.

assimilation of the vowels,

and the

x"

latter

w.

say ^3,^^*3, and^^so, which

In

last is obviously the original form.

lit.

Zeid.]

a dependent

article or

else the indefinite accusative

we may

Instead oij^su

a.

is

occur.

L^-lo^s^

Rem.

Zeid

companion ZUd, or

excellent is the
C/ x

be used juj

j^.

O-**5

plur. S>**J,

[The following noun must be denned by the


genitive, as:

c-o*> and si*~Jj

may then be

shortened to

j^i

as the former

may

be shortened
13

J)

Part Second.

98

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of


to j^i].
intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (com-

when

pare J*i), and,

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)


sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.

Rem.

I.e.

class are

Other verbs of this

c.

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

* i *

" J *

or clmrming (contracted from w~-)*; ,>~., usually contracted into

>****' io oe

god or excellent ;

contracted into jju,


(contracted from

to be

with the demonstrative


lovely,

charming, or

!i (

bad or

evil ;

and cj~> or

off;

first of

these

jju,

cj~t,

!Ju.,

The Arabic language

possesses

by the native grammarians


The one is the 3d
or wonder.
*

preceded by

ut

Ci

..^.^.7) 1

w*,&..tI) 1

pers.

two forms of expression,

J Us

sing.

or verbs of surprise

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

ma

the

expressive

of surprise), and

followed by the accusative of the object that causes

surprise

as

'

* , Ot

quick

frequently combined

is

and forms the indeclinable

340),

excellent, is

called

commonly

to be

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.

III.

184.

far

The

cj~>).

' J '

eU, to be

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the
2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*

the genitive

oi

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid


can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The
second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more
excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.

a.

excellent ?

signification as before.

excellent
o *

JJU-4

upon

(w>) Zeid.

o t

j^^t a poet says

are, of course, indeclinable.

They
0,0*

jlt.>.

jj\o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

43,

[For
rem.

D. G.]

c.

Rem.

Verbs

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only


verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being
fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may

from

b.

triliteral

<

how

0*

St

/t/

[You say UJI juj w*. and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

Z.

.,

*r**>

The Verb.

I.

184]

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another.


They cannot be formed from the
passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

^,

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

substantive verb

we cannot

up,

from verbs
state in

^j\=> to be

CjU

say

Olo

like

(from

{j^>\

ljuj

and

to die

or in meaning, like the

Km

O^l

juj

U or

*-U U,

n <>r

O>^0;

\^j(J j5j*>

which one agent cannot excel another

verbs (as gtjjJb

Zeid was standing

,j\=>,

to perish,

^i3

expressing an act or

nor from negatived

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives


j

form

of the

at

j * o p

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

The grammarians add that verbs

*y*\

J>.

formed from
but neither this limitation,

nor that with respect to the passive

voice, is strictly

We find,

from the Passive

235).

much

he

busied

is

vain he

from

is !

hateful he is to

me

for example,

from JjLw

!
'

'

to be

^bj
!

from

give,

to take

an

I*,

or

artifice or toie,

<suL.t

from

U, /tow

^j

s/ior^,

passive of VIII.

how

et
j

from Ji*^.

^,
*t

is

is !

'

0i

42m

'

U, how

to bestow,

from
to,

how

fct

to

to be

Ae is / from JU-t o practise


or changed ; 6j*a.\ U,

J J

2o be

The

shortened or abridged,

rule with regard to verbs

stupid, J^o^-t

from ^ouj\

by AJL+^1 U,

v>^'

'***

to be white,

cAs^

^>

^oj^l.

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad.


c.
the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

toot

as dbt jtwl

U or

4-ob

sweet

oLfct

U, how rich he

it is !

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is !

liberal

IV. of .Jj

violated, for example,

to be

white this piece of cloth

Rem.

is !

"

o oe shifted

from the rad.^oiiw.

expressing colours or defects

how stupid he

from j-cu.l

it is !

U, Iww

U, how proud or

dlAjl

liberal he is I

ttftfy

VIII. of Jl*.

or shortened,

aJliLwl

hated ; and from derived forms,

U, how

'

Aow

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl

he is in bestowing gratuities

near ; a$y**\

busy

observed (com-

proud or vain ; ^j jut

0-.iLo to be

especially the fourth, dUatl

IV. of Ike

to be
7

j + o

to squint,
J>-t).

of surprise cannot be

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

pare

But

if

is I

* o t

**%+.\

U, Iww

formed from verba med.

Part Second. Etymology

100

U or

185

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as

rad. ^ et ^,
j^/op ,

dJ^St

or the Parts of Speech.

J** oi

ai

how

<u Jy>l,

well he speaks

oi
o
or aj j^a.1,

O^.!

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a

235)

white

When

d.

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly


must be had to a circumlocution (compare

root, recourse

how red

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

it is !

4-oto iJo\

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

it is I

it is !

Jsssssbi*
how

often he takes

siesta

<sutj**.

i<* oi

and not

his reply is!

oj^a^S

>y+\

,*oi

t,

how pure

<Cl5ll

, *

j&\

U,

U or <otj^j >&.!, how good

U, acujI U, <u

o
oi JssOi
j**t, aJLsl

j// oi

U, <u$e-t

I.

Rem.

To form the past tense

e.

*0

to the Perfect form

as

00 ^

But we may

* * Oi

y Oi

Jx

prefixed
!

<

j *

U, how good, or goodly, he


Z

handsome he

is

(jl^

kw excellent Zeid was

?).

dJ~~&*.\

/.

J-oit
(literally, what has made
What has produced the past excel-

juj <jl^
excellent that which Zeid was ?

Rem.

juj J*ist ,jl> U,

also say

lence of Zeid

of such verbs,

is !

and

less frequently

admit of the diminutive forms

o*}H.t

(see 269)

is I

oi

AaJUt U, how

U, how sweet

is
y I
<U. ..,& I

6^2

it

is !

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal

185.

The

accusative

Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.

following are the

verbal suffixes, which express the

Singular.

Common.

Masc.
3. p.

2. p.

1. p.

Fern.

him.

...

thee.

...

^y

me.

her.

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

Part Second.

102

186.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

Some forms

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see 7, rem. a),
reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

some

the conjunction 3,

cases mistaken

^3jaJ

helped,

The

(b)

for

and)

final

the termination

damma which

as^jt; ye have

when

seen,

had

it

^><w(j

ye

place with the accusative suffix


it is

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

The 2d and 3d

(c)

The same thing takes

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,


(see 187)

they

t^j-oj

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

an older stage of the language

have seen me.

as

being in

they helped me.

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long


in

j-

followed by another suffix

to you.

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject

before the

^y and U

suffixes

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for
they will find me.

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

The vowel -

(d)

Perf.

is

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

in the termination of the

2d

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes

pers. fern. sing.

as

<Vj-^> for

* *

<uj~*, thou hast broken

may

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba

The

(e)

it.

be retained before the suffixes, or (which

changed into

[*

t
;

as

a^j

( 7,

rem.

c)

is

recorded,

there are similar variations in other passages.

we

(Sur.

xviii.

far

So

occasionally find such contractions as


94),

tuU

for

UuU

^,

more usual) be

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

third

is

tertise rad.

(Sur. xii.

11).]

viz.

.y^ctf, and

also with verbs

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

The Verb. Appendix B.

I.

188]

In case of the

[Rem.

Jussive of a verb tertise


loses its

gezma, the

A verbal

187.

*)

form

suffixes

j^s
,*)

etc.

may

being affixed to the


the latter

are assimilated

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

take two suffixes, provided they do not

and the same person.

indicate one

,*),

the two

),

103

Accusative Suffixes.

These two may both be appended

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the
,

2d or 3d, and the


4-JUa.ct, he

gave

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.

suffix of

thee,

it,

to

me; alJ*gI, I gave

Of.

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

against them)

[Rem.

UytXtpJt,

shall

Combinations like

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?

gave him

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.


in the latter case.)

188.

But AAUact

is

not used

to her,

(Aytlk&t,

(Note the orthography


;

see 189, rem. .]

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

pressed, not

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

104

Part Second.
Rem.

The

a.

or the Parts of Speech.

the 1st p. sing,

suffix of

of i^_, because all

rem.

Etymology

is

in this case

^,

nouns ending in t take that form.

189

instead

See

317,

a.

Rem.

For the

b.

linguistic affinities of

in the other Semitic languages, see

Oomp. Gr.

bl (dialectically La)
p. 1 1

2 seq.

189.

suffixes

compounded with bt

Very frequently, but not always

(a)

B would

These

are used in two cases.

(see 187),

when two

suffixes

otherwise have to be appended to the same verb; as abl


^ylkc-t,

instead of 4-JUast, he gave

me.

it to

When

(b)

the verb
worship,

the pronoun is, for the sake of emphasis, placed before


* o *
jjo*
* a
3
f s *
as jj-^C-J
****->
^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we

^1j

and

Thee we cry for

to

Jerem.

*HWr*&,

v.

Compare

help.

in

Heb.

VOX?!

22.
a

Rem.

The

a.

suffix

attached to bt

is

always that which would

occupy the second place, if appended to the verb. In certain cases


this form alone is used, either for the sake of precision or of
a

Thus,

euphony.

to distinguish it

me

gave

b.

pronoun with
suffix to

(a)

it to

very strong emphasis

bt,

the verb; as ^j^>li

is

^bt^, Me

expressed by prefixing the

therefore,

fear Me.

THE NOUN.

The Noun, ^-^l, nomen,

is

The nomen substantivum,


J//

him, instead of AAlkct.

and at the same time appending the pronominal

II.

190.

oi

to

which requires obt dlLct, he gave

Rem.

j *

him must be worded ^bt oLLct,


from d-JlLct he gave him to me ; but it is euphony
lie

designated vo-^t, and also vJ

sO*

^o^

Jt,

or

of six kinds.

Substantive, more
1

especially

s 0*

or Ojx-^Jt, qualificabile, that

is,

a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet


(adjective).

The Noun,

II.

190]

105

J *
*
JO
adjectivum, or Adjective, aa-oJI, \Juo^\, or cJtdf,
J

The nomas

(6)

.-0.-

quality, descriptive epithet.

The nomen numerate,

(c)

Numeral Adjective,

or

3 Jit
*

^^1,
*

the

noun of number.
J

The nomen demonstrativum,

(d)
* o*

SjU^t, the noun of indication, that

is,

or Demonstrative Pronoun,

by which some object

is

j^S

pointed

out.

The nomen conjunctivum,

(e)

>o

(2

or

&

^o^^t

tt

3
30* bio jj^/
J>o>JI ^o-w^M B

*0*

vJ>e>*M,
3 *

or Relative Pronoun,

/*0

noun that

united {with a relative clause),

is

as opposed to &La)l, the relative clause itself


J *

The pronomen,

(f)

word by which something

or Personal Pronoun,
is
j

the

concealed or kept in,


a

j * o

jt^bi\

and

or

JO*

j+mxJ\,

so conceived

of by,

jo*

mind, as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI, that which is apparent or

manifested, the substantive to which the pronoun refers.


is

'At*

It is also

called 3u\jm\, avTaiVVfiia.

Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in


some further remarks regarding them
will be given in 317.
The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately, after the
nouns substantive and adjective (see 318 353). The nouns
substantive and adjective we shall treat of together, because, in
Rem.

84

a.

89 and 185 189, and

regard to form, they are identical in almost every respect.


3

Rem.

b.

The names

of the pronoun,
3

vi

3*03*

3*0

elliptical expressions, for aj j-vo-^Jt

ui

jn+*b*\ and

and <u

j.

..gv

j+*a+)\, are

30*
.,)l.

as the above

translation shows.

w.

14

106

Part Second.

191

Adjective.

The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective,


and their different Forms.

1.

191.

Nouns

are divisible, in respect of their origin, into two

primitive and

stantives

as

derivative nouns

The

derivative.

J*y man, ^j*

T>

or the Parts of Speech.

The Nouns Substantive and

A.

classes,

Etymology

horse,

primitive nouns are all sub>-$-

be substantives or adjectives, and are either

may

that

is,

9 '0
*.\Zjlo

to divide),
to fo m'c)

0*

deverbal,

The

|Lo water.

eye,

derived from verbs, as


,

or denominative, that

s ,

division (from

..,, 3

,,

a key (from *J3

a place which abounds in

to open),

is,

u^ij^

sick (from

derived from nouns, as

lions (from jut

^l^JI human

lion),

^~*9
*

vj*

SjwU
(from

,jUJI human being), y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A <#0#). At a


later period, nouns were formed, in the language (or rather jargon) of
the philosophical schools, from pronouns and particles (we might call

them

departiculative), as *>Ut egotism (from Ul 7),

and &*&+=> quality (from

^->

,^5*^

qualitative,

how ?).

Rem. a. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to


the etymological principle, a verb is frequently given as the etymon
of what are really primitive nouns, and a comparison of the

meaning

which
is

two shows that the former

Thus U, water,

word.

of the

is

is

is

in fact the derivative

not derived from oU,

given in the Dictionaries as

its root,

a denominative verb, formed from *U

9"

nor

to be

full of water,

but, conversely,
is

^ji,

to be skilled

in horsemanship, the root of ^ji, a horse, but a denominative

from

it.

Rem.

By

b.

the native grammarians nouns are classified as

follows.

jLlcfc.^wt,

(1)

one that
a nom.

is

not

act.,

a noun

itself

that is stationary or incapable of growth,

nomen

actionis or infinitive, nor derived from

and which does not give birth to a nom.

act.

or verb,

A. Nouns Substantive and Adjective.

The Noun.

II.

191]

02

5 J x

dx

as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck

opposed to JUt%o j^\, a noun that

derived from a nom. act. or verbal root, as

55

S
i-

--

&*% v*^''
X

(2)

fO

Wlpl O*
XX

107

writer,

^J&S

Ai^*
'
*

^Jl a

is

woww

rt

2^a is 6cire of

any

accessory or increment, which comprises merely the letters of the


9 x Ox x

and no more,

root

5x00

4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t,

knowledge, ^J^jJui a quince; opposed to

as^oJLft

letters, as

augmented by additional

that is

roottra

0x00

6/2/
io^kfr a very learned

j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in

man,

a mass.
Ox

x x

^o^vo-A

(3)

or v^ft

vo-''

proper name, the distinctive mark


*

an individual

of

opposed to

designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos,


0-

|flO

20

as

object,

man,

^J***;

is

riding,

^ji a

The same terms may be applied


OxjO
OJOx

horse

to adjectives
xO x

(a)

female hyama
3

^>>tj,

x x

^.^a.^U, a proper name


X|

J X

fox)

or (b)
^.o-L

"Puss"

(like

xx

tt

j^>,

for the cat,

tfAe

"Renard"

a proper name applicable

to

ion,

for the

only one

VxOxOx

Jx

individual of a kind, as ^-.l^ and ^t^JJt, names of horses, w>jj/5,


JxxOx
JxOxl
Ox
Ox
the name of a camel, juw, sJ^*, 2lJju, names of men, 4~ot,
^

x Ox

ILm^JI, names of women.


x x 0*> J

(6)

The ^oJUJI

yr~i\

may
50x

its strictest sense, as


jj-o*,

compounded with
JO

ill

a whole kind, as iLl

applicable to every individual of


the

or (6)^*1

an ^>*^o~>t, but^aj^JLo, understood, an ^Ji^^wl.


x x 0 J

jU.

a noun

^j^c j^S,

The^JlxJI^wt may be either

(5)

(a)
xx

50 x
50
idea, as ^^ft knowledge, J^**-

^y*o, a noun denoting aw abstract


ignorance.

Ox

either

J x

denoting a concrete

JO

The j^OaJt ^wt may be

(4)

common noun,

generic or

tt

u"** ^o~'' j

^jI,

,/***>

father

of,
x

v&^Jl^^ot, or ,jjl, smi

also be either (a)


x
JxOxJ

0x0

o/,

as

**A

as

5 x

>

^L- ^t,

xO

^jt, or^at,

rawie, in

or (*) a *

^LxJt
J

an ^*1, or
i

* ,e -

mother

jo
JxO
or 4-Jt or CU*J,

name
of,

as

daughter

of,

Part Second.

108

Ad

or the Parts of Speech.

or (c) a ^Jtt, a surname, which

Oxx

nickname

as

(j-J),

Duck

2J*j

or Bottle,

either a

may be

x &*>

30Z

aSLM

tJLit

CameVs-nose,

Bebba (imitation of a sound), or an honourable epithet, as

2l+j

Ox

*0*>

^>jjuU)I t^Hjy

^e pride

c,

sun of

the

to animals, as w>^t ^jt,


x

is

Job's father,

employed in reference

also

the "patient" camel; ^jt

hycena; ^ijs-

An

(7)

^t,

the little fort, the fox

of

tfAe

weasel; J>*b ws-U,

^3

consisting of a single word, as

The w^>jo may be

pounded.

^e

1,

//

or (b) %^^^o, amir

when

x Cit X

JajU (he carried mischief under his

\jJ*

(Aer fooo locks became gray)

2i

vt

5 xxOx

BaJal-bek,

is

not a proposition

a mixed

(/?)
x

3d x

(4-Loo. j**), as

Oxx

or

Siba-weih ;

aj^^,

Ma'di-karib,

^jtjSJj^c,

x J x

or

x 3

compound, ^b*.}* \^*>j+) which

Ox

x 3

arm), \a\Jj3 w>l

iUju,

simple,

}jJu>,
d

either (a) ^>Uwl, predicative,

ui

throat shone),
OjAfJ Jjjj (his

female

constitute a Aa. or proposition, as

it

xxx

(a)

3s xO x

ZjZ-

&e

^&t,

tortoise.

the words that compose

^U

likewise be either

may

^o^l

^oJLe

Oi

33

il

Ae father

^-^

0*3
It,

The es>

virtues.

wilcu*, a substantive governing another in


O/O/O *3*
Of 3
it
3 0s
il
J.O J
genitive, as t^itu jus, ^--jiM _$j-t, w*jj$ &\, jb^SXZs j\.

aJI

(y)

or glory of those that worship {God),

x x OtO

^JU*Jt,

[191

xx

JUA CvU

as

Etymology

the

JIcmj

"

xx

&n^oy&^

Finally,

(8)

<i

~t\

may be

x4

either (a) J.a*J^o, improvised,


x

extemporised, impromptu, existing only as a proper name, as o!/**'


x

^x

xO

->0

^jMi, Z$*j*-\ or

(6)

Jj^&U, transferred from some other use,


ft

-p.

joica/.

The

latter class is of six kinds, viz. (a) ^J^t


x
^t/
0"
x

9*x
as j^> (a bull),

jwt

(a &ow)

(/?)

^^w ^^t

Ox
(excellence),

^*bt
J x

xDx
and

(J)

gift)',

(y)

JOxJ

*
;

(e)

J^a^o.

xOx

<>

J* x

Ox

JO x

J>5-^

as ^jI>

i3

(8)

X.

JOx

v^>* O^ J>*^

^>fr

J*d ^>c J>*^, as j^w, jX^j,


OxOx OJdx
j3x
O^o ^>ft Jy^c, as io (see above, 6, c)

(bestowing);

C^o-ot
wA*5,
X

X
fixJ Ox

^>fr

j^S

2ro30

Jja-^, as J*oi

^>ft
x

Aic

ex

(judging), &15U
,^0*-;,
^^

(giving,

0*

see

abo ve

7, 6).

II.

194]

192.
namely

Nomina

verbi or

nomina

Nomina

agentis,

J^UJt

(a)

(b)
J O ,

o o- ~ * o
actionis, J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives).

ll+*\,

and nomina

patientis,

llo-wt

bo

(participles).

JjjtfcoJt,

The nomina
come

109

Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes

The Noun. A. Nouns Substantive and Adjective.

by their nature substantives, but have


the nomina agentis et patientis

are

verbi

to be used also as adjectives

are by their nature adjectives, but have

come

to be used also

as

substantives.

193.

Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following

classes of deverbal nouns.

Nomina

(a)

vicis,

S* * " {
S^JI *U^t, nouns that express the doing of an

action once.
(b)

Nomina

(c)

Nomina

speciei,

pyi\

ilo-^t,

nouns of kind or manner.


om3

nomina

loci

et

temporis

vasis, \Jj&.\\ ll^wt,

Nomina

(d)

nouns

^Uplj o^-^'

of. place

instrument i, 3^1

and

l-/t,

*s

*W*l, also called

time.

nouns denoting the

in-

strument.

194.
(a)

Denominative nouns are

Nomen

divisible into six classes

unitatis vel individualitatis,

namely

Sj^.^1 ^^1, the noun

that denotes the individual.


(b)

Nomen abundantiw

vel multitudinis,

that denotes the place where anything


(c)

Nomen

vasts,

*Uyt

^S,

is

c>J&\ ^wt,

the noun

found in abundance.

the noun that expresses the vessel

which contains anything.


(d)

Nomen

relativum,

w^
,

>;.Jt

noun, the reference or relation), a


jectives.

^~**)\ or ^uJt

(lit.

the referred

particular class of derivative ad-

Part Second.

110

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.


/0

(e)

Nomen

195

abstract um qualitatis, Z.Ju.Q\ ^~/\, the abstract

noun

of quality (see 191).

Nomen

(/)

deminutivum, jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj**a$\

(lit.

the lessened

noun, the lessening), the diminutive.

The Deverbal Nouns.

a.

The Nomina Verbi.

(a)

195.

The nomina

e>M3

, oc

JaaJI *U^I, are abstract substantives,

verbi,

which express the action, passion, or state indicated by the corresponding verbs, without any reference to object, subject, or time.
/O/

The nomen verbi

Rem.

also called jjco^l)

is

(lit.

the place

whence anything goes forth, where it originates), because most Arab


grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the

We

may compare with

simple idea of this substantive.


Greek Infinitive used with the article

196.

C form

The nomina

a nearly complete
within brackets.
CO/
1.

2.

J*, as

list

0/

The

5/

0/

90/

w>jm, >j, >a-c,

9/

^i,

90/

J"k>> voj-^,

5.

J*3, as>, ^J*p, j*o, J>, O***,

6.

J*, as 0*4*> Jaw, ,mj, jw,

9/ J
7.

9/

9/

? J

9/

5J

9.

2 J

9//
JaaLw,

w^,

J*, as ^**A, t^j~.


/
/
9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/
9/0/
aX*s, as <U*^s *j^> fat, %**>
4/x/ 9///
9/// 5 i '
9///
4Jl*S, as *Jl, ibuo, ^o-lafr, SlXw.

8.

9/

9/.

9//
J-o-C-,

9/

4.

9/

0*

0*

9//

9 /

V~**?->

J>5, j-w, 3j., ^j.*..

9//

9//
9//
9/'
Ja3, as w~U, wJjA

<".

following

of them, the rarest forms being included

J**, as w>*^> ^a^, -*j^, v5j^> wJJU*.


40
90
90
90
90
Jaj, as i*A., ^U, j^>3, JUi.

3.

the

which may be derived from the ground-

of the ordinary triliteral verb, are very numerous.

is

verbi,

it

a substantive.

-as

^j*ej
i

M*-* j>
,

9//

*yj,

196]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.<& Adj.

II.

10.

ILJ, as Ujl*.

11.

Ui.

as

12.

iUi.

as iol, o^o^.

a-, io-ac. SjuLi.

(also written

aX*5, as

[13*.

jl*i,

as

iW-]

L5**,

as

^>^,

lS**3

as

eg^y

16.

^**,

17.

^-U*, as ^jA, ^5**^-

[18.

^^Ui, as

[19.

Sul,

[19*

rial, as **>]

o^,
9

o^**>

22.

0*^>

[24.

[24*

as

J&).]

(or

oy, cA&, oUrj]


G

s s s

9 *

as

0^0

.>

O^iii, as Oj^^xj.,
^3>iif, as

"'

O^C

* 6 i

*>>**;.]

*1^> *^> 3&, fb>

JUi,

26.

JU,

as i*Aafc, 4>^--,

illi,

^-^o,

'

^J^., ^^Uj, ,^f&]

as

* i

^^*i
9^1
9

->C5
'

27.

JU*,

28.

i3Ui, as Ait^i, 53UaJ,

29.

5JU3, as *jU, 3)U~>, SjLs, 4JL0.

31.

* * *

Ol^> Ol^-

O^*^,

25.

[30.

O'jlP*

O^***, as cA*g, 0!/c^>

as

x ^

9
5

0^^> oW~J. OlH>>


Q

''

** '

* *

0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb,

as CA***>

'

^lU

as TClj, iCLj.]

' ' '

21.

23.

<uU).J

^i**, as ^J-o*-, ^>i.]

[15.

[20.

Ill

Verbi.

<

[13.

14.

Nomina

^IK

Jl>w,

JU-, ^l^j,
iitjjL,

w>

*>

jI,

, J

SUU,jtjl, JUi,

4^.Lai,

liUL^,

aJUs, as ajUj, SjUi..]


ilJUi, as ilAt^>,

iip, JU3,
0^i

al^Ui, Kr&z, %>^=>y

Sjlij.

J[Jl.

9*1

l*3.

j)

Part Second. Etymology

112

A
*

Gi*Gl*G3*

' '

J>*i, as Jj**,

32.

or the Parts of Speech.

gjlj,

Ojj

**

197

J *

J>*>

3>5j,

14

I iJ

J J

Ojj

j J

33.

Syii, as i^jJI.J
0/ JJ
O^JJ
5 /

[33*.
34.
5

J s

Gvi

ajjJ^
J *

J>*i, as Ag^ci*., a-wo^-cJ.]

[35.

i2

Jj

G*

as *)yr*t, d->j*o,

<*Jj*i,

v^

37.

J**s, as

38.

aJLai, as *J, T

39.

J**,

40.

J***** asj*,

/ d

,.

as J^-Jl*,

GO*

'

t-

J**j, v**ii<jtj Je*3, J*^->

J-jv-,

,>

00s

GO*

?-s*-jc,

i^x

t a> -e,

J-oa-c, j*a.

0,0*
tS$y,

S s

***>> ><"

J***, as ^SU^.]
^
5///
O /
*
*
vt* *
GSl* *
G
4A*o, as 3 jia*..o ^~, Sy^, Slo^o.
O*
O^Ox
*
C *
Ox
0*0*
G *
*
as oj^a^o, A*a^e, 3ijAo,
ZXxAA,
Sj^j^o,
'

[41.

j-**

^*, cAs

42.

43.

r*

O *

% *

a^-*,

?>**,

IV <5

x J * x

4 x J

as

diksuLc,

[44.

j^-w*

SjJtLc.]

For the forms with

[Rem.
3

0* tO*

ib^e,

prefix

ma-, 39

44, the so-called

see further 208, 221, rem.

jjufluo,

c,

and the remarks to

222225.]

197.

All these nouns cannot, however, be formed from every


The majority of verbs admit of but one form, very

triliteral verb.

few of more than two or three.

What

these are,

must be learned

from the Lexicon.

198.
1.

The

five forms,
2.

Jli,

Ji*,

which are most frequently used, are


28.

33.

ibUi,

jyd,

34.

Ij^ii.

9 0*

(a)
,Jjfc3
*

J**
*

** *

is

the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms

and Jji*

as

JJ

to kill,

^3

killing or being killed ( 201)

...
jrf understanding,
/

jtf

8 0/

* **
;

to

understand,

insight;

','

JmA

to snatch,

0*

Urn**

The Noun. A. Nouns Subslti Adj. Nomina Verbi. 113

IT.

198]

J J

Jjt5
9

xxx

^x

1*

and ^J^.

as juiS

the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form

is

J>*i

(b)
xxx

to sit,

y^x3 and

xxx

^yU- sitting ; ^
*-jjL.

J J

to

go out.

75j> going out.

J*$

(c)

J*3

the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form

is

38 and 92)

as -^i fo fa glad, *-ji joy ; uj* to be sick,

9 " '

uj*

sickness.
6x xx

j)

6/

3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the

(d)

jx

form J*i

/j

as J>. to

^'c and

ft*

9 x x x

AJtjjh.

of sound judgment,

large, to be

Sx x x
to be generous, Sjl^
^ jx
roughness; J^-* to fo smooth,
x j x

firmness or soundness of judgment ; jj-w


"

2X

to be

j*L.

generosity;

^ *

rough, BjyL.

aJ^^w smoothness.

The abstract nouns

Rem.

of

verbs which express flight, or


9

refusal, usually take the form 26.

9x9x0xxxx
j\j3, jtiu, }\jJli

r>

run away with

to

j\i

to flee

from, shun with horror, j\y*


xxx

' 1

Us, as ^Jslc to sneeze,

^Ua^
*

to

^ja*.

to

x x

,jb^.;

run,

x xx

Jyj
9

xx

9 x xx

xxx

9
9

change of place,

'

camel),

J>~o

xxx
Jj^j 0

gleam,

J^w

xx

J^-o

w.

Oxxx
-Lo
j

to bark,

to sob, to bray,

JJ^

9xjxxx
;

f-j<0

^Xj

to weep,

to

C*yj

cry out

xx

^xj
l\SJ

XXX

and J^yj

Jjlyj

xx
;

>

xxx
;

cry ow, p-Uo

*-L3

quickly, vJu>j

9 XJ

9xJ

xxx

"

sound, 27. ^JUi and

J>yj to bray,
^o

0 ro (of

9 xJ

XXX

J^-tf

Olyi and O-^J

for help,
f-\r>e

xJ

to neigh,

9xx

run

wjbu and ^~x.>

to croa&,
#

9xJ
Jo roar,

sj&#*3

Ci

wO

i0 flash,

xx

wju

J*3

xx

'

J+**j

* * *

to be agitated, palpitate,

u^3

palpitate,
9

gallop (of a camel), ^-w)

x
',

to

to travel,

J*~j

i^ij-i

*-*

37. J***, as

37. J**3, as

" '

"

//

x x x

JU*.

x x x

K 0^**3
xxx

x x x

w~oj ^o-O

to creep,

^)Sj^

lash the tail, to brandish, )\jlx.

to flas

xx x

jjliUi.

to fly,

to

U^ fj

>

Jlxw

cough,

x x

^Ja*.

x xx

^A*^

gleam,

9 x J

to

Jjuj

**

VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION, 21. ^J^Jt9, as j\h


x x

his

9 *

x x

9 x J

to flee,

}j,,

Those that express sickness or ailment of any C

to refuse, *bt.

^->\

kind have 27.

as ji, jJu,

* *

rider (of a horse), *-U--

xxx

xx

Si*
;

become refractory,

to

pcfc

JU*

^ys>
15

to

TV
D

Etymology

Part Second.

114

%\^\ U3

howl,

to

*liu

bleat,

or the Parts of Speech.

Ox x

office, trade or handicraft,


tfAe

o^ce

o/*

Ox

to

OxjU

to write,

199.

If the

or three vowels, and

the office

xxx

Ox

3jU*j 2mofe,

r.

to see in the sunlight,

surpass or

or prominent,

X X

XX

loud, 3)lyj>x

has vi>w, but

*i^w, to fa

XJ X

and wi^w

U>j>,

be exalted, noble or eminent,

to

but several different

If a verb has only one form,

often has different abstract nouns, one of which

more generally used

has j*-> but when


5

each of

in,

...

9 6 J

water, j-ij**

to

hud

significa-

peculiar to,

E.g. jj*-, to judge,

meanings.

5 x

curb {a horse), j&-

when

it

means

j**

to fall

to

sound

like

rushing

Ox*

x Jx
;

is

3 J

*j,

to be

Ox

have a

its

fl

it signifies

prostrate, has jj*. or jjj^-, but

to

OX

or Aitjw.

tions, it

XJX

X X X

200.

or

nobility,

to be afraid,

or jl-^, but j^,

j^j*.

jt4> an(^ JV?-> to

raw& or

<?#&? tn

Ox

u^P

but Jji,

0&

^^

traffic.

xx

^,

open or public, has


OXX
'

<*J>2, to

accordingly, that verb mayeach form and meaning of the

for

part, divide, has

to

to fo plain,

unable

to fo
xxx

xx

its signification varies

Thus, J^i,

j-v*-,

<bto

iti- to

of secretary ;

j.s*J to trade,

xx x

Jjji

of,

middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two

have several abstract nouns, one


Perfect.

act as deputy,

take one's place,

Ox x
sew, <LbU> 2Ae me?e of tailor

command

in charge or

o ,

xxx
deputy ship ; ^ZS**

to be

.Jj

be chief

; jjtS to

w>U

4j*^5, governorship;

29. *UUs, as t^il*. to succeed, Ai^Li.

successor (<tiul&.) or caliph, the caliphate

or tmir, SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir

199

grumble (of a camel), gUj


xxx
x x

to

U>

exalted or noble, has *Jj, but in the sense of

voice, Afclij

Ox

xxx

xx

ju*.j, to find,

usually has

O'^J*

Du * when

O x

it
9

means

201.
sense
x

to fo

wealthy, Sj^., and to 60 moved

by

love, grief or anger,

The nomina

as aX3>
xOx

ly.^Lot juo

his
OC0-5

ui^l

verbi are used both in an active

killing

(another)
J

or

being killed himself;

juJU y w#r wo

Ij

his

and a passive

m7

upon

the earth after

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.d Adj Nomina Verbi 115

II.

202]

its

x o *o*o

pr

ew Ais

jjl^iJI

el-Ma mUn publicly adopted

Koran's having been


Rem.

202.

II.

x x

doctrine of the

the

Sj

J J

as jjjj-w Joy, gladness, from j~ o

from

j^j

be

to

exist (see

to

found,

6e

j j

glad; $50^5

200)*.

The nouns formed from the derived forms

of the strong

verb are as follows.


1.

2.

J**&.
9 x

as

aXxaj,

9/

9 x J

[3.

95

xOx

6 x

Ox

95

xOx

Ox

JUv, O^V> JftJ^


9 x

9xOx

9 xO x

x^O
x
5
x>
9x0
oWj, 2^, ?^h^, v!/A

x/0
flJ,

as

JuU,
X

XWJ

xxxxxx

V&>, JStc, LJ, J*, Jt ji,

Txuil

BJ

L5%?'

2liU,

X W

^**H'

fivl

L5 **?' **2*J

iSCJ^, as lUu-I*k, iGX>.]


9

[>4*5

xOx

JU]

L5**7?'

may

be added

is also

to Bibl. Geogr.

pointing the others as examples of JUA5.]

as 1>\S>,
x

oi
jUfe,

9x0

JU^j,

Of these examples some allow only the two


9

first,

these

xOx

JtaXJ.

[8.

>^P> Jj&,

J'^a^>, ^'>^>, jW~3-

xO

JUA3,
9

[6.

S^-cuS,

0^

J x

9 x Ox

JUA5, as Jl^cu,
9x0x Sx Ox

u^Uy,
[5.

x->

9/

Ox

Ox

ibuu, as 1^3, S^J, 5^a5.]


9

4.

9x

9 x

a^J^,
*$%PX
X

S>~J, SwiJ, a^v>,


25}s!*3,
X
X
J x

JUjJU, il^io. 3ja3,

6/

Ox Ox

J/

0/

9 x

S^JJ, a^Xj.

95

XX
x

5/ /

Ox

9x

65

To

J^ iJ
^^x

created.

triliteral

*iJI

There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive

signification;
existence,

ji , i*> , , a g

0>*^ jv^l

having been well ordered ; t>Xao


J>*M
x
x

viii.

->

Oj

Jyw,

as

OJ

^>^.

employed in the active


and Lane. D. G.]

Here the vowel of the

signification

see the Gloss,

Part Second.

116

first syllable

JOj
Jyt*j

202

seems to have been assimilated to that of the second

JywX

for

i.

[3.

IV.

autli.
Jt***, as v*-*> cfe;].

V.

1.

Jaw.

[2.

JUtf

VI.

1.

Jilil

[2.

JcUf,

[3.

J^U5,

as

VIII.

JUA3I.

[4.

J&,

as

JUS, .]

as JU-*->,

1.

JUllt.

JUiXwt.

J%*lt.

XII.

JbLait.

XIII.

Jtjait.

XIV.

ii&fo

xv.

?5uJt;

XL

Jajuu

is

In

a.

by

the form JJUi

II.

J&,

[2.

is

as

j&,

jSL.]

the original infinitive, but

most common; alxsu

far the

and

rad. hemz.

tert.

rad.

et

is chiefly

usually ascribed to

I.,

but as their use

which

(in

excessively rare, as jjy-3 from tp)

is

j3U?, >.]

OjUl]

as

X.

J!jU5t.

Rem.

>*,

0-00

IX.

J*sa3

JU*.

OjUj.]

5-0

tert.

2.

JUil.

VII.

or the Parts of Speech.

JO*

in.

Etymology

is

used in verba

latter the

JLxi and

diJL^Jt JcoiJ,

form

i^JLoid

to

are

excess

energy or intensity, [or frequency,] they seem as deserving of a

place here as
of

I.,

JUaj [which

in like

manner

differ

/L3p

infin.

only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition].

These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb.


(

from the

/LDp)

to Heb. substantives like


6

Aramaic

infin.

*7ifc3p;

/SJ&fi,

Dm?^
0"

absol.

7fc$p

an d to the Eastern
JOJ

0-J0-

whereas JUaj. J**a3, J>**5 an d dXziu

are, strictly speaking, the infinitives,

yjjuu, akin to

'0*

infin.

/^P),

not of J*5, but of an obsolete

7$}&?,

and are represented

in the

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. Nomina Verbi. 117

II.

203]

cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft,

Wan,

]Llb&

WShft,

lAllcnZ,

/^JUH, Hv^in,

etc.* In

UjLoJL

III.

Jbt^i

the original infinitive, which the great majority of the

is

9 s

Arabs shortened into Jlx*, whilst some compensated the

loss of the

The most

long vowel by doubling the following consonant, JU$.

common form

of all

is

particip.

In

V.

fern.).

aJUULo

([in

form identical with the]

form

the original

however been almost entirely supplanted by

Arabs alone use JUJ, who shorten the


Jji5, JjtAj, or Jjti,

The form JUaj

Lii

L5

is

to VI., as

sometimes ascribed to

^Jj^j^

[Rem.

For the

6.

9 *

^^o-wo

jjtju.

In VIII. those

III., as

and Imperf. into

Perf.

(ljj*.UJ), {Jj***

pass,

JUaj. which has

the cases mentioned in 117*.

etc. in

<Jmu,

is

gUp, JLiutf

0i>*V)>

and

>*Ih)-

jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see

227, rem.]

203.
I.

The nouns formed from the

1.

iLUi.

2.

J'iUJ, as *-tjo,

as

<U.^),

0x0
x

&AAj~i,

0x0

9 xOx

J^Jj*, as

[3.

Zlsy>.,

Oj^e*.,

^xO

JUj-, JUu^, fUU,


9

3p*s^,

0x0
JljJj,

C
3liL,

0x0
JUX3.

Jig, JUJU.]

J-***?, as p.j*.j3.

II.

___

/J

00

III.

J^JLxit, as>l*j.t.

IV.

J&Jl,
is

Rem.
<

In

as

jli*^> oUloit.

[The irregular form

iujUi

rather to be considered as a substantive, jj*a* ^o-A]


I.

XUal

is

the

common

form, whilst the employment

of J^lati

quadriliteral verbs are

<

depends upon the

[Barth, Nominalbildung,

wms

loquendi (like that of

JUi

180 disapproves of this theory.

in III.

D. G.]

118

Part Second.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

The form

of the triliteral verb).

xxOx

reduplicated verbs, like JjJj.

204

J*^bts seems to be restricted to

variation of the fourth form

is

presented to us in the word jjUxk, mutual thrusting and stabbing


.

with lances

204.

i/'

x x

= j^UsJ, which comes from ^yMo =

x x

^yijih\.

The

abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. geminatse are


*
0* iv/
formed according to the rules given in 120. Hence %x for jjco, >j*
fix
fix
Ox *x
Oxdx
0& x
for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji).
mj

Rem.

a.

Those nouns, of which the

first

and second

radicals
x x

are pronounced with fetha, undergo no contraction


x x

5 x x

as jju>, yJAfr,

x x

Rem.

b.

The nouns

and sixth forms may

of the third

SxxxJ

x J

be contracted or not; as 3lo or olo-,

^*jUJ

either

Sxx

x x

or w>L*J.

See

124.

205.

C according

The formation

of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place

to the rules laid

down in 131

136.

206.

Those verba primse rad. j, that reject the ^ in the Imperf.


and Imperat. ( 142 and 144), drop it also in the verbal noun. E.g.
xxx

Sjcfr

js-2,

xxx

Ox

from

xx

Imperfect

julj,

J"

Imperat.

js>

x x

e -g-

xx

d x

' ' '

'

*.'

anc*

**> J-y 3

fl

***

0s

'

changed into

Rem.

*Mt5 ***J,

>

^x*

(see 145, rem.), as

^j 0'**^>

x x

w>Ufc.^f,

.xx

from the fourth form of w*-3

tUyU+l for

xx

*liywt, from the tenth of .Jj.


x

,jl*x&.l, for

.ijjfc.1,

may be

or kesra,

5x0

w^Ufc-jl

In nouns from verba primse rad. j, this radical is


^, if it be without a vowel, and kesra precede as

c.

changed into
for

damma

pronounced with

Initial ^, if

b.

See

^
-B

145.

Rem.

>

rOfc?

(*^),

Ua

207.

in

Compare

rf.

^om nb\
njn,
- ->
_T
fr

eh\
T
*l$

nsr,
- T ' bt*
-T'

..

'

YW,

^o), )L*

(rad.

HEh
prh (&)i
X
V
V

Hebrew,

my
T

208.

If the

or

noun from a verb mediae

^ remains unchanged

ma

^),
*

rad.

et

rad.

3
9C

or ^j be of the form
x

0lj9lj9l'J9lj

J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*>


xxx

Jjuu
9

0'

'

and the

like.

converted into

from

olo

^;

and
>Uut
**X X
*ti.

by assimilation

of the form
&

9 '

'

^^j* jJ*-*,
3

(or

[See

l j

r,

^M),

J^j**,

223, rem.]

pronounced with fetha, be preceded by kesra,


9 x

it is

eighth forms of

^
,

'

**, l\j*~*

If the letter j,

(see 157), frequently take kesra in the

^ (for C~~),

209.

verba med.

IJ

into 3, as w>j>>, Jj>,

3i,

or *r>3>*> etc

&x

Jji3, Imperf.

9
*

J J

In the form Jyi*

as Jy>, j-w.

may be changed

the ^

3,

(&*),
- '

^j are subject to C

from verba med.

'

150, etc.).

90 x

Jjti, the

fO#
V V

(rad. -Jfc*).

Nouns derived from verba mediae

Ox

(&),
x

Corresponding forms in Syriac

\&*'

the same irregularities as those verbs

xx

<x

*jj

11.9

Rem.

OJ*> OJ^ and

OJ>

Verbi.

and Sj^.

j.j

are

& Adj.Nomina

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

209]

as^oLS

for^ftly>,

9x

9x

from ^13; 5JLo for aJl^o,

>Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M, from the seventh


XX
"x X
XX

Except in the third form, where

it

and

remains

Part Second. Etymology

120

unchanged

or the Parts of Speech.

as j\> from jjti, j|>- from

^U-, jtj

from OJ^>^!> 5 from^jll, jMj) fromjy'J),

210.
~'

Peculiar to verba media3 rad.

5J^Ui, in which
JO*

a*>o-J
x

Ox

from>b

->ax

(->>>),

the nominal form

is

xx

jU>

as

from o^= (0>^)>

&>*

*13 (^1),
x

> *ej

>

*,*

x JO

ja-

j o *

$ s

from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-*> from -U

*>

(jj~>),

S^jj-wo from

Ox

(),

hj*J from
ox

3jjju~> from jL>

B,

JO*

I5U.

always takes the place of the second radical

et

from jjL*, Oli^

from

1I3J

[210

xx

Ox jdx

J&x

Ox

w>U

from

(j-*-), *j>j-j

^"

(w~), aJ>LJ from

JlS ( J-i).
Ox

Some grammarians regard

Rem.

Ox

j6j"5^

The impossible Ay*


Ox

rtffcj)^ m*,

,.*>,

j a

aJ^JUi as the original form.

Sjjj-^o, were,

first

they say,

and then

tjjjyfa+i

on account of the discord

altered,

Ox

between

2;

and u

Others look upon


Ox

J*x

iLcj+j}

JL**s,

a*^jj

fix

in successive syllables, into <la.^w,


OxJftx
Ox J x&x
as a contraction for Aj^Jbui,
aJ^JLx,^
Ox JxOx
Ox j5'x
^

was originally
OxJOx

shortened

changed into

by assimilation

4*0^0^,5,
x

(like

C***

for

Slc^^j^,

J x

2)jj--.

so

that

and then

C*f

but there

is

no verbal form

with which such a nomen verbi could be connected.


S x

The

xx

OxfcJ

rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>, 0 6e chief or ruler,

and JaJs^c from h\z


x

forms

^yo^

x
t

0x

x
,

*x

to desire the

Jdx

male

(of a she-camel)

J 3 x

and ^lo^c^i,

^-i^y
Ox
^

llcu.^u.4, mixture,

Aramaic verbal form


pi3,

Jx

^-^j-j*,

0&&aff and

(as

pb,

77^3

^
x

the cognate

*
J"

^iui and

J "x

iUp^-tfuJ,

confusion; and the analogy of the

(as 55^2), ^i2jJ2))

all combine
DDte, Dtfll) ,

and the Heb. 77^*3


to prove that

U^Ui

xx

comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui.

211.
rad.

In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media?

et ^5, the second

vowel upon the vowelless

radical is elided,
first

radical

after throwing

back

and the termination 5

its
is

appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare 206). E.g.


SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\
luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and- Jtlilwt
;

and >U*^t.

The Noun. A. Nouns Substdk Adj.

II.

215]

Nouns

Rem.

Nomina

the fourth form without the

of

(for

212.

^t

to

make or

show

Ze see, to

or j*\i\)

c).

tertise rad. ^ et ^, the third


when the second immediately precedes it and is

0*

vowelless
radical be
S

^cj,

2>

213.

yfcj,

for

J,

<

second

If the

assimilation takes place in the form

00*

00*

00* 00*
^^a., ^jj, ^^J*,

In nouns from verba

9 *

0*0

0^yj> uW*^-

(j>i,

^ and the third ^, an


*

0*0

GO*

0*

0*

as jjs-,

J**, as L5a*, tjj L5J*,

tertise rad.

^y.
5 "

^ of the

et

form of ^j) rejects

if it

for

U*>,

class,]

assumes the

damma, throws back the ten win upon the

or
t

L5^

for

Eg.

(>*-*)'

L5-^

-f]

for

^jJb (compare

167, a, ft and

In nouns from verba

fetha

*}a.

for

L *Aa

L&-*

for

L&A

* *

* *

* * *

for S>L,

Rem.

5 La.

We

a.

6, ).

tertise rad.

changed, after the elision of

V%o

be of the former

the

[if

* *

214.
O

its

second radical, and becomes quiescent.

^jjb

is

* J

root be of the latter, often

(*V), sj^

forms J*s,

J*5, and Jji, the third radical (which in this case always

of the

176, rem.

In nouns formed from verba

radical is retained,

0*

j>\\.i\

from

*t)t)

very rarely
o^ootoo^e

occur; e.g.^eUM in the Kor'an, Sur. xxi. 73 (for^U5t,


%\j\

121

Verbi.

* * *

* * *

* *

however,
I

* *

j C
as

* * *

S^j, SlXw for 3ji.

for S^a., 3l>j for

often find,

of the form al*5, the

into Slif productionis

its fetha,

the (etymologically more

correct) orthography S3JL0, S^a., Sj>j ( 7, rem. e?).


* *
9** *
0*0*
Rem. 6. In the same way as SLa. for S^a., we find Slo^* for
0**0* 0**0* * '
Z.'* '
Ajm^ (o^o^o), 3bj*o for 2-o^o, etc.

215.
J^xi

If the

noun from a verb

or )>*$, the

,.,

tertiae

rad.

^ be of the form

j productionis of the second


.

Jjj

Jjj

with the radical j into j as 3J3, y^,


these forms come from verba tertiae rad.
;

syllable
jj

for j>\>, j>^.

^,

combines

j j

But,

if

the j productionis

is

^, and
damma of the

changed, through the influence of the third radical, into

combines with

it

into J$, whilst, at the

second radical becomes a kesra; as


w.

same time, the

^1,

^5,,

^c^

for (J^jt,

c5>5>

16

Part Second.

122

l$5<aa (compare

Etymology
A

170).

or the Parts of Speech.

^Zz

sometimes takes place, as

syllable

J,

for

13

for

^1

ll

just as in the plural of substantives

^5,

216.

L5-ot,

^jt,

is,

find

^3,

^o. e,

y>

from ^>3, Uxp,

noun from a verb

If the

we

for

^jt

^y\,

i^

for

216

further assimilation of the vowel of the


S

first

(^ be of the form

rad.

tertise

J***, the \ productionis of the second syllable combines with the


3

Ml

radical

^ into ^

from verba

as

tertise rad. 3,

Ox

^>A

for

xx

^jA,

In the same form

from ^yb.

the third radical

is

combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into

J?.

Ox

xx

x J

In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs, JU3, and JUi,

217.

the third radical of verba


as U.,

^, and

converted into

fe,

j.

tertise rad.

et

The same thing takes

is

changed into hemza

place in the verbal nouns


^x

>

of the fourth, seventh, and following forms, as gUact, g^aJt,


t
x X
f\^*j\,

;Uju~>t, {\yt^>\

^x
form Jt*3, as glju from

and

in that of the third,

when

it

gU^t,
XX
has the

xx

^jU

This change

is

caused by the preceding

long fetha.

218.

The nomina

verbi of the second form of verba tert. rad.

et

xGxxOx

J/

always take the form ZXxJu

those of the

(always ^$,
kesra,

fifth

167, b, P).

(ft)

219.

In

202, rem.), as 2J<~3, ajJaI

and sixth forms, the influence of the third radical

169) converts the

and the

syllables

Hence

J^J

^
for

damma

are

of the penult syllable into

contracted into

{JLJ (JL*?),

(according to

J# for jfi (J&).

The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing


of an Action once.

That an act has taken place once

by adding the feminine termination 3

i}j+),

the Arabs indicate

to the verbal noun.

For

this

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.<& Adj.

II.

220]

purpose the form Jx*

always selected in the

is

0*

triliteral

0*

the
5

quadriliterals.

<

dL^^j^jj,
*

123

Vicis.

form of the

first

J**aj in the second, and

verb,

Nomina

0**0

0**0

dJ1j.oJ.

du>\j=>\.

in the first form of

J^a*

0*0*
/
r.*0*
3ja3, *b>o, aj>w,
<>

^-oJ,
*&**

E.g.

*J

SlSaj,

0**0

**

4iUX>t,
* *

3J3\Ju,

0*0*

oZ*

O*

a^,
9**0

*j*,

***JL>>

0**0
33\j*Z*\ i

Zj[s)\,
* *

0**0

0*10**

0* *

A^tj^o,

<Lc*.ja.j3,

tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping, sitting

0*

down, striking,

drinking, rejoicing, fleeing, turning over, giving rest, vexing, honouring,


rolling over,
snuffing,

being uncovered, turning round, inhaling or

neglecting,

being rolled,

rolling,

a **>o

shuddering,

These nouns are

once.

* o t

,*

called S^oJI iU-wt,

nomina

vicis, or nouns that express the doing of

an

action once.

Rem.

Nouns

a.

from weak verbs, do not


0/0/- 0/0/ 0/0/

of this sort, derived

differ in
o*o 0*0

form from those

0*0*
**;> ***> f r o

V*i

Rem.

of the strong verbs

* * *

noun happens

**

*$.

J*J>1*, \j*, ^\,

If the verbal

b.

* *

as Sj^cj, 4*y>, 5$ j&,


*

^j,

^.

to end in IL

the feminine

termination IL cannot, of course, be appended to it, and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective
*

t *

*l*0*i**

jc.lj one, as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j

0*0*

him

and so with

once;

Rem.

From

c.

r.

*+*>,

he

\X> J
*

had pity or compassion upon

0***3

*
;

2d3\JLo, iolSt,
6

0**0

0**0*

4jUlwl,
*

these nouns a dual and a plural

may

a^ao.
be formed
* *

to express the doing of the act twice or oftener; as du.


)\3j*a,
o

* * *

pi. Otj-o-.

Rem.
o

as

rti*,e^,

Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in

o?.

o*

e-

o i**

this

o**o

3u^j, feUU, AJLJt,

/ie

ac of going

on a pilgrimage,

way

seeing,

meeting, coming, once.

(y)

The Nomina

Speciei or

Nouns of Kind.

OvtiOiO

0*9

220.

The g>Jt^wt or noun of kind, has always the form aX*j,


and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb

0*0
*
*
0*0
0*0
as A--U-, ij^,, S*a*S, a**1*, A-U-5, 3j;.g-, a^-jJ,

manner, mode, or

Part Second.

124

way of
*0

Etymology

sitting, riding, sitting,

or the Parts of Speech.

eating, killing, dying, sleeping.

E.g.

co

4*23

manner of writing,

****' $*> he is good as to his

good hand,

JZ$ he was

%$~t 2dZ

a miserable way,

killed in

he writes
a^j.

a wretched death !

't is

Rem.

The nom.

a.

nom. verbi and nom.

like the
0*0

may,

speciei

way of being thrown

be used in a passive sense, as 4ja,

vicis,

iO

horseback), e.g. ac^cJI &~. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\

220

badly

than

is better

thrown

to be

j~, to sit

Sometimes too

easily.

<->

meaning

one of the derived forms of the verb

of

as

fast

takes the

it

manner of

Zj jk

5*0

**

excusing oneself, from ^ Jus

to

excuse oneself; S^<*& mode of veiling

* *

oneself from C^*Xt she put on the jl*. or

putting on a turban,

(from

from^^ad or^ct

to

yashmak ;

Z+s.

way of

put on a turban {jLA+z).


5*0

nom. verbi has the form dJUi, we must have


recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. speciei ;

Rem.

b.

*S*>

If the

**

J J

* I

as jcl>j+1\ \ ****

'

made him

observe

man, ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for


to*

or else ^L^aJt

a regimen

like

sick

li t //

Coo * *

&*

jo*

o*

it

>o

^0

U3J a^., SjuLUt

as for something precious ;


10* a
Ujj ajjJlj. So too with

* * * o
t
j j o*
the derived forms of the verb, J^juaJI j*\j*\ aZoj*\
a

him

as a friend is honoured, or j*\j>*$\

The Nomina Loci

(S)

et

jjUplj lJt (nomina

called

to

opaJt

\s>^>

30*

I honoured

aZcja\.

it

2l~>!

loci et temporis),

of the Imperfect Active of the

<-

(nomina

vasis),

or

oi

iU^I

are formed after the analogy

form of the verb, by substituting


and giving the second radical fetha,

first

the syllable j* for the prefixes,


if

^*

Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time.


oSt

The nouns

221.

10*

0>e

the Imperfect has fetha or glamma, but kesra,

if

the Imperfect has

0*0*
kesra.

E.g. w^-u*o
*

from

v>^

a place for drinking, a


1*0*
5*0 *

drink, imperf.

^j^i

J-^

reservoir or water-trough,

the time or place far

watering

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

221]

& Adj. Nomina Loci.


0,6

J , 0,

from Jyj

(camels),

place where, one


imperf.

^Sb

j><ai

J^.o-

0,

9
;

u-^Xa*,* fa

to

^~C>

from cj-o

slain,

9*jj*~6

place where, or

v~^
'

and

is

taught,

J^ jco,

ftflM

to sit,

w^w,

throw down,

from

school,

in,

several persons

J**&*

imperf.

sit,

room,

the place

JO,
to

aim

at,

a ^?/ac o/ #/rm and

imperf. v~^*~i

make for,

These nouns are called OjJsJt

p^cice are, as it

to

' ,

aimed at or made for, from juaS


a.

j-*a* the time when, or

#0 out, imperf. f*j-i, and J^.> to go

assembly, party, from

Rem.

J^J

w*** a place where writing

from j-j^

0,

imperf.

thrown down or

to write, imperf.

ingress,
J 1

is

to drink,

125

il+~*\,

imperf. J~a3u.

because

2irae

were, the vessels in which the act or state

is

and
con-

tained.

Rem. b. Twelve of these nouns, though derived from verbs in


which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma, take, notwithstanding, kesra;
Ae place

1.

viz.

where animals are slaughtered, slaughterhouse or

shambles.
9

0,

whereon one

rests, the elbow.

of prostration in prayer, a mosque.


4.

fcut
9

mo
.-

where anything falls.

5.

)SLmA

6.

or-*

where one dwells, habitation.


where the sun

of ascent or rising.

7.

where

9.

rises, the east.

Oj^

the

sun

sets, the

west.

of division, in particular, where

tlie

hair divides

in different directions, the crown of the head.


10.

where a plant grows.

Part Second.

126

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

222

11.

ji*

breath passes through the nose,

the place wJiere the

i*.o

the

nostril.

....

^L;.o

12.

Of

these,

where a

nos.

7,

5,

sacrifice is offered

11,

9,

and

the

license is extended
0*
Instead of j*J*a some say

rest.

a> o

or

.g..

cjoL.o,

ct

a pfoce

.a>.<,

vowel of the

which has

to collect,

o/*

jt?2oce

jri>

U, and even jj)-*

/Ma in the imperf.,

o/* collecting,

first syllable is

.o,

0303

jtL

The verb * .&,

be pronounced with
some
by
grammarians to all

may

12,

fetha, and the same

during a religious

also

makes

The

meeting or assembling.

variable in

o.

cjd..o and

cjd., also

hiding or concealment, a small room or

closet.

0,03
See

rem. a

228,

worn

(by a

and compare the variations in ju%^> a garment

woman)
O'O

Kor'an; and vj^kuo a ro&e

Rem.

cases the

c.

\J^*a* a

next the skin;

book,

a copy of

The kesra

MntfA

ornamental borders.

of the second syllable distinguishes in

nomina temp,

et loci

from the

many

which, as a

,*->o jjtcu*,

Thus

general rule, takes fetha in the second syllable.


%*

0'

0*0*

nomina verbi or

>j0sO0sO0s<i0s2,s
Rem.

o?.

<

^Ja^,

it'*

J^sw-c, ^^mje.o, wJj-^U; jjLo, are

^Jla^o, J.0^^0,

the

w>^>-, J-**, are

^>N?a>.,

This class

infinitives

whilst

nomina temporis or

loci.

nouns exists in the other Semitic

of

In Hebrew, the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into - and _; as m&fc, 2J3fib (3X3DV

languages.

DipD

(dij?b),

222.

Nouns

M'na (4^>)> "T& (1*^0), rata


and

of time

place,

(U^>>

formed from verba primse

rad.

even though it be rejected in the


142, 144), and have invariably kesra in the

et {J, retain the first radical,

Imperfect of the verb

second syllable.

ij^o watering-place, from >)$

draw

E.g.

water), imperf. >ji

S*^

the

to

go

down

(to

time or place of a promise or

from ***j
appointment, fixed time or place,

to

promise, imperf.

The Noun. A. Nouns

II.

224]

where anything

the place

f-03-0

to place, imperf.

%*eu

afraid, imperf.

J^>j

sta'c& mi-

is

put, a place, from

J^.3-0 a place that

-x

to

dreaded, from

is

put down,

J^j

-A-

to be

x x x

J>>

mwrf, imperf.

%^^

127

a slough or quagmire, from J^-j

J>-$-

j-~~ a

game

at hazard, from j-~>

Ox

a hazard, imperf. j-~u

#0 jpfay

& Adj. Nomina Loci.

Subst.

Here the ,**** jjueu* should, strictly speaking, have the


same form as the nomina loci et temp., but the grammarians give B
Rem.

some examples with fetha in the second

223.

syllable, as

Those formed from verba mediae

rad.

*^>o, J-->*et

undergo

Imperfect of the verb


that is to say, after the second radical has taken fetha or
( 150)
kesra, according to 221, this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless
is changed into the homogeneous letter
first radical, and the ^ or

by the

changes analogous to those suffered


;

Gx

x x

of prolongation

or

(t

from jAS

to stand, imperf.

to

X X

d x

place of standing, place,


x
x
><
u\*** (t^>>**) diving-place,
x x

(j*3*i)
J

J x

J J 2 x

r.

dive,

u^H

imperf.

(u^y^-i)

a ,

^l**-

to

jofec^

<*JU^> (J^fcj),

JXXJXOX

and w>U

and

dreaded, from ^JU. 0 fear, imperf.

is

XX

(vJ^a*-)

xx

wily- (w-w^-o),
.

>j*4

OJ

a x

()

^oU

x x

Jx

, s

from

E.g. j>lL*

^).

'

'

to fear, imperf. wjI^j (w**yj)

^ / 7 '"

J-X (J***)

place of resting at mid-day, from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day, imperf. J-Jb


J

<x

(Ja).
X
S

Rem.

a in the second

Oxx

xxP

w^t,

etc.),

Oxmany0L-0
9

x x

Cx-j^o or

<ix

J^U

in this case regularly the form with

w>U, JU,

jU*o, return (from w>t for

^xxxx

9'

x x

or ^iUto.

;*--wo

take in preference the form with


x

x x

S,

as

"("''

or cL*, ^^uak^o or ^^law.^, ^j-x or ^JL~,


x

J-Xo

xxx

or JtC*,

J-JU

<*

x x

or JliU,

<I

r,

, ,

J***o or Jl*o.

208.

224.
laid

syllable, as

verba med.

cll 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **)

but

See

The <**** jJ*** has

down

Those formed from verba

tertise rad.

in 221, for they always take

fttha

et

^ violate the rule

in the second syllable,

Part Second.

128

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech,

whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect.

225

In regard to their contraction,


j

xx

they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs

xOxSxOxOxOx

213).

~U

E.g.

>a^

imperf.

escape,

Ox

Ox

xO x
(l3~c )

*t>

\^y^

to stop, imperf.

^^j

^>t

* O

#o or wsort

to

B l^*

^jW ^$3^

place, imperf.

xx

to fold, imperf.

^>tu

Ox

(^U)

j^yJU

to

from ^^\

do.,
.

(^jJx*) a fold, from


xx

5 x

^j,

where one

the place

i^j^ (^3^*)

t,

to

from

(l/>j+) pasture-ground,
;

to

xx

Ox

pasture or graze, imperf. ^j->

from

xO

^j**

stops,

' '

UJ

(^aw-u, jai^) place of refuge, from

L5

a bend, from

^j

#0 bend,

Ax

imperf. ^^4*.
W

xx

tj^^., imperf. iJJ/a*-!

225.

Nouns
xx

C form 5

<5

The ,*** J+*** ^ as tne same form,

Rem.

jSOx
as ^j**~* from

xx
Ox
?
x
ij~~ from tj^"*, imperf. tJ^'J.

and place not unfrequently take the feminine

of time

* x x

as alxJLc time or jp/ac^

occupation, business ; 4j-*o the

o/*

x
Ox
are watered ; ZujJx* the part of a sword with
C.

jpfoctf

w^r#

cattle, etc.,

Sx

wfo'cA

tifo

blow

is struck,

the edge; aJj-U

halting-place,

a station;

5x0xxx0x

SxxxOxxOx

SjUU (Sj^U) a cave ; SU^o (***>) pasture-ground. If derived from


a strong verb, the second rad. frequently has in this case damma
j

SxxOx

instead of

fMa

fix x

Some nouns have even

queting-room, tejjL* watering-place.

xx

forms

as S/*& cemetery, SbjJi* place for drinking, ban-

as 23j*6

a place where one suns oneself or

sits in the sunshine,

fixxOx

1^ a
jofoctf

jo/ac^

w&?r# a

imperf.

w^r^

^
2

xx

people perish, a desert.

Peculiar

**
Z Jx o

is

M0

supposed

to

be,

from ,jJ

to

think, suppose,

O^iRem.

three

9 x

The j^*** jjux*

ilxi^o is the

is liable

to the

same

variations,

normal form, as i^k*** hunger.

though

SxxOx

SxxOx

For example

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

227]

<So

5 5
x
x
0$2//
iJt, in preference to Sjua-o, &c*Lo

OssO s
O /t/
or SU^o (AjjJj*)

226.
rad.

Some nouns

x J

129

Loci.

OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox.A

A^JJa^, ~Xo, S^Aa^o, **->

place, derived

from verba primae

(see 228).

E.g. y^~o *t#w

Ox
of

from jJj

foWA,

of time

xx x

Nomina

//f x xOx
AjjU, Sjjio.

Sjjut*

and
0x0
^, take the form Jbu-

et

Ox
8/
***

Adj.

to

ibu* appointed time

foar;

xx

fulfilment of a promise, from jccj to 'promise;

the

Oliu appointed time

performance of some action], from C-sS^

[or jt?foc0 for the

for

[or jt?Zace]
x

to

fix a time.

o x o

From

Rem.

ii//

JujJL*
X
X

- a5wu* but
j

as mesrdk

227.
the

the strong verb this form

very rare, as Ji^A* or

in iEthiopic it is the usual

j***, me'rdb

The nouns

triliteral

is

verb,

= w^Jt*,

mer'ay

of time and place from the derived forms of

or from the

quadriliteral,

QxOJ

to

of prayer (^j^a

^ morning
or evening)

are identical in form

pray)

^4

x x Og

rttf

tiflw 0/*

^^

t,

to tfwter ^?tm fjfo

entering upon

fteu of morning

J^jco, ft-j*~* the place through which, or

fjfo fa'wztf

\J>jaU place or tfww

xxxO
returning (^j^-cut

o/"

^~

OxxOj

to return)

x x x

a place where things are

collected

or ^'?W0
J
(

x 0/0

J*W

o/*

meeting
J

Jv**'

(^^SJJI

^ ?^#

anything (jj^>
**

ft?

60 collected)

^j&^a

jt?/ac

f&

,/?rs

x J

-f.jA.juo

0^

0/ Ata month

w^r#

^?&zc0

0w#

OxOxOJ
to

roll)

^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are

x x Ox

crowded together (^s*Jja.\

to be

gathered together in a crowd).


3

Rem.

g ^a ^

J^*-

W00W appeared)

xxOx
ro//s

5xx
0 flMtff)

t" J

(**!.

xxO

w^w,

x x

Ox x Oj

ewtf)

a place C

Op

or evening (<),
^5

^j **,

E.g.

x x 0*

#0

all verbs,

i^j<*>

with the nomina patientis or passive participles.


3

form from

The same form

is

also

used as a ,** jJ^cuo from

the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral ;
5 x J
6
Ox
Ox Ox
SxJ
= <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU Ae
e.g. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested
#

>

w.

17

Part Second.

130

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

letting (camels) graze in the interval


Ox
05 x J
in pieces JtJj-oJ >
Jjj*-e the rending

Ox

4-J3J

x J

J3U* fighting

foray SjUt

mronging
iz x x

JwU*J

ajIoJ

(on

^ guarding

carefully

make a
i

Him)

is

making a raid

or

x x J

tfAe

JbUJU

/ie

pressing heavily on,

sound =

clashing or ringing

God

to

is

(our) complaint of

(our) reliance.

The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate

',

wJJUU, wdJU* turning or

fl'x

J.oJL.a.0 to
xxOjo, xO

and

^J*y*

J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI .Jt,

this event (ajuSj)

5x

OJxxOxOxJ

.xJ0xx

of their being watered - aj juj

aDIa* jU*

or

JUS

w^lcc* affliction

228

6*s*<i*J

Ox

and fro = wJLaJ, w/}UJt

tossing to

aJLcJLo

the

Instrument.

228.
in

The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses

performing the act expressed by a verb, are called in Arabic

s*1*>

2iy\

xO

!i/>

,-

*lo~>t,

They have the forms Jaa*, JUa*,

nomina instrumenti.

Ox x

and aJUa*, and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time

C by

the kesra with which the prefixed j>

is

pronounced.

When

derived
6+

from verba med. rad. j et

a ^0, from

xx x

^,
6x0

>jj, to file ;

*-**,

6x0

OxO

lancet,

from

j-oj,

XXX
Ptw

of

scissors

x x

x x

E.g.

hj*** and

5x6

9^slc or *-ua*, a key;


.

* *

Oxft

3 x

SL>jX,

a broom; ,>uu

(for

3^0,

e. ' *

#0 cut ;

and <Uy, a comb; a******, a cupping-glass; A a.

-/*-

3xx6

xxx
a

xO

a lancet; u\r**, a

y\j~4,

0,0

they remain uncontracted.

J,
>

Co and

<5'Jx

,>mJU), a jwwr 0/

scissors;

aL**,
X

Oxx

packing-needle ; 3>2U, aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot


xx x
Ox
5 xx
xx2
(from jjI) S^JL*, a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****,
;

XXX
0x0

xxx

0)3)

x x

flJ*

an(i

**AHi

o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from


0x0
0x0
& fan; jyU, a 6We?/0 or halter; >3j*, a small

a branding-iron (from ^^3)

>

O x

OxxO

XX

r.

3ju-flu,

w^tf

xO

a strainer ;

Ox

kohl to the eyes


kch^, a needle ; J^aa and
, ,0
0x0
0x0
or snare; Sl5^ (for *$>*), a staircase or ladder ;

2?rofo for applying

St^x*,

a branding-iron or cautery.

Rem.

a.
9 i

sieve

& Adj. Verbal

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst

II.

230]

4/0J

very few have the form


9<0

Jmo^o, a sword;

raato ;

jMrtfe or

or

9 J

Jju^

as Jji~U,

5 J
J
9,0
9 <!>
= J>**j spindle; mm*** = hA ^ .o,

JijJ^c

an instrument for introducing medicine


a

9J

Jju^

131

Adj.

into

> %* =j..Q.a.,

nose

tlie

Jj juo

J> jco,

The form JjJU

censer.

is

also used.

Rem.

The corresponding Hebrew nouns have

6.

well as _, in the

first

Wl, Dnpk&,

syllable; e.g.

and

as

^Tfc, iTTftb,

mats.

7%^ Nomina Agentis

()

et Patientis.

*o*>

229.

The nouns which the Arab Grammarians


J

nomina

adjectives,

X ?<4

and J^ai^JI

agentis,

nomina

adjectives derived from verbs,

i.e.

oi

J^UJI i^\,

l\+~*\,

nature and signification to what we

call

patientis,

are

verbal

and nearly correspond

in

call participles.

These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic, as in

Rem.

other languages, substantives.

230.
9

verbal adjectives, derived from the

The

nomen

J*l3, and the

or secretary, from
9

patientis,

^Jgr

>

*->y&* written, a

from^oj^

servant,

^Jl^

E.g.

' ' '

to serve,

O^

from

exist

t be ;

to

existing,
5

"

letter,

from

When

w-Jfcj

to

fear,

yj>j

formed from
to

from w*l>

served,

a master,

*x.j,

to

be found, to

to be possessed, to be

< * *

a.

scribe

^jj^~c mad, a madman, from &*.,

Rem.

judge ; ^>5l^ being,


+

>5+y* found,

writing,

jbjj^e

from^oj^. j^\+. judging, a judge, from^xs

form of the

'

Jyduo.

to write,

j**{> serving,

first

have two principal forms, namely, the nomen agentis,

triliteral verb,

^Jjji

mad.
*

and the

transitive ,J*s

(as

Wo?e on, ^Aft to know, {J^c to touch), these

nomina agentis are not only

real participles, indicating

a temporary,

Part Second.

132

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

transitory or accidental action or state of being, but also serve as


adjectives or substantives, expressing a continuous action, a ha-

Ox

bitual state of being, or a

permanent quality

Ox

Ox

js\.
X

(see above), j\sX

an

scholar, %^-JbU
X

XX

by one or other

Thus

231.

J^W

or

-jli
x

narrow or

cowardly, jul&

confined, are participles

nominal

of the

being glad,
5

<

>

6e?i<7

from

if

....

forms enumerated in
^Jjla.

But

ascetic.

they have only the participial

^Jjii,

sense, the adjectival being expressed

rejoicing,

^j\z, j^>^,

e.g.

X J X

the intransitive ^Jx and from

230

6em<7

#x

Jplo

liberal,

being

the adjectives which indicate

the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^

Ox

and JJa- or

ft

gladsome,
5

>tj^.

Ml

The nomen agentis

[Comp. however

232, rem.

6.]

5.

cowardly,

^jU*.

cheery,

bountiful, generous, and J>*o narrow.

Rem.

Oxx

Oxx

^^)J^>.,

J^U
X

said to be used occasionally

is

JJ

2 ,xx

in place of the
x

ft

verbi or actionis, as in the phrase W>15^$,

ULS j

for

nomen

but this

more frequently the case with the nomen

is

.>

ft

patientis (compare 227, rem.) Jjju^.


J

one's utmost

effort,

ft

o^Jo^-o =

JOjUU^

E.g.

intelligence

back,

ft

ft

1 x

j)

2ro

to

ft

easity

SJJ

Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw,


Sx

(do.);
#

OJftxSftx

^^Ad** = ^aAa.,

fo

ft

The

wise occasionally so used, as te^Xa*,

Ox

Sj

fern.

Z^yo

ft

ft

^X

ft

<*X

e*

likeft

a3j jucu*

ft

of the truth, opposed to *Oj JX = w> J>,


J

is

tJ;**,
Ox J

. ft

Ox

Ox

ft

>y>s~c>

4)^xio

J J /

ft

jOx

<

^c^-o^c

being got or acquired ;

o<n?2# ^?^ existence,

^X

ft

=j-*,

#o gently (do.);

5/

telling

quickly (of a camel)

0*i)^, Imrdiness, sturdiness, endurance.

tfAe

ft

fo ro2

Ox

J jco,

J-$, pro-

00

opposed to jyju*

affluence,

3j,

understanding,

b^Zyc

=
Jjyi** JJU

f l<

T'

*.oj

00

jy** =j*-i

p^j* = *ij,

ft

J a x

| Jt/

penury, distress ;

=j*>, knowledge, perception


J

mising, a promise

jl^*., labour,
x
J
3x

GO

j^xm

rejection

Oft x

swearing, an oath ; ^>jo


O

giving or sending

ft

ij-v-a*-*

ft

&/in<? ;

form I^jjm^, as ili^la^o, l\jyt*.


Conversely, the nomen actionis is sometimes used
the nomen agentis and patientis, or as an adjective.

also a cognate

and

Rem.

c.

instead of
x

E.g.

ft

La^j

->Jftx

a^>',

/ came

to

<

xx'xxxJJJftiS''

/wm riding hard, = Lct-btj; 4^iU^ aIo-^,

him face

spoke to

I met him face


him in

& Adj. Verbal

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

232]

to

to

face

cold blood

(lit.

face

(lit.

to

lip

bound, confined or

= \jj~aa

ly$liLo

= UjU^;

eye to eye),

(lit.

lip),

maw, a just woman, just men, = J^U, 4J3U,

jwstf

Jj*. Sl^t,

J*.j,

water winch sinks into the ground, =jj\e.

dirham struck by
the creatures

(lit.

the emir, =j~o*j\


^t^jJslo
the creation)

Rem. a

Jcli

is

i>0

of God,

the Aram. 7ftp

<i&l

4&t

slew

JU.j,

jj U,

w^o

^oAo, a

and Heb. 7fth (with

it

in

7J|tDp

either

these

of

= Jj**> an d the

7^p = J*^

231.

Besides these, there are other verbal adjectives derived

from the
j

first

Aram.

(see 232, rem.

Ji^JLaLo.

^-&A

languages, the Heb. using instead of

J^i. ^Jb, they are

The form Jj*a* does not occur

o for a).

J jcc

Jjjtft

j~o*$\

aLa),

that he could not

held, so

or escape),

Jj^

UUt

\j~o aZX3,

resist

133

Adj.

c).

form of the verb, and called J^UJt

UW

*y**

Olio C

*0*o*

J^xa^JIj, adjectives which are


ticiples,

viz.

made

like,

or assimilated

in respect of their inflection.

to,

Of these the

the

par-

following

are the principal.


1.

J**

9.

JU5

2.

Jfe

10.

JU3

3.

J*i

11.

J**i

4.

J*5

12.

express,

^ x

5.

J*s

13.

^L*3

6.

Jj*

14.

J^**J

232.

J^
j

7.

Ja*

15.

o^**

8.

J*3

16.

Jjl5t

Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs, and


partly, a quality inherent and permanent in a person or

134

Part Second.

thing,

which

a certain

most usual

their

is

from^o^-^

^
xj

and

4.

|a.,

^>o-,

(for

from

x J

0^3

0^3,
X

<i

C from Cl^

^ #n'^>

>wt,

*.-3

0-k*> L>k*>

from

^ju;

jJJ, jJJ> from jjc5


xjx

XX

* { **
t
J*aj, iaij

'

J x

fromj^.

5.

rough, harsh, from <>*

ft

from J**.

^Jmo
J

^arc?,

from

x J

yXc

J*

,/w^,

from

from
5

^A.*.

inexperienced, untaught, from j-o

j-**, j-**>

5x

x J x

8.

to 60

JJj.

and

bitter,

from

xx

xJ

^o-***-; J***

forsake,
X XX

xx

OW

>!>.

cowardly,

liberal,

xx

from 3U.

xjx

from ^ov^, vv^.

10.

from o^e-

O^** ^^,

5xJ

oJ

O-^J knowing, from

***
fr

betray;

X J

X X

**J, *xJ

Oxx

xx

g^x

abandon,

xJxOxx

Oxx

/^*OxJ

to

remaining in one place, abundant, from

O^J-

from

w^*. polluted,

^Ja- breaking, crushing, bruising, from


from j**

j*o

J J

treacherous,

7.

5x

xxx
fidious,

tender;

y>

x J x

J J

Dy^>.

^m,
x J x

sw<?0,

J^&

5x

jA*.

J^b

5x3

sorry,

j^J* c/Ieaw, jtwr^,


' J

Jj^. liberal; JAJ, ma//, young, from

fargg, c^rse, /<#,

Ja.

50

g^'c, m* teto, from

J^c,

Jo*g,

^>*^

?>)

OxOJx
^h^v, i^h^,
xx

wary, from ^^x*.

0>^>

OJ"**>

from

clever, intelligent,

intelligent,

from

cfoW#,

from U&>*-> 15*"*

proud,

pain, from

^j

j-4>,

x
;

awake, from

J x

xx

j*U from

oi. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed,

J***-* J****, timid, cautious,

-ji, JJ*a-

and jJau

j-wt

Jx

Jiij,
laA,
X

j*xS.

9-3 do., from ^^a-j

clever,

xxxxox

from

handsome, from t>~.

L5^)

(^:>j

from

insolent,

(for ^.J;) perishing,

from ^Aa-

^a*-o Zar^,

xjx
x

#M,

00'

jJJ unclean, from

JJ^-,

^>%%ft-

from

difficult,
*

->

having a swollen stomach, from Jx*a-

Jxjo.

t^Jj;

^JJsu

9-ji,

and

self-conceited

jl rough, rugged, from jw

*.j

and, partly,

o J^

w>*xc sweet, from

x.

'

0*x

jx

yA

232

vJ^* tender, from JJu* ;^ov* strong, hardy, acute,

JJsu brave, from

jj.

6'

from J^-w

5 x x

2.

Examples

x J x

vJ^-j easy,

or the Parts of Speech.

signification (see 38),

degree of intensity.

xjx

from

Etymology

x^x
^f8W

"*

om

xjx5xx

^*

>

xJx

^V^

'

^>/ww/,

P^-^ Jmw, from J*^ ^Uo


;

J^

/ar^, from

from j>ja

^ot^ ^06/0,

sweet (of water), from

C^i

^//, from

Jty /^r,

,.

[jtj^5

*, fifomjjJ

O
;

'l^
sa/0, from ^oXw

from

^^^

//>

J-J^.

paltry, from Jo.


'

talkative [or

"

XXXX

from

ca*j->

from J^.

gluttonous, from

J 13

Jju

from

ignorant, foolish,
J

drunk, from

o!/^
xxOxJ^-POx

^jUJac, O^-*^,

from cU., ^

Ojx

77.
W2A

from

(j^

repentant, from ^**S.

tf

j^^oJi

^i,>

from

J^kc
x x x
;

Vmoc

JxOx

Jx9x

0^>**>

0^^>

from *.w

jj;>..

from ^ji.

16.

hungry,

^>bj satisfied

OxO

0^*^

14.

LsS\ having

clear space between the eyebrows, bright, open, cheerful in countenance,


X

I XJ

from *Jj

5 x

^^1 having a

slender waist, from

high, straight nose,

uU

humpbacked, from w>ju-

j^ct one-eyed, from ^3*


;

JxOfi
;

*^Jbl

having
w>**'

J|>.t squinting,

J**.t foolish, stupid, from J*.,

Jn>*-

from ^w

^iil having a long chin djii)

from
J^- ^ot ^/, from ^o-o
xjx
J/}{

xxxJxJxf

Jj*-' unskilful, clumsy, stupid, from Jja., Jj^.; *iwt unseemly,

ugly, foul,

from

XX

xx

oWj* waW,

15.

t/o,

<jW- angry, from

oW> ashamed, from

to

daring, from j-~.

xxJxOx

dnwA;,

satisfied with food,

<jUlw

olx
or Jj>3,

Jj>3

from JUa*,

light,

jj-**- continent, impotent, from

jw

xx

thirsty,

13.

j-a-.

Jv^

''&''

j$~*a*.

J x

XXXOJX

UUc

j%, from

^iw B

w>jJ^ addicted

[Jja* r^ad^

Jhf

J^Sj ma//, slender,

xxx

JJ
3^*.
XX

j****

J^t

veracious, from

affection or

.,

r,

Jj>b

XX0X

speak], from

x J x

?5** pushing, thrusting or kicking violently, from

mov^c?

Us>fe* weak, from

x x

OJx

to

razefo/

* I

Jjjlo

from

<7ras, glorious,

jJ6

from

to /ymgr,

Ox

Ox

isuXi M/c#, coarse, from JaJU

m'

J^t

12.

Jo*j

^->i-, s/c&,

11.

erf].

compassionate, merciful, from ^o*^

"*

^^uj*,

h-i.

'

*>'

xxQx

from JU

to//,

burn;

xJ x

w-o&fe,

x J x

J*aj tev#, from JiJ

to

Jfj- to

maft^, numerous, from jJS^


x->

xJxOx

from

Olji

^j*^ ?m^A,

xJxOx
u5^w ^j^

*^aj^ W06/0, from

ogriT?,

x x x

x J x

px

fow^,

x J

from Jaj

stingy, niggardly,

a^

Jib

,jl~. handsome, from <>~.

<J!>- s&/ (of water),

x x

O xJ

J*^]

135

Adj.

x J

& Adj. Verbal

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

232]

jl^-t ?W, i^il 6/ac&,

^A^l

white,

^\

yellow.

Part Second. Etymology

136

or the Parts of Speech.

232
x

Rem.
9

and

As

a.

shown by the above examples, the forms

is
.

".

xJ x

are principally derived from

Ji-otJ

^Jjji

JUi and

6J/
^J**

^Jjji

come

respectively from Jjid intrans. and Jjti, though the distinction


X

ft

is

XX

not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. j


Sxx
x J
x x
xx
J x f
JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans.,
;

Jx

sometimes from

Rem.

Jjii.

rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s


~
i
o
o
intrans. or Jjti (see 230, rem. a) ; e.g. ^>ct *a/e, secure, = ^j^\
5.

J^li

or ^>*l, from

from O^ifr

is

jx

Ox

^^1 ;^L,

from ^apr* or

^tfuola. sowr, acid,

sound, ^L^t, trpmjJLa

o/e,

x
;

j.SU barren,

Rem.

c.

J**$,

a passive sense

as

Ox

when derived from

Ox
J^3

afoin

a victim,
f*+> slaughtered,

Oxr> rubbed with kohl

J4^

The same
O

= J>&*

is

-^j Jc*
J

I
Jjj^fc

>

transitive verbs, has usually

OJ&xOx

^o

6
^.., j

*\ck

dyed =

>**>t

ft

u^tdL^

Ojlx

ft

wounded - -jjaa

f-lj**'

bound, a prisoner,

=^U.

sometimes the case with Jy*i, as w>>&) ridden upon,

J x

w>^l. milked*.

Ox

Rem.

o?.

Jx

Adjectives of the forms J*x and Jjas, but more

especially the latter, often indicate, as shown by some of the above


examples, either a very high degree of the quality which their

subject possesses, or an act which

V
-pv

is

done with frequency or violence


xxxJft.*>Jxft

1_

by their subject; and hence they are

The form

forms.
if

Ox

J-jai

is

dialectically

called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\, intensive

OOOO

pronounced

the second radical be a guttural, as

j^j,

}m,

jit**-),

especially

jux>, j*j=>,

J-jA.,
J

j*ij^

',

and so

also in substantives, as
j-aw, tJt*&j,

j->->,

ftx

J x

[0y*J does not belong to

scholars, it is originally a
Hence, as in the case of

bearer of a message.

~D.

nomen

G.]

this class

according to the native

actionis like jfjls,

Latin nuntius,

it

meaning message.

got the signification of

& Adj. Verbal Adj.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

233]

137

of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic.


x
0xx
O x x
example, in the former, Jj*i, as H)"| = w> j^. ; J*s, as |7Tj =

Hem.

Many

e.

For

JjiS, as

Jr>>; J*i, as

^^=^3,

TBDK,
T

WJW;
T

as
J***,
*

233.

From

verbal adjectives of the form J^ti, as well as from

is

derived an adjective Jl*s, which approaches very

J*.j

as

JU3,

(6 for a);

^H?|

T9*.
TDK,
T
T
'

r,

5x

some

others,

Jj** and J***,

nearly in meaning to

since

it

adds to the signification

Hence

of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit.


xx

jo

x Ji/O

called ixJUoJt ^o-^l, the


J

intensiveness.

J*\

E.g.

e-

Jl^t
x

J^

wot^

_**

0*<i2x

i/

w*tj^>

drinking much, addicted

5 x

to

wine,
k5/

v&^U.

ft

Ox

x
;

w^^*

drinking,

J x

wJjj-w

^^ knowing, learned,

#*

learned; ,i)b weeping, l\& weeping

wry

<

J5L> asking, JU~ importunate, a beggar, = Jj3~


O

eating,

5 x

= J>^t

*ib

noun of

it is

a (habitual) liar, = w>jJ^


lying, w>t
J x
Wx
#
= ejij
pushing, thrusting, repelling, cli^ pushing, etc., violently,

glutton,

Of

much; ^-jU fearing,

WX

Rem.

The nouns which indicate

a.

professions and trades have

Sflx
usually this form
ut

Ix-Lsi.

5 x

seller

of sheeps' heads,

y^Ua*.

2 x

ot^o a

money-changer or

o 2 x

xi5/

banker, |Uj

baker,
5

a carpenter, gULw a water-carrier,

gardener, ^y*Mj a

jU- &

x3 x

tailor, jlaJ
o#x x

fix

as jllxt & druggist, t.U coo&,

a builder or

JU^.

architect,

Hebrew and Aram. KOfi. 191

a porter.

113*3, f1^6,

S3D,

Compare

in

etc.

Ax

Rem.

6.

Other intensive

fi J

JUs, 2. J^as,
0C3j^>wix

1.

adjectives, less

3.

B0J

j J

ijx

Jj*i or J^si,
i3

common than JUi,

4.

Jjii,

and

5.

are

J>*b;

as

0t3j

^L%a-, |loj, wry handsome, j\jz very noble, j^=> very forye,
cSj
ij
one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings), cli,>
l\j$
1.

a strong propeller or

0UI0U^0UJ

2.

jflt^j j*~,

w.

s^+jjJZt,

repeller,

a great rush

(of

water or of people)

wl

addicted

to

wine, drunken, J^JLo gwrcy astray,

18

Part Second.

138

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.


o

uj

ui

wandering ; u^tj^ fond of opposition, j*a*i


S

233

[
ui

J^jco

boastful,

esc-

wl

ill

who throws down

ceedingly veracious, Jxj-b* very liberal, *>j-o one


often or violently, a wrestler

2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>,

Ml

ul

iSx

the only instance of the form ^J-ofci, except J>jj-) ; 3. Jijji timid,
5 BJ
j
6 i3x
A*
5
i2/
^o^aS everlasting, J^iw or J>^* 6ad (of money), *->*-* or 9-$+> all(i

-D

^jjJi

all-glorious,

jtmre,
T>

timid,

raos*

tj*>jjJ

,j*j~>lft.

spy.

7w%;

4.

On

yia.

deceitful;

the other hand,


substantives

OxO

A^jUl*, are, strictly speaking,

w^$,

Jj*.,

J
'i

knowing, cunning,

turning,

shifting,

or

Jjii^,

5.

Jjjjti

6x0

JUi-o, and

(nomina instrumenti,

228), but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing


something like a machine, mechanically, and therefore invariably
0x0
6x0
(habitually)." E.g. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing

6x0
6x0

XX
6x0

the

^l*^,

much

eating

or giving

Jt^iL,

talkative,

XX

eloquent,

5x0

slothful,

>

advancing

liberal,

6x060

>#&*,
**x
X

jUCo,
x

boldly, daring,

^UJUX

bearing female

6x0

very talkative, 'Ak.v.c,


X

ji.k'go,

is

"

^SL^

mean, poor (JSD&, ^ ^ffiV>\*.


6x0 6xx0
6x0x
the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj, &UA3, and

imn</ perfumes,

Similar, too,

^jUJc*

6x0

male children,

%\sj** bearing

flkn* very
X

hos-

6x0

p-\j*A cheerful,

>

*x0

children,

to eat,

6x0

docile, tractable, Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era,,>&ljJU


X
X

JLXo

much

0x0

6x0

6x0

talking

jJ^o,
jtJk-*>
'
X
X

spear,

6x0

6x06x0

JJ>**,

6x06x0

thrusting with

nonsense, ^aJxo,
pitable,

brave warrior, w^a^o, w>La*-o, do.,


X
X

^jl*la^,
6x0

^.t.Ro,

6x0

6x0

or pressing much, j*J*a* a


X

Jbuu, which are abstract substantives (nomina

6x0x5x0

used concretely;
x

e.g.

actionis,

202)

w>UAj, w^UJLj, w>UJ3, given

to

play or sport;

6x0

uJ

XXX

jtuU?, ^oUJJ, swallowing big morsels, greedy; ^\jJs3X covered by the


6

stallion (of a she-camel),


ft

fi

mendacious, J^UJj

pUJJ

talking

6x0

6xx0
fickle, SJ^Ju

__

i(

much and foolishly, w>tj3

loquacious, B^Xsu very learned.

Oj

J 3 J

[To this class belongs also t>U, ,^1-U, ,>LU stinking.

D. G.]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj. Verbal Adj.

II.

233]

Rem.

Nearly

c.

139

these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit

all

being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the

of

termination _, which

here used,

is

// /il

xx
to signify intensiveness,

AiJL^JJ,
idea

who hands down poems


d

^i3^j)

missionary, <Ltb

&

Sj.3G

from

<UAb

crafty,

as

<Ujti,

strengthen the

to

H /Hp

Heb.

from Sip)
to

bits,

>

<u^o throwing down


2z> "

summoning, an emissary or

crafty; <L5lrk treacherous, faithless ;

'

$'

as

aJlfrli,

breaking in pieces, crushing

iL+ia.

axXjo always on the watch,


2'*

calling or

clever,

S3

O x

2x

ju^UJ,

or historical facts by oral tradition,

investigator (compare in

o?eep

Jji,

cb

Aaib

or AiJL^JI

the grammarians say,

For example, from J^li comes

of intensiveness.

one

jlj

as

/JW

or prostrating often,
*' '*

Ziy* asking often, begging, xa.o prone to laughter, dJyi loquacious,


t*" J
2" J
Z' ' *
f
<U>y3 given to sleep, 4L05J abusive, <L* finding fault ; from ^j-jai,
"
j x
j x

sx
5"f
t" Jt
Si m
iLai, as <l$jj^, iLJLt, no&e, excellent; from J>i, aJj**, as
.

"C

4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him), SjjJl lying,


jx
o 5x
Sx j x
Ox
1/ J/
7
iUjXo ^reo 0/*, disgusted with, dj^A, *3j>*> timid; from JUi,
(

S/

4JU5,

as

&

g*

io*^

9*

slanderous, dJt^i
excellent player
o x

very # ?,mcA;

the

0/*

comprehension, AtlSj ill-natured,

Ox

>

i7ery talkative,

on

fl

o x

much and

u/

0/

i/

o x

9"

5^3 1*, very wary

SjtJ^X

talking
to

2lc\jJLc very
f *

sillily;

from JUaj,
X

9x x

5/

much and

aJUaj, as 4jUAj addicted

~x

or cautious, dijjls

"
.

bold in attacking,

ul

ij-oii,

from Jj**, &>**, as dijji very

0x0
Ox x
Ox x &
from JbuLo, dJbuU, as 5,>laJU very unjust,

very timid ;

dJUi, as

very often, <Lc\j^ very generous

timid; from Jj^li, ^U^li, as

J 1x3,

rashly or foolishly ; from

<tLx$, as 44-Ja. very contrarious ;

9x x & x

from
0"3j

Sj

or noble, AtlJU talking


|f *

down

Aft.Lo aw

</rea collector,

cymbals or Aarp (^J^a)

prostrating or throwing

5 x

a^Ua. a

Afrt^-o

x 5x

o x x

<?rea traveller, ^ul^i


5/ 5x

<x

a great genealogist, dJUj a

very learned, <ul~J

play or

spor^,

4JUiJ loquacious, <Lo*ksu

/{

very learned, 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel, ioliU

lowing big morsels, greedy (the cognate form

<ULooL*

szva^-

also occurs, as

Part Second.

140

dUfjtXJ

much

Etymology

addicted

play or sport)

to

mwA addicted to play or

from JUaj, aJUaj, as <uUA5

a*UAj swallowing huge

sportf,

234

morsels, very

much and foolishly.

greedy, *UUJl3 talking

Besides the forms incidentally noticed above, others of


occur in Hebrew and Aramaic; for

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech.

these intensive adjectives

the purer vowel


example, Jytf, as pHTl, WlTl, and J**5, but with

*Q-A..

Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic,

= jui., *])$$

(=L^),

tw

an intensive

form

and a

Jjtft,

lative,

of

From

234.
radicals

(=jj^)i

for

form 7t3p> as
|?3

StSp, 7t3p

may

which

Bhn (=u^t)>

Jsi (^ftp

J&*31

be viewed as

= J**)-

verbal adjectives with three radicals*, or with three


letter of prolongation, are derived adjectives of the

J>st, the
J

3JU-, sw<?0,

' ftC

called

J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\,

the

noun of preeminence,

Kg. ^js-,

form afalu denoting preeminence,


f

ft

w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier

ox

more or mos beautiful;

>

'

,>~ft-i

j xft
t

***$ ^#fy> ***l uglier, ugliest

J-j^a- great,

J^.\ more or mos glorious.


&.

In the superlative

must always

sense, these adjectives


x

have the

article,

ft

ft/"

J s

sOs

or else be in the construct state, as ,-oiajJt Bjjj^}\


J JO/O

ft

the greatest city, jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest

[A

/*7

<>*** oeauti/ul,

sweetest;

>

Rem.

(coming nearest to J*jj3), ITs^

especially the

and

which have the signification of our comparative and super-

J)

WO

=j-t&~>,

Jjii)

and are therefore

glorious,

(jjd), as

syllable

= Aram. joXl

00

iTTO, T*?K J>CL*iLL

first

as *fjaa

or

f*W

a in the

rare exception to this rule

of the

is J>Xfcl

cities.

bitterer, as

derived from

anything bitter, spec, the colocynth, according to 'Ibn Dureid,


Kitab U-istikak, 53, 1. 6, 98, 1. 16 seq. In the Lisan, however (xii. 142),
R. S.]
it is differently explained.

j^sXs-

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst

II.

235]

Rem.

Of

b.

this

<Sc

Ovi lO

No

t>^'j

")OK

,/zerce,

(for

an(^ even these have lost their

and are used as simple

original signification,

235.

^ J^J = w>3l^

perhaps connected withj-wl breaking in pieces; JJVX


lasting, perennial,

stream that dries up in summer), from

JJ^X)

141

Adj.

form there remain only a very few traces in


Such are ^T^X lying, false (of a

Hebrew, none in Aramaic.

cro*e,

Adj. Verbal

adjectives.

JuguJi^pwt can, according to strict rule, be formed

from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms
of the verb, nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare 184,
rem. b).
If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the
ties,

by such

qualities expressed

adjectives,

we ought

to prefix to the corre& ,i

sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger,


*

oi

j/ tc

more beautiful,

tj~.t
it

'

j> worse,

and the

Uj^Uj 1-Axj

more

>*>\

<

go *

j*. better,

si

ul

(more excellent as

,>**.)

*o

and trainer; Wj^ ***

better teacher

j *oi
^
*~JM uglier,

E.g. ij++ J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder;

like.

excellent,

to

teaching

and

training)

j s o i

3>-t

(more excellent than

he as to answering) more ready than he in answering, or giving

answer than he

better

\.$yJaJ\

zs*

d&parting more quickly; \j^c

is

^
Zy~s

i si Oi
j>Z>\

jl

0*

Sjta^aJl^

(more quick as to departing)

more deformed by blindness of one

sometimes employed where a simple

comparative might have been used


i^s

as *yJi j*u ^y>

^&y3

sZ~~S

harder

^j^SI (el-Kor'an

rules laid

ii.

then, after that,

your hearts became hard,

Examples

a matter of

fact,

however, the strict

are constantly violated

by usage.

soi
J s

si-

of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb,

especially from IV.

o s

i-

j s

j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\),


s j s

Sf

from j^y

stronger as to hardness), where S^5 jlw!

As

down by the grammarians


3

(a)

(lit.

69).

^j

< s o s

like stones, or even

os-

9-*it

This form of expression

eye.

9-j~>\

i s

to cleanse or

purify,

II.

of j^o to be clean or

pure

oi

^**o\

J)

Part Second. Etymology

142

clearer or purer, from

making

j *

from^-Lw,

better,

upright ;
be firm;

j x a p

causing me greater alarm about, from


xx

'

JU.

or IV. of

II.

to

^Ut

fear ;

IV. of

from wJb^t, IV. of wJbi

<jU

to

from ^o\,

^yo\ causing

respect,

,bz

i^a-cul to be just,

j , b Z

J
J

IV. of

uuu

^
x

Aa//; r^acA the

6 P

from

>>.t causing to be better,


*

lt,

J ^*^t

giving more freely, from

IV. of t*-**- to live

IV. of JJ

' x

bZ

^^,

to

showing greater honour


yt>
X

IV. of

from ^j^l, IV. of

to,

^j^

xxx

/(

to fo

jwor, IV. of

* x

Maw, from JU-I,

to 60 crafty, VIII. of
X

^J*

J x
;

Jj*it

fo

noble;
J

^a
'

x0

^^Jit

xx->xg wzorg

Jl-

^> J>-t /wore crafty

t>* j$it

0#s27y

/^e?,

XX

ft

or more docile, than, from .>U3t, VII. of >13 to &a<#.


jsbZ

J X

to

to be desert, IV. of jaI

^Jjl

jAdl more efer Maw, from ja$\

poorer than, from ^^Jit

^j J ^oj^l
xxx

*'%*

XX
to bestow,

**tt

xOg

IV. of Uaft

xftg

fow^;

IV. of >l. to 60 good, excellent ;

^^t

bestowing more liberally, from ^J^l

to fo

Jib

grtiw s^acfe,

x p

bZ

middle;

xx

-*-),

j^6 JJit giving more shade than, from Jit to


Jx

to,

more just than,

ftp

preserving alive better, from

merciful

as

Jjist causing to last longer, from JU*t, IV. of


L5"**"'

flaccid

jj-o ^i-cut

to to0
x

to be

bZ

inspiring more fear or

w*aI
*

x P

wAa to fear ;
xxx

from w>Ut, IV. of

from

x ftp

->

x p

^s> ^Jb\ more

to last longer,

/.*"'
IV. of
^aj to remain, last
x

x J x

x x

ttt

quickly,

U-aU-jI that of the two which

'bZ

C 6i

or

giving more help towards,

from ^*-j\, IV. of $.j or

relaxes, or loosens, more,

wi^.

wJbM making depart more

away ;

go

to

* oZ

' bZ

or flabby ;

j x bZ

^^U \J^\

to help,

C*o
,

^s- ^*$.\

xx

from C-*Sl, IV. of

sure,

stand

to

x*

c~jI making more firm or

'

' Z

from

*ot

x x

<*JUJ,

of j*^-** to be safe;

II.

confirming or establishing better, from^UH, IV. of ^13


j

to be

j j*}5\

fi

sOZ

-;

235

U*s

to clarify or clear, II. of

^^o

J^O preserving

clear;

or the Parts of Speech.

* * t

formed from the passive voice

J*

9 1

(/?)

Examples of

*0t

^5-^-t, ^>', s-*At,

more feared

II.

236]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.^ Adj. Verbal Adj.

or formidable
j

more praiseworthy or commendable ;

j*+o-\

/?
to be

*oi

^t,

to be
*

waor^ occupied with


pass, of VIII.).
O

colours or defects
o

O*

oi

j , oi

'Oi

^^t

j *

excused; J^jl more readily found ; JjL>I more occu-

pied ; ^^jl prouder (^^j


*?>

CJU

wor^

s , o

(^^

or VIII.

**t)

i
;

&ztee? or hateful
,

o i

j<a*U shorter (from

Examples of J*sl from words denoting

(y)
J

proud)

Of-

J s O

S-

|>* cA^' whiter than ; ^>o %y*\ blacker than ;

d*-t 'more stupid than.

236.

more glad of or pleased by;

j-wt

oi

j *

jj&\ more

better

l,i

,ot

known ; j>^\ more deserving of blame ;


j

\*$j>\

143

The

verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive

voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb,


literal verb, are

the following.

and from the quadri-

Part Second. Etymology

144

or the Parts of Speech.

which the second and third radicals have

quadriliteral, in

237

instead

of L.

Rem.

The preformative

b.

takes in Arabic the vowel L, in

/>

'

Heb. and Aram.


"nnfi)* Du * ^he

vowel in

.^Ethiopic seems

OD;

S**rt = S^pHD, fjfcgOTD*


have retained the original

to

ma, as

iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor


OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^ OTfQ/l*"-

its prefix

(DftH, ftih)l

(manafek)

^0,

(e.g.

sceptic,

heretic (J3Uo)

tremble,

dreadful

(JTnS^)^

OD fl't'9t, rhC

CTO

11 Q.CJ^

TjTttD)j

(JsjJ,
"

C0,P"- (mar'ed) causing


:

mafrI ) fruitful

mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo)


0^

OD"|-(*"|ttyii

to

(matargwem) ^m

interpreter

->

(__

237.

In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae


Hence
rad. geminatse, the rules laid down in 120 are to be observed.
a

j * be-

>^U becomes >U

(see 13, rem.)

jj^wt,

's.

j&\

o j

JJ-cn, J>a*

etc.

238.

In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata, the rules laid down regarding those verbs ( 131-6) are to be

Hence we write jjf

observed.
G

OJ3J

jfc

2'

or Ojij for

wijt;,^)

for jjtt ( 135),


#

JjC for JtU

<J

133),

133),

2 J

5.j
for^;^, >>t>o for j.jtU
I

for

j3yc

( 131).
G

Rem.

a.

Rem.

b.

s-

preceded by kesra becomes $

Final hemza, preceded by

tion; as *C$>J or iS>Ji

rem.

h)> or

and

>

as

w,

^l*

admits of assimila-

or Xl-**<)>; *3J**

See

17

>

&>

6.

239.

In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse


G

rad.

e-

f r ^l*-

t^, the rule laid

down

in 147

must be observed ;

as j~>y* for

& Adj. Verbal

k. Nouns Subst.

241] II The Noun.

145

Adj.

240.
rad.

In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae


et ^, the place of the middle radical is occupied by a

with hemza (arising, according to


-

out of

133,

as

I);

JbLS

JH-3),

(for

(for jtL>), instead of JjlS, j->l~.

jjL*

Rem.

This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in

a.

160, which retain their middle radical unchanged; as^jU, JuU?.

Rem.

The form ^13 admits

5.

in certain words of being con-

tracted into^elS (compare the Heb.


*

<tl

rO

^^

j0*

x
i

-^

in the phrase -*}LJI JL5U> or -*}LJJ ^)U>, bristling with

Ox

^x
for JLSlw,

"|t

<0

wl

D1p)> as

for

Qp
It

Jj> J

weapons ;

olo for <suU, in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU, water-hearted,

c ^ clA
1

cowardly, stupid ; j\& feeble, forjjlfc;

<}"'<>'

"x

a51a

*.j*s)

oU> s/mrp

^x

for *5lw

(q/* sight),
9 *

Or-''

a tooth), for

(of

Ox

9 xx

for oiMJs

^L

is

transposed

wi

as .^LJI

corroded or decayed

^Li
5 #*x

viU ^oin^ afo^,

Sometimes the second radical C

ijib clayey, for ^51U*.


X

clb obedient, for *5lb

or greedy, for

fa'raid

->0X

^^j jl*>

(^5^^, >t^t

P^j JW-> ^-*>

&j.

ot,

J X

Rem.

In the form Jyt* the medial ^


J x
|x lx lx
OJx

as

cby,

241.

Jj>*>>vj>>, for

J^y,

middle radical

is

Jx

Js^o^y.

In the nomina patientis of the

rad. j, the

elided, after

first

letter

form of verba media)

throwing back
J

upon the preceding vowelless

usually changed into

is

c.

its

damma D

J X

as ^J^i^c, for <J>j^a-o, from

J X

The same thing takes

J>3^&**.

this difference,

damma

place in verba mediae rad.


that (to indicate the elision of the radical

changed into kesra, and, in consequence, the

is

into a t^

*
see

as

>

Oxx

w.

the

j productions

xJx

Zeid,

^)

instead of e>~, from 9>x+a.


~-.

[A poet even allows himself

Abu

with

^,

Naw&dir, 26

infra.

to say

UjU

xjx
for

UpL;

XX
(from j*);

D. G.]
19

Etymology

Part Second.

146

The forms

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech.

JO

\jj

JO/

more common, but


6

still

as

rare;

6/6

an(^ AJ>**> are sa id to be


the uncontracted forms are

035^*1

cij^J^o,

From verba med.

used dialectically.

242

**

JO*

r,

JO

b^+a***, )iJ*c, O^jJ-o,

**,

vo^s-o, JI^^Co, for ***, Ixo^o, etc.


/

242.

Verbal adjectives of the form

from verba

J**v derived

media? rad. ^ et ^, become by transposition Jju*, and then pass into


O

wl

(/

J*3, which
6 0/
or

C^*,

50/
6

Ji**

60/

6/

/ /

uJ

0/

oW,
60/

or

*-<o,

OW

6 */

(O^)j O**

or

6/6ul/

exceeding (*jy); j+j,

6/60/

Ok*/

in the sense of straight, right, tall,

243.
3

J^ dependent for sustenance,

6ul/

The verb^elS has^>$


/

C and ^^3

rad.

wicked (l\y>)\ Oti, clear (Cytti) Jt**> good


"

^i***,

01

ULJ

E.g. C~>*

OnJ/
;

easy, for

(j-wj.).
/

(jiy)

fotgrA*

easy, contemptible (^jj^b);

5/
6

(*^

o r 0**> 50

0**>

//

60/

Ml/

O^

(Jl*)j;

O^**, ^*J j-

6&ae?, for

60/
for

in its turn frequently shortened into J*s.

is

et

in that of having charge of, managing.

Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media?


follow the same rules as their Imperfects.

Rem. The learner should observe that the participles


are written and pronounced with
and VI. of verba med.

on no account with hemza;

/ J

// J

of III.

*J

and

^j,

J /

///

^->U,
<>jV~-) like i>jU>> ChW^J?
*
/

e.g.

-/ J

"" J

and not t>5U, ^LZo.

244.

The nomina

ultima? rad.

et

agentis et patientis of the

first

have already been mentioned


9

Jy

form of verba
167,

b,

and

p,

Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated

170).

S j/

according to the same rules as the nomina patientis


Si

hostile,

an enemy, ^jk* a
6

captive, for

245.

<

33^,

In

all

6/6/

70)

e. g.

2"

harlot, ^j~t generous, noble,

J/

( 1

5/

^^o

j jjz

2/

boy,

^w

l>*^> 3ij^y 3#r> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad.

et

^,

The Noun.

II.

246]

Noam

A.

Sabst.

& Adj. Norn.

147

Unit.

and ^ (which
the second radical be pronounced with fetha, the
and
or
assume the
converted into ^) reject their vowel
tenwin,

if
is

nature of the

maksura

elif

rem.

7,

form be one that

If the

b).

admits of complete declension, the tenwin is transferred to the second


radical.
According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis
:

of the derived forms, as

for

/Of

^pcjl for
a,

,0i

and

j^jt
b,

/Of

J s

Oi

for

^jt, ^j&t
Compare

for

j^&t,

167, a,

/?.

The Denominative Nouns.

The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote

246.

^kig,* (jkwt);

oi

J ,

(>o;t), j^jXa-t for ^X*.! (jJUU),

b.

(a)

for

^y*, ^^jlc

adjectives of the form J*t, as ^cj\

(b)

(3,

^y*

The Sj^^Jt

iU~>t, or

B
the Individual.

nouns of individuality, designate one

individual out of a genus, or one part of a whole that consists of


several similar parts.
vicis ( 219),

They

are formed, like the analogous

the genus or whole.

E. g.

vW- pigeons, with the

4ul*. a pigeon {male or female), from

article,

number of pigeons spoken of;

v&U&J

ifcu

t,

Sxx

Jiu the

duck ;

G* * {

head of cattle {bull or cow), from jJb cattle; Sj+j a fruit, from

/rm ;

j-j

the genus pigeon or the w/iole

a duck or drake, from

O< *<

S>aj owe

nomina

by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express

0/

S^oJ

date,

from j^j

an

efotes ; SlLolj

onion,

Ox/*

/*
#

onion; 2ub$ a bit of gold, a nugget, from ^Jki

from J-oj #fo


<5/-&

<7<?&//

*L*3

a straw,

from ^>*j straw*.

Rem. a. The use of the nom. unit, is almost entirely restricted,


as the above examples show, to created things or natural objects.
*

,0*>

[A

peculiar application of the oj^.^i\


oZ I

portion of any food, as

Mubarrad
etc.

173,

Comp.

1.

4),

A+jL a
)

i.

rice,

is its

use for a dish or

Oss*

!+* a

dish of fish

(el-

portion of meat, fc+ji a portion of cheese,

Fragm. Add.

Gloss.

(Zamahsari, /'a^,

a dish of

ojj\

^wt

331, 417,

ii.

129.

This

323.

D. G.]

5 is called

Ufv yfc rlt

*U)t

Part Second.

148

of artificial or

Examples
5/

0x0

/
X

^iw

e.g.

XX

^J

from

or

7%#
/t

^J

The

Oxx

a ship or

Nomina Abundantly
*,

x OiO

V}

]"]>

boat,

*b PD^-

vel Multitudinis.

nouns of abundance, designate the

or

SjJLxJt iU-^t,

noun from which they are

found in large numbers or quantities.

is

bricks ; 2uJut

place where the object signified by the

formed,

Ox

Similar forms in Heb. are:

6.

(/?)

247.

manufactured objects are very rare;

shipping, boats.

247

or the Parts of Speech.

Ox

brick,

Rem.

&U) or dUJ a

from

Etymology

They have the form

SlxLo, and are, consequently, a mere variety of the nouns of place


Ox

x x 2x

x x

Oft

(v")>

foosfe

a place abounding in

lions (jut),

J x
Oxftx
OxOxOxOx
of prey (***); SLa^o or 3t^&**, SUA*, a

05x
* snakes (*),
O

ax*..o

E.g. SjurU, *JtJ*c,

221).

W|w (^^1);
r

jJOfc

xOx

jt?to?

0?/4/

5U*, a

4a*Jsu*,

fat!

o/*

Ox xO

melons (4-Jxj), cucumbers (ILLS); 4-U^-, a place where pomegranates

C (o^j) 0WW0
Rem.
Oxx

abundantly.
a.

From

quadriliterals this formation

"

>,

Ox

>

is

rare; as JJuu^
x

a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj, 7^^), scorpions

Rem.

6.

Sometimes the

fern,

.,

used in this sense, with or without


3

participle of the fourth form is


*
J
05 J Ox
as <LJx*, aJbuwo, (a pfoce)
^joj\ ;

Ox

x J

abounding in lizards (y^), black

beetles

(Jju*.),

SffiU (a spot)
Ox Ox

producing cucumbers.
Ox

x J

Ox OP

"'

/iares.

c.

x J

Also from XII. rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many

Oxx

Rem.

Ox

(a place) abounding in foxes, scorpions, chamaileons

(^bj^),

Similarly from quadriliterals, 3JU1, Ajjijto,

^jowo, iJj3^
.

(w^ift).

The use

of

cause of a certain state or feeling,


Ox

their ordinary

nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the


x

is

Ox Oxx

only a tropical application of


Ox JxxOx

meaning ; as dX^^c <U .a...o jjyt children are a cause

The Noun. A. Nouns Sabst.& Adj.

II.

249]

Rel. Adjectives.

of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents)


&La.,6,

>U~JJ

& came

q/*

^ooc? health,

^J-a*.*

cawse

itto

<;

^3^1 jJJ

, , $ ,

3.>ji*o

joy or happiness,

disease;

jdx

j ,

aaUCaJI joking leads to

annoyance

7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting

(y)

evil or ill-feeling

on or producing

bringing

o/*

rt.J,k.,

;,>,.a.,

149

and the

the Vessel

like.

which

contains anything.

248.

The nomina

vasis, U>)I

il^t, have the same form as the

0^0

Oxft

228); e.g. j*o a needle-case, from Sjj! a needle;


" ^
*
0*0
3
wJ>a>.-o a milk-pail, from w-A. or w~jX- mtfl ; O**-* ct milk-pail, from

nomina instrument

ft

t>J m*7&, or a brick-mould, from d-U a brick;


0^0
SxJ
9
J^j wtfM ; aSj^o a spittoon, from JjlJJ saliva.

a urinal, from

a)>*-o

ft ,

Rem.

O J

0*

an

*>.

S J

ft

6/
is

obtained

ft

from

oil-jar,

3U^a4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-,

i.e.

it is

The

228,
J

&,*?ja*o

applied

relative adjectives,

eye-salve

the mil

( J*o) or

to the eye.

a^JwJ

Adjectives.

2l~>^t, or

simply

oL~JI

^7

formed by adding the termination


to the words
and
from which they are derived,
denote that a person or thing
belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin, family,
(relationes), are

birth,
'

it

solar,
S

sfy;

&
t/ie

sun;

q/"

QftS

ft

^-ojt

6 s

from ^-^w

vi

earthly,

descended

from

Temlm (^9t+3)

el-

from ^ajS the earth;

'

v5^

dl

from

aerial,
+ +

* *

j^^-

<

<r*W

E.g.

etc.).
<i

rj-+*

/*#

trade,

sect,

ft

from Jo*o,

The Nomina Belativa or Relative

(8)

otf;

,*. ft

the plants from which alkali

instrument with which

249.

^Aj

aJUhXt a pAto /or keeping kohl or

to be carefully distinguished

(Jjfc.iT>),

ft

rem.); as jjJkjuo or duju

or potash

0*

very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see

*>%,*

Hasan \&mmJ\)

i<a*%o oorw or

j**. #/^ a/r, the

j^^o-^ belonging to

l/tungr c

Damascus (JU*o);

Part Second.

150

$0

ie*Xz

perceptible by one of the senses

the intellect

common

^5^*>
*

a< -

&

^" o ^ )

249

^^

(kJjfi);

or ora^

to,

cj

o/*,

the

law ;

according

/*0

to

to sense

from

Ji*

^j* according
analogy

(^y);

or fire-worshippers

Magus

<-

L5^^ belonging to, or 0^<? o/", tfa sgc o/" Malik (*yJU)
90/
Sw
3ft/
f
from J*}>k fc# ; ij>** from j*. gwc? ; ^1 from <j\ truly,

"

and wont

belonging

,b*

(cr*j)

use

intellectual,

^*>

from
^jji legal, legitimate,

in)

from^Xfr knowledge, science; ,** relating

scientific,

(i^e*-),

to

or the Parts of Speech.

from jaa Egypt ; ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw);

(J>-tf^ Egyptian,
&

Etymology

'4*

j^jAj^I*
verily.

Rem. a. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives, but in more modern Arabic, and especially in

tives

the language of the schools, also from the other kinds of nouns,

and even from

Rem.
express

b.

"

relativa derived

[However, in such words as

*'

^jwt,

D. G.]

This termination

common

is

in

Heb. (m. \_
'

and JV ), as

^c*.j\.,

^ has, according to some, a corroborative or

intensifying force (djJL^JU).


c.

3/0*5/5/*

jj^"*.t,

C)!i* ^ ne termination

Rem.

from adjectives properly


by such and such an

belonging to the class designated

adjective."
^

particles (see 191).

The nomina

^7X1^

1*]^$ Hebrew,

Israelite,

^3

f.

H*

In

strange.

generally used to form certain adjectives which are


derived from other adjectives, as ch<5.|"l.: (harrasl) a ploughman,
J)

iEthiopic,

I is

OUrfr|

(mahharl)

(= >\j-*.,
usual

HPl)

relative
r

YlC,tl t^yi'

ft^P^:

compassionate,

**Urh:; whilst awl and ay are the

and

terminations, as

Christian,

(krSstlyanawi)

('aiyay) like (from

Aram, has the

ft^:

'ay,

PvJ.*!^- (medrawl) terrestrial,

Egyptian, wjuj^JjId eastern.

ft^^:
i

or

('aiyawi)

of what kind? which?).

last of these forms, viz. *_,


f

*T>ffi

from the obsolete rh-ft

in general use

The
;

as

It The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj. Rel.

252]

250.

Adjectives. 151

In forming the nomina relativa, the primitive nouns undergo

various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants, to the final radicals

^ and ^, and

Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants.

I.

The feminine terminations 3_ 3u and

251.
as
J s

to the vocalisation.

ZSU Mekka, L5*U; Sj-oJI


&

s *

a,JxL Malatya,
4-i-JI

* *

el- Basra,

J sul

^j^Xc

<J>oj

aiyjt el-Kufa,

J s

ulul

aJJLo

Sicily,

3u, are rejected

^Jao

coipus of traditions relating to the ways

direction

ofMekka,

^^

a window,

the

to

party of All,

^-^^-

guished persons, the higher

vulgar ; tjs- a promise,

Rem.

classes,

^J&; &j

from

letter,
j

ioUJI

common

/^

like ojs-,

be a weak

radical, if the third radical

in praying,
j^jXJ*

weight, measure,

In the case of nouns which,

tfa kibla

3>

distin-

people, the

^).
have

the

lost their first

first

ought to be

as * (from ,*j),

[^y3
S

* *

St

(on the second

see 258

and

^>wj

[or

,-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians, and


'
Ox
9/
ulx

foil.).

o *

The forms j-^wj

or]

or

an-

and 2UUJI

restored and the second to take fetha


5

Os

&LJt

refined, ^gste vulgar,


j a

and habits ofMuham-

j^ycw*;]

which the Muslim turns

Jj

Js

mad, ^5-w; [fa J LM

^^>',

^UAjjil Africa, ^yuj*\c

also the very

Jj

irregular

^JJ^

'Anbarl's Nozhat

252.

1,

(a)

from

Sjifr,

Walibba

[and j^^-w from 4-w

52.

that have four or more letters, besides the

L^jWif

the nouns ending in

[Lane has

^*w

the

name

fern,

in

D. G.].

The feminine termination

S"jxxjx_
L*^" Gumadd,

(Hammad

j)

^-

is

rejected in nouns

as ^)W-

of two months,

have only three

bustard,

S^-*

^U.

(&)

But

letters besides the

of this form, however, only a single instance

has been mentioned in the T. A.

D. G.]

Pakt Second.

152

A ^,

Etymology

two cases are to be distinguished,

vowel, the

name

the

is

rejected

^ may either be

into

as

So

or

more

^j-U*.

letter

/*<?

world,

(present)

^t

or the

is

what the Arab grammarians

appended

elif

(i.

which serves to give to the word

e.

"0

to give

^ji>

^lbj.5)

l>a*3

as

or

j^^b

^ nouns have only

Rem.

or

as

^L,

o -

^iU

In

1,

x * j

is

253.

b,

/3,

s#r

and 2
*oi

6,

"

j^xilir

"

and

ui

MekM, Gufi

vi

254.

formed from them

Spain

^j$jjJjL~>\

Similarly, from substantives like

bullrush, the relative adjectives are

plural terminations

of

men)

^j*

belonging

J)

^y*j& a
3

The

as

a native of Alexandria

names

(^J&c, ^5***-,

one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i


(^aiUJI);
in

it

0/

^j*

L5?

*L-. of relative adjectives fall

relative adjectives are to be

(2ljj**)\)

(Jb)ju**>)1).

but

viz.
j;**.*
-

92

0*

,-

3
J

of

(^>j'.

< o

1^3^' L^S^'

'

Sdfi'ite,

is

&

Almeria

to
J

sort
* oi

admissible,

//

^j*^ a

a vulgarism.

to
\J$U, ^5***. belonging
3

as

a third form

C^W

'

ii

either be changed

may

r*?0,

-oj

such

if

of shrub or 5^a//

The terminations ^ and

away when new

But

(b)

^y.Sb.

ut

^i^t &

to

big, stout camel,

ftf

or

^Sb

or rejected altogether

^4%*-, L&V/3

with hemza,

three letters besides the ^, it

^ o *

^>iU

^sj+*. ^ju5 a

tick,

the bean,

^Sb,

is preferable),

^ (which
3

a bug or

it

2*0**

Os*

^jsj+&.

...

m>*

the form of^*Ap, by> to assimilate

it

//

call

appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral

is

it

word, e.g.

heath,

--oj

or

belongs neither to the root nor

if it

^,

into

t^^x

^j-*j>

j i

o*>

to which

likewise rejected in nouns that contain four

is

letters besides the

JUJ'nJI

changed

relationship,

\j-lj*

1-JjJI

to the feminine termination, but


* o

or

preferable), or
*0J

/oi ^

^5>J>5

The

2, (a)

or

/sj

o j

^-jj.3

without a

/J

^L^

*L. pregnant,

is

rejected (which

<**

Baradd,

\>j4

ass, ij>>j*-;

If the second letter is

(/3)

253

second letter has a

If the

(a)

a swift

as ^j*-

of a river, \^>j*>.

vowel, the

or the Parts of Speech.

^j*

^ and O!

chair,
3

and

seat,

0*

^>j->.

and the dual termi-

Rel. Adjectives.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.

II.

254]

nation ,jl_, are rejected

as

O^ iwo

to two,

^s^^ relating

>

153

dwdistic;

' ' * <v

' '

'

^5-oj*-

o^

to> ?w^w named Kais,

^-^3

JO'

<-

Mekka and

(or sacred territories of


#

jL*3

w0 harams

/&

,jU^aJt

jj

*&* of the

O^J^J

Rem.

'

apply to proper names ending in


'

L^Lf*^

3o

It

6.

^jjX*, plur. of

this rule does not

JO'

'
l

as

Imrcln,

^jlj-^ft

JO'

C)3*H) Zeidun, l^jJ^Jj.

'->?

twenty, instead of

QjJ-^

*'

^V^.

only in later times that such forms are possible

is

JJjJUc, from

as

'

'

^ '

of a place,

^t_ and (j^

O*^^** Haitian, ^J^UX**.

'

Rem.

Muslims,

OljUA women of the

remarked that
J

irf

the

'0

It need hardly be

a.

.l..>.

name of Zeid, t^J^J


-"
waw*? of Hind, ^j^a; Oli^ 'Arafat, the name
L5^"***

0'

el-Medina),

jo'

'<

from

iy*,

0'*

'

aJU a hundred, for {y**

'/

^jJ^

i**+l dualistie, from

jjUjI fwo, instead of \^y3 or .Jtf!.


j

Rem.

Foreign names of towns, ending in ^-j sometimes

c.

'

change this termination in Arabic into


it.
In the former case the termination
'jOui
3
is

preserved

'j'
(J|3^a-aj

as ,jjj^~;3 Kinnesrin,

3'

Nisibis,

i-xpcti,

j0'3

3o'

L&*!> but cH/^>

Rem.

'

^jLx^;
'

jjO'
j^xj,
J#

J'O^J 3wj
^UwjJ, ^jJ

3 '0

^jit.

w.

^L:

'3

>.

5^

i_

^^j-^

j/

i5* fr ?

'0'
3
^y\j^j

-5'

''

l>*->;

We

3"0'3'0

^t^j-jJ,

e.g.

O^J-**>>

'

>^

fl

>

OJJ*^

Fcftriin,

chiefly foreign, are very irregular

O'O'O'
,j^a*-JI,

lSP

3'0'

'

^j$t or

0'

3
'

L& **

Ji''

u''
bjb,

'

''

^'jb

3"
,

J'O
9 *"
3

0'

2/sa^t,

*0->* Tiberias, ^j/***


3

J'
,

S'0'0
lS^-^J

<

L^J Ji >-^ ***><,

J"0'0'

J'O" 3''
;

at ther times retain

>

rejected, in the latter it

L5^^'

in their formations
3

is

eX**"^'

Some proper names,

0?.

OJ

^j-^3, but ^j~U3,

ut

'

J'O'O'P
O^-sO*',
3

r'

may, however, use ^j^j^, ^^^Jaudl, (^jj-,


* >
1
j5'
1 *

<fc.>.

Ol>*-

"

makes

either

^j-*-

or

^Uj*.
20

AJ

Etymology

Part Second.

154

+ + *

"

'

i b

or the Parts of Speech,

x x x

or }ja~>\j} has \^>j^jy as well as the regular formation

}je*j\j\}

xx

rjt Manes makes


Rem.

xx

and

*Jtu, ^>i*

from^otuJI Syria; and


j
o,

j/

-..

XX

ul

<*

ul

<LjI*j,

xx

fern.

^-^, which

XX

ul

The forms ^^V>, ^5*^, and ^U*! likewise

are also used.

fern.

art. ..*luJt), fern. A**U>,

el-Yemen; instead of ^^lyJ, ^<^U, and

^>o-Jt

.^(1^i\),

art. L

(with the art. ,-jl^Jt),

O^J
5

-t>

D. G.]

,*3t.

Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the

e.

A^lyj, from ^ul^J, Tiliama ; j\tt (with the

from

255

occur.

Comp. the words jJUj, cb> and ~-L (=^^.1^).


x

"

255.

The

letter

in

X&X

words of the forms L*$ and &L**, when

not derived from verba mediae rad. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^),


Sx

same time changed into fetha*

rejected, the kesra of 1X&& being at the

SxxOxx

5xx
C

as A-iuji

Sxx

^SjJ^"

' P'

A*JJ^t el-Medina, ^yj**

an

Sxx

x j

island, or Sj-j^JI

Ox
;

*Uj J

Mesopotamia,

S^'

s^/p,

i' 0xJ

i*~'
;

lip5-

But,

if

J*Vi

vel ^, they

L5^**

Sx
^ ne f rms

J***

^ju ** ^L^S

tool,

0x->

an(i J***> the

SxxSxxSxSxJ

is

rejected only

i^jj^fc,

^3-^; ^y^,

Ox

unchanged, as

*
the

^o->^>

t^JWj

(a tribe),

OOxJ

(a town),

^5-^5 (men),

J**,

*>ii&.

form

Comp.

^y&\ ^>-<$.

j^^-o-^

OOxJ

J**

j->-> (tribes),

AJ$*i, as in

also

SxOx

[According to Zamahsarl, Faik


of the

i.

^tw

Mufassal 90,

1.

3 or ^ as ^J^,
SxxSxJ
is

xJ

l5^>a

m//

the third consonant of the radical

reality,

xOxdxJ

>

remain unchanged; as <ULa*.

Sju jc- a piece of iron, an iron

Ox J

they come from verba mediae rad. gemi-

<

^a*a.

i'*'

**fr"g

***y*,

natae or mediae

<*x

x j

^5*^.

(tribes), ^^^-v*-,

J x

statute, ^*ej*; *j4j*f

Jx

is

^yt

Otherwise
5

(a man),
3

when

it

(tribes),

remains
>

<"

^^a*

jujJ

'

c tjf*,

160 the same thing happens to


\^+Zt)

from S^ii,

and Slbaweih

ii.

^yot

66, 319.

from

D. G.]

The Noun. A. Nouns Svbsb.& Adj.

II.

257]

Rem.

There

a.

Ufrl nature, .-auJa

<&JJ*6 a city,

j3jc belonging to el-Medina),


it

Spain (to distinguish

from i*J~>,
9

(tribes),

^j&fc,

(tribes),

from ijjj^.
'>

(a place)
*J

^JUk, ^^o-U, ^^is

autumn, ^A**>

it

from

,-o-Jlw, ^j-j^ft,

E.g.

Algeziras in

to

^jjj**. belonging

^j3

rules.

JJj<* (to distinguish

^j+ij J J

*-H>*

1^5**^
"

Jj M, jtnX^, ^Ju

from ^jj**- Mesopotamian)

(tribes)

<>**

OJ/J

* J

Rel. Adjectives. 155

however, exceptions to these

are,

<

Ji*>jS,

'

<5

^t^^j

Uu*3

^Llc,

a prophet,

*,' ,

.'

makes ^yo, from the assimilated form ,~J.


9

wlx

Rem.
mediae

Words

6.

et

^,

of the

form J*j

reject the second

^ along with

other words follow the shorter form J-J


V

^ju~

^4*

^ooc?,

.**J.

same remark applies


(\S)

as

>

an

^ may

The

<i
ju~>l as

[But

j^o-*-,

productionis of the

The

with kesra

dimin. of jl*-,
'2 _

name has t^Ju-A]

nomen

patientis in verba tertiae

^ changed into y whilst the kesra


;

as

i^j-* thrown, uSyej*.

prefer to reject both the

^ productionis

But

and the

I)

patientis, ^j*j-*.

3 productionis in the form


244), is rejected, and the second

Lastly, the

tertiae

9 5 J +

instead of

form

>

^yUs.

so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the

^,

257.
verba

has

(a tribe)

be rejected, and the radical

many grammarians
nomen

as ju~> a lord or master,

(J?*****!

a tribal

from radicals

vowel kesra, or in

to every penultimate double

of the second radical becomes fetha

radical

^j^^Js

its

Jot

ass, jJ^a^a..

256.

But

dimin. of j^wt, Ws&,

A***'*

(for J**s, 242)

damma

^jJ^

as $$**,

vt

)>, derived

' '

a female enemy, ^3*^.

from both j**c and

*$js-.

from

radical takes fetha

Many, however,

Part Second.

156

The Uif maksura

of a triliteral noun,

^-

^j a

as

or

(t

^,

youth, ij?>^i

But

^j^-j

rem.

7,

changed into

is

^J^3 mo^, ^3J^5.


(I

or the Parts of Speech.

into ^, which
x Oi
20x
3

mill, \J$$*-j

to* a

may

as

^*&\

10

SxOx

a musical instrument,

the (^

or

^y^o
XX

noun contains

If the

^y**.

same

always rejected; as

is

rules apply to the final

some nouns

in

purblind,

xdx

1,0}
letters,

'

^c

or LS
^^X

3<>x

^^ju

meaning,

^^-oc

staff,

either be changed

y.

?Ox
^^ia-o

the better form, or be rejected

is

as the third radical

b),

the noun has four letters, the final ^

if

ir^o
jyJ- play, or ^^
^^

258

before adding the termination

does not occur in such words in good Arabic)

^3-u*t
X

Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^.

II.

258.

Etymology

^aJa^o

^ of radicals

"

The

chosen, ^^AJxcuo.

tertise

after kesra (see 167, b, /?);

^, which

et

but

more

five or

it

falls

must be borne

away
is to be counted as one of the letters
in mind that the missing
C of the word, and also, if it be changed into 3, that the kesra always

becomes

fetha.

E.g.

sorrowful, \jys*i;
3

ferable form) or
*x

(for

Rem.

a.

^15

owe

xOJ

OxOj

' ? J

*'

The addition

wAo

formation; as

5tj.>

an inkhorn;

carries

Slo^.

'3

Such forms as
S

^ako,^

for

" *

^Ijj

Hama

6x0j

IL does not
writing-case,

Sxx

(H^Pl), {Jy*

SxOOxx
SUl.

xO

x x

Sld^e a ladder, ^J^j-c

a wine-shop, ^^Jl^. or i*^^


x
^^x

x X

OxO

^jZLc), Jju, o

<m inkhorn or

Jxx

6.

L5^)

is the pre^^-olS (which

xOJ

of the feminine termination

Rem.

(f r

a district in Palestine, ^jj-^

Ox

e>**; *-*

jufct (for t^ju**), jJu^o (for

ox x
or d-J l.

and

a judge,

^5-^^)
J

Jx5x
Sl^uJt,

blind,

^Jux*, ^j.Xo, ,-lx*^.

affect the rule of

3xx
^3j >

(for

S^x

^o^)

(for

xx

^Jya 15

^k&*~c),

vintner.

ml

xx

for ^33,3,

^jUx*

^tu^uo, are modern and corrupt.

for t^^y**,

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

260]

259.

The hemza

& Adj. Rel. Adjectives.

of the termination ll (the elif

memduda,

157

23,

always changed into j; as l\jjs> a virgin, ^S^jJ^-', *t-*^'


x^oj
so*
k//j
3
~8 + *
3
i' .i;^ fa 6/a^ beetle,
(a town in Persia),
bj>j
"
rem. a),

is

^jUu

,.*

But

Zachariah, i^jbj^j.

^jUUi

**
in the termination 1 1

be sprung from an original radical 3 or

merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see


taiDed unaltered (which

^jl^w, or i^jtf

changed into 3

^ji-A, jjgjW*

(^jb;,

~'0

ma&

chameleon,

On

it

I,

~,

names; as tyy**.,

^^jj
^bu^ with

place),

nW

260.

substituted for the


3

^3-U.,

a tribe),

"'*

in the

3 _r

^^b,

the hemza be an
*

3 -r

IjJ),

^tp.

hemza

a few

as l\^jj (a

^\j^ iU^o
',

(a city in el-Yemen),

which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%

*3

7^

riW.

weak

radical,

as

w>t,

i.e.

those which have lost

-t,^., axJ, 3, etc.,

necessarily

only in cases where

it reappears in the dual and


plural;
reappearance be not necessary, the third radical may be
omitted in the relative adjective. In all cases where the third radical

but

is

it

if this

restored, it

appears as ^, whether

brother,

/^

6 /

^>*t \j**>

(for

it

was originally

or not.

a father, ^jy\
(for ^i.1, du. Ol*^')
.1
9/^
3^"
>*) a husband\s father or brother, $y++>

E.g. w>' (for y>\, dual Ol*>')


2

Primitive defective substantives,

their third

recover

(places),

*byJ

^yb/*-,

3j^
\jjj^> In

5-*'

^b;, ^yb^,

from

is

letter

2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper

*tjjj*-

" >

<*

as l\jS (rad.

j ,

cases too the letter ^j


3

if

"-

The termination
*

^^*

^y^U,

the contrary,

always remains unaltered

~*

'O

focm,

Rem.

?^3b &

j^jUU, ^jbj^-, i^y^Sb.

original

mot, 2b/. a

|U the

as

a far^w ttfMW

*WXfc

either be re-

may

it

fb; a garment, <l~ a robe, ti*~> the heaven, J^Stf,

d,

or

whether the hemza

or be not a radical but

252, 2, a),

better) or be

is

^,

Part Second.

158

a*j (rad. >i))

Etymology
^$*)

dialect,
2

xx

>w) a

^>w

year,

*t (rad. ^ot) a female slaw, ^Jyc\

00

v)

oW)

du.

^J,

,jj| (for

a w, ^yj\

podex, L5^ or

00

C-Uj, a daughter,
xx
oxx

3-o

or

^yL*

4&2>,

j^.,

~x

has t^jU,

<0)

(rad.

ju

ox

\Jo,

(for

io ~

Sol

make ^^a-l and

has the three forms

lip,

,S

'

(gU,)

v.). SU

xx

^3^

or

xx
3
or l3"*->

and

sister,

**

^3a, ^^iw,

(rad.
3

ox

00

C-wt

<su);

M^> ^>

->*

^3*.! and ^y^..

as well as

'z

(from

^
'

So
^j^U,
3

Cukl, a

ct.

L^^

iw

^3^.

or
o

Rem.

^^

alw) or

0*

**'*

U> *^ or

^j

morrow,

<

,^5^ (from

du. O'*^) a

00

OJ

x J

^~>t (rad. >*~>) a name, ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J)


3

go

,*

* , ,

(rad.

261

^m, ^^3 #*

^J Me

(rad.

O x*

t^U) a hundred, ^y**


2

or the Parts of Speech.

3-

vw(w, makes ^^- or ^ay*. (from


3

^U

and ^U.
j

CO/

Rem.

6.

Where

the original form was Jjti, some retain the

'

ox

gezm; as ^jjo, ^>0,

ox

^3^,

LST^'

L$>-?>

261.

The

third radical

or ^J of the forms

OOx
retained unchanged
3

gazelle,

L5

handle,

^3^

as 3**J

3oj

is

Ox

* x

SO

8,4

5 '

4JU*

grammar, ^$y^> a grammarian ; ^Ao

Ox
5
j>* a foray, {$5)*

9x0

Ox

r.

J** and

*3~>;

bribe,

SoxOxOJ

4j>* a village,

^j-*

r-xOJ

^^j
Soj

3^

<wo an image, j^^o.

But

if

the final
3

0x0^

of

xx

fetha, as 1^3/*,

U$

be changed into 3, the second radical takes

Sx^

'->

Ox Ox

x OJ

i^^**, from ajji,

^3-0,

' 6

and 2u a possession;

4-*.>,

extended by some to words in which the third radical


Ox Ox
5x->
was originally 3, as {$j, {*2>j, l5^' fr m 5J>J^> e ^ c
If the
a rule which

is

SxxSx

second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^, combining with tho third


radical into

^,

this

is

resolved into its original consonants, the

second radical takes fetha, and

{J*

(for

l$>) a fold,

y}

final

J^

(for

is

converted into

J^l)

living,

J?^-!

3
;

as

lj a

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.dk Adj.

II.

262]
-

<UUi, final

** #

, ,

snake, ^J^**-.

retained, as S^ULw misery,

is

s ,

x x

\^^

twist or turn,

x x

159

Rel. Adjectives.

In

words of the form

^jlii

but

5 <"

final

'

"'

0/ lizard,

^Uic.

"Words

5 ^

Rem.

oo*
^ju, a

a.

ajU a

of the form *ut a sign,

make

at night, *j\j a banner,

l^jju) aw inhabitant of the

verba

Nouns

6.

tertise rad.

radical

^3-ciS

into

as

//j

See

^3^!

o^-ait,

a town),

i^j-o

(rarely i***!, and,

^ j

l^5

'

though very

255-6.

Ox

Ox
a

In the forms Jjii and &Us, the kesra of the middle radical

changed into fetha

from

Changes in the Vocalisation.

III.

is

<H>^

aJlaii, etc.

J^ai,

x*

incorrectly, (JV>I).

262.

productionis and change a

ji

x x

^is., {3+*

a**t (a man's name),

aJL^Jti,

^, reject the

of

(instead

a Bedawi.

desert,

of the forms J-ati,


et

x x

j^ju

irregularly

t/j

Rem.

wfore

jt?fec<?

^jI, ^51, or j^jt, etc.

makes

desert,

sor

Ox x

*x x

cattle, etc., rest

is

changed into hemza, as <uU~> drinking-vessel, ^SULw, ajUxc ^


2

j-o-JI (tribes),

&

But

and

w^JL; (the ancient

x x

^jlA

2>

So

S>w (a tribe), {Jj3&.

also in

may

be retained,

xOg

OUji! makes ^^31

J
;

Ox

x-f*,

more than three consonants, the

of

not altered.

is

name

/twr,

In nouns that consist

'%'

5
ftfo

^^J.

and ^jjj are admissible, though


x Og

jufb

in Jjti, the kesra

vowel of the penultimate letter

x
;

^jx

tribe),

as J-l camels,
^jj\ or

tribe)

x x

^^U

king,

j~o, ^j+j

J*j, as J5oJt (a

Rem.

3**x3xxjxx

a x

as *ilU

From

WA*3

of Si-Medina) the forms


5

ox

^JJu
x

and

xOx

^^^

JiSiS

*x

,*Jj> are preferred


5

a nd

(a

x x0

^yU^JI,

as well as

Part Second. Etymology

160

263.

Kesra or

damma

of the penultimate consonant

into fetha in all forms in which a

which a
3

^ has

final

is

[263
changed

or ^j has been rejected, or in

been changed into j

as zjj>j^j\,

^>ol

**;

,,

^>i

(see the preceding

Rem.
dj-aJI,

'

or the Parts of Speech,

J*

).

Of rare and arbitrary changes, such as


^Jj*aj from
the sacred territory

^j^a- from^opJt

time,

j^-^^l

of Mekka, \^j^> from

t>t

from ^^ol yesterday, a grammar can take no

account.

264.

If a relative adjective is to be

formed from a proper name

which is compounded of two words, the following points must be attended


to.

A.

x o

two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or

If the
9

o y

Si

lOUwt
5 w.^p),
x
X

x .*

as US JajU (he carried mischief under his arm, the

nickname of a celebrated poet and

or
shone)*

are contracted into one


x

mixed compound)

compound word

'

then

termination
3

^ylS.

B.

appended to the

If the first

word

is in

second in the genitive, two cases


9 I

j)

first

as

is

ct,

omitted, and the

xx

and
.

3 **
kSjHJ-

(2 )

xx

* ne

fi rs ^

secondary cases arise,


status constructus

still

wor(l

CUj

0>

o.

daughter,
jg

it is
ox

as jSL> y>\, ^JjSJ


3

'

f/i/"

e an y other than these four,

(a) If the idea of definiteness

JO

two

through the

exists in the consciousness of the speaker,

Compare the nickname

Bell-the-cat.

^j^>

son,jt\ mother, or

appended to the governed word

<*

governing word be

(1) If the

arise.

ox

^
"

\^b*?> <****>

^*-j&,

rejected,

2c

^\

' j

wi=>,

the status constructus, governing the

one of the nouns ^father,

(^j^-j-

o x

^M*^. VJyiS, the towns

the second word

roa

(At*

Jj->
3

XX

<2xxO X

as w^jjuio, a man's name,

of Ba'albek and KdUJcald,

o^J

warrior),

as

of one of the Earls of Douglas, Archibald

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. Rel. Adjectives. 161

II.

264]

6 x J

J * J

in O^****" v*^>

slave

tlie

of Hosein,
3

'I

the second takes


is

^^^.

as

the

word

first

is

But

(b)

(a) in cases
5

where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended,

vt

\JISJ

iSUt

word, and the second

first

xr

Ml

XX

CH**M ^jK, ij5&

O J
;

Off*

omitted

is

jUoJt ^oUau,

^tki

} ~s J

*^jt

x0/

the

first

is

j^

'

i/

\tS}[

hut

',

if

(/8)

t^Uw

or

uncertainty might arise by so doing,

3"
in Spain,

J x

jo

S^w

j>jl

^U*^..

(from the assimilated form 3^w).


x

In the case of the *+*}*

a.

x J

OLb^o, some

double formation, from both parts of the word

L&Hj

J8

allow a
J x x

^n

LS**l>'

ater tmies

**

compound word,

was extended

this license

For example

the class B.

from

from

JyUJI

ixOx
<*3j3J*>
JOx

fr
3

jJ3,

x 0<

^^j

xO-ajOx

J-*/v-*b'

j oj - ,

names which
/

xxx

xxOx

'''Ox

" 0'
;

and

under

fall

Ox

JOx

l*'>

^1

Uj>*j^j
'

u*'

2>

<JCJju

from oJa&t jb,


L5^*5; b
xOx
i * J x
3
from ^j-jJ^yJ,
from
j^o,

^jO**

>*c,

^JJ^j-^^j,

from \y* C-wO, .-Jl^C^o, with the

u^IU|tf>;
x.x

as

to innumerable
x x

from

e.g.

became very common to form the


5

.^tf;

nisba from the whole

makes

(a tribe)

J J

as

/ulj /

Oi

^3*w

Rem.

Guadix in Spain,
j0/<

OJ

.<>t^.>tj;

from

To

this stage of

the language, too, belong such words as ,J>o from

0>^' ji ( a

JULoJt jufr,

w.

x x

it

^J^

omitted, and the termination added to the second


*
j o x
""
'-
" oi o-
rx 3
x x
3
3

Guadalajara
1

x x

o*

Sjla^a^JI,
J

^tj,

[(j>Jt

*"

^^^

/J0*

VJ

wl

j^c, iJJ***

aXlt

is

as 0-iJ>M

*>

O^UI^o-o,
(CameVs-nose, nickname of a man), ^jiil
x
* '***
0"
O/'-J p J
3
5 '
3 x
l>~*aM J^,
^-^iJt *t, ^yj-^t or i^y-o
6j^Lsd\ jutw, ^$j*~>
x

the idea of definiteness

if

no longer present to the mind of the speaker, then

attached to the

and

rejected,

o , j

j^^Ujuc

from JULoJI

^UJ, ^^j^U^U.

21

Part Second.

162

family in Spain)

Etymology

^UU
'

from

<^)U^j

or the Parts of Speech.

>S

Benu

'Adi

(21,

footn.)]

c,

of

'

the

265

woman

[ajjjJL a

^j^^^j an

abecedaire), from Juyl 'abuged, the

ignoramus

(Fr.

four letters of the alphabet

first

( 32).

Rem.

In many cases

5.

under B,

falling

2, 6,

a and

strange

/?,

forms arise by the rejection of some consonants, or the combination


into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the
'

two nouns.
Z

from

>

,,

'0'

from ^^^w

Mekka)
jk*c

XJOJJ

(a tribe)

s s

Ras- ain ; ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj

6*0-0

Os

^-ia-^

name

^$j-+-2>

village in

(a

Egypt)

relative adjective is never formed, in classical Arabic,

C always from

the

plur. j*a-

script, also

singular;

e.g.

^jia^-o

l^* IW a

owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading

a learner or student, from dU*a.o a written


3

book, plur.

really proper

Ui***o

or

'

sheet,

^U-o.

Such

plurals, however, as are either

CO*

wi^
(

efo^),

the tribe of Kilab,

^jt^l

a tribe), iJ?jiU*;

properly the plur.

3 - o

of

i-ijjuo),

"

^%^>

(the
-

^^JIjl^

name
3

at el-Medina),

(j^UaJt

j
;

*bi
;

*->*$&

s s

Ojlfr* (a tribe),

of a city, Ctesiphon,

bib,

jLcu^l

epithet of the tribes of el-Aus, ^hj^I,

bs

ij.jj-a^Jt,

'

Si

Muhammad,

letter,

e.g. jUJt (plur. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr, (J^U->t

LS'iil**' J'***'

manu-

names, or approximate to them in sense, are excepted

s o

(plur. of

but

of mats, from

se er

it,

acquainted with the divine

^j,-j*

from d-iuji, plur. o^!/*

institutions,

' '

, o

his father from^&jjt^i..

265.

(a

^j^s. ^*\j

from the plural, even where the sense might seem to demand

jt^^i

whose mother was from ^Z^jJa,

of a poet,
3 b '

and

from

tjy^jJaJt, the

o '

Ci

jo

^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^

<<

from O^o^-a*. Hadramaut ; ^jj^

(a family in

juc

^ ^V

...ojcirw

JJ/

jo

jtjJt

tribe)

E.g.

fib

Helpers (of

and U-Hazrag,

ot/

v!/*^

the

Arabs of

the desert,

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

266]

j*

* Oi

io,

** aid*
iUj'nJI the

tradition

'Omar

as

^%e*\,

Persian

colonists in

el-

163

the confederate tribes,

^l/^l; [o^a.'^t

& Adj. Rel. Adjectives.


is

called in a

'St.

D. G.]

Yemen, ^jUjt.

Rem.

In more modern Arabic, on the contrary, a host of


are formed from the plurals of nouns that
indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself
relative

adjectives

in his trade, studies, etc.

9 J J

bookseller

mats;

9'

OUL

Zj^Jd) glass

of

3
6aa/s,

watches,

a maker or se^er

o/*

a watchmaker;

^JUL

Oxx
X

orae

j-ateJtjrffc.

w/io

makes or

& surgeon;

"XX

essential nature

^=&\j*

XX

i^f0j*

forms in Syriac, of early date, are

God
3

>

(pi.

of

&Lo)

(pi.

^a^-o

of

qualities,

attributes distinct
-

from C

XX

^to,

I belonging

~X

them ; ^-5t/

seZfo

Olio

^Jlio one w/to recognises in


3

to

^ Similar
.

women, from

V plur. of |2.Aj|, a woman, and j--5Q-0 from j_jia^,


plur. of
x

266.

Biliteral particles

may

double their second consonant or


x

not, at pleasure, if

3x

^^

j^

not,

^_

5-oJ

or

o<

permitted, as
3

waws, as

5 W

be a strong letter; as^o^ how much?

if

But

^^oJ.

differ.

if

or

the second consonant be weak, the

In the case of $, the simple doubling

Ot-

^5}

or else a fetha

is

inserted between the two

XX

^jV-

In the case of ^, this latter form

is

the second

^^o^

3x

3"

*x
;

it

opinions of grammarians
is

of

a dealer in

,-butj^.

wounds,

attributes,

seller

x x

acL>)

x x

(J^Jjt^S

(plur. of Jji*U) sieves, ,J^.Uo


^^ X X
Ox x
I
(plur.

->

bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c; JsuI^a. (plur. of ikuj^.)


'

pouclves or

i/w

bottles,

->

15^*

O'x^xJ^xx

^.UULo a

ia*-j^fc.)

0^>

VI

9 x

J^-Lu
X
x

x x

sieves;

of

(plur.

" f

^U>)

j*om* (plur. of j**au*.) mats, ^j.^t*. a maker or

j->jty>

bottles;

(plur. of

xx

w*^*

rw<?s;

q/*

Ox

JJ

a maker or se^er

x x

oi.

E.g. J^UJl (plur. of JxoJ) rugs, /JslJt

being changed into j

as

^^*

alone admissible,
3

that,

x X

{&*

in,

Part Second. Etymology

164

If the second

^3-^.

or the Parts of Speech.

be a quiescent

letter

there

Slif,

267

inserted

is

between

and the termination ^ a hemza, which may be changed

it

into a

as

->*

2 -

^^ or ^^.

*j not,

U what

The pronoun

forms

'

^yU

and JjAU.

We

267.

^L.

231, 232) that the termination

or ,jt in adjectives is one of those

of intensity

which imply a certain degree


and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given,

x *x

as

have seen above

jlyJ

'

'vi

,jUao

daring, reckless;

J-l

s J

ol

<

q[*SXo

straight-haired;

Ox

sordid;

vile,

<jL>JujJu^ and

the ordinary nisba

is

t O x

^CjX*

or'

from jisu*, aspect, appearance,


2

xx Ox

So

looking.

is

= JaAJ1
x

o o x

i3t)Aw
having
*

o x o

beard {l^J),

>a-*~4 a# or straight-

Oxxdx

^i^koj.*. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja.),

haired,

"

i^W^i

^yU^AJt

2xjj

taw or long-bearded,

large head of hair (**),


oo
2
large in the body (J*-*.),

^^Uwt

$w<#-

or /owgr &*tr (j*w), ,y LoJ having


^^x
x
o

^U^*.

x o

^U*- having a

ox xx

much

,>****

bull-necked (&j the neck),


corpulent,

O s'tO

but .Jl^ki*
^Jj^c,
x
^^x

2^* x

tall or
x

as the grammarians say, juU)

^1-,

Z*~d\, to strengthen the relation; e.g.

/ow^r

^j^U*

Hence we may form from many nouns a

mendacious.

relative adjective ending in

oW^

x x

2-jLjja,

clamorous, vociferous ; <jla^aJI corpulent; j'^a*-wt or


x x

is *

or ^j\2suo, strong, robust;

,(,

[.JLJu

smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^), ^y^ju* or
3

xO

2xxOx

^ua-j-o a

drugseller (from original

Fleischer, JK. #cAr.

245, n.

i.

1).

^y^ju-^

D. G.]

s^r

#/*

sandalwood,

In later times this ter-

mination was more extensively employed, both in common speech


and in scientific writings (in the latter, perhaps, under the influence
5

of the Aramaic)

2^0

jJLo^w

07^

e.g.

w&?

*
.

^yly^li a fruiterer,
,

sells

sesame, instead of

^^SU 0^0

wAo

s^/s foarcs,

%'&'%"'
/USU,

,-y^U,

j^S^SU or

II.

268]
3

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

55fi-

^j^JLSU, and ^. .....

^LSy

external, public;

^j^jy

to the soul,

(.

relating to light,

^yWj learned and devout

expressing intensiveness,

Rem.

form

members

of the body,

^2

*J

is

and applicable ex;

So.

a
^.wljj having

as

- j

large or font? nose, ears,

i^jlA Another rare form


j/
jxo
and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t.

arms;

(flSH).

^JUi

^>'-^j having a

large head ; i**'oi, i^te',

^jlju-*. corporeal,

),

xj

clusively to the

outward,

^JU-a^J lower ; ^JU-jj spiritual

upper,

(til nO?), ^iL^AJ relating

Adj.Abstr. Nouns. 165

I s+
,
.
interior, private, \jSji

^'^ wr,

&

is

,-fcUw,

by^ijiw

exemplified

9*0*

7% Abstract Nouns of Quality,

(c)

268.
as a

The feminine

noun

a^-J *> * ot
3uslSH\ il+~>\.

of the relative adjective serves in

Arabic

to denote the abstract idea of the thing, as distinguished

itself; and also to represent the thing or


the
It
primitive noun as a whole or totality.
things signified by
to
in
therefore
German
substantives
heit, keit, schaft,
corresponds

from the concrete thing

thum, and to English ones in head, dom,


J

v>

sol 0*

etc.

D. G.]

humanity

(&\>~J\

the

9*0

a human
9 2

J i

Godhead

divine nature,
o

Jit

9**0
God)

i-*jLj|

i 5 *

t
;

<Lu^Jt Lordship, Godhead (v>^0

OS

OH

J
(

4J3*.j manhood; [^uoj-oi. or Z~&yA. particularity]

4-*o~t,
9

adjectivity,

substantivity,
9

adjective

vt

water)
poetic

j*-~\,

totality

0&+Z*)

**

(U wlwt ?) ; *L5U

wateriness (|U

A-JbU substance, quiddity

mind

aJLoj,
0*

JxO^Sirfxxj

^HW^

>

a substantive, and oL^j, aw

Oi

2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>*'


*i>

of nouns

from

o*

(<fd*^t

being)

E.g. A*vJ*9l [and

j\

2l*J>1^*$\

95

ty,

>

r*

2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet, the

or temperament; Swj^JU ftb capability of being understood,

intelligibility

A aAo>JI

wto

constitutes being

Ifanefite, the school

of

Part Second. Etymology

166

the Hanefites; 4-Jl^-cuJt

or the Parts of Speech.

269

Christendom, the Christian religion; du^y^S

Judaism.
9

Rem.

Aramaic
<Z>y*l>

In a few cases the termination


Jl^l-j is

similarly

humanity

employed

borrowed from the

Oj_

as Oj.a*n) divinity, (|Z.001_\),

)^^),

oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D

(\l.Q-mS\),

[These nouns are, in

a. pride, haughtiness, omnipotence, etc.

Arabic, of the masculine gender.]

2%0 Diminutive.

()

269.
j

The diminutive,

^w^I

jJLcloJI

or j-jiafcJJt,

ii/jv

when formed from a


c *

xj

takes the form J**$

'

x 1

'

50 x J

j^o-c-

'J.w (a man's name), j^o-c

noun

is

'

J***.

quadriliteral,
xO

.>

q w^it ^oAp

0x2

(for

Jxjjl

5x0

J
;

Rem.

When
.

When

a mosque,

the

as w>*fc

w~Jl^

the noun
9

the diminutive

scorpion,
t

x J

jia *,.>*

Oi

J,!

is

is

quinqueliteral, but

/J

J*****

as^^i-ac a sparrow,

x J

hey, 9- .wi.o.

used, not merely in its literal sense,

is

but also to express endearment


S

fx2

The diminutive

a.

<fo<7,

&'#, J****..

^a...>.

*-Ui-c

j^ujt).

wa^

the fourth letter


j*Ju*aC

dirham, j&d)*

a,

kind of tree,

/J

'

Ox J

^ J

takes the form Jju**


5

gt/
<

it

w-A a

,.

jo/

(j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-mJI),

a man, J*o*j

as J*?.j

noun

triliteral

J/

and j Sal-o.lt ^-^l

or j-JLtfuM,

5x

5 -2

(as ^\,
S

x J

8. * J

5 *j

^^t,
9 x

,-ij) or

contempt

(as

Cx J

i^J^), an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ, as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune,


03x

OOx J

9*

^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth, j***. the very

x J

best, JJj jlo

.xxOxi

a special friend),

Rem.

[2lo-JkjJI

a very 6ac& calamity, a severe

In forming a diminutive,

6.

it is

trial].

not usual to

fall

back

upon the root-consonants. On the contrary, the servile letters are


generally taken into account, as long as the word does not exceed
5

Ox

See however

JxO

the form ^Jjua*

as Jjjjl

283.

blue,

Ox

0x2

Jijijl

UUfH**

a mantle,

Ox

Jk,:xo,

& Adj. Diminutives.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

270]

Rem.

The

c.

syllable of

first

the form

is

,J-ai5

167

occasionally

pronounced with kdsra instead of damma, when the second radical


of the primitive

OOxJ

xj

w**

~wJt,

fj^w,

Rem.

|V)

^ rom

'

little

(j*juo),
^

fawn

temptuous diminutive,

perhaps consider as such,

may

6and of fugitives, nffSff


Plt0v3
T
:

and

(Ju*>),

the

..

"
(from J^pX, a con

m*d$

x 1 Ox

like J/'**.

regarded as a weakening of \_

^.

vowel *_ must be

If so, the

(orig.

]Y?il f r

like

*_),
-

JV "/H
T

This view derives some confirmation from the modern

(IT/JO*
t

(L1Q-L a

C*J^, from^U), and

In Hebrew we

a sort of snake

cerastes,

Aramaic are

> x

V^)'

x x

'

/ife,

(^or

form in

c^u,
xx

w^

an(*

JHi

diminutive

this

for

w--wJ,

Ox

i^x

*L5^'

O-x

JjJ^, from Jt>).

Yjfl
...

***!

N.1, a 2/o^A

Ox

Ox

9*x J
(

> ^w,

as C**j,
?^*.

Traces of

d.

SD^'iy

is

(/J

(i

pronunciation of North Africa, where,


4

if'

example, <Uua5, the

for

diminutive of <U5, a basket, is sounded A^/|/e or gfife,


an d HS^D.
biblical Hebrew
Hfi&p

Rem.

Diminutives

e.

1$

post-

be formed not only from nouns


(1) from the demonstrative

or adjective), but also

(substantive

pronoun

may

in

and

the relative pronoun

derivatives, as well as

its

fix

jjjJl

(2)

from certain prepositions, which

are,

however, obviously

x Ox J

substantives in the accusative, as J*a5 a

and

rem. f).

(3)

little

little above,
siH3> a little below, a little nearer than,
from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder ( 184,

On

the other hand, they cannot be formed from nouns


9

which have already the measure of a diminutive, as


O

of small bird,

270.
is

J>j>J a

after,

etc.;

Ox

juju a

little before,

When

strong, or

x J

^J-j-o^,

a kind

x J

^Z^^>

a bay

horse.

the noun contains Jive letters, of which the fourth

more than

five,

the diminutive Jjuatf

is

commonly formed
%

from the

"

first four,

and the

rest are rejected

ft* *

as Jj*^*-*

quince,

J)

168

Part Second.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.


0, 3

3 ,

a nightingale, Jju^ft

But

there be

if

as

.j^.ja rolling oneself, *-j**->

0,03

J^X*

Jb

in front, ^^xJU

hump

Rem.

The

a.

rule

&

as

quinqueliterals like

^^

Thus

either

not

is

a fat, lazy, old woman,

3>JJ* a ourn t cake, and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a

make

J^.jJut

6 , J

r,

are said to

ymJjtfU

to

always strictly observed.

6,63

and not jZ**~

j^U),

Jjj-ol

trying to render perfect,

..

,0 , ,

gold-brocade,

00,3

jUaL- chosen, j~**~o (for

having a

Out ,

thick

Jjj-^t

, , 3

,3

wXwic.

spider,

the consonants several servile letters, these are

some of them

or

rejected,

among

0,3

O^Xifc a

[270

tr

0,3

j^on*.,

>j->j*,

ugly woman,

little,

0,3

o , 3

0,

^3ujS, or jZj^a***, Jfej*,

6,3
JjuJcS.

Rem.
the word

more

If there be

b.

be cut

sarily

In A+KLm+t for example, j*


because

it

is

preserved in preference to

we may
4

select

0,,

the diminutive of ^julc, a sort of thorn,


0,3

0,36,^

^juXfr)

of ty

ill,

0^,

sort

and

Rem.
J)

big-bellied,

c.

m*&*

is

or

0,

6,3^

6,3
;

of

6,,

or ^*HW" (f r

ijK*^).

to

nouns of four

not rejected, but remains attached to the diminu-

is

which

is

formed out of the preceding consonants; as

0,0,3

saffron, )\j**&}

Rem.

d.

<\

, 3

6e.

Ob**' a

0,3

Jju*5

>>

, , 6,

\j\jtei

0,1

ma, le snake, ^Lauil.

Nouns containing

exceed the form

;r-,

6, 3

6, 3

The termination ^1 when appended

or more letters,
tive,

O,

0,3
0,3
either juJLc or juX&

of cap, <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS

6, 3

short

But if all the consonants


which we please, and therefore

indicates the participial form.

are of equal value,

(for

than must neces-

servile consonants

their relative importance for the signification of


is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained.
off,

five

O',0,,
as aS%.j* a

or more
,
tick,

consonants do not

0,3

2*x>j

and therefore a

word which consists of four radical and one or more

servile con-

sonants, rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in


rem. b, and in 269). In place of the rejected consonants, however,

&

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

271]

Adj.

Diminutives.

169
0/J

be inserted immediately before the last letter

may
t/ j

J^o-X, and the

^_

is

the ending

^i**, and in proper names

Ol_

and

0.3-,

are

all

in adjectives of

^1
;

which the feminine

syllable of the plural form

The diminutives must be formed out

disregarded.

preceding consonants, and these terminations added

//

",0,3

ZxXS a

castle, 4*A.$

name), <U*-
//j

~,

i^+L*

"

3 ,

S^Xb

(a

\^+*- pregnant, ^A***-

*,0

, 3

E.g.

a+X~~c (a man's

^+X~j (a woman's naine),

3,0,

^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z, supposed

by the ginn) demoniacal, mighty,

{Jj*aj belonging to

J^O^J

jj^L-*

, 3

o LL.-..
,

r,

Rem.

0^ 3

The

fern.

/J

(Jk"5/5

the back, jJUj.5

, ,

, 0,t-

e-

oWA-~o Muslim women,


5

/0*

oLj^t

W^

<bUJI, Olgt.

^_

is

rejected,
is

when the noun

/}'j

0,3

jjj->*J

a riddle, JjJusi.

weak

But

if,

, i, 3

^W-

a bustard,

^Jj-***-

as

in the quin-

servile, either

, , 3

as

consists of

strong, or of more than five

queliteral noun, the third letter be a

^, may be omitted;

it,

or the

Oot, 3

or j**. (for

0* 3

^)o ,ot

Rem.
a

o*>

aJlSJt
r.

oJlai,

w.

>.

besides

plurals,

JUil, of

the

class

called

Pj*+
O

Other

,0

(see

^jU-L^o two Muslims,

5
;

^$j~>) drunken,

(fern.

OS-

the third of which

five letters,

.,,..o

^jJL**;

camels, w>la*~ot companions, -kUJt words,

w>la*->.ol,

a.

perfect,

,03

, 3

j ^L

Muslims,

, c

JU^I,

jlo-L
3

JU-^t

jj!/^

3,0,3
<

,jUA-$~*

verses,

{Jj-+*aj

^jloX* (a man's name),

,0,3
,

el- Basra,

J^d^

>j\j+.S~*4

to be inhabited

,Os

2,

JUil

of the

to them.
3 , ,

, 3

man's name), iU^Xm


,

i|>o^ ra#, *l/^-

3 ,

,0 3

, 3

3 ,

the relative

the dual and plural terminations <j'

and the second

pL-

termination

like.

The feminine terminations 3 ^ and

271.

^jj^suj,

(/J

9
i,

as

307) form

as SjJj children, SjuJj

diminutives regularly; viz.


3 Oi
9,0,3
4*A boys, slaves, 4**A J**'' as
their

0,0

, 0,3
;

22

Part Second.

170

x I

f>

wJ^t
x

Etymology

wJL^t

x I

courses

may be
J

'

j o x

such exist;

if

e.g.

03/J

xO x J

jjj houses,

Otj-jjj,

to the
?x

3 "

jjW** youths, 0>***> from ^ZJ, ^,^3,


xuj

<LJ$

(see 278), or

JJ3
x

277)

l\jj&

e.g.

Or we may have recourse


x
(3xj
o^a

from the plural

<L-2*,

J*te,
x

j*-i$2> (see

two

on the singular, adding

s 3

274).

(see

appropriate plural termination

x J

iUJI i^.,

sj-g^. (see 307),

We may fall back

adopted.

3j-jj^

x 0>

In regard to the 5^)1

^jsuyZt, from j^lw,


Ox 5/VJ

from yj,

or

<i

x I

<w~gl-

to its diminutive the

o-

r,

children,

Ot

Ox

x c

t>

272

%LJ>\ ribs, *L-l J and 3JUJI, as <Ltjx*.\ bags,


r '
/ (
6 , I
S
x
Ox
x
Ofxl
S^tel Joys, slaves, 4*JLl ; ru^gt
SjL^ftt pillars, $j>++\
~
;
~x
^
x
x**

dogs,

Ajj.t
** *

poets,

or the Parts of Speech.

&#se fellows,

from

^^JLJ3,

from the plural

(for lib*?),

ilJL^t

Jui^J

r^t

lij?

(for 10|1).

272.

The termination

nine

not proper names,


^^**, and which are

not

is

,jt in triliteral nouns, of which the femi-

Ox

Ox

and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s

radical,

J/J

regarded as

is

jjUauL> power,

t/j

a e?m7,

jj-Ja-j-w

sultan,

K *l>

,jlo^ a

Ox

^-o^jj-^

wo//",

as

jjUa-w

O^^tj

x J

sweet basil, ,^-0*^3^.

Proper names, consisting of two words (see 264), form


their diminutives from the first word, the second remaining unchanged

273.

ll

'Abdu

as aJUl juc

ilssSsJ

274.

If a

JS/J

ix>
'llah, <UJI

Oxx Ox

OxxO

^j&jac,

triliteral

which has not however a feminine termination, S_


diminutive, provided that the primitive has no
J x Ox->

E. g. JJJ* (a

9*0*3

?K5>

woman's name),
<"

St
j

O^

fl

OxOxJ
groate,

i**^

fo0#
OOx

dUww

C*^ an eV e

5 ju^a

x J
;

x J

O
;

w>jijjux*;

diminutive be formed from a

GO

Ox

J
(

ju* 'Obeidu llah ;

nomen

added to the

unitatis

ii sim, ftfr+A

'xOxJ

246).

jh a

house,

Oxx

OxO xp

J^t camels, Lol

^xOxJOx

^^^w

feminine noun,

is

^^

,/foc&

0/ sheep or

<//

or fountain, <U>* or fc#t* (see

269, rem.

o).

But

Noun. A. Nouns

II. Tfie

276]

the primitive has a

if

...

nomen

Subst.

unitatis,

is
O

not appended to the


* *

*^w

S^a^w jX

tree,

Rem.

cattle, j*aj,

The diminutives

but S^aj cm

or cow,

or

e>j*su.

of the fem. cardinal numbers,

from

5 *

3 to 10 inclusive, do not take 3_ for the


yive (fem.), j^,**^*.,

rem.

but

Su*^ five

but

trees, j*a>.$>,
5^9^J

*"

* 3

diminutive, in order to avoid ambiguity.


E.g. j**J*
" "
9*0* 3
f=xx
OO/J
9***

171

Adj. Diminutives.

<Sc

same reason;

But

(masc), **+&..

e.g.

fl

see 319,

a.

Rem.

noun contains more than three consonants, S_ B

If the

b.

not added to the diminutive.

is

Rem.

There are a few exceptions to the rules of this

c.

0*

rem.

For example,

b.

90*3

ma*h

frij*

A^3,

f"

00*

Jjo a

*3

J-oti

s/*oe,

the rear or back,

have

a
Si

bride,

w*>j-

and ^Jj^

(for

^Uj^).^ey>

is

f/t/J

masc. and fem., has^jji or

2-}y>

9* *

0*

<i

M/J
ones people or 2W6e, which

* J

whilst j*\j3, the front, and


9 *>* 3
9*0*3
90*

2i^jjj>j,3,

0*3

w-^
1*

[yj*3j-

w*/^ Arabs,
3*
9

9*0*3

*t* 3

she-camel, ^/tfuXS, D. G.]

l\j2,

r.

and

pj> a coat of

9**

a herd of she-camels, Juj3


* j

88/J

a bow, u-jy>

uy* 9 a young

0*

war, makes s^j^-

*->j&-,

90*

0*
^ftyi,
J*
9

but JaAj and j*j, though also of both genders, seem to make only
0*3

9i*

and

isuAj

90

j*Ju.

sj^, a wedding feast,


j**J a

therefore has ^s-ijG.

275.

masc, makes

is

nouns formed from verba mediae

in

0*3

J3 a

Zj*t

3 f

u~^ a cup

J-^>;

kill,

(Fr. tasse),

9*0*3

9 5 3
(

which

&*

rad. geminatae are resolved; as

0*3

9*0

sea,

The double consonants


.

usually masculine, and

is

90*390*

2j*o time, Sju jc.

m..,1>
;

276.

If the

second radical be a weak

letter,

and have been

changed by the influence of the vowels into another, the original


letter is restored in

0*9**

90*3
*-*iy.
x

Oik*

w>^ (^r^) aw

9/

A^ijj

forming the diminutive.

/(^

eye-tooth or canine tooth,


t

E.g.

* 3

w>G (v>^ a

0*39

w~j
3

door,

90

s-J;
3

(?-3j) twJ,
9
0*3
#

**** (*-*>*) i?Wc#, value, i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich, j>~*~r*


;

5^0

9*3

(O^J3*) a pair of scales, O^ij-iy^-

j)

Part Second. Etymology

172

Rem.

i^>, a

or the Parts of Speech.

commonly makes

thing,

o 5 x j

6 s j

vulgarly 2u^t, instead of

^3^

From

f^w.

and

(for ?^>fc),

277

C-*u a fcm*e, -i^w an old

man,

an

>*>

be formed

an egg, and <5ju.c> farm, may


x x J
'"x-xJ^xOxJ
&i}, ***i&, an ^ **^>-, but the regular

eye or fountain, a-suj


x J

.>

C-sJ^J, ~i$Z>,

forms are preferable.

Conversely, juc, a festival, though derived

from the radical ^^, makes

277.

origin of
9'

following the plural ^Lt'.

Ju*fc,

If the second letter be either a servile

which

unknown,

is

'

O x J

'

x J

cHj^ a horseman,
*

^jja.; 4jb aw animal,

Ox

x J

\j*jij

" -

a poet,

,^^-a signet-

Ox

x J

Z+jj* (for &*5>);

the

elif,

as js.\jj

Ox

x 3

i^*b a calamity, ^H3>

changed into 3

it is

or an

elif,

x J

?r^ wry, fri^; ajU? a

certain bitter tree, *>>o.

Rem.

Words

a.

of the

form J^li, in which the

initial letter is

change

3,

into

it

In other cases

not vJ-^uj^.

l*U5> fomied according to

this

Ox
^_,

Words

283 from

278.

young woman.

If the third letter be

OwxJ

x x

ybtfd,

for

Ji;jt.
x J

[Oomp.
it

weak,
as

^od

ul

jf$ a
x p

J>>t a glutton, J*>t

Jb***' a

^^,

O 5 x J

JxOc
JwJxp
J^^-; A>*1 &/ac, Ju~>t;
x
_

4*-aft; ^5^-j

Ox

O5 x i

rem.]

youth,

slave,

^r*^ a male

ostrich,

SxJ

xx

j^

^lu

OWxJ

^;

a youth,

^S^>

xx

<^

O 5x J

a handle,

?m7/, $-); djj^


9

13,

coalesces with the preceding

OwfxJ

sfa^

of the

(^ of the diphthong ^j- into <j

optional, as in fjj

5 x

o iSo x j

Ox

JLolj, ^J^cu^!,

e.g.

form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for


5 x J
OixJ
to lighten the pronunciation, as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j, the latter for
6.

<Lj^w, from <blw a

^UJ

is

change

SAO

Rem.

&xl

in forming the diminutive;

*j-.

xp

Rem.

a.

The forms J^jj^. and

Rem.

b.

In words of which the second and third radicals are

>y*~i\

are also used.

Ml

contracted into

^,

must be separated, and treated

these letters

according to this rule and


Oi x

snake, (***.),

JS

x J

276

e.g.

/"Lb

a fold (ij), (J?>k

279.

* J

vl

(for L5tp*-)

^5***)

&

^x

x J

Yakya

wl

x i

^JJ^)

(for

5%

or heaven, a*o~>

man

(a

name), <**a*

3x1
^^t, some

Instead of

278, rem. a), others

xO

still,

(f r

*x#).

(for

say ^^.\

x I

* I

(accus.

ui

xI

for ,-*-t, like

^j*-\,

but irregularly,

like

^^pA,

(accus.

5x1
and others

^#> ^5*

0^1

^j**\

^^

{John),
3 '

'

a sma// water-skin,

j* x

ju~>l, 278),

Sjljl

x i

at

two

last

1^5**^

x
;

173

U*c a ^/, pa#, ^jac

x I

as ^jo^-j

0i x J

4^^**

Rem.
>^wl,

*U~> tfc

2u}\ (for Ajo^t)

which the

'*

1^3^-t black, ^^.1 (for u*t)

(for ^^j-Jacc)

x I

j*^ a enemy, ^js.

wl

Diminutives.

Adj.

quadriliteral or quinqueliteral, of

weak, rejects one of them

letters are

&

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

281]

From

i**-!.

Jx

x J

4jjU*o

J xirfx J

.>

the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt are also said to be in use.

280.

The

and take the

radical

of verba primse j, which reject the

infinitives

termination 3 in exchange

fern,

the

9 x

x J

in their diminutives

Sjufih.^

as

05 x

4-Jt>

have the

resume

3ji. affluence,

They are distinguished by the


same verbs

Nouns which have

from the diminutives

lost their third radical,

recover

it

of

such as Jucj from j^j,

termination 3_ or not,

fern,

9/J

in the
jjjji

etc.

whether

they

in the diminutive, j)
3

&

s J

^3*0
9

a father

brother (>.l), L5 r
^.1 j>* blood,
x J
x x
S/J
5/
O^xJ
3 x J
a
ju
hand, ajju j^. iwte, v-tj^. *U water, duyo and jjy
x x J
* *
5/D/J
^
5^j9 or <7<?a, iy-j^w *w & p, 5^-jAw *! a
xJ
Ox Ox J
Six J
Ox x
Si/J
*xx
4jU a dialect, 4-0U
3-w a JWW, Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a

w>'

E.g.

{y>\),

^\

-t

r,

3U>
Ow si

A^al
'

xJ

OxOxJ

Ay-UA, itj^A,

Wx J

and

A5JA.

Ox

Rem.

a.

^i, mouth, of which the radical

diminutive accordingly,

Rem.

60/

281.

206),

fomgr spotted, spots, Awj.

Rem.
the form

x J

& promise, Sj^j

3 j^c

x
;

first

6.

Oxx

is

dji or d$i, forms its

is

not restored,

<su^i.

lost first or

second radical

if

the

Etymology

Part Second.

174

word

consists of

^hU
j-}>*

> i

^-jy

242) dead, C-w*j*

u^i$* from

as

282.

O^t a

and recover

elif,

son, ^j^>

The diminutives

Rem.

a pastor.

ctj

formed

thing, are

two by the

in the first

^t, and

^.t,

^La,

termination;

C^A

daughter, and

0^

and distinguished

<u.t,

<uiA (see

<u^,

281).

283.

Another way of forming diminutives

the root.
r

If

this

consists

0*J

J*j&
9

if

0*

$+ tt

C-0.-J

Od

^a^XJI

u~**5

3
;

consonants,

(see 269, rem. b).

y i

9- 'I

"

' 3

r.

9**

s J

"

0^0

is
J

U^W

Uutdu,

E.g.

3 * Ot-

upon

the diminutive

* J

0,i

"

[i^***-, j^J^a-o].

This sort of diminutive

is

called

j^JuaJ, the softened or curtailed diminutive.

284.

With regard

are to be observed,
falls

"

to fall back

is

9'

9 0s J

9 o * J

^ M^ U

90

<

of three

0*J

Jam

of four,
C*

j)

fern,

anus,

C-O

of Cs.l sister,

like those of

their original letter.

Cwl M#

D. G.]

having lost their third radical,

after

reject the

elif,

^f

name,

E.g.^*-^

a judge, %i$) from

^13

Those nouns which,

take a prosthetic

^**r*> and j-Ja*.

&-i^,

j^t^A,

(for

form JfrU retain in the diminutive the termination

of the

[Words

J^\,

C^

Otherwise the

j*^

j-*. (for j->.) good,

diminutives would have been

as

rem. b) feeble,

240,

jIa (for jjIa,

^)U (for *X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons),


>oyj

C^wo,

0^-^

282

feminine

three letters, exclusive of the

/f

^-Ul) people,

(for

or the Parts of Speech.

away

to this kind of diminutive the following rules

(a) If a masc.

e.g. djj-**

noun ends

(b) Fern,

(a name), w-->j^-.

*,
It reject these terminations

in S_, this termination

and take S_

nouns in
,0

,
;

as

^-^j^,

'

* i

*"***-

and

,**0 '
;

*!/,

II.

286]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj. Diminutives.

irregular diminutives are

Very

OxJ

d^j

<i

tjl^O smoke,

iJjL-jj}

j/w

sunset,

a human

JU

for

being, ^jL-^Jl

^3U)

dJU a

or

*"c

<i- ->>.

x J

night, aJ-wJ

j L.*.^t g
,

,jUJI

(compare the plur.

O^t^ 0*&*
OxOxl'xOxt

~ 5
a

'

^^^

(plur. of <>>1),

tj^Z sons

i"

(Juj-ji*
x

J^.j a man, J**->3j

,jUic, tj ltLJL g, and

3u<LJlz,

nightfall, SlLJl*.,

Ox

J x

Rem.

175

'>

(derived
5 xt

from the plur. of J-wol ^e evening), O^***^ J>e*i an ^ JW**

an

Further, jUjj n dinar, j~*>*, and tjt^Jj a register,

of poems, a public

collection
5

rem. b)
^jtj* (see 305, II.,
as

.M.M.Q,

285.

if

Some

other

*+*

or
*
p-L*-** brocade, -**&

Nominal Fwms.

0x0

l^Js a fragment,

OxO

live coal, *$>.

allotment.

vi

a-a-

sect,
X

ika. a piece of

portion,

The form iU3

(b)

of

a firebrand,

SjJl.

a rag, *$j* a

piece

0x0

5x0

anything; as SJJi, iakS, a piece,

an

from

from ej-by

t+

land,

0s J

The form &Ui frequently means a small

(a)

if

"

(17)

or bureau, O-i^ij}, as

'u

jU> and
->.

office

account-book,

is

often used to signify a small

as 3-cu5 a
quantity, such as can be contained in a place at once
** 1 3-*l* * * *
"xOjsxOj
handful; iL^I, a*a), a cl , a morsel, a mouthful; acj**-, 2*b, a gulp,
;

0x0 J

a sup or

sip

aj^> a draught (of water).


Ox

"xOj

S/o*

redness,

Zjsuo

It also denotes colour

Ox Oj

yellowness,

23j)

Ox

light

blue,

as

2l&* a

blackish

brown.
5 X

286.
x

(a)

The form JU3

1^3,
fix

|Ut,

vessel, *->!/
V

jljt,

OxJ

JUi

and implements; as
r.

a &a#, w**^- a milk-pail,


x

a water-skin,

&SjJ* the thong or sra/? #/*a sandal,

Ox

xx
ilfcj,

certain garments,

ciUJ a
OxJ

coverlet,

a wooden pin,
Ox

J*ili
X

-x

*U~

indicates vessels

Ox

Ox

^x

^Ua garment,
The form

pelisse.

OxJ

denotes diseases; as^l*. a fever, j\*j a cold,

(6)

OxJ
JU-/ a

Part Second.

176

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

/^r

or the Parts of Speech. [287

disease of the spleen (JU*J), of the

*W^>

(juib)*

287.

The form aJUs

(a)

post of secretary

SjUl

Etymology

(w*5U)

o^c^
S^US

v7l>)

(^k^).

(b)

4JUx a

thrown away

as

C of broth

(left in

post of inspector,

raz%

a borrowed pot,

when

/bod

swc*// portions

filings

4-otj.S,

S,>tjj,

#ctf

fttffe

The form aJUs denotes

ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;


;

caliphate; ajLJ deputyship


iiljx.

i.U^,

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~L,

cuttings

the

0/ /J

are broken off or

ajU^

as

o$?ce?;

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);

of general (jull)

postf

<i

centurion, etc.

aj^Jj, the

31^,

lwr (>**t); as^.

q/*

/&?

a post or

indicates

ajIjj c^jps,

4*1*3, sweepings

broken pieces; AtUai

d>L*

SjUc

tn Aaste;
it is

which

sw?// quantity

Some

returned).

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger


quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

288.

The form

employed
thing, or

^loj, jL*,^l!a.,

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

E.g.

by means of which something

6*\jJ

galley;

vessel or

h^j, Wj*,

fishing-net ;

is

233)

frequently

to designate () an instrument or machine, as doing some-

or (b) the place where something

oUs.

Jlij,

is

done, regularly and constantly

constantly obtained or prepared.

stand for cooling water

*->^*, engines

aSt^j

is

4.31^.

fire-ship,

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,

s^or javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

2l\j&~

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle

swea^

or phlegm JJLoj,

^U^

^wj-o-^v

excrements 9~%~>

^J

w^>

?*$*> 7-^3*

sperma

ff^~*>

*}*}*>

>

r,

^W*

j
*

xJ

J!3>

blod issuing

from

drippings SjUai.

x J

*>J

-*l*j (^^;),
the nose

D. G.]

<---J

^U3

JUj

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

290]

& Adj. Gender.

177
J

place where potash

ioUa. a

made

is

(by burning the plants called uj*-)

w^T0 gypsum

^?/6^

or plaster \\jtin)

chalk-pit or quarry

(^o)

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

a salt-pan

A~>Lrfc.

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown.


of this form to persons, as an intensive

As

Rem.

jp/ac^

or salt-mine (*-)**)

w/^r gypsum

Hence the
(

is

found

tropical application

233, rem.

c).

been transferred from things to persons, as

<Ulx$ has

an intensive

00

>

4^Lo

made; *J^s a

is

5 x

9 x

',

r x

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

^LdU

for

is

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;


4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and

a camel

the

that carries or

camel that works

draws water;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three


(a) those

call or invitation;

etc.

classes

2uz\},

a water-skin,

djjji,

The Gender of Nouns.

2.

289.

it ;

which are only masculine {jsj*c)


52

a.

None

(b)

those which

those which are both masc. and

(0)

common

usually phrased, of the

Rem.

are or\\y feminine (%*>)


or, as it is

x J

fern.,

gender.

of the Semitic languages

have what we

call

the

neuter gender.
b.

Feminines

Ofx

may

at j

'

Rem.

be either real or natural (.JLJt. WJ34),


JO x

x x

'

as Sl^ot

a woman, 30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural

^a*a-),

or tropical

(j+c-

0.

as yJI

(^JJjla***),

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

of the fern,

is

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.


&

Feminine by

a.

All

(a)
2i

common nouns and


J x

as j>\

signification

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

* ->o

(^y*<J\

j He- j 0*

W-J3-0JI) are

proper names which denote females,


J x

Ox

j^*** an old woman, [>ol* a female


23

Part Second.

178

J s

Etymology
J

or the Parts of Speech.


* J

**

servant]

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^) Zeirieb[\

^*ij*o

are represented as females, as

w>ja Death,

lli

(/?)

******

r-bi

and

SjJj,

feminine*; as

are

2->j.S,

Those names, however, which belong to the


J

triptote declension,

Irdk, ^y**,

*Ji, jaJ*

Jau^t^, <>b,

but they
x

and are then feminine, as

as diptotes,

The names

Rem.

z '

are originally masculine, as j\A\ Syria,

tfAe

$m],

0,0,

r.**,

i'*J**,

Mocha.

U>L

Egypt,

or that

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common

nouns u&j\, ***^>

el-

290

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

*c

also be inflected

"

^U,

may

"

J>!/Jt

Jkwlj, etc.

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

^e

may

rear,

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of

The names

(y)

Ay**..

of the winds

and the

kinds of

different

fire,

* *

common nouns

because the

wind, and j6,

*-ij,

J *

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing

fire,

[^y.J

The names

of

many

&~> a

tooth,

as ju

j*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

is

masc.

parts of the body, especially those that


0'

0*

are double

a hand, J**j a

wfcfe a

as

fo north wind, w>>^*>.

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which


(8)

- s

J>*3 M6 #as wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*


^0

fire, are feminine

shoulder,

leg or foot,

<JL

Of.

^s- an

a shank, ^e^j

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

womb, Ciwl

the

the anus.

00*

ois

Rem.
0'
jJlo

oos-

0^

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth,
00'
Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk. the cheek,] and the names of the

blood,

^\j

muscles, sinews,

and bones, are masc; as

instances,

^^j, when

masc. and so
*

it

also,

most

in

*+

means

relationship.

\j*jk*

is

sometimes

Je.]

[Some admit

also the use of the masculine gender, because the

word

6//
is

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst

II.

291]

* 6>0

Collective

(c)

nouns

(f-o-^t

<Ss

179

Adj. Gender.

xw, resembling

which

the plural),

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

a herd of

as J^t camels, *y*

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
.

0'' *>
&
j Cie- J0s
are
(^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

Feminine by form

b.

Nouns ending

(a)

a garden,

in S_; as <Ua

2^+XSo

darkness,

*',

1^
or *>*, /(#,

Nouns ending

(/?)

in

^~

or l_ (elif maksura, 7, rem. b),

that termination does not belong to the root


,

,0,

demand, t^j*^ a

secret,

^^^

blame,

^j\

a claim, a

as {$>

,,l

misfortune, jj^i memory,

the oleander, {/*> the

^*>

when B

<

prominent bone behind

'0 J
so & *
LJjJt the world,
^2+ir* barley-grass,

the ear,

ijy* goats,

* e-s

*>

b^j a vision or dream,

o j

(jj-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.


> a

>v

But those who say


^jM*,

Rem.

them

as

the

masculine,

z>

5 o J

\Jj), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[252].

Nouns ending

(y)

to the root
-

'

when that termination does not belong

in l\,

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,

a plain or

~*

Os

man) %;

Rem.
to which

hole,

vainglory, arrogance,

desert, iS^a

Aij** glory (of God), pride (of

i\j*~i

sort of striped cloth.

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives


added to intensify their signification ( 233, rem. c),
,

3.1 is

are masc, because they apply to males

e.g.

4aJI. a successor,
'

deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian

il

">

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

4jjtj

291.
form or

harm, mischief,

**

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

The

following

signification,

is

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

but merely by usage.

by

Part Second.

180

t^xpjl

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

w>ac a

the earth, the ground,


the floor.

jXj

an

\j*\*
3

0x0

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a coat of mail.

^j*-j

an

\j*3*&
0%,

bucket.

house.

mill.

or u*j^* the

[v*j^

wind.

a catapult.

u-^uJt
J

the sun.

^w^o a

%~& a

jO
<-.

[0^U

u~aj the

^y

staff.

x J

w>Us an

shoe or sandal.

Ox

metre.

La* a

fire.

Ox

Jju a

idol.]

J x

u^3j^

razor.

hyarna.

maw.]

a water-wheel,

-j>j
J

adze.]

^\s a cup.

j\*

viper.

i ,

0,

y> a

axe.

0*

u*3*jjd\

wine.

scorpion.

well.

war.

pp

292

a caravan,

j*s>

00

soul.

traveller s

destina-

tion.

eaqle.

Rem.

Of these
l* jb, ^3, ~>j, ~*,
Ox
and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s
0,
00,S
shift, u**^ collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

word

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^./^o, regard the

of course as masculine.

292.

Masculine or feminine are :


*x

(a)

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly

denoting animals and

x x

which form a nomen unitatis


xx
Oxx
gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^. grassJwppers,
plants,

OOx
OOx
J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox
O-jJ

Ox

e.g.

*x

vU-- pigeons, |U>

locusts,

s^p

Ja*J >^s; j.aw

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

or

Oxx

OOx

Oxx

r06#,

w>U~ clouds,

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

signification

w*Aj

gw/e?.

x x Ox

(a^U&JI

totality).

These are masc. by form,

fern,

by

II.

292]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.


o

x o>

181

Adj. Gender.

*si

/-

nouns (f-*J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

Collective

[(b)

<fc

/f

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

beings and not forming a

rational

people or info?, lubj

nomen

jiJ a // number of

cfo.,

But

farers, etc.

The names

(c)

usually feminine

and Jt

JJbl

men

(3

ox

IjJb,

/s

One may

verbi (masdar).

^/.
JO

x x

^n^

Words regarded merely

D. G.]

These may be masculine,

as such.

Ox

following the gender of

5 x

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\


IX

5 *.

taking that of Jji

00

and a

or feminine, following that of ioJib or

lii),

OP
.j

x o
\

/i
J.

more

say ^Xj^o

and Mj*a ^Zxe.$ your striking caused me pain*.


(e)

of way-

D. G.]

xJO

ra^w

7),

of the letters of the alphabet, which are

The nomina

[(<#)

ora^'*

^0

one's family, are masc.

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t

J/

>$

e.g.

>~&j a company

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

(gen.

unitatis

particle, taking that

of

a verb,

o^-.

But a

s x

particle is
X

0^>

verb
)

more usually feminine, following the gender of

i irf

by common

* oe seems
>

J x

"^

consent to be taken as feminine

(J^> 4oiUt O^)-

(doU)l

Such mere words are treated

names, and therefore do not take the


this

The C

Sbl.

word *U

article, as IjJb

EU

like proper

or ajjb *U,

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are


(/)
most
those that
frequently occur.
[Ssl>\

the.

considerable

ijJbj the belly (gen.

armpit (gen. masc.).]

j\j\

an

article

of

masc).

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

dress.

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox

jt^l

the

thumb or ^ra

toe

jJ^j

a human

(gen. fern.).

human

being,

l^jo a breast (mamma).


*

[This seems to be the explanation of

*
O^-oJt djjb
J

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

Si

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

Part Second.Etymology

182

or the Parts of
Speech.

292

0^0

*\ //?^r
wmgr (gen. masc).
.L.

<

(gen. fern.).

a way, a road (via strata).

tjo

JU-

state, condition (gen. fern.).

OjJla. a

?-*-o peace.
s

a shop.

booth,

p\*o

< -

[JUa. a phantom. \

ij*^

<oi

v^;l a Aar#
'

corn, etc.

the forenoon.

(gen. fern.).

O^.*

shop.

[cr*i^

a measure for

V
cL.b

[ftlji cwfoY (gen. fern.).]

V>^

a large

bucket.

celestial being

tooth.]
*

natural disposi-

nature,

tion [gen. fern.].

soul [when signi-3j spirit,

fying

0>jJ a road.
J s

always

j^fr

masc]

the hinder part, the

rump

[gen. fern.].

[{3^j
00

<*>

street or lane.]

^hj^ a wedding, a marriage.

jJj the upper of the two pieces

- -

of wood, used in producing

J~~

fire (gen.

[j^c- ambergris.]

masc).

\Jix~>

a path, a road.

00

<Sj~> journeying by night.


(gen.

the neck.

ySis>

a spider

>

masc).

(gen. fern.),

i^ji a horse [gen.

p-*^~>

JUs

* J

a knife
0-a^>

/toney.

fern.].

OJ

a weapon, weapons.

< 6 J

I)

,jUaiw

[prop,

authority, hence]

power, a sovereign.

j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per-

fumed]
o o
m

j**~t peace.

90

jjS a pot, a

kettle (gen. fern.).

^o^w a ladder.

US

IU-w the sky or heaven,


clouds, rain.

a wall

(gen.

the

w**l3 a

nape of the

well.

masc).]

^h^S a bow

(gen. fern.).

t3>w market.

neck.

0*

Ij3~>

the

juf the

liver.

& Adj. Fern, of Adj.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

294]

clj^ M0

fo'to or shin-bone.

an

^j3la

intestine (gen.

183

masc).

u LJ

ftfo

*~l* sa^ (gen.

tongue.

fern.).

9 0'
0^

JJ M#

fitgrAt

ffl^l; (gen.

Rem.
%\+~t

masc).

(gen.

[*zXLc dominion.]

masc).

the right direction.]

[j^jdfc

radius or ulna) of the fore-arm,


Jjj the bone (either

a.

a roof or

and usually

ceiling,

a wedding -feast, are mas-

^*jS>

culine.

Rem.

The above

b.

list,

and that contained in

291, cannot lay

claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy, since


the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods.
9

For example, in

later times ^i, the mouth,

"

'

and s-^ja, a boat or

9 J '

ship, are

used as feminine

whilst juac, the upper arm.,

j&>,

the

CO

'

shoulder,

[^js,

maw,] and jJj a

the

well,

The

become masculine.

masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine


9 *

words which were anciently

in

of both genders, as

'

jU fire, jui

the

liver.

From most

293.

adjectives

and some

substantives of the mascu-

line gender, feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_,

or

CC

290,

b).
9 x

Rem.

Only 3_

appended to the masculine without farther

is

and jti have forms distinct


form of the word ;
from the masculine, which must be learned by practice.

affecting the

294.

The most usual termination, by the mere addition

to the masculine feminines are formed,


9

9 x

glad,

*-ji
9

9^0^

2^i

u^m

3_;

<jlju repentant, *'*jJ

9
;

.-

mi

j^. ^ grandfather,

struck, aj^jJxa

^Xs

SUd
^^3) a young man,

(for

great,

*+Jk*

#>

w>ilo striking, i-jjLo

9^J0^3"

w>jj~cu
(for

is

9^x0^

of which

j^

a grandmother ;

a^3) a yotmg woman.

[Rem. a. The hemza of the termination t of nouns derived


from verbs tertise $ or
may be replaced, before 3, by the radical

letter, as S^l^w from

^l-o-w,

ajUL from *Uuw, a water-carrier, but the

j)

Part Second. Etymology

184

forms

* *

1015, and below

1.

Rem.

o_

b.

is

te\j, are preferable

299, rem.

295

comp. Kamil,

301, rem.

c,

e.]

a compromise in orthography between the original


"

*>

'

with hemza, as SAJLj,

p. 87,

or the Parts of Speech.

the old pausal form d_ ah, and the modern d_, a, in which
last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. 7 supra).
This view is
at,

confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages; see

Comp.

295.

133137.

Gr.

Feminines in (^ are formed

>

From

(a)
*

is

3*0*

^jk**
*0*

^j***

as

oW"*^

o^ hungry,
iO

o!/*-* drunk, {j~>

^Jiji-

gCA

timid, fearing,

(-0*

^^as-, i^WJ*

thirsty,

*
I

From

*0

^UUa*, )^+^>

O^A-

O***** sated,

3*0*3*0*

*0 *

&*%ofidl, ^J*%c;

angry, ^j~a

*0 *

3 i*0 *

0^**> the feminine of which


*
3*0*
*
3*0*

adjectives of the form

*0i

form J^t, when they have the


superlative signification, and are defined by the article or by a fol(b)

n
yj

adjectives

of

the

"0
* O

30*

^ yoJAaU

is

it

^**

jsuc^S the smallest, ^jJuaA\

30*

3* oio*

30*

\^j^\

largest,

3 *
;

io*

Oi 0*

the

jjtety\

greatest,

cities.

0*03

0*0*

Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their

a.

feminine by adding S_

0**0*0*03

0*0*

5/ *0

as ys!^\ the

^j^oJt i}*sb the largest of the

Rem.

3*

" J

lowing genitive, in which case the feminine

as

ta ^

O^**'

an d

slender,

&UL*w

O^j*

naked, do\jj.
3W(-0*

Rem.
*

b.

io*

The feminine
3 *

"

of
3 *

Jj^l

3 Of-Q*

3*S-f-0*

(for J2j^)t or

Jjt^t) the
*

if-

first,

iJy^S that of j.\ (forjjktl) other, another, ijj/^t. The latter


word can be used indefinitely, because it is superlative only in

is

* o

o *

form, not in signification.

The numeral

jtt,

one, has

^j^t.
*03

Rem.

c.

There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5,


&\

not superlatives, without any corresponding masculines; as .-Jt


*0

Zt

female, feminine, i*JL- pregnant, .-jj which has recently yeaned (of
a ewe or she-goat).

& Adj. Fern,

297] II The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

296.

of Adj.

185

Feminines in t are formed from adjectives of the form

JajI, which have not the comparative and superlative signification


J x

as

*sb x

yua\

yellow, tSyuo

bached, ibj^..

r<0

j^j*-1

race.

e -&-

The form
x

w^aH

dress), *bjjdt

Arabs of pure

the

sometimes serves as feminine to &%**, "

2*}JLi

3yfu ^ *W*h

x0

/0 x

*x

O^**^

297.

O!/**" perplexed, amazed, ^j-t^ an d

All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine.

following forms are of both genders.

"

and

sitive),

is

Jj**, when

(a)

as

i\j*<*-

r>J^\ hump-

Rem.

The

*/ /
(rain), i\^~*** beautiful,

and continuous

new

to the feel (a

rough

aspect,

as p"}UaA heavy

Posing

of these adjectives are not in actual use in the

Many
*x

masculine
i\s^t>

J x

it

"

has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran-

attached to a substantive in the singular, or serves


a substantive or a pronoun in the singular; as

to

predicate

OJxxOJxOjx

j^wj j5~e

J x x

J**.j

a patient and grateful man,

J x

jy&j jj*o

O J x

J x

and grateful woman; w>J*^

woman ;

JyiVfcj

Jj*.^

/ thought

her,

patient ;

OCx

Sl^et

xJOCx

\jy~e wJl s^0 was patient ; \jy**e ^rt)j

I saw

that

Ox x x

J x

s^0 was, or

a lying man, *->_$*&

x x

Z\j*c\

J x
|

patient

OCx

[w>>^

ojsj

a full grown

antelope].

J x

But
Ox

no substantive or pronoun be expressed, Jj>*3 makes a feminine

if

...

Jx

and

aJj*5,

Ox

a patient (woman)

meaning of Jjaa*
xx

J x

2j>U.

she-camel to ride, nor one

to

'x

Ox

J x

Ox

Ojdx

..

also if it has the

Ox

as S*o

XX

Jx

^3 *W^^;

**

xx

J x

aJ>o^-

Ox

J x

:Tx
;

J x

Ox

ten*,

as

Jx

yt>2*~b

w.

OxO*>

as

Ox

Ox

we

a3U and

OJxOx

J^>fc.

Stw

a sAorw

j x

}j&

read in the tradition of

Oxx

= JjLLet*.

hostile,

an enemy,

fern.

J x

.-3
[and again, C-wjJt
^^ X w>j-^X

Sjjifc

Exceptions are rare


<

he has not a

carry loads, nor one for milking, where

2
a.

Ogx

db^>j and 5->>^- ^4j^j- and aj^Jo*^, whilst &>*-

Rem.

w^tj /saw

^Aere is

no milch-ewe in
xx Ox x

Umm Ma 'bad,

sAeep.

the

>t^a aSU or

D. G.]

24

Pakt Second.

186

Hence the

b.

[Rem.

mountain-road

'

J*o*^

e.g.

Oex

XX

J t^/

C-otj

j x

murdered;

**~>

j x

/ saw
i

or intransitive),

adorned with

it

(a sheep) which has been (partly)

zs

forms a feminine in 3
x

oLag

rare.

blameworthy

a new wrapper,
mercy

instrumenti

,j^ w^j-5

(
._

II

0x0

. tt

JLo

.<

aDI

x x

ver% GW's

well.

J UJLd,

and J**a*, which were

but

originally

became intensive

afterwards

228),

6),

under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i


x

aw

obstinate,
Ox

self-willed

2x

perfume; but

adjectives

Ox

e.g.

woman; <jUju isU a

docile

'xx

she-camel; jlkfc* ajjU*., or j-Ja.** *oW>>


?rawcA

nomina

0x0

4^-j ^>J

'x 6

St^cl

Ox

<Ua>JU

jlj <aa.

Jx

233, rem.

Ox
dJLai

d-*~o aJjo^. a

and, on the other hand,


x

J 0

C>xru>a- J1

0x0

0x6

J*a*,

(c)

nigh unto them who do

is

= iLo^Jco

habit,

t/ojj*

For example

OxjOxOxxOxOx

temperate, chaste, aa^ac

ju^. a praiseworthy way of acting, = 5^^=>. .o


#

(transitive

as ^^-oJ helper, Zj~a->

Exceptions in either case are

^U

<"

intercessor, ZjuslZ

Rem.

HarRris had

the

J~*s has the meaning of

If

kohl,

xx

woman) whom

(the

$w

d *x*

^-j^'

Ox

D. G.J

declivity.

eaten by a beast of prey.

2-J& an

$$^=> a

JJ/

297

a wounded woman, J-^5 oUi a murdered woman; but

d\j*t>\

X 0/

,j-*

ajjjj^JI iLjs

l^-Jfe

acclivity,

has the meaning of Jy***, and under the

it
->x

9->j>e*.

nouns >yt.o an

fern,

same conditions as J>ai


x

or the Parts of Speech.

of ascent, j^J^o- and

difficult

J**s, when

(b)

Etymology

<*

young woman who uses

J OCx

SjUajt*

/ saw

c^jlj

(a

woman) who

uses

much

perfume.

Ox
Rem.

Exceptions are rare


Ox

Ox
/te

2ri^A, fern. fa^C.

as

^yJL^c poor, 0^** speaking

4jli*^

0x
[;

but

(t

^, .C>.< Sl^ot is allowed.


<1

D. G.]

II.

299]

Those adjectives that are properly


9 0*
O J
9 3
..

[(d)

and

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj. The Numbers. 187

Vol. n. 136,
/
60/

am

yj

a) e.g. jy>,

*,j&3 and some others as

Rem.

infinitives ( 230, rem. c

*->*>*>-,

v~*>->

s *

' J

jU., JLac

00^*'

9s,

^,

u~o, J****
D. G.]

etc.

Adjectives which are, by their signification, applicable


do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate

to females only,

an action or state as natural and permanent,

or,

lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg)

as ^J-ol*. pregnant,

O^

0*0'

iU,
O

at any rate, as

m*

'

barren, w-.tlib, jJbl), having swelling breasts, ^aui*., w^olk,

^U,

j-ojto,

[^^Lw 'Ibn Hisam

divorced,

JJU

suck,

her,

her,

^Zo

Jako

bearing twins,

^jjuL having a

[^jLa. chaste,

and likewise

^eao? awe?

/&e

Obi

c/uW or a young one with

age]

menstruating,

S.]

without ornaments, j-wl- witfA

bust naked,
p-*&j*o

having a whelp with

R.

1.

OOJ^
giving

and of middle

15, last

r,

jj-^t^o

Olu

fawn

*ta*^i

having a

with her, js*-c

u~^

unmarried

But

JJpa^, ^J-a**.

if

they

designate the said action or state as beginning, actually in progress,


or about to begin (ol. dsuo), they form a feminine in 3_;

^oaJI i-tful.
6e divorced

^A

she is menstruating to-day

to-morrow ;jX^i Lcl. JXJ every


*

lias

'

JkJlk

96*
*r^>

*0i

d s

her time or term; CUa-ojl U.c AJtoj-o

ji iiUUs .-A sAe will

woman who

&

as

i ,

J^

0s

is

pregnant

,0 **

JaJJ VjfcP^^I ^

day when ye shall see it, every woman who is suckling (in the act
of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been

/&e

suckling.

J)

3.

298.
and plural

299.

Nouns

The Numbers of Nouns.

have, like verbs, three numbers, the singular, dual,

(see 81).

The dual

formed by adding <jl to the singular (omitting,

is

of course, the ten win)

as

w>L^

book,

oW^*

^>j

a fawn,

O^j

or

Part Second.

188

Rem.
294,

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

If the singular ends in

a.

rem.)

as

<Lc\

a nation,

make

usually

testicle,

^>vJt

and ^UciA*.

OW*-j

OW

CT

l>**

>

From

oWjW-

mobile (compare

originally

dual

Lac a

as

\j\5sid.

If

staff,

167, a,

for $*a, jjt^-ot

x o

xx a

^^ct purblind

00

(from
x

xxxxxxOJ
for 3-oj),

$7*e

upper parts of

would be

Rem.

\j}j Jco

the

J)

(
X

tjljU*Jsu>

in a quiescent

(from

for >yJ),

l^J

s s v

3^), <jW* c

'

^~~

rendered contented (from

if

used,

desert,

jjljt^^o
*"

Forms

1_ denoting the femi,

as la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom,

w*s b
;

i\j^- red,

<*x

however, said by some to be admissible.

*T_,

when sprung from a

radical

or

^,

t\j&o

x x

In

the termination

the hemza

L> a dress (for jdJb), ^j\A~s or ^tjl*^

r*'
;

and even ^jbl^a^o,


x

retained or changed into 3, though the former

Oh^J

jjtjl/*^-

like ^jtzl/*.*., ^j\i\j*~a,


x
x

are,

}W*J or

the neck,

x x

x x

i\j^~a a

yellow, \j\}\jjua.
x

k\>j)-

nape of

the

ill

of the termination

r*'

which was

t_l),

296), becomes 3
x

^^

said to

restored

two buttocks, the singular of which,

The hemza

c.

for
16

is

solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl*

nine

3 x

jl.>0.,>.

oW"^*-

j^^c

<

OW*^

t,

not restored in the dual, but

is

named (from^wt for^^w),


^,-3j

the

^ mobile, as j*v^* a musical instrument

becomes

OW^*

is

noun ends

the singular of a quadriliteral

which was originally a 3, the j

^,

US

Hl->

butt for shooting,

(\1 or

the

15*:;

the form ^jl^*.

a),

ft,

becomes

a), it

l^*" P re9 nan

j***-

>**>ja

If the singular ends in a quiescent

occur.

O^J^

legal opinion,

jj^l^- a bustard,

^L^.

or l)'

{\J>

fi,

oW^

youth, for ,-XS,

interdicted ground,

L5**"

^J3 a

as

rt^ ^rni.

Rem. b. If the singular ends in a quiescent


which was originally
mobile (compare 167, a,
so again in the dual

and

buttock,

'

O (see

changed into

3 is

But <Ut a

^j\Zc).

sbl

SI

299

is

may

either be

preferable;

as

%\^ a mantle (for

Some, however, admit the forms

oWUl

and jjbL*3 (comp.

xO

*'0

^,

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f

to

is

189

Dual.

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

into

it

change

as ^ULfc,

*s0

x*

or

)h^J^

?yj*>,

& Adj. The

In the case

294, rem. a).

the better course

(see 259),
x

A. Nouns Subst.

The Noun.

II.

299]

hemza

If the

O^Wj^--

^5j

l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into


j x
~-*3
^ 5j
c2i

as

of

x x

(from

*\j3

j^.5),

In words
or more
jjUt^5
?loj (fromj-oj),
the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as
.Jj>.
to,
of five

(jteloj.

letters,

~'

,,o

Ox

xx

t x

jjljjuj
"

"' " J
fliJUii

'

^btoll

xxOx

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,

{JjZ*-+$

big, stout camel,

sO xx

^\jZsu$
x x

a black

xxxOxx

*x

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,

xxx

jjLJUi.

beetle,

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

xx

instead

x ^0

of

oMj>>

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a
has been elided in the singular after a kesra
and before a damma with ten win (see 167, b, /?), it is restored in
x

the dual; as^otj, for


^*\j, oW*L>
x

for

some words

Ox

Ol**-* (rarely X
J
x
x
have ^wl, tjl*~>l ;
^o-)
x
x
x
x
x
Ox

^,v.>,

In

like

manner, an elided j

xx

and^i, have

xxx

Ol**-*, still more rarely


XX
xxx

0^

OW-

//

<J^
x

or

O^'x
x
*

xxx

rarely

xxx

cAn^> 0^*0>
x

j--

.Ui
(for ^^

/A

xx x

<Jls^ an d

(for y>\, *.t,

and^tX

or **f1 makes
x
xx

0^>> an ^

,j1jlj,

^.

5^0
xx

xxx

.!,

C*'X

^-wx

OW-^b

as w>l,

^^j

0^)> O >o*-.

>^)> Ol>A
X
and

166, a).

f r
ufl>>

'

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

restored in the dual of

is

makes o!>*-

x
;

O-**

or O'y^,jUa
X
X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the

singular, it is not restored


//J
0x
0x0
xx
^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx

^juLj

Rem.

as 2u\, for
ly*\, <jliit ; a), for i^k),
x x
x
x
xxx
Oxx
x6 x
aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

^O^x

Oxxx

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.

/.

The dual

two individuals
XXX
as

(JjUfrXa-,

xxx

is

commonly employed

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

in Arabic to signify

nwn, or a pair of anything,

S X

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

Part Second.

190

Etymology

or

Parts of Speech.

tlie

299

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or


opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

termed w^JLxj,

is

the

making

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father

from

brother; ^jI^oaJI Ae sww

and Kufa ;

^)U5^Jt

from

west,

moon, from

erne?

0*6*

and

Jjj*LJI

Rakka and Rafika ;

^\3\jsA\ the
3

and

^U.>a^Jl el-Hasan

;]

(the elder son of

(Jlh**^

'All);

/<

j-oJUl

* bs
the east; [jjU>l^*J!

s s * 0*

Tigris*

sister,

3 s sbs

sb'

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

^jI^a-I brother

s - ^ *x

-t

* - i

<h

Of

For example

prevail over the other.

it

- *i

Basra

Euphrates and
*

* bs

from ^...^

el-Hosein,

moon;

tl-Hasan

,M

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

3 " J

and
"heaven and
"
"
earth," ahanl,
day and night," usasau,
morning and evening,"
" Mitra and
etc.
Mitra,
Varuna,"

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father

"brother and

mother," bhratarau,

rodasi,

sister,"

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by


the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the

two have

* * b

and

coitus ;

Ci

^\j*^ty\

the

two red ones for meat and wine;

*bib*

b),

-U

b,

or

b i b*

<' * '

'

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

D. G.]

The dual

h.

or from

bodies or troops

is

sometimes formed from broken plurals

^ajf

(O^U--

ill\
or

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

290,

O^h*)

a,

e),

to designate

two

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

the two best ones for

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*.*^l urine and

and Euphrates.

300,

coolest

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the

sleeplessness

Rem.

two

s *

and

dung or

two

jUs^l

the

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl

' '

heart

\jlis^i*j\

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

the
*

)\>y>*$\ dates

as

ibs

bib*

**

common,

morning and evening

(of things) for

eating

in

(^)*>\),

<jlo*i

two flocks of sheep or

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the


town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

sides of the

9//

J***.),

Plural 191

Ox

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels

goats (^t>),
x x

& Adj. The

A. Nouns Subst

The Noun.

II.

300]

(from

JUj*.,

of

pi-

Ox

\jl.UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

pi.

xOxxxOxxx'x

JJLjJj JJUU

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
of

pi.

Oj

Malik and Nahsal (from


p-U;,

of)

<^)

->2<x

^>o^t we

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md


x

OJC

j |

J>-^l), from

(aaaJI

J>ot,

of J-l

pi.

o/*

Hebrew

[comp. in

rootf;

?w
b

D^nbh].
3

Rem.

Proper names of the

i.

mode

in their

class

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,


5x

5px

a proposition, as in \j JsuU,

with j3 possessor of; as

xx

i^J
Ox

it is

*5

264) vary

But

\j>

XX

hu\j

tji,

If the first part

too

men

xO X

Ijl*c

'.4fo2

Menaf

men

'

xx

Ox

juj \^\ two


Oy3l-OjO

men

two

Ox

second part in the dual likewise, as

Ox

xx

^juj

U^L

The

5^

D
J

which has only a single form,

one,
J

xJ0*>

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

>o

and ^JLJI

retained in

is

called

^^jJI

a^jJI, fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis


x Ox

f-o^J',

*>

or <u^LJ!

jOx

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

of the singular are

it.
J 5 x J>/

The

x Ox

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

(6)

in

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.

sanus),

But

allowable to put the

etc., it is
x

^,.o>.

men

jg

oo

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

(a)

other,

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.


o

called

be in the status

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*

both

if

together, form

xx

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

300.

when taken

or,

x x

U* jue
il

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

l^i,

<ju^**~>

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata arran.

called

^^j-* w*^=>

recourse must be had to a periphrasis

Oxx

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x
J
x
Ox
the termination ^jt_; as w^^jjto,

x x

5 x

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

constructus,

O x

which has various forms,

is

called j~XJt

x Ox

* ^

ft,

Part Second.

192

a&

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

more

it is

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

nouns

pluralis sanus of masculine

the termination \J3 to the singular

as Jj;L>

formed by adding

is

The

jijW

thief,
x

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,

pluralis

Ox

Ox

9/

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,


Ox

Rem.

If

a.

ten win (^ or

oISjLj

of those which do not

xO

to the sing.,

the singular ends in

or in

as^j-* Mary,

maksura, with or without

elif

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of

laid

b,

t x

/?,

xx

are to be observed.

x x

Ox

for

XX
^ol3,

^^JLkutfU

for jJ-ja-oIS;

Xj

Rem.

^U~>

and

a quail,

^or

J X

03t^3-

U*^S

x x

>

in the oblique cases


X

^e

^la*JI,

X 0X

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x

pregnant, oULj>.;
xx

in the oblique cases


J

Oy^y*

Jx0X
for

.Jua^u

'i

cw

xxJ

OL>^..cJt

^UJt,

^-l.>

<J|$*olS,

X0J

XX

and

X0X

J x

/3,

^*>^o Moses,

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx

),

xx

E.g. .JLkucu*, for

J x x

judge, )yc\S, for

^.olS,

x x

^^jiJautfuo, for

c,

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,

167, a,

/?),

arising out of

and

//

oU-jj-o.

or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^


down in 166,
a and
^ then the rules

167, b,

formed by

Ol_

i<),

is

x
f

B' end in S_, by adding

^_

i2

^a.^JI

Ae

smallest,

x J

OtJt^w.

The gezma

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0


x0x
J
X0J
the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and JU$,

J.

0x

tives of
I)

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or


mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which
either be the

may

same as that

Kg.

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>

Jx

(nlV)X)
Ox0x

Oxxx

a^

'-4Mb,
xxx

4jj3 a village,
00

jUA

Ox
;

ZAe

lotus-tree,

OtjUA

x x

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt

0x0 x
aauai, A.i.,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

a coming in

the

0x0
;

Oxxx

03 j

Oxx

0x0
Sjjurf

O^JLt

OxxOb^i0-*

Hind, Ol jUA or

of the first syllable, or in all cases

QxxxS0P

fetha.

morning,

Oxx

Otjj^
Ox
Ot

lyA a fragment, Aj*& or


J
Ox
J
OxJJ
/

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

O^Loa. or

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

301]

9 j +
sl*y*&o*.

<&

Adj.

x xJ
/JJ
5
t + fi
<LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

xx J

si J

Pluralis Sanus.
x*

43j&>

an upper chamber,

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

Ox*

x *J

x * J

<5

be retained, as Otj~, OUJlb, [Oli^]


x

be done only by poetic license, as

may

also

x t/

but in dJUi this can

OLo$j from

x Sx

x * J

Oli^ft or Oli>.

193

<*x

JLcJj looseness or

x "x

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from


a sigh. Names of men of
Zj3j
J//
Oxxx
J x *x
Oxxx
the form ilai have likewise C/}L*, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ;
J/ /
Oxxx
0* J
Ojj
The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or
5j^- Hamza, Olj-^..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}li

OLj^.
##

In

form

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the


x ^
Ox*
0x#

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

is

Ox

Ox

Otjji).
X X

rare exception

Ox*

from Sjj**. a whelp.


Otjj^.
XX
X

is

[If the

third radical be

the form 0*}Hxs

^,

Ox*
x

uses

R.

j^jatoJ.

xJJ

S.]

In

iUi,

inadmissible, as

xx J

_>J

*0 *

OLc

Otojj

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

Ox

9x

OlxJ

a church,

in

Mj

fl

of the

w.

Oxxx

xxx

Oxx

xx

OUj,

Ol^>>, ObuJ,
r

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.


OSx

fix

Sji

a mote, Olj3

9 5 x
;

d
;

Sjlw

oj^c
X

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&;


X

The same
x

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

[Yiz. in the dialect of

43.

is,

/>?'//,

vicissitude,

however, admitted dialectically *,

j
x *x

Ot Jw

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.


x *

a turn of fortune, a

always retain the gezma; as


attack,

OloJ)

Ox* J

a charge or

A**ft a fault,
Ox
Ox*
s-o (for 4jco)

Ox

lasting, still rain,

<

rad. gemin.

0x*x9x*x

a helmet, Olcuo;

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,

O^y Substantives

i.

ea^,

dUj> (for 5Jj>)

OxxJ

<LsL-o

x*x

especially

Oxdx

middle radical be 3 or ^,
0x*x
0x*x
retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.

The vowel fetha

0*9^.

is

aw

a-cuj

If the

0x0

G s

xxj

##

QsOsGsa*

<Lojj a garden,

the form

a charm, Jl a kidney, OU5j,

(but not OUSj, OlJl).

the gezma of these three forms

^,

0x*J

2u3j

x * x

instead of which one

the third radical be

if

Ox* J

is

OUl

oUaJ,

X * J

0>*i

One

likewise disapproved.

Ox

say OUa*J, as Oj^**, but not

may

is

Ox*

is

Oxxx

the case with

Ol^aL .0)

S'***
;

dAy~> easy,

all

adjectives, as

x * x

O^IL^

x *
;

rta>

Ac /a2

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

D. G.]

25

Part Second.

194

and

or the Parts of Speech.

9* 6 3

* 6

Etymology

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL- sweet,

***

e>

3 and ^,

If

c.

milk (of

little

**

OUaJ.

a sheep or goat),

Rem.

<bu^ of

are,

o * o *

* 0'*

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having


9

, a,

r,

Exceptions

Ot^^*..

302

as third radicals, reject their fetha in the

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into ( 214,


and 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
t

the vowel.

or,

spear, tube

cane,

xxx

OLX9

A*Ii),
(3,

**

a,

with

Rem.

9 *

9**

prayer

3*>Lo,

Otj^S

(for 3^;$),

9* ,$

*6 J

thrown

olcjc,

S^Xo or

E.g.

3Ui,

* * *

Otyo
a young woman

t'~

3U5,

(for

* *6 3

OU^

^u^o),

(for

(for S^Lo),

167, a,

(compare

166, a).

been elided in the

If the third radical has

c?.

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage.


* *
9 * *
5/ i
0x0
9
9 *
E.g. 2Js> (for 5j*o or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc

3_I

it

9**
2u~j

9*6*

Oxfix

A^w) a

or

Syw

(for

9*6*
or SjAw) a

Ot$Aw

Sj^t) a female

(for

a ring, Ot^j

OU)*

gum,

C-*o

9 *

or

(for S^&J),

<3UjI

a lung,
&5j (for <L5j)
*
*
9*6
9***

OU*.

a troop or

sister,

Ol5
*

9*0

*6 *

i**

r*

H *

f**6 *

l\jA~a, l\s*, AijJ.


*

r*

as

* J

**

* J

(a)

The

or

' 3

OtjU^

men

is subject
299, rem. c).
9

Si

* *

five

*>
J

'

or

(see

more

letters

299, rem.
9

c)

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

pluralis sanus masc. is

Proper names of

gl_

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,

Words of
the terminations ^ and *l
9

^U., Ob^La-

302.

6%

and C*.t

9**6*

* *

t\~*~>,

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.


sometimes reject

**

OtjAt.

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and


to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (

Hence from

(for 4*3)

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred,


*
x

*<

armlet,
9*0

3&

a daughter, makes C>Uj

(for 4^),
9 * *

^UB

* *

* 3

OUj

6awc?,
9*

slave,
9* J

* *

OUa

SjJ (for 3^j)

9*6

9*

the

thing, Ot^-iA or
x J
9*6*
9*3

2uj (for 3^*j)

xxx

OLb

9*

*3

d^Aw

9 *

*3

a^> (for

9 *i

* *

5"

A*l

9***
Ox? ** '
Sua (for 3^;*), a
Ol^-ot or OUI
8/tj
(for S^J) Ae point of a weapon,
9

"

2^"

* * *

or

OlyAw

lip,

Ot^-w and Olyiw

?/ear,

* * *

xxx

- x x

formed from

(excepting those which end in S_, as

The Noun. A. Nouns Substti Adj. Plur. San. Masc. 195

II.

302]

common nouns

AaJ-b), their diminutives, and the diminutives of


J

which denote rational beings;


90s

as
jOs

'Obeid (dimin. of jus Abd), 03>*#i*


^j^Lfe^j

jJv^Z

* J

J***J (dimin. of J**g a man),

an

90s J
Ju*fc

J *

(dimin. of j^ti)

sO

O^U^s

'Othman,

t>oJk
J

'JOsjOOsJ

inferior poet,

, j

OJJ^&y*'
9 *

by adding 5

(b)

Verbal adjectives which form their

(c)

Adjectives of the form Jit, which have the comparative and

fern,

have also the

etc.

'

j
t

[The corroboratives of J^

superlative signification.

plur. san.

masc, though by their

viz.

j ^

-*t,

fern. sing.

^t>
A***.,

etc.

lLauL,

seem

they might

to

For the

adjectives exemplified by j**o\, etc. 296.


II.

304,

see

fern,

plur.

D. G.]

rem.

2,

the class of

rather to

belong

The

(d)

relative adjectives in

&\

9*

* o

The words

(e)

^o) a son,^\&

the

earth, Jjbt

beings, jbj\

jj the possessor (of a thing)


(rarely O>*^;0>

one of the four classes


3'

Ot

9 6*

of created

'

(for

ones family, jjt

goose,

which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^, Oyj\

03j3\ and OJJ* (used only

0>^>

the

in the construct

state jjj, see 340, rem. c)*.

Rem.

when joined

Adjectives, however, have the plur. sanus masc. only


to substantives denoting rational beings.

Rem.

Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and

a.

b.

adjectives that have the plur. sanus masc, but more especially from
adjectives when used substantively.

Rem.

To the words enumerated under

c.

the

\JyJ&,

* In a

highest

poem

of

heavens,

and

^)jl

may be added

(e)

or j)\ (construct form

en-Nabiga (Ahlw. App.

13, vs. 5)

we

find

of

o>*^

o Zj

from

last
<

and

.*?,

1.

in the

)yJb^ from

s lOiO

ib

commentary on the Diw.

o^j.

We
*iO>o

of

Hudeil,

p.

120,

ought to mention also the expressions


,

Or*

wi

OtO

<

J)

Part Second. Etymology

196

or the Parts of Speech.

J l

J x

a
,

Further, JL. a privy, <J}L*.

323).

\Jy^

thing,
it

j^

',

Rem.

Some

d.

nouns in

fern,

^,

\Jy>\,

S_l

Od x

district,

si)3J^

)yc&

*jj

an d, very

a lung, )j

as Zj&. a stony, volcanic

i x

x
(

which the

especially those of

has been elided, have a plur. sanus masc,

d)

the termination o_ disappearing entirely

OjJ^)

irregularly,

***^ a thorny

3j a ball, a sphere,

used by children at play, ^j^k*

J>^5]

obliq.

[cas.

03J^

tree,

*^* a stick

>

41w a

?/ear,

j j

From

Oj-^-

the oblique case of this last word,

secondary formation ^>*iw, [like &+Lc


ii.

JP

rarer forms

the

an(^

>

s i

o i

third radical (j,

^JA

OlJ^

vulva,

from w>l and U.

Oj^>

viz. j>~L*>, arises

325, rem.

a.

Comp.

also

108].

Rem.

302

0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short, see 340, rem. c), possessors,
which have no singular; as also the numerals denoting the tens,
from 20 up to 90

e.

In proper names of the

the formation of the plural

rem.

Thus

h).

declinable,

makes

)$tj-i ****

299,

which the second member only

in

1*0-)** wss>jo ( 264),

analogous to that of the dual

is

w>jjjui,

class

x x
;

but <su^*w and


a

**

xx

wholly indeclinable, form <u^^w jj3 and

\jjj

isuD,

\jjj
x x

is

&'

'

which are

jx

$, men

hu\j

called
j 0.

Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran.


x x

it

otu, juj

$>\,

j-ojJt H-^t,

men

0s&

and
called

10

Ox

fsr*

ol.U ^J^, J^J

W^>

x x

O^t, form

j*4j)\
l

Construct compounds, like

Abd Menaf

'Abie Zeid,

and 'Ibnu

an d

'z-Zubeir ;

but in the case of compounds with


to say ,j-|juj bt

with

^\, when

and the

like.

w>t,

^t,x

It may be

etc., it is also

allowable

added that compounds

they are the names, not of persons, but of animals


5

or other objects (see 191, rem.


5/0

OUj

or &ut)

jjlau

^t

any one of

^ytj-

XX

OUj,

etc.

e.g.

^*j^

the

^1

stars

weasel, %\*

in

XX

take the feminine plural C>Uj

(from

b, 6),

the

tail

of

^jj\

a water-fowl,

the

Great Bear,

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

303]

If a

[Rem. f.

word

Adj.Plur. San. Fern. 197

<&

in the status constructus

is put in the
plural,
be put also in the plural,

the following genitive of possession


o * bio

as

jo

duJj

*<*aJI

pi.

*0i

3 3b'0

'O-O

wJ^UJt JUit or
*0*O

The

3 x Ox

t>*o

formed from

pluralis sanus fern, is

00

xxtfx

w*^j

OL-UJ

Zeiridb,

B
men

man's name), OUJLli

(a

Rem.

301, rem.

plur.

xxx

duj.9

' ' '

village,

9 '

Obji

vi

sanus

+&

fern.

gazelle,
x i x

<Lc^Xe-

6^/

OLJa

Wx

Otj*

b).

be formed from any word ending in 3_; as

may

Sj^ 'J.z2a,

some grammarians the

According to

as end in

3* *

xx

iaJJa Talka

c-^j,

xx

juA Hind, OljUA

0"

JUM

D. G.]

etc.

as

,0*3

j^Jt ^JU

j $

Jas,

w)U^ol or

xx

, 3 b/O

a-juo^t 4AJ has

xOx

5..;

33
j>jJt

Proper names of women, and such names of

(a)

^x
J

3s,
w**.Lp,

jujJt

o , o*>

wJUJI

33

Jl^Jt C^o
303.

*0

w*UJt JU*t

j^jjJ\ w>U-ot;
x o O/o

may
33 0>a j * o
o * o*a
3 * o
or
% .*sjjl oLt
dlwt
P>*aJI

a very learned man,

oL*}Lfc.

Feminine adjectives, the masculine gender of which has the C

(b)

pluralis sanus.

xx

^^3

xx

^Ufc. a

x3 *

bustard,

?& |^/J

OUp^c
(/)

oUJt

#w m,

^o-j^

of

the

the derived forms

202)

verbi

(
tf

5 x

fife
9

e)

292, b)

Moharram,
x

Jt^w Sauwal, O^t^w.


196),

and

all

as *Jj>j*3

as j*j

x xx

301, rem.

O^*-*) Ramadan, OUUa^o,

months

The feminine nomina

Oljlj-o

x J

* <'

pregnant,
^+x
x

of the letters, which are usually feminine

The names

(e)

as

distress,

l\ja

l\

and
x

ObjL*..

The names

(<#)
9

oUt

r*St

Obj^

memory,

x x J

as

^~

Feminine nouns in

(c)
s

definition,

nomina verbi of

9x0x5x0

oUjjju

pUail

x x

feof, OUiJa.ltS

Rem.

-*}Uxot

technical term,

The nomina verbi

of the second

oW^LLot.
xx
and fourth forms, when
r'

* "

used in a concrete sense, admit also of a pluralis fractus; as uL^-cu,

j)

Part Second.

198
9

or the Parts of Speech.

a literary composition, a
9

136)

f~ijti

an

date,

era,

a chronicle, -m^l^j

Otjl

ckm

or series

Otj^b

oi

jLL~ijl+. irj a

Ul aw ^4##,

'*

IXwt (for jU*>l)

OUtj^U>

s ol

al

teacher, Ot^Iwt.

nouns, which have not a

fern,

9*0'
stout camel,

C/^

9
.>

..

or occurrence
OOP

jUc landed
^j^-

(lit.

a warm
9

U^

or inorganic thing,

animal, oUtj*.

termination

fern,

ji

'.

C inanimate

ObU^.

oU L^a.

bath,
9

' s

'

Op

an

S , *

Oljlit

w^a happened or
*

^l

ol***- living thing, an

property,

J *****

as

and

some

masc. substantives, which have no plur. fractus

Many

(A)

s * s

U>b a Pasha,

OtS^l^-w

tent,

(jlj^U* a jet deau, a fountain,

*:

awning, a

ff

Jbtj-*

jlwt a

when they denote persons

Substantives of foreign origin, even

OUU^U^o
o

p-^jW* distresses,

authorities, jtJlwt.

(#)

as

- -

j*wlo annunciations, prognostics; w-j^Uj wonders,

marvels; oU-jt a /afoe rumour, ou.tjl

(compare

c-aJI^j

' x

303

'

uLoLeJ,

book,

%<

difficulties;

q/*

' '

c-s

o^b,

Etymology

(j^^U aw

#y0w

Ob^.U

occurred),

* si

Jjbl ones family or relations, O^Jbt or C^aI, which some, however,


Ox Op

derive (according to
'

camels,

301, rem. 6) from

f"

<'

Ol^ or Otj^c

iUt j* a caravan of
;

^U~/ ^e

s%

or heavens, Otjl~> (though this

oi

word

also masc.)

is

rem. b)

'

, J J

jy^U

or marriage,
9

<

J *

From

90

a waterwheel, Ob^a*^o

Olw^.

,,t

^aj\ the earth or ground, Olojt (see


9

loaded

< *

301,

9J J

^j^

or

^jt a

wedding

,6t

0+*->)\ a

of forty traditions

collection

is

"Oi

formed oUjujt.
(i)

Verbal adjectives, which are used in the plural as substantives;

asOU>l^

entities

(from ^>>vb being)

Obj.^.^

OxJOx
found, existing)
literary

OlS^AsL-a creatures (from

compositions,

works (from

beings (from >>**->


x

J^U^

ui

,gv

,c

created)

arranged,

*Zi

s i

>WJ*aa

classified)

304]
*

The Noun. k. Nouns Subst. and Adj. Plur. Fr actus. 199

II.
s

u>

hillock, 0*}L**r*.

w**^*

&'#& fotf,

The more common forms

304.
and

volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin,

books,

All diminutives, except those specified in 302, a

(i)

uJ

bound

as J-*-

OLJS.

of the plur. fractus of substantives

adjectives, which are derived from


J '

and

triliteral roots,

none of

in

which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical, are
twenty-nine in number. The following is a list of these forms, with
the principal corresponding singulars, and examples.

T>
B

Plur. Fract.
9,3

J*5.
5/JJ
1.

9 *

ilas

^
j,^

as

UUJ

present,

'

i^j

knee,

Hj

w->j

<>

white spot, or &&&&? (Germ. Bldsse), on a horse's forehead,


4*1

5x

a nation, ^a\
6 '

h$* a form,

9'

jya

t J

^Aib

(for

j^^U*,

fern,

^5^)

s J

^J^-

[**-v^

a dome, w*J>

i*3 [a leather tent,]


district (Gr. x^P a )>

or >**., 213)

9 * OJ

' J

*jj& a

fire-brand, i^j** (for

2.

0'

9 * J

<Haj a

6 '

J3^ ^JJ^
5

all> kidney,

9 *J

courageous,

of J*$l as a superlative

j^\.
234 and

295, b)

as

Ja..)t
{Jj+>J\ tlw largest, j*)\
<j>**aJt fyfe smallest, jJuaJt
L5
x lo*
jx jx
jSo*
j/(/
^0 y^stf (fern, of Jy^t), Jy^t
te greatest, ^^IsuUt
.

LUJt

3.

^j^t

M<? highest,
^jlx)\.

Rem.

Similarly

295, rem.

SlLxJ

b),

(J^t

o^er, another

(especially from verba mediae rad. j),

9,6,

9,3

a)j>

a tan& o/ fortune, a dynasty, Jj*


village,

<j?Ji

(for ^j.3,

9,39,0
(for

j^aJ)

AjjX.

of j^t, see

j\, without tenwin.

5//

Zjj3 a

(fern,

JSJ

trinket,

^^.

213)

4Jl*5,

rare

as

9 x J

Su^j a turn, w>jJ

<L*J a foard,
^ali

9,3
(for ,^-).

Part Second-Etymology

200

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
9

II.

Sing.

J***.
ot

1.

not comparative and superlative

J-*it,

bi

j *

o o j

as j**-\ red, j**.

^o
^

2.

u^f)

3>-l 6/ac&, ,>j~> (for >^-)

',

3 s

*-

ptjuj

efawrt has

Rem.

fawe, *-j^

i\x+*., i\*Z>, iU-oJ,

309,

a,

make

all together.

8],

,,

woman), J3J
9

plate,

O^

J^fcli,

* s

Ol$*

9s*
ftfd|

jty* a

tent,
3

bracelet, jy*>

derived from verba med. rad.


90

cases, as 0j3

from

oj[*

be contractions from

[Rem.

"

1*5

'

939

(for ij*)

90 3

9 3 3

^j^j

jljl heat,

has certainly both $~t and yi.

young for some years, J*j*

1.

as

jl$->

#/ a
9

tooth-stick,

had young, b^e

Jtf.
9**

[They may be contractions from original J*i, as

in.

c,

9 J J

j)

joo/e

9 * 3

9 *

4.

302,

M0

,jt^j

Oj^)

j)\f~t

J /J

**,

rad.

6ftJ
(for

9*

(of a

j$\.

x 3

^-^J,

[Comp.

SJ

table,

3 s 3

137 and rem. c]

a middle-aged married woman, &$

sj\^ a

[Accordingly

A*-^^

**<,

9s*
9*
9*3
JUi, JUi, JUi, derived from verba med.

retiring

i[x2j (fem. of **.l, etc.,


3

without tenwin

and

a#),

ii.

etc.

J^.l

vol.

296)

9 6 3

corroboratives of

and

and superlative

lU^

&

tit

of J*it, not comparative

fern,

l%x*,

<&/,

WSfWJ, ^-O^.

as jjio yellow, jJua

^-ot

<

&

o j

Bt*s

3.

humpbacked, w>jla.

cAsrft tfliwfe, c*a-o (for

^O^l
*"

w>**-*-'

232 and 235)

[or

as

having newly

JjU. farrow,]

not bearing

93
J>-].
9

and jjJ (comp.

[Also in some other

and Jj^ from Jju.

ej*

JuU

S.]

'

[and

Isufc,

90 3

e.g.

They may, however,

III. 5, rem.).

D. G.]

4dU a she-camel has Jjy.J

*9*3

JUi, JUi, JUi, not derived

either from verba mediae rad.

&

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

304]

Adj.Plur. Fractus. 201

Plur. Fract,
9J

T
III.

JjtS continued.

Sing.

"

geminatse or verba

tertiae rad.

et

^j

9 '

9 3 3

f>J

I**-*

'

,jUa. a

91

tick,

are

Exceptions
9

-*.La*&.

2Ae

jjUft

[A

rare case

9'
;

w~J a

9''

eye,
'Oi

3 et ^
9339'

>

SJua^o a leaf or page,

w^j

sandhill,

9 '

^>i^

s^jo,

^^

'

a-ijjt*

93393'
JU^i j^s

'

; Ju a

tertiae rad.

9 3 3

c^fy,

933

j ^

pillar,

ju*c

j j

J>w; a message, a
9

tfAe

s^ot from ,JL>!

is

9s

3 3

w~o

or ra/,

throne, bier, jj~*

3 3

fjj^c

jtji

were formed from ^>Ut.]

it

93

seat,

| /J
;

9 jI

y&.

rein,

'

w*-^ 5 a #W#

over

6on<?

9 j j

<-

'91'

'9s
9

jt*_

fi i

J***, &**, J>*s, not derived from verba


as

^)y>

p|^ *& shinbone of an animal, tj*

female, as though
9

tooth-stick,

-t)

2.

J**~>

}j.$.

Rem.
9

tree,

91

&\$-~i

9 ' 3

Saturday, j-*w

JL~ a mimosa

9 '

\j*o-

stallion,

J***

fMcifc,

a large bowl or

as *-b>

'

messenger, J*w>.

3 '

J**i, J>**, verbal adjectives not having a passive signification,

3.

and not derived from verba


9 3 3

tertiae rad.

933

3'

who warns, jjJ j~e patient, j^o


;

933

JJ5
9b

3'

93

j yet. jealous,

9 ' '

9'

' '

j+e>
'

thin,

3'

white piece of

for

sacrifice,

3 3

qj*>

9b'
as w,4a.

thicket, ^^-t

j-o^

a dromedary,']

3
;

933

7-00/*,

uUL*

lion,

juJ

'Z

ajj*>

a leopard, j^J

9
;

90'
Ja^w D

^Ui a

9 ' ' '

9 3 3

Ojj

9 J I

juJ a

as jj Ju one

eggs, u*>-

^Xi v>jj an idol, ,jjj


9'''
933
*f& a piece of wood, w *>*

J 2

or

^0^/0,

>

cloth, J*+~>
93 3
9 f'

sphere, the heavens,

9 JJ

9 3

J^i

u&f+J laying many

3s

J*$, J*3, iUi, J*3, Jas, rare

4.

et

93'

a victim

9 ' ' i

a*a.I

'

,>. rough,

a brake
9

3'

933
%++b a hywna, %~o.
9

w.

J J

O^^
26

Part Second.

202

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
J J

III.

continued.

J**

Sing.

5.

% J

rare

Jifcti,

as

j**& a merchant,

jaJ

a full-grown

JjU

r,Jj

camel, JjJ.
O O J

The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*,


the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae; e.g.

Rem.
unless
O
*

[j-4^, jUfe,]

O 0J-,

SO J

y >2r w^a5, Jj, jwt,

j*

(for j+%), ^^auJ (for


6

cAs^, instead of which uy!

sometimes used),

is

O OJ

JuJJ pleasant,

w>U

(for

xJ

5->

Si

times the darama of words med. rad. gemin.


Ox

fetha, as

IV.

like

rare.

Some-

changed into

is

x J

ju **. tew, ^*xa. or :>j^-

',

Jul.
1.

foc o/*

2.

Gs

a skin for

Ox x
#

3,13

j)

or pattern,

as <Ug*>

Ox

a to,
Gs

Q ,

milk, jj*>

OxOxx

a time,j*3

^^\

(for

t^t)

[>&j a &r$0, l) or i&}].

OxOx

Sjj*>

s*
;

living,

S^J aw example

&U$, aX*5, rare


Ox dx

*^^ f#w 2f walking, manner of

a building, j*^

a maxim, j&*-', J

dLft.

Ox

character, j+~

Gs

*JaS

M0tf,

tar, ^o^J
Ox

a^l>

A*Ja.5

as

il*9;

V.

jj~*

j-ij~>,

Forms

w~o).
J

w>b3 ^e common fly, wo, are

JJ,

full-

xx

she-camels (for w~J), from

grown

^^j

^o-j-

OxOx
fo*^ farm,

Ox

%~6
r,

i*-oA a shower of rain, ^~*Jk


05x

Ox

4*15 a fathom, ^o*3

[&tf

,
;

Ox

a flock of

sheep, JAj].

JUi.
oox
1.

Ja9

oooej

<

(not primse or secundae rad. \), Jjtf, Jjii

ox
;

asj^*->

sea,

* J J

[Again,

ojlw Persian curved bows

(TabarT,

i.

957,

1.

1) is said to

x 6 x

be the plural of ilijw.

R.

S.

It

may be
J J

a poetical license for

Jju.
J

For, as a rule, just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^--3
x 6 x
x x
6* /"
9J
OJJ
(
eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr), so Jjti may be replaced by yj**.]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

304]

& Adj.Plur. Fractus.

203

Plur. Fract.
V.

J Us
9

continued.

jla^j

an arrow,

-j

JJ* #

Ox

9*

(rare),

9 *

f\$j

wolf, w*tfi

pti

dish,

occasion,

Ox
**#& a farm, p{~6

/JJ

a scrap of

5*5;

cm

a low-lying,

level

cloth or paper,
9 *
9* J

cUj

district,

&J a

-*

a woman, has a plural of this form,

Stj-t,

^Uj

sp^arr,

<>*

9*0

o^o

Rem.

a wind,

~-jj

<z

^o,

a*aj

gazelle,

9*9

Ox

milch-camel, *-UJ

note,

as 4*-aS

^y

^J a

0x0

aX*s

9 x

jtj-

0x0
4^ jU a

Ox
iojj ^ garden, u^^ij

Ox

a foW,

*-t*x3

0*

oLj

dress,

a shadow, J^U

s^aefe,

<5x a

<LUi,

cloth,

9*90

9-\jj

<5x

a piece of

wJtjj

f,
lM

2.

Sing.

j?LJ.

9**9***
3.

J**, iUi, not derived from verba medise rad. geminatse or


tertise rad.
9 *

JIoa.
9 * *

et

9 * *
;

*''
duij the neck,
9

as ^J*** a hill,

9***

w>^)

b^

JL.

fru

9 * *

J^- a

jU-

it>

he-camel,

O-*^

fern.

iw>., handsome, o^~*--

J*3

9 J x

J x

4.

as J*)

**~>

OJx

J x

<

a man, JU-j

beast of prey,

cU

*.*-

"

a hywna, *W-.
90/
5.

Ox Ox

Ox

0x

w>Jls

J.ai

m^, w>IJ^

oxj
6.

as

colt,

Ox

s^J^o hard,

rVP e

A*8*

cbj

dates,

L5J*J,

.aA

fern,

5 'J

v^rj

an early born

late born camel's colt,

superlatives
X

a hermaphrodite,

*1>L..

as

^^1

*0l

not

w>U*

difficult,

x J
;

Ox

v*o

w^c>

xOJ
7.

as

v*~>
x

camel's

iUi, verbal adjectives

fern.

J*i,

Ox
cLa.
9

female,

^Ut

Part Second.

204

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
V.

continued.

JUs
9

8.

O ^*^^
9

^eni

J- *--*

signification
9 s

long,

Rem.

used

as

From words

tertise rad.

An

9s

yaJo a merchant,

-Usuj

from

"

*'**.
UU^fr

fern.

[Rem.

6.

IV

#00<^,

et

jL^.

^ this form

is

rarely

of the passive signi-

-*

JjbU drinking,

aa>

The

c\j (for

>l

^tj) a

from

tfAe

~s

^15

a courser ;

}\y-e*.

channel of a torrent ; oLa^fr from


9

eaw; jUs and

plural

shepherd,

s
,c

Jlyj

thirsty,

s
;

9 s

sleeping, j*Lj

a companion, w>U^o

Rare cases are


i\

ju- (for

^^-^

as
9

j^J

^jU

r*

ut

a weanling, JUai.

a.

9 s

example

J^Lj, verbal adjectives;

9 s

base, js\%

^Jbto]

feeble,

% Ia3.

^su pure,

standing, j^Ls

[wi^g. o

u!/*o

(rarely

fication is ^J-Moi

[Rem.

with

satisfied

^*j*, ^*ij>> noble,

vt

thirsty,

H>

jy) j*~$
s
s
90s
9
9
j**> (for j>, j-h^)

Jl^b

ju^.) good, ^W-

11.

sick,

9 s

9 s

^LuJauc
2/

jU

%,

9 s

Jj^b

as

sjAij-A

^J\j-Zt

Si

oW>

as j+** large, old,

9 s

j*\>*,

w>La

angry,

C)lcjJ repentant,

iLai, verbal adjectives, not having a passive

fern.

as

verbal adjectives

i^^-*-**
s

b s

adjectives

.-

^jUo

>#

verbal

^nlkft

10.

9.

$/ / /
&*$***,

0*^**> fem
9

Sing.

JUi

is

rs

^Ui

from

and

few words
and Hafagi's comm.

said to occur in a

(see Hariri, Dorrat, ed. Thorb. 97 seq.

l\j~Ljb

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.Plur. Fractus. 205

II.

304]

Plur. Fract.
V.

JU*

continued.

Sing.
- 3

141

as b\~~j from Jx~j a she-camel with her

seq.)

#~J

gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or


5

calf,

- J

in the second year, Jfa*j from

<?oa

90'

9 'J

'

own
5

- 3

Jui.j or Jl*-; a ewe lamb, Jl^j from Jjj mean, fLcj from
-

*-

Some

(see the Gloss, to

another form for


JO
really a collective (a^.^*!). D. G.]

Tabari).

that

gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian

a shepherd,

c,\j

it is

say that

J bid,

it is

others

JA

vi.

90^
1.

50

90J

50

sea,
9

>jj

l^>)

90

^
...
assimilation

i/fo

or

tooth

ju*. # military force,

3 3

an army, u*>*-

(for

^yu

soul,

# molar

cHj-*

933

gazelle,

an ^> Dv

Si

jj

90

Mtn, j>U.

90'
c*-

33

robe, jjjj

^+& a

JJ

u-^i

9 0'

3 3

>3-j-

90'

J^. a

903

*3-^

SO

^^j^

grinder,
3

jys^j

Jy^

a middle-aged man,
5

as j^*j

J^
9

0^

J*5, Jas

Jjji,

*>* the neck,

90'

j^x-k)

3J3

bucket,

(for

J^j

of the vowels,

^M,

^J> (comp.

215).
5

Rem.
50

From words med.

a.

this plural is rare

Ja9

933
as

Rem.

b.

syllable is

troop, r^^yi

Jy^ a year,

^ ow;> usually

makes ^~.3 or
^^3,

In words med. rad. ^ the vowel of the first


sometimes assimilated to the second radical, as

3 3

f5+wi

rem.

5J

5JJ

0-

2.

and

90'

3 3

0-

C-wO a house,

9--

from y~$.

if

tor,

0'

e. g.
j.ji

cH>3 a

Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)5

0-

of the forms Jj*i

50-

i 3

rad.

O^j

50-

f-y**;

0*

0-

O5-0

or

or

^*w an

old

5JJ

tt71

e 2/ e >

0>^

chief,

a doc-

0>*^ (comp.

269,

man, a

0J
or

c).
9

Ja3, J*9

5
;

as *xwt

Jfr

lion, *y~>\

--

w>ju a

scar,

JJ

w>J*^

5
;

ju&

J)

Part Second. Etymology

206

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
VI.

J3** continued.

Sing.

fc fcwr, .>>*=>
9

J J

J^X*
I

J>c$

>

tooth,

^JUU a #m<7,

^^

* x

JJ

w>*H

or

&*#,

ox

^^-At (for ^3-ac),


oxx

w~o) canine

(for

#^

mountain-goat,

xx

w>U

J^j a

by assimilation ^^-oc

j>*

blood (for

^.0, 3-0), ^.o or

^j.
9 * *

From words med.

Rem.

plural

rare; as

is

rad.

form J-a-i

of the

9 x x

JJU

.*

Jiyw) a stem or trunk,

(for

this
J

J>3j~> (or

cut**)J

Ox Ox
3.

Ox Ox

J' '?

UJ, iUi, rare


9

OJx

OxO

J J

j^jo

a period of

<ua.

time, *->>**

j9wrs#

of money,

0x0 J

*4j.

3 J

a M#, V3xH**

OJJOxxx

Owij

aa. a casket,

Jj>*.

aw inkhorn, ^53

a sto /or ?m7&, a

as SjJlj

or

a %?

JUbtft

or summit,

xx

J J

wiytw

5t^>

^j3.

Ox
4.

verbal adjectives, not mediae rad. gemin. or med. rad.

J^U,

OJJCxOx

O^x

^ as ^5)3
OJJOx

vel

jjblw

jx

33*3

{$&)

or

O3S3

standing,

witness,

^y^

OU

^^

i)b

t^JU., jcclS, sitting, u**>U->

J J
#

proud, wicked,

Ox

-i

-^JJ*

vii.
1.

(for

weeping, ^yL> or ^iu.

3X0 from

cases are

rom J*

^*

OJJ
Rare

[Rem.

ojj

0x00
.JU>

J J

UP i ^3J^ ^ rom

a stone set
\J*J)
X

(JLo) a W6;

Ox

**-*<P
elegant.]
X

J3.

Ox
^b,

verbal adjectives, not derived from verba tertise rad.

(with rare exceptions)

Ox

j-u

et

as j^-L prostrating oneself,


9

j^e

9 <xx

conversing at night, j-~>

jtg^o fasting, j>yo and

5J

j*>v sleeping, j*y and

JjU> pregnant,

J^Z and J*

304]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. Plur.Fractus. 207

II.

Plur. Fract.
9

VII.

Si

Jji continued.

Sing.

Ox

iUU,

2.

fern,

u^u*-

of the preceding

Rem.

in the

syllable of

first

case the

as

damm

for

is

allowable

Anomalous

b.

&m*

of

9-y>.

Ja9 from verba med. ^ et ^. in which

j must be changed

[Rem.

AaJU mourning,

from oi5U fearing ; ^^a,

VIII.

The substitution

a.

5^^

65 J

fi

jU

JiJLb repudiated, JUJ] w*-Six


5i
J
9
Swj
a soldier, (jy (for ^jx or jj, 213).

[^tfula. menstruating,

absent, **+*

is

into

as

from^lo
Jjx from

Ujk for U^*,

fasting

0>.,

; etc.

having no weapon.]

KJj>\

JU5.

Jxli, verbal adjectives, not derived from verba

tertise rad.

et

j
9

fl

^
J

med. gem.] (with rare exceptions) as^^- ajudge,js[*~


*
9>
9 fi#
9
9
x
9 l J*ju a follower, cLi
Jlo aw artisan, cUo j-*L^ aw C

[or

d J

unbeliever,

^U^

v'>> -i"3

sleeping,

>

fd

fU.
IX.

St

JaU.

js\y
o

ignorant,

jU

J *-*--

soldier, %\}b-

^U

#.

a deputy,

<jU. aw offender,

5 j

[jlo avoiding, .>lju]*.

aiiJ.
9

1.

J.xLj,

verbal

adjectives,

denoting rational beings, and not

derived from verba tertise rad. ^ et

***

^u

j^^

*
[

J^

R.S.]

unbeliever,

conjuror,

djztie (for

ji.

**>&)

5p*w ^ b
;

SjiJa

9
;

as

JUli

(for

a workman,

perfect,

jwows, dutiful, SjjJ

icb
j5U s^'wa,

J^U

^
;

*5lb obedient,

&**).

defeated, fugitives, properly pi. of Jli, is

by usage

pi.

of

Part Second. Etymology

208

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
9 x

xx

iUi

IX.

continued.

Sing.
x

Rem.

from verba med. j sometimes remains uncon * *


Ox x x
Oxx

J^U

tracted in the plural; as jjU*. acting wrongly,


Sj^** or Sjl*.;
\j*"
*ibl.
Ox

-p

>

[2.

9 x

x x

f "" '
t""
0->l- treacherous, du^*- or

a weaver, <ks^ or 3sl-

Ox

<

J~*$

*$*

as

rare,

Oxx
generous,

0)x

l\j~*

Ox

jlw a

Ox

Oxx x
*.

&oo*,

dttig^

x X x

ZJuca

i-4*.o feeble,

^.w

S.>L.]

X.
O

CO
verbal

J^ti,

from verba
Ox

denoting rational beings, and derived

adjectives,

rad.

tertiae

et

x J

SjJ^)

yo 13 ^

or traditionary,
6 xx J

x x

SL<cJ|

soldier,

reciter, rehearser,

$]}

jl^

x J

oW* a

3U.

sinner,

(for

[And

so in the dialect of Hijaz

xxfix

(Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt, a nickname given to the

Muslims.

(for

x J

cLj a manager, olxw.

Jxix

ajj^)

(for

Stjj

**.)

x J

judge, SLaS (for a~a$)


x J

jU

as

Ox

x J

first

S.]
xj

An

[Rem.

exception

is

from jO a ybZcon.]

StjJ

D XL &.
1.

J*9, not derived from verba


Gxx

aw earring,

k>ji

Oxx
branch, fU cv fc

*jj

wO

Oxx

foar,
0J

Oxx

a rugged
9

2.

0'

place,

a S0 or

Sx
;

tertiae

rad.

3 et ^j
Oxx

&Jo

i^^

^^j a

casket,

tjy>

or

Sjaj

Oxx

* x

9 6*
;

SOJ

yX

shield, <L*jJ.

9* *

*r>

Sj^^ ;

/figf,

Ja3, JaJ, with the same restriction, rare


Oxx

Oxx

j>^

As*j>

as

OOJi^S
Q s a
;

.*

as j^j

Oxx

jj a husband or ^2/0, 4*^j

an

ox,

x
;

-**w aw o/d

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

304]

& Adj.Plur. Fractus.

209

Plur. Fract.

iUi

XL

continued.

Sing.
90 x

9 x x

waw, ia^w

9x x

>j^ a
9xx
1

aw

j>>3

**^

cM

Oji

ape,

g ,.

9,

Jai,

JJ>j ag#, /a#, flaccid, aJUsj

'

90

n#e, hj

jA a

Cj,,

tom-cat, &kk3,

Sjjjb

^L> a

cocjfc,

&L.

ow& elephant,

6x0
aJU*.

XII.

1.

Ox

6"

*i

J*i

J*i

as jjj

S^J

bull,

^w aw

old man,

s>> .>.

5x0
2.

a cMc?, SjJj

as jJj

few J ground, ajuS

cl3

9 xx

3.

9xx

9xJ

JU*,

JU$

a^U
4.

J***
x

<7rea,

9x0

dijt

gazelle,

x J

^6*^U

a youth, a

C
a

*>*-)
X

iUfc.

a**oX

boy,

^'c&, coarse,
J-J**
X
OxO

.^aa* a gelding, a eunuch,

SljtX

rt..ork.

a woman, has a plural of this form, S^-J.


X

9x0

[The plural aXxs varies in almost

all

cases with jj'^IUi.

R. S.]

Jiil.
9

1.

brave, <UaJa.

as j^A-d (for
*"x

Rem.

XIII.

3^*. J

2 X *

5
fo'a,

brother,

Ox

J*i, not derived from verba mediae rad. j et ^; as jaw


J Oi
9J0
90x
OJOf
/
a sea, jawt u~*J W* sow/, u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin, ^^Jil
;

90

Aa*3

^e

Of

/ace, Ao^jt

90x

Ot

a bucket, Jjl

antelope, s^Jo\
9

JO
|

JOC

*!

^bl

(for

9x

J ')

(for L5

Of

lizard, s^~o\ (for v****0

^Jj

9 Ox

^Jo an
OS

a /me of writing, jJa~>\]; *^~b a

[j.Ja~

(for

9 J Op

or y.>t)

v^i)

***

hand

jut (for ^jul).

w.

xx

Ji^ a

as

claw

(for 'yLX)

a neighbour, 5^.

#e>wA, AjjXi.

5xJ

9x0

It

(for j>)

9x0

j^) a

(for

^U.

27

Part Second.

210

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
J oi

XIII.

Jjit continued.

Sing.
6'

Rem.

Exceptions are, for example, w>jj a piece of


ibi

2.

J i^

^^

eye,

a fountain,

^>*fcl.

ending in *, which have a

not

quadriliterals,

o*-^

',

Jf

^^c an

cloth,
'

^J?^

a bow, ^*y*\ or ^ySS

a^l

Feminine

w^t

a sword,

60 C

lit

a garment, w>$jI or

quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third


-><5f
S //
Ox
9i^
a

radicals

***

O**^

J^t
5//

^m^, aw

ngrAtf

G J o

3.

cji!

ojd2s^
t>*^ JU^

oath,

the tongue*,

,jLJ

&J\

wA** an

JUfct

^s-S.

eagle,

84J

J**, Ja3, Ja3, not derived from verba mediae rad. ^ et


x x

rare

as J+*.

uaz\

staff,

di

J*.t

hill,

at

JOi

&*)

time, ^>o;t

o j o

J^j a

^,
x x

La*

o o

yos>)

(for

o j oi

o Io

or foot, J*w;t

j-*j,

J~

has j>jI and, by transposition,

well,

o joi

->

i t

5*

Rem.

go

o oi

oi

xx

i^a&S or ya&\)

(for

oo

hand,

left

xj

Jff

JjUc female kid,

p\j$ the arm,

as

j->\.

From

radicals mediae

gjoZ oloi
jj}\, jj}\, and,
o i

o
'}

>

x x

iUs, rare

transposition, j^l

fre j^ V^

x xx

4.

as

^ occur,oi~for example, ^b a house,


gjoI

et

hillock,

m
3^*t),^l
o x *i

o x

TV

a maidservant,

Gtot

oibi

Jijjt,

JfjJl,

(for

JJL the shank, <3>*t,


o joi

a wriine

2l&\ a

o xx

(f r v*-*)

JJjJt,

JOi

the

3uj

nJ

(for

^tt)

neck,

^3j\

x x
;

GJOi

and

tooth, %^~Jt.

xxx

j^\

'

a*!

by
o J oi

o x

$y*l >

i5U a

she-camel,
jrf

whence, by transposition, JU^t and,

OJOii

dialectically, JpjI.

Rem.

Ox

^JjcjI

occurs
Jd

now and then

in a few other forms

J x

a leopard, j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey,


O xx
5Jf
S-'J
ojo
aj| ; jly3 c^ay, j^Jt ; w*^ a raven, w^t

%+~>\

jo^

<}

as

*JL a rib,

J t>

Ox
[If fern.

Mubarrad

50,

1.

seq.

D. G.]

etc.

0?

for if masc. it has <UJI

(XV.

1),

according to "El-

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

304]

& Adj. Plur. Fr'actus.

211

Plur. Fract.

XIV.

Jliil

Sing.
xx

1.

Triliterals of all forms, especially

<!/

J*, rarely J* (see no. 2)

9x0?
S//
S/j
9 x x
and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep, j*\j$\
JJi a vestige or
9 xx
9x0? f '
S x
9x0?
9 xO?
J^Lbt jixo ra/w, jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door, *->\yi\

rac#,

xx

xO?

w~J) a canine

(for
xx

.xxO?

^>) a

son, |U^t

90

9 x

Jlo*> a foad,
9

Ji.3

aw

Ju^
9

x>

Jx>J

or

%\j\

9x0?

f V>t

jbafrt

w>Ll&I

v*^fc grapes,

9x0?

9
;

9x0?

9 x

x/tp
lU-'t

j^> a leopard, jl*JI

young of a

bird,

9 xO?

dutiful, j\jj\

9x0?'

9?

xO?

$>-t/il

9x0?

o*-JI

9 xp

thousand,

9x0?

^>-J

a branch, jjUil

a ^rc?

J_>l

J*i a Mz'aA, $U*st

armpit,

Wpg

xo

festival, >Uct

j-j jmVws,

ftfc

fo^y, opinion,

arm,

jbt

9 j|

0/ camels, Jbt

^3

well,

0~Ci

jZ>

or tjjl

9 x~>

(for

JU5I ;^- a judgment, js\x*.\ ,j>t


9x0? 90
90x
3 J
j^ free, yj+*\ .^l (for >o~>) a warn^,

9x0?
fjto

%l>\

foc&,

^ar, <jt$t

aft

tdftv,

9 x 0?

t>Jt

5 0?"

J x

2.

^lj

m>,*

3^0 a father,

(f r

o ?

JU^t

9J

'-

Jbl

v'

o o

old she-camel, w>lJt

f,f

by transposition, jbt

or,

an

tooth,

w>^

o^l

9xj

/r#sA

w^J*-

dates,

Ox

^, and primse rad. ^


9x0?
OOx
U*t* a sword, JLwl j*y> a day,

J*, from verba mediae rad. 3 et


90x

x 0?

^yjy a ^S5, w>lP'


90x
9x0?
(for jsS^t I)

wU3^ time,

0x0?

0U3I

as
9 w?

j*\j\

90x

;^A3 a fancy, a notion, a mistake,

9x0?
Ox

^x 0?

a thing, makes *Lwl, and not


^xO?
naturally expect) ?Lwl.

Rem.

*,,

Ox

9x
3.

J^ti, rare
9

jJblb
9

j3wr<?,

9x0?

as j-ob a helper, jlcul

9x0?
jl^l

one would

9x0?

witness, jly^l

9x0?

^^L

a companion, a friend, w;U~ol

9
;

jJblw

(as

9 xO?

jj\* tepid, jUsl.


X

4.

J***,

verbal adjectives,

not

buying a passive signification,

Part Second.

212

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.
xO

XIV.

JU*t continued.
rare

5 /f
as UvjJS* noble, sJ)j\

wwo

C*~o or

Cu^,

(for

242),

' o

JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms

Rem.
3

x oi

cm enemy, %\j&\

as jjLft

x a

S-

^X3 a weaned foal, a

xo

o
#

an

right hand,

yp>

oath, ^Uvjt

f}Hil

colt,

x x

^ie

O^**!*

',

""*?

**

^jLaJ.

heart,

B xv. &Jf.
1.

which the penult

Quadriliterals, of

letter is quiescent (a long


xx

vowel), especially nouns of the forms


x x

as
Ox

a wing,

-k

4-Ujt
x

4s*u*fc.t

*y,

jU*

can

^obtb

r*

'imam

a/i

9,

Oi

Ox

4AI
X

a 6*a^ 0/ bread, Aiijt


Ox

**

x J

Ox

J x

*** a pillar,

v***1* a branch, a

OS

Sju*fcl

Ox

rod, 4~aSI
X
Ox

o
;

U*3 a certain measure, Ha3\.


X

verbal

adjectives,

derived

geminatae or ultimse rad. 3 et


Ox

Sj-fct

Ox
uL

Of.

?j>^t)

(for

^JLfr

niggardly,

*a*-wt

stingy,

OxOxO"3x
(for

j>\*\

J-h*-*>

93

9
;

XX

d.s>j\

XX

sand-hill, <L2r>

tongue*,

1^* a cowr

Ox *

XX

--*;

&*

9* %Z

(for io-otl)
x
.

strait,

Ox Og

**>

fowie,

Ox
X

9 *

05

<*wi|

**

xj

Ox

2.

o^-*i

O^

god, aJI
(for a-Jtt)
'

9 x 0g

JlSj

<0I

or priest, A*-t or 4*3


x
x

&>J^I

JUi

xx

9* *

owe

2 p

'J

and

9\
;

<L^jUI

./bo^,
9 '

bi

5^.)
'

ass,

|tji /ooo?,

9*

x
;

OS-

ftjj physic, Aj^it

Op"

5-LJt

9*

xx

J Us,

JUi,

j c*), A-ot

^^^J a

S t
3JLfr t

chaste,

c^ar,
x

05
*L.t
X

confidant, 2Ls*J\

0?
;

see the footnote to

XIII.

2.]

J
;

,^-j-^
^^ X

^-:,a>.^
a fo#

^^

stuttering, 3ui^\.

[If masc.

rad.

as Jjj& mighty, glorious,

y^^-

mediae

verba
X

temperate,
o

from

stammering,

304]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

& Adj. Plur. Fractus.

213

Plur. Fract.

XV.

iJbet continued.
9 0*

Sing.

Jii, J**, J**, rare

3.

Jju a s^,
65

Sjj\

AJLaut

9,

(for

Sjjjjl)

#<?ww# o/

9 ,

Sj^l
9

Oi

tower, a^J

-j-j

nW

-ji

a Ai#A /owd,

jcaJ

Oi

as

*i

9 '

9 0*

Oj

bird,

*dyi\

jj a button,

WW

>-

note

oj

Oi

9*

reptile, l^^s^S.
S

4.

J*3, Ja, rare


9*

9*

side),

Oi

US

$/

,,

^ju

9 *

4**Jt

(for jj>j)

jtj

* s

J$-) w
9

"

or ja$)

wrcc/<?

(% WW

mothers
9 '

t>i

back of the neck, Z+teS


9'

stx

9'

oi

moisture, dew, *iJo\

a wc-

jj^i.

oi

(for
**

^3

(for

[L- vm/wz, 4**t]


5

<5

JU.

* s

di^\

hjj\

provisions,

a cover or &d,

as <>J

>i

hare, 3>t (for Sjj^t).


9* oi
5JL*5t is

Rem.

rarely used in

some other forms


which a

or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with


>!

xvi.

,>t^

a watercourse, Ajjjj

J^U

as

J^U a
2.

J^,

^5U a

jt?o,

signet-ring, ^>\y*-

crucible,

substantives

J^1>

a hoof (of a horse

djj^j\.

* *

or ass), ji|>

9
;

or cawsg,

* *

JaIj^

nunciation, passes into

of

9
;

^ the preceding Fetha

damma,

Jl>

vi^l^

is*

'

v^W- &*
J

[By the influence

a s^/,

JU

^JIS a mould, v^J-*-

Ci^b a motive
J

v^!>***

jiU9

J^*^

vj^

wli fop

of a

often, in vulgar pro-

as JJjt^J* Touareg,
j\js*. female slaves.

In the old language there are some instances of


e.g.

j*ty*.

1.

6
r"
as &la~>

letter is bound),

>u an assembly,

cP^-i, u*j\,J>j\j*> ^=>\>-

D.G.]

it

in proper names,

j)

Part Second.

214

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.

XVI.

J*l>* continued.

Sing.
x x

a wave,

earners hump, of
s *

Ja-Ij^i

3.

aw example,

jjblw

verbal adjectives,

J^ti,

xx

a horseman, ^Hjly

*to

*iuU perishing,

as

<l)tyb

tr^^
Ox

^U.

tr*j^

Jxx

i
;

xx

follower, *f\y>

j^^t^j

A*a*,

seashore,

men, rare;
J

jtf

to

x x

tifo

jJbtjw.

applicable

J^-U

x x

w>j^

etc.,

hanging

remaining

X X

behind, ^Ijxi..
X

Ox
4.

verbal adjectives, applicable

J^U,

to females ( 297,

rem.)

5xx

as

J-L. pregnant, Juotj^.

XX
i*

Ox

* s

^oSU*.

^oSl*.
menstruating,
X

their signification only

by

Ox

Jtflb

^x

divorced,

*J)I*

jJblj

XX

having swelling breasts, jJbljJ.

5.

x
Ox
aJLcU, substantives

Ox

and

JxxOxx

4-&l^i

verbal adjectives

fern,

3-S-slo a thunderbolt,

joke,

O X

X X

witticism,

j*\y

wp^r

classes,

vulgar,

j&$*

j)

a girl,^^.

XX

5
J

region,

**^

XXIII. rem.)
,

Initial

is

*-\y

(for

changed into
J

4*.U?

/?

ajjU.

**-U a quarter

XX

^^y).
Ox

Rem.

juty

gram, profit,
Ox

district,

4*U common

(for ij^tj*., see no.

Ox

5 x
;

XX

o/*^ 5%, a

rarity,
X?

i^li.

^a-otj*.)

(for

5j.sU
J

(for ^o-*!^)

x x

yfowtf,

Ox

&>\yo

4ybU

<x~J\ cheerful, sociable, ^-Jljt

X X

u^j^

a female companion, >^^\^o


(

as

as ilotj joining or
xx

Ox^

adding, a proximate cause, )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^); A-JM3 custody,


St

XX

a guard,
x

<L5I^

JJtjl (for JJI.53,

05^

A*5jt

an

ounce.

XX

^!iL3)

which

is also

the plural of

304]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

Adj. Plur. Ft actus. 215

<So

Plur. Fract.

XVI.
6.

J*fcty continued.

H*
X

as

x x

x x

y-

(for

xx

J!

xx

f^W

^Jt^*-), >t^3 (for ^o-^j^X

(for

XVII.

4b >r6oa, ^ti^.

&?&s 0/
*UsU,
l&uotf,
X
X

iDu.,
lU\y
X

x x

Sing.

d^>>

*U^L> a caw/,

igt>^).

JUKC
which the third

Fern, quadriliterals, of

letter is servile or quiescent

(a long vowel), whether they have the fern, termination 5- or


XX
X X
J
$/ X X
not; as 4uU*w a c/owa*, w*xU~~>
ajL^ aw embassy, a letter,
,

>"'

*' i*

treatise, J*>\~>j
J

5x

x x

J^l*.

wages,

>^3 a &c& 0/ te>,

&a/, a &ter, a
*~5ULo

s/a>,

ttrcwa*,

JU-

for slaughter*, ))*?.

Rem.

^9

a-o3 slaughtered, a

J>^

aw

o/a

woman,

a she-camel
xx
Jx

JjU^

w>>^

>xx

cowrtf,

woman,

9
;

4.l.

3j-

joroo/*,

a wawtf or weed, a

thing,

a second

[Also applied to the male, but nevertheless

3/-^.

law, &->\

~\

00/

from 5^]

XXXc

<

[-SA a daughter in
q/* tfrees,

^x x

wife, j->\j*o

05
Attract

x x

>%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er

^X

as Juil

*5l-o; [J*J,>
X
X

85 x

x x

x x

j$\j-*~

9 x

x x

juLej]
x

affair or business, <JI^.

^^Oi.

<

jj>>

Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases

xxxx9x
J^j jumcj

fl

**

/ree

f* w<?rw

X X

^xx
J

X X

JU-w

a young camel, J^Lit ; j-j^o a pronoun,


x
X

XX

^J^^

^/^ Aawa\ J^U-*


J x

or plank,

^xx

bucket,

X X X

J #x x

a /ar#0

a foard

J
t

milch-camel,

'

"

a*~o a written

*x

Jx

*)!** or <ULx^.

W0W0, ^o->|/-&

*4>^ a
Jx

"

a^i g

J x

Sx

xxx

9 X

io-j^

victim, f-5bi

x^xx
JjU-*

^Ua

600/;,

t*"

island, j->!>-

Sxx

*x x

aw

SfjJ**.

" x x

*.""

v^b*

jJJ the night,

fern. gen.

D. G.]

Part Second.

216

Etymology

304

Plur. Fract.

XVIII.

Sing.

o****9 Oj

1.

,jtju*

a worm,

{//

0^3

bird,

^)U*-J

Ox

oW

,/Sre,

lizard,

<^

f small

ar^) a crown,

(f r

oS

Ox

<j!w*

neighbour,

uW^

a yorf,

L5**)

(*"

nQl>

xx

Ox

jW-

?r

xx

or

L5^

f-^J

0*$j3

oW^

door,

*,
J

% * *

9*9*

w>b a

'0

xd

\)j3

fish,

f wood, a branch,

P iece

a male bustard, ok^*-

^j^j,

x x

w>^

as

>

>}* a

Ox
0^*">

Oj*-,

Ox
0^>-

O - x

Ja9

as

OW*

a waW,

j>j>

j3~>

Ox

2.

J*, from radicals mediae 3

,jUJ

or the Parts of Speech.

J*-*

^0

(for

-1

brother, Ol***iOx

xJ
3.

Ja3

Ol^

x*

O x J

a nightingale,

yu

Ox J

O^j*!-

field-rat,

5/J

sj\*yo

bird,
9

%** a

a kind of

x J

OxO

as >^-o

jj*- a buck-hare,

>

Si

o!>**

x 6

J*. a black beetle, o*^**^9

4.

^%,

vWi

oW*

meteor,

w>^
x G

J!>* #

jl*-

^her

lj

a^
9

0*$}*

gazelle,

S x

V V*

J*i and J*5,


9

xd

rare

OOx

as juft

'

*0

a firebrand,

0\fv-

Guttle,

Ocx

yun9

Jb a

#re^s

growing from a single

ostrich,

guest,

Ol*^

9
5

J-^,

yoke,

Sx

x
6.

jtH

rare

as

v**M

root,

O^h^

WJ
5

jl*

<*

>*** one f iw0 or more

0*^

\j\y*o

j+& a bunch of

OW

branch,

mouse,

0*

dates,

*>*3

* .'

O >0

Olr*

90*

a s/aw, 0'***^

^-**-^

* "

O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH

OW*^

tfagrfe,

."2

9*6
5.

603/,
6

' *

>

_>o^ a

as

x x

fl

oW3
*

x$

v!** a raven, O^/*

xj

O x

JUi and JU*

rarely

oxj

O^*^

s/aw0,

Ox

xx

/j

JU$, and more

Sx^*x

oW ^
-

v*^ ^^^

& Adj.Plur. Fractus.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst

II.

304]

217

Plur. Fract.

9x0
o^**
9x0

XVIII.

continued.
3

->x

J>J, rare

j%<^.,

XX
9

J^li, rare

of the

mW,

Ox

ii

Sx

Rem.

<Lc\

C^j3J

jV a

spiritual being

O^f-

5x x

a maidservant, has ^lj-t

(for 3>-l),

and C

5x0

5 Cx

Sl^-ot,

xx

Ohj^9

class called o**$\,

&%+* B

tpftj cat,

9x0

9^0

^SaZ*
9x0

O^***X

d^afe,

chamceleon,

Ox

as Ja5l-

ma^e

o/"

Ox

J-j-^,

a wood-pigeon,

Obj^ O^;^

9x
10.

ZX+^j a sor#

as

xJ

9xxx

5x0

a bustard,

rare

9x0

<jU*

as o'****

5x

5x0

rar e

0>**>

Ot^**-]

/<wra&,

diminutives,

9x0

nightingale,

9.

not

**g**,

J-*-**,

9x0

J x

as J>jj^.

J/J/J

xJ

8.

9x0

'

a eunuch, ^L-a*..

gelding,

[7.

Sing.

'

a woman, an irregular plural

^jtj**J.

o^.

xix.

50x
1.

90

^jt jii^

juft

oW*

'>

O^i

5x

a bunch of

3-i5

9xx
2.

Ja3
9

3.

as

rare

j Uai

.*>i
;

as

slave,

Jj a ***

5x x

JiH>

of a

of a wing*%

*!*>$

;]

<jW^3

wolf,

Ar water,

etc.,

fij

O^j9x0j

x x

J**-, a

toi6,

0^>

jtfrj

x->

Jl5j

lane,

strait,

wjl^w a firebrand, a meteor,


\J\j5*-

&\3j
9

weaned foal of a camel,


w.

H J

O^^f
x

xJ

town,

9xx

JUi,
5

jX> a

the back, the short side

oW-

X0J

dates, ol***

9xx

,jU*

the belly, the long side

[v*** grain,

roof,

90x
5

d^oj.

feather,

UUL< a

a sfew, O^ J^ jir^
9
9*0*

wing-feather,
9

as

OxOJ

90x

9x0x9 Ox

50x

more rarely J**

Jjt*,

xO

6raw,

9 x J

oW*

pW^

jl***

aw un ~

28

Part Second.

218

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fract.

XIX.

o^**

continued.

4.

J-oii

as sJu^j

ijUc *
1

rod,
9

^)Lj.3

5.

a fo# or

^*o

O^*-

child,

J^ti, verbal adjectives, used as substantives and not derived

a Christian

w^Jbtj

,jLs>

1*

oU-^

'

O^

oW^j

n<for,

^HjLi a horseman,

or recluse,

ascetic

J *

^'^Ui

fern.

deaf,

jtgtoS

w^b

as

oW*>

V^

^L*>J;
a youth,

shepherd, oW^j-

ctj

JxdS

J**t,

a companion, ^jIa^o

w-s-lo

jLc.

from verba mediae rad. 3 et

6.

or

v**** a tw W

oW*^ sr#J a male ostrich,


J n
L&** a channel for irrigation,

sand-hill,

J-J*. a friend,

'6 3

a cake of bread, cM^j

^^^9

s b J

jjloXb

Sing.

<

<

'

ml,

Oi

lt*-^ blind,

The forms

Ol)^

eye,
*

'

^> O^*^

***1

c***^ white,

oW*.

and ^tiUi

)*$***

oi

J *

o!/-**-

j$*\ blind of one

(for 0***tt)

Rem.

as j^-t

some

are, as

of the

above examples show, used conjointly or interchangeable,


even in cases where we should hardly expect it. For example,

Oxj
Ob^'

instead of

unweaned foals of
9

UJ"

O !/**

D
XX.

oi

j *

blind of one eye, from


*

we

find ^)tj<--

Cii

and

[cA** or cA a garden has jjl^ and

^j\jy*,

camels, from jt^-.


ulJ

j^\, and

^l^..]

tffcui.
9

1.

verbal adjectives, applicable to

J-ji,

have not the passive

signification,

rational

beings, which

and are not derived from


*

verba mediae rad. geminate or


r"

ilwjj

poor, l\js*

tertise rad.

f /*

j~*\ a

^;

et

commander

J-oLj stingy, l%sL^

or chief, 1\ja\

ob^J*

Utt'tfy,

9
;

iUp*

'

as j-j*3
f

v~&j a chief
;

j&Si** wise,

304]

II The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.d Adj. Plur. Fractus. 219

Plur. Fract.

XX.

i*k*j continued.

Sing.
f.

a philosopher

x x J

*s

a physician, iUX-

or sage,

* j

w*.> noble, lLa.>

sj+i clear, plain, eloquent, l\~J.

2.

J^U, some masc.


above

a jtKxtf,

r*

^U

as

It^xw

xx J

*&, riU

*xx J

Jjli

i%^

JJbU. ignorant,

Rem.

Examples of rarer cases are


r*"

iS'^f. liberal,

c//l
prisoner,

a deputy, a

and
XXI.

x"

l\^\\

J*~$

^xx

caliph, usually

^^);

x//J
sam, i^JU5

JUg>

makes \J&%.

9
j

j^wt a

9 x

loving, l\}>j].

[j>$>j

cowardly, *U*a. (from


;

ila^^w

liberal,

xxxx

a*aw)

^ (from

.a...

B
x x

,x

m~>

oW-*^

l\*y*.;

cU*Jrf 6rave,

j^li

good, right, i\^SJ>.


x

5 x x

as

restrictions

learned, ilAc

JSU

same

adjectives, with the

'

o,

successor,

in the former senses,

I^aX*. in the last.

HjJX,

same kind as XX.

J-oi5, masc. adjectives of the

but mostly-

1,

derived from verba mediae rad. geminatae or mediae or tertiae


rad.

iZj>\

j
;

et

^J

4-*^-,

J^J^d a friend,

as

/r^wc?,

J*^,

ws^J* a physician, *LI


#xx

light, easy,

Oi

lUybt

jujlw strong,

.xx

stammering, i^t^\

3x

<~x

wretched,

j^^iw

i\Jo\
~,

lUol

*Lj^t
X

lu&wl

and
3

~'

ot

.-i
A~il
^^X ncA,
X

a friend, a wUi
3

^y*-*

similarly,

smooth, easy, *UJI

Wx
;

,j^o

i<^
^^x

*x

stuttering,

liberal,

(j^

for

for \ejj, prophet,


j-J,
^^ X
^^ X

or sam,

iLa^wl

3
;

Ol**)

Oi

^x

^j

,j-Jb (for

Oi

ot

*IjlwI

relative,

iUall, iSCu.1)

(for

r"

0#J)

(for

v*^* a

cfear, ^?/<xm, eloquent,

i^Lu

iL.l,

<*>

,j-J

llSjusl

*Ujl

"

j^jJL?

jmows,

2\^j*>,

*WX

quit of, exempt from,

Part Second. Etymology

220

or the Parts of Speech.

304

Plur. Fracf.

J&
9+9'9'J'0

XXII.
1-

J^>

J***> J**>

Sing.
verbal adjectives, denoting injuries,

J**^

body or mind

defects, etc., of
'

wounded,
, b s

bitten by

a prisoner,
'0

^5j

J /

JU*-, or J^-t,

u4j*f
2.

0^***>

The

Rem.
9 *

vt

C-^o

'

Sij-* drowned,

^l+z; &*j paralytic,


%c*.j in

pain, ^y*t*3

J * 6

w^w,

or

*->j**\,

mangy, scabby,

\J=>y>.

0^^

'

^jA
9

broken, ^j*~a

J5{e> poor,

^iL*-*

verbal adjectives

angry, ^j**^

viz.,

silly,

*f a fool,

*~>ja.

scorpion,

j*~*

age,

"

&\& perishing, ^Ia;

a snake, stung by a
9

u&ij** sick, ^y0j*

^<Uj j*jA decrepit through


9

Ot

{j~>\

c*y*) dead, ^>y*

(for

^^3

slain,

'

4 *d

'

j*~>\

^jj

\j*-j**-

J^3

as

as

hungry,

plural

^JUJ

is

^J%~a

^j^

Ob*** drunken,

',

said to occur in only

'

^~&

lazy,

oW***
{J!j~*.

two words;

<

J*^ a partridge, ^a>,rw, and jjWj-k a polecat, ^jl*.

xxiii. juS.
1.

*}Ia9

l\su9

2.

as lljJ^
desert,

i^**, ^5^*5

j^j
3.

*
[

its

(J>*3

virgin, )\j&-

as

i> a judicial

S'^Ui, AjjAas,

SjJjis

an

Jbu*

u-^jj^ clever has

contrary .JLo^.J

itja*-o

jt?/am or desert,

jis^a

oL3.

WW prominent

old hag,

^.

>

*ijj>*>

^Us

bone behind the ear,

as 3*}U~/

opinion,

l>^ a ctok,
jUy

a female gul (J^z) or

rough ground, j\j^

in order that it

may resemble

goblin,

4j* the

(jj-^^j'^)

II.

304]

The Noun. A. Nouns Subslti Adj. Plur. Fractus.

221

Plur. Fract.

XXIII.

JU*

continued.

Sing.
0/J(/

xx

hackles of a cock, jUfc

the cross-handle of

9' it

f*

the

2y>p

collar-bone,

JJtp

*jG-

bucket, JJt/s.

Rem. JUi stands in the nom. and genit. for iJlxs and
x x Ox
."
^JUj (both with the art. ^UiJI). The accus., however, is
'

x x

always

with the

^i,

xx

JUt
XXIV.

4/

l^Ui

jj^ULo
xOx
2.

xxx

*x

a
a

'A***

^tJ^

virgin,

xxx

XXX
a

desert,

l>^ a

complaint,

tj>*-

^ prominent

feminine adjectives, not superlatives


as
^Jul female,
xxP
xOJ
XXX
xdj
feminine, ^yUl ^jX**- pregnant, ^W*- ^5^*- a hermaphro^^.Ud,

dite,

9x0
a*U3
X X
cock,

^U^.
9x0
;

as ajjJ**- row^A ground, ^jj\


X

0x

J^

ft

hackles of a

ftfo

*ij*
XX

*.

^Ufr.
XX

In

Rem.

nos. 1, 2,

and

the forms

4,

JUi

XXX
and .JUi are

interchangeable.
5.

xOl

xO
;

XXX
^jU&.

4.

ij>*3

"it"'

6<m0 behind the ear, ^Jj^h


,

/I

^^3

dfaV,

^^-

opinion,

j^>ft>

XXX

3.

a plain or

xxx
a judicial

^>3

as

^}%*-

sweetmeat,

xJ

xx

l\j**~o

x&x

^**, ^**

^W*.

desert,

JyJ,

one's people or family,

Jjfct

9 0s

same way

u6j\, the earth, u\j\ (ace. ^o\j\).

as i\jjs>

In the

r,

^JtJ)

J&.
K/

1.

(ace.

^Ut) and

(ace.

xx

JU

makes

night,

x xOx

art. .JUAJI.

JxOx
0^**>

x Ox

fem

xxx
drunken, ijl*

JxOx
^^L^

xx

J
;

(J^W*

xxx

xxx
9

...

fc

>*-t

xf

a prisoner, jL*\ j a
;

as

11

o!/*-*

XXX

xO x

j^l^ 0^^*

,jl^-fc. perplexed,

jealous,

<jL-o angry,

tey, ^Jl
x

v^**j and J**, verbal adjectives

hungry,

xxx

v^)W*

^[f*
J

Olh*-*

xxx

^ broken, jj^L^b

Part Second.

222

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

304

"[

Plwr. Fract.

XXIV. j^Us

continued.

Sing.

0%

unmarried,

^bl

5J/

j*t^> a boon-companion, ^j*\^>

(for^o-ol)

9v)t
t

an orphan, ^AZ-t

jtx+l

6.

b
a

[^b>*. covered with shame,

a swollen

as ix*- having

^W-j

*.^ en j)m,

belly,

000

9 J

9
;

btj^.].

Ja3, Ja*, verbal adjectives

j^Lfc.

j*iS

jJ^- cautious^ wary, (JJ;tJ^

o>- sad, \J>S}+:

000

Rem.

Instead of

and even

7.

fern,

^m/

aJj #
x x

blfcuo

<$

*5

x x x

t*J

a-mU

or calamity,

bliftA.

Rem.

b^b

aJsuo

**

[Luc

evening,

We write

XVII.),

(see

**

et

0t

SjUl a ta#, i^jtft

[In

form ,J5Us

as ^btj^-

a yowT^

S^bt

gazelle,

00%

a small water-skin, ^gjbt

conjunction with
tf

^]

LjULfc,

for

and

above,

the

sake

^J^z
of

*
^

haS
( j$5jJ) *>**
r

of the

Many

etc.

SJ$*z the upper part, something over

to prevent

etc.,

(see 179, rem. a).

a)Ui, from verba tertise rad.


bt jca.

(for 4~Ja.)

000

riding,

*Ja.

bljJb instead of .-jtjJb,

{J\ juk (Ui),

90

as

bUj

subjects,

m*

blc *].

9'

8.

'

x xx

aw animal for

grammarians regard these words as being


for

et

4*fc)

bUw

nature, disposition,

(Jul

btu

,/afe,

the repetition of the letter

^\>j and JJt>U

has only

io^

a sm,

/j

^L*^ ^>j

# present, bt jJk

*j!**a

^JW*, L^> lS^

90

substantives from verba tertiae rad.

t*i

jJU3

6,

^Uis.

iL*s,
5

or

^{~*

and

find, in nos. 5

{Jj^L,, iJjC*-,

00

L5*U*->

only

as

^U*;

we

^Ui

Sjt/A

conformity

304]-

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj. Plur. Fractus. 223

II.

Plur. Fract.

XXIV.

continued.

^U*

Sing.

* , *

9* *3

stout stick, {}\j*

clothes,

Ox *J

**

used for washing

9 0*
kind called cA*^,
t

the

^\Ju plants of

^UL5

ZAsu the pick and

choice

of

anything, CtSJ.

Here too .JUs

Rem.
\S\jJf. for

9.

Ox

X -

aj^I*.

an

^l^j

et

as

tjljj

* * *

a corner, bt^j.

thought to stand for ^J^l^i; as

is

etc.

"

'

is

* * *

^jLaJ from

.^tj-tfu

a Christian.]

JLoJ(rare).
J*J, Jjti
*

^"

2.

JU3

3.

JtftU

as iU3

w~J^

jj

^y.

>

a pilgrim, *ra**m

(fogr,

ass, ***..

yi a

Ox

9.L

as

1^*5 a

s/a0, ju*fc

.
mill,

Ox

Ox
9

as juft

cattle, j-jif

XXVI.

(|Tjj),

Anomalous

b.

[Rem.

tertise rad.

4>

3u^\j

Here .JUi

a.

bljj for

1.

Ox

0>

intestine, bi>-

Rem.

as

drawing water, a large water-skin,

caw2^/ wstfd in

JjUs

(&**.), etc.

verba mediae rad. ^ and

&UU, from
ijjlj

XXV.

^U.1

thought to stand for

is

j^

(f r

JJ^)

soldier,
*

aiyU(rare).

Jjtf, Jjis

as

9 x

fttfo),

Jjo a husband,

J J

&>&

9
;

y*-

9x

a wild

an uncle (by

Ziyi* ;^c>

0*

%&*

ass,

J\*- an uncle (by the

9x I J

mothers
9'

J J

3J^a*J

9'

[h^. a
9x

2J^* (comp.

side),

a Aaw, S,yLo

J J

thread, AJ0y>>
9 x x

240, rem.

otU

9
;

9x

the father s

c)

J**3 a
9'

stallion,
90 *

J J

j*J a panther, Zj^+J


J J

fodder, ii>U].

jio

Part Second.

224

Etymology

304

Plur. Fract.

&&

XXVII.
1.

Sing.

(rare).

xx

Sftx

J*5

Jjii,

as ^^j

J^li

Ox

t"

as w*.lo

[Ja*j a

stallion,
Ox

S x

(also 5JU^-)]

x x

b '

<i

SjLj

bull,

fix

2.

"

Oftx

a caw^Z, aJUa.

j^3 wafc,

# companion, ajULo

J^c*.

3;l$

5 x x

a)U*i

j^-- # sfowe,

more common]

(also [the

JbULi).

XXVIII.

Jii(rare).

OxOx *.' ".


aXxi, aAai

1.

m' '
as aX.

n'w^,

6xx

G' ' '

"

%'

circle, JiX.

3j& a pulley, j&.

Oxx

J^ti, as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels), J^J

2.

^Jlb

wJJa

seeking,

^^U. a

xx

a guardian, a

keeper, uj*-

jcotj

as

Ox

##
drinking,

an

driver,

importer, wnU..

SftxSx

SftxSx

Rem.

v^W-

^ri^
Oxx

>

mM, watching, j*oj

w*)^

a merchant,
n<&r,

^w

(rare).

Ox

J^li

/3^'wgr

follower,

* *

*i

%p

J*3

^U a

an attendant,

XXIX.

servant, j*j>a.

0/

or the Parts of Speech.

ft

j.a+3

v^J

6
5

j-oU a

Sftx

traveller, j&~*

rules

5
;

j..U

SftxSx

w**-o

w^tj

ft

helper, j*aJ

J*\~*

w^-L^ a companion,

The above

a.

w>>

Oftx

[jj\j

visitor, jjj].

regarding the correspondence of

certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular, are subject
The dictionaries also give various forms
to many exceptions*

[Many

XXV., XXVIII. and

scholars do not admit the forms

ft

XXIX.

as

plur.

fracta,

but

call

them

quasi-plurals

(**jjJ1

J xft

alwl),
,xx

making a
ftx

distinction

between them and the

real

Sftx

ft

jt^aJt), as j*}* etc.,

and the generic


r-

form a nomen

ft

collectives

unitatis, as ^U*J.

The forms

ft

u ..aJI
x

Oi

collectives (il~>t
^x 2

S x x

J-j*i, ^Juii

*lo-*t),

which
Sftx

and Jjii are

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

304]

which we have not thought


Oxxdx
d-buL

o x

sfow, SjuA*

and

J^j a

Ox

chief,

^^

doctor, <U> ^>>>-o,

Ox

and

are

& >.

man, a

a sword,

ufcy*

^xJdxOx

O x -

HA*,

^--J a he-goat,
"
T" * t '

>

-iw an

OOx

l^i**

wim^,

OOx

,xx

^x

JJu a

2L/3-JU; jl^. a he-ass, il^^sw.o

man,

ofoZ

te3yfiU

jufc

oW

->~Jj <*

OOx

OOx

Jfcx

^>Ut a she-ass, lU$3l*

SUfc

which the principal examples in use

I^^juLo, of

and

ju

x J

OOx

i^x

and

&>.),

2f

a hycena, <Uyq*
* "

mountain-goat, <U^o

* x x x

for instance,

//

Jt^-o

225

Fractus.

aXxslc (as

Adj.Plur.

necessary to notice

it

OxJOx

Ox Ox
rarely <UbuLo

<&

a s&we, ilj^at*; %^- & a Christian (or


V

Odx

captive or sfowe, llo^-bt*; j^fc

no^

o/i<sr
,xx

Muhammadan)
x

wto? ass,
tjj-oc*;

/jP

^ar^e, s^ow^,

Jx

"'

Rem.

Many

6.

forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived,

not from the singular forms in actual use, but from others, which
9

are obsolete or of rare occurrence.

E. g.

poet,

Ox

^xxJ
lUxw,) from an obsolete J*** 0**w); and J^U,
X

XX

JJUU perishing,
^J&*,)

(as

OlUi, (as j^l*

pi.

9^9'

Ox

0* x J

j^U,

Rem.

also

from an obsolete J-o*i

From the preceding

c.

table

it is

Ox

obvious that one sing.

several forms of the pluralis fractus

Oc

0'

Cxx.
SjUj;

OOx

jue a

s/awe, jus,.

J x

bull,

Ox

J J

0^

)\\, S^j,

e.

g.

j*~> a

sea,

oW'

JhA

xOP

j^* A*^* J^' jy a

_,

(^iXJUb).

may have

,Jl*i,
^^

pi.

ii

x 0

<}

jLc, jj*, jLct,

or

tc

Sjufel,

;>j,
x

ju*,

OJf

,JL

juftl,

ul

(besides jut, O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*, Sjujco, ib^oto, see rem. a);
x

w^-lo a

companion,

and a

w>la -o,

Or one

(besides a.o.o, see rem. a).


fracti

a>^3,

pluralis sanus besides

OxOfOxxxOxOJ
A->U. o

w>U>.o l,

sing,

may have

several plurales

e.g.

jdblw one

to/to is

masculine by form, feminine by signification.

The forms

XXVII.

JUJ

w.

5J$*$

JJ

dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and

with the termination

* x 0*>

present,

XXVI.

Ox x

and

^jLa^o

2x

to

reinforce

the collective

meaning

29

Part Second.

226

Etymology
J

?y

an

eye-witness,

witness,
x

.-.

3*

'

%m

j^,

jl^,

jj^jJfcl*,

Oi

9 *

-9

305

>y^>, 3^*1

J^^

4 ** +

In such

3ju.

^J^J^, >U^,

worshipping,

serving,

or the Parts of Speech.

cases, if the

has several meanings, it often happens that each of them has


one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it,
sing,

For example,

or used in preference to the rest.

(I)

an
a

evidential

example,
j j

in the former sense the

*oi

sit

9
\

Owl.

or OLot, in the latter almost always

O^o

is

The word **j means

has jdbtyw.

a verse of poetry ;

tent or house, (2)

plur. fract.

'90*

, x

of

jdbl, in the sense

Again, #> signifies (1) an eye, (2) a fountain, (3) peculiar nature
or essence, (4) a distinguished man; its plur. fract. in the first
:

sense

13
9 3 Oi
9
9 "Oi
&$*', v>-^t, or ^Lftl

is

ISC-

&t&\

in

/f

9b*

the third and fourth, (jL^l.

Or, to take another instance, ^jJaj

means:

(1) the belly, (2)

valley, (3)

tribe, (4) the interior, (5) tJte

inner or wider side of a wing -feather ;


9

sense
xO

JJ

in the second, )& or

9*0

9 J Oi

0-k^> or

0>^>

is
J

9JJ

^ULj;

in the third,

305.

The forms

O^j

in the second,

the

fract. in

its plur.

first
Oi

9 *

iifcut, or

0>tu,

9 J Ot

*0

0>^ or O-^'j

n the fourth and

and

of the plur. fract. of substantives

O^W-

fifth,

adjectives,

which consist of four or more consonants, are exhibited, along with the
corresponding singulars, in the following table.
Plur. Fract.
I.

JJUi
X
1.

j*U3,
J*UU).
X
X

(J*lil,
X

Sing.

and adjectives

Quadriliteral substantives

(3

not being counted


'*'

as a letter), the consonants of which are all radical


*'

a fox, ^Jbu
9

JO J

t>?^ o

J)

^w

bridge, jJL5
X
S

ta&&
2.

(in

xx

w*J^ a

a Jin of a
xx

fish,

&>cms,

obUj
X

**

^Alp

*j^* a
j

* *

jJt^*- gems, jJA^ap


X

6/0/

^sS^s

J^J^fc.

a streamlet, a column or

a book), J^tjc..

Quadriliterals (5 not included), formed from triliteral roots

0x0

prefixing

xx Ox

x x

v>^

9 *

**

wJju
j

^*Aj> a dirham,
.

dju&j
X X

star,

xOx

9 *

*^*&y a

c^U-o

frog,

of a lion, CHJ/J

**

9*0

* *

c jJua

as

!,

O,

or ^0

as

f-t-o},

finger,

x f

*Aot

6x
;

by

* if

[4X0JI

Mg

#wg?

305]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. Plur. Fractus. 227

Plur. Fract,
I.

J*U5, Jclli)

Jjlii (Jwrf,

0/ a finger, J^OI]
J

cont.

m<7.

^jt Adam, >jtjt

^jXJI

x*

r,

^lit, compare
perience,

304,

w^U^

no.

XXIIL, rem.)

^.X^.o a claw or

x x

halting -place, a station, jjU-


x

9
<
;

talon,

Ua.o

a quarter of a town, Ji

dwells,

iJ^Aa*
X
xx

i,

em e%#,

trial,

ex-

*^JlaL*

wAer^ owe stops

jp/ac#

t*

9 x

*Agi means of

i<i^ meaning, O^*-* (f r iV***)


^^
*^X

x x

>!>* (for ^yt^ft)

[f^j-o suckling,

*~b\j*c].

XX

Rem.

In the

a.

verba mediae rad.

^,

fract.

plur.

the

productionis into hemza

is

(5),

B
*&-
X

Jxx

J
;

Jj-U

ul

&

or

(for

2uj**3

clil

viper,
x

of the form

from

J^U^
X

not converted after the

as

elif

happens, for instance, in

J xx

form XVII. of the


9

(J^li,

aw open

the

triliterals (^JjIxj), or in

but
240),

nomen
9

it

remains unchanged;

e.g.

XX

9 x

i*

x x

whereas -iJL**

9 x

is

XXX

retained, as
XXX

xxx

the plural of a ...> . a cwr/ (from , .>.).


rad. ^, the

x x

ft

^nyU
J

XX

?-;L^;

In the same form from verba mediae


9 x

x x

-U-o, AcwL.c,

space /or walking (from -Lw for ~~>),


J

agentis

x x

a bowcase, ^jULo

X X

9x

Jxx

9 X x x

is

usually

xx

(from jli for

cj\Jlc

x x

xx

J^i) a desert, J jU*o ; <sLo*}Lo a reproof, jyk* ; ^olio (from


xxx
xx
i^U for u^) a place for diving, ^ojik* but in one or

Jxx

9x

two instances into hemza

Jxx

xxx

(.>),

^.ao

e.g.

xx

(from w>lo for


^

xx

9x X X

w>3-d) a misfortune, w^lcc*, and usually ^^Ltfuo;


J

candlestick,

a lighthouse, a minaret,

The changing

of

the^

into

XX

^tu, and
J

is

SjUo a

X X

^X

usually j^U*.
J

XX

vulgar, as^jtu, j-Uu.

Rem. 6. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t, especially with


the superlative meaning, make, when used as substantives
9 x Of

[and, in that case, often taking the form JjtJI, as


J

see 309,

b,

y],

xf

a plur. J^lit

9 x

Jj^.1

Jxft*
;

e.g.

^^Ajt a shackle or

fetter,

Etymology

Part Second.

228

or the Parts of Speech.

305

Plur. Fract.
I.

JJlii (J*tft,
x

J xO

vo^bt

;^o$j\

JWu)4oat

JU65,

Sing.
x

Ox

jx

a mottled snake, ^3\j\

j+s*$\ the greatest, jjI*n)I,

grandees, nobles.

Jjtil (J-^Ut, j**u5,

II.

J**uJ, Je^tji).

J*ftlii,

Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives

which the penultimate


x * x

as

sultan,

,j-Jslw
X

devil,

sj*j0%~i

flowers, >i$\+>
X

XXX

00

xx

JP

**Ll* and

^^UU]

0x0

JUj #

xx

o"

&

ra<7^, J*!;t

^.bt
*

[This
it

o3
;

has l<-U! and

^*>\

4~Ut

o c

may be

A-

xx

ox

(for

i^>oO

or

^01,

->

^Ia>..>

j-j-oUl

O
;

v^W^J

^Ut

M# m^r^

an

ostrich's nest,

xg

ii

|S
[4*.t

^w!

tent-rope,

human

x x

x x

being,

a Bactrian camel, .JUi-j and Ols*j,


^m*

a camel from Mahrah, ^jly* an<^

XXX
also the irregular plurals

^5o{,

j op

a joom zw
Z

j o

lightened also to v*\j*, as

xc

Op

3j>gt

&>>Ut) ^ w/sA,

(for

#03/,

jJjaLo accursed,

#>

Ox
;

jtjyfu* unlucky, inauspicious,


J

x f

. l l.*.

C x

>

^jt/j)

x x

a dust-storm with whirlwinds,

jLafct

,t

'J

&

rem.)

(for

303, /,

ij^jfbU**

a garland or crown, J*)l^t

^jltf

^3-0-^ lucky, auspicious, ,j-**Uo

i^-jft^L*

desert,

*Jjl3

0x6 ^

a measure,

[)jo

x x

six

j-i^oj a picture, jjj\*a3

> x>.o jooor,

^o-JU**
x

x x

(compare

9Mjli
J

f~lj\y*

xx

*Ujj

#x

w*^

shower of rain,

x x

^^t^*)

xx

J-oU-3

statue,

chronicle,

xx

(for

wA?'te

fe/tf, i^fbtfL*
X

XX

oj

jjUalw

^t>>

,>*->
X X

w^>S a ^tf##

a cMr, i^L)^

j^wj^a

**3Ui
X
W

x x

ti

bubble,

O*^lo

^)

j,
o

wolf, >*a*\j~t
X

xx

J^juS a /amp, Jj.jU3


3

(I,

x x

(jU3 s&?r drawers,

a^U* &

x o

^>UwX a

Sx 5j

xx

s *

O^*** a

not included), of

(5

a litera productions

letter is

^ULj

jV

0,

^ ne ^ w0
XXX

and ^ly*.]

latter

words have

305]

The Noun. k. Nouns Subst.

II.

Plur. Fract.
II.

JJU3

j**U3, J^lii, J**?,

j-^lit,

xx

fo queen-bee (rex

x x

u-^wol^

buffalo,

The

a.

where a quinqueliteral
exist

j*~*\y}.

sometimes found in cases

is

form

sing,

either rare or does not

is

as^^Jt^a. signet-rings, from^oUl*. =^i[.

OxO

xx

9'0

"

from

bridges,
O

x x

with her,

fawn

having a young one with


cunning, j+^l^c.

clever,

her,

license,

Ox
xg

6.

and !j~obj

J^tji,

xx

ot^

anc^ Obi'*

office

register,

an

or bureau,

vestibule or apartment,

O^b'

as

from singular

Ox

xx

7?"W>' brocade, has ?-^W.>

->x
J
Ox
J
x x
or jl/*w, curds, J^jlw, J-J;l>w

Oy' a furnace, t><JOI and perhaps


OxJ

JO?

if

closet;

u*U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov), a dungeon, a bath,

J
xxOxO
^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/

Ox

xx

jijlr*

off,

and

05

Ox Ox

xx

xxj

hojSj.l, i>$t>>,

r.

forms jlo,

Ox

of poems, a public

collection

make j-Jlo,
fi

XX

as j-olio =j^clio,

a dust-storm.

an arched or vaulted portico,

xx

used, chiefly

dinar, b\j3 a carat, ^j\yi> a

jtL>3

Ox

i^)\yi\

jw

account-book,

9 '
;

OxO

Ox

and

is

JjUxo

=j-Mtf?Ut, plur. of V
jtaftt

Rem.

t *

JxxJ

xx

and ^JyJUx*

JJU*

Conversely,

instead of J*JUs

>oUt

Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed

plur. of
J

i**

x x

^Jilia.,0

by poetical

'

jJbU^

^jULo and ^>j>UL


.

'

jitJu one who breaks his fast,

^jjJL having a

^I^ai.)

'

J***** =j-U5

SjJsui

(pi.

^Jfctp dirhams, from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp)


Ox x Ox

^^oU. a

x x

JJUs

plur.

"*

"

a spring,

p>^

^^Uj

apum),

jy^^J hemorrhoids,
j

Rem.

jo,

t^tjl]
J

w>j~ju

stall,

Ox

.ajU>

2uj\

cont.

J^V')

229

Sing.

a sacred claim, ^-tjl


J

& Adj.Plur. Fractus.

from a form \Jy\)

JjLai.

and, in modern Arabic, J^JUaW.

fl

and

also jJ-JUt (as

Jxx

(v?^*) quinsy, has J^Jl^aW

Compare

284,

rem.

230

Part Second.

Plw.

Fract.

Etymology

liHis.

III.

1.

or the Parts of Speech.

305

Sing.

Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters


(principally foreign words), of which the penultimate letter is a
*0J
5 x|
litera productionis ; as iUwt (Pers. iUwl) a master, a teaclwr,

jLjU and IjjCf; StJj


T

5^

J^jJsu a

Grecian general (patricius,

Sxxx

JJj^Usu
X

and SijUaj
X

Sxxx

metropolitan bishop
SxJftx
^U^-p <m interpreter,

Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters, which have

when they

are words

* x
J)*$~c

of foreign origin,

x x

"x

especially

before the last radical,

litera productionis

S x

and

a great

many

letters.

E.g.

more than four

relative adjectives, consisting of

J^xx

x
t

an

angel, a5*}L*

Sxxx

Zj

aJLS'^-o

ft^J

(comes,

Sxxx

a king of

%J0i
Umu#1

S x

Sxxx

Jxx

.A

x & x

J^ xP

and

bishop, oUK**t

Sx_ x
4*5L>t

xx
Byzantine emperor, S^-oL*J

fo
Sx

XX

Pharaoh, Aiftly

Sxxx
and AijUo

S^X*

iJ

Sxxx

^jJ^

Moor, ajjUu*

Masmuda,

Sxxx

a-jJLy-*.

SxxxJixJ
ljul a
.

Sj^%c

.J^
^^

xO

From \j~s

man

(Cossar,

03-*^-*

(WIS)
J^x

OjUo

x0x

^tj^

a native of

of the Berber tribe of

a descendant of el-Muhalleb,
Ox

(Pers.

^^-euS

J
;

'

_0xxxSjx
S^Ulj ^*y+*AA

Bagdad

w^-o and ^V**, money-changer,

S
;

Sxxx

<

**** heretic,

Sx

Kato-ap)

stocking or &?&

w^l**?* anc* *Ol**"

(c7rio-K07ro9)

w^>-

Sxxx
4

a nobleman

a patriarch or archbishop

)j-bu

5J

^^S

^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu

w^Sa),

(Pers.

Yemen, aajLj

xx

xx

6 x

el-

<L~UJi

Ko/xrjs),

(irarptdpx'rj's),

J&<*e a polisher of swords, tJiU-s and

Sx

jjlpauo

XX

not a

i>j;Uxo and 4jjUa-o

(ixryrpoTroXiTrjs),

XX

xx

2.

(<iAoo-o<os)

xx

Jy~X+9

x x

4i-**iU

philosopher,

TraTpiKio?),

I^ali!) a

Syr.

SxxxSJ^Gx-

a pupil, Ju**iU and SJl-oj

disciple,

T&Sfi,

(Heb.

xx

jj,

Chosroes) the king

of

& Adj.Plur. Fractus.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

II.

305]

231

Plur. Fract.
9/

xx

ajJUi continued.

III.

Sing.
*

r*

Persia, are formed irregularly jUbt,

and

j^, a

or

gt^-rf

like,

OxxxOxxx

an equal,

xx
irregular ij^t^#, 4*-*!^/, and ^l^-*
#

and 5j*>L*

has, besides

the

Jlj-^l,

x x

(for

x x

5^

3iwll,

^^l^w).

Rem. a. This form is also found, though rarely, in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B

literals
5

xx

Ox

as jU- tyrant^ a giant, ljA*a*.

a deacon (Syr.

^U-i

J_-lL),

XX

* X

Rem. 6.
more

In forming the plur.

five or

letters (exclusive of 5

one of the radicals


xx

xx
x

Jjjtji

xx

i**^*
*^ X

x x

a quince,

J Ox.

3^~JJ13 a sor 0/

x J

6 c

iiU^urft

a nightingale, ^bL*

J^JU<

letters of prolongation),

xx

woman, jola^

ca&e,

Ox

pillar,

v>

^nj-^a^a.
0X

(compare

Rem.

264, rem.

The forms

Zazy

jfatf,

XX

&jj* a

burnt

XXX
x 2

^*l>U>t

^^

j^-J^JLS,

ca^o,

(for .-w^llS), or
2 '

XX

from

4j.>Lc

*5

Here

JU>Uo.

oo/acotikos),

"

Lr>ft.^ AiaJ Ptolemy, <LJlku

be mentioned such plurals as

'llah

but

XX

0X

also

JxOx
E.g. >yfii*
x

r~^*-~*

JU>i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus,

may

nouns which contain

fract. of

and the

rejected, generally the last.

is

yiU^ w*J jUft

spider,
oZc?

J ^

ju& 'Abdu

dXll

b).

the plur. fract. of quadriliterals and


quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals
x

0*3

c.

x
2/ie

(^aJt

plur.

^HfrCb.

particular, forms

JliS, J*frUt

XX

0JO*

J>-Jt,

of

Jpbl

5
;

XV.

rarely V. Jlii,

Kg. XIII.
J

or secondary

the plur.,

XIII. jilt and

more

^jlii, O-Jlii.
camel,

of

make

iJUif

4J& <%,

4-^>l

*Jot,

t^jbl)

XV.

*^ a

'

x J
jl^-rf

^&\

ones people or

2ri6e,

5J0fJxtOx
W6,

Jclil,

X
JO*

JaJbjt,

Of

fowwf,

and XIV.

J5U3, and XVIII. and XIX.

Ox

JaJbj

In

plural).

benefit,

2j6 a

JaAljt
JO*

*JLo

jut (for t^ju.1), 3UI (for

OxOpjxfsxx
bracelet, Sjyi\,

she-

0x

j~*\

',

)&* a

6x0$
pfoce,

Xol,

Part Second.

232

Am*

a (yellow) flower, jUjt, j**\)\


x?

J^lSt

6 J

jJite

nail,

Ox

J3l*.

JUjfc.,
a

ox

O*^^-

OW*^j

Oxx
as

a drink,

w*!/-*'

XV.

Again,

XX

Oxx

~s

OUot

ea#-e,

XX

!*

ftj

OLUpI.

joay, 4-Jatt,

ai/fc,

Ox

Ol may

smoke, &>>),- Ou.>l

O^**

^Uafc

Ox

pluralis sanus in

0<;'-,tfu*

w>Ufc an

og

Ob^wl

* oZ

*Uj a building, dUUt,


X

aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait

<L>j\,

q , oZ

,x

^Ua.

^jlL.,

trees),

x x

+0JJ+

intestine, Olf"6

owjjxxoxj

garden (of palm

x j

j-j-<a*

jjl-

Ox an

XVIII. XIX.

oox

J|y> saying, a speech,

',

Oxx
jJa. she-camels having
x
Oxx
J
V. J^a. a he-camel,
JuJU*-t

$*a*.\,

J x x

camels, j\xj\,

305
x oc

XIV. ^su

^UiM, j**U*t

young ones nor milk,

neither

9+9

+%

^Ut

O x 6

Jl^il,

*>

vessel, *LJt,

jJbj

<i

or the Parts of Speech.

(for .ytjt)
/ J
x

*Z

^o-jfcUt

*>

*UI

,>^Ut;

Etymology

x J

from V. JUi, VI. J>ai,

also be derived

Oxx
j^xx
III. Jjiij-XVII. JjUj, and a few other forms; as ^k**. a he-camel,
OJx
Ox
* x
Ox
Ox
Oxx
Oxx
w*J^ rt ^#> V^**'
JU*., O^U*. J^j a man. JU-;,
O'NjUfc.j
x
*
s
9JJ

XX
Ob^
Oxx

CwJ

roaeZ, J>jJ,

Ox
jUa'

'

"1

OJJOxJx

rt

Ol5p*

he-ass, j-o^., Cxt^^;

anything woven or plaited,

Ot^ji

Ox

pi.

jutj^, Otjulj^.;

foe>,

OIajLJ

-yjLJ,

Oxx

jb

house,
Oxx

xxOxxx

JjtJ,
"x

J^xxOx^xxOx

[^u.lo a female companion, w*.t^o,

a she-camel,
.

ijje

jj-c*.,

an iron

fix

OU.1^0]

diU

x JO?

OlSLJ, and JUjI, OUUjI (with the dimin.

Cxfc

OUiot)

Sometimes there

etc.

is

even a treble formation


x OC

Ox

<

a party or

a5^3 a on<i,

3jujc-

<

OJOxJOx
jj>,

E|
OJJOxJJ
slaughter,
OtjJ^k.
.xxx
Ox
,xxx

houses, families

a she-camel for

4.a .*...>

OU^J,

j^J-**

OxJOxJJOx
;

5/J

O3-0,

house,

xJJ

OJ J

Ox

sec,

as

j^i, ^tjit, J^Jj^t.

Such secondary

plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at
least nine in number, or when their number is indefinite.

Rem.
great

d.

many

Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a


relative adjectives,
especially those that indicate the

relations of sect, family, or clientship,

dL

^e

as

a follower of es-afi%

J^tJli

Sqfi'ites ;

->

\^yo

Jii

li

by adding the termination

(J^x5l)f),

a Sufi, ^Li^aJI

^e

s^c^

il*i\Jj\ the sect of

JSx0 xOx
0/ the $ufls; AjJtjjj^l,

II.

306]
j

& Adj. Plur. Fr actus.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

233

a oxi x

4jj-ojJt,

of Marwan, of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir.

the partisans

Sometimes

is

5.1

added with the same


S

J^li and

especially of the forms

bank and drink

water of (a certain stream)

the

(men) drawing water or


5/ 5

1/ S<i

%*

jj

Ojt^ [and otjj]

drinking; aJULw travellers;

(cattle)

who own or &eep

)Ioa,

camels, asses, horses,

mules ; S)U~ a company of persons journeying


(Syr.

on

live

Ox x

4JL., aJlxJ, persons

S)l^,

who

as 5jjU those
*x

the

dJU*) pedestrians;

IZ.jjl.*);

spectators;

SjUsu

a caravan

together,

j^w-

[ajI^

cferers].

Rem.

The

e.

some nouns

plural of

<

fil

P o

x x

aa^
2

*U

%>,

oUw

XX

i>w
Heb.

l\y>\

x
;

Cwl

tfAe

anus, dUwt

<

motJier,

Ox

5U a

for

Sa*J,

U)

*x

XXX

a woman, ^UJ,

#* fWX,

a
t>

a mouth, atyl (from a


<5

,-xOxOOx*

'

water, a spring, dU, dl^ot (from a sing.

O x

<x

sing, dji or oji)


x x

0i

OUtj^s

Oly-ot (Syr. (k)|, |Z.Olk)|), rarely

anomalous, or derived

sing, in use; as^ot

...

is

SI

from other forms or roots than the

1 x

JUi

268.

effect to other adjectives,

i5

See

s/iee/?

or goat, *U>, dUw,


*

,jl^~J (from the rad. ^^Jt, whence

#} n^X);

jii. a mole, X*.Ui (from

'

the rad. J^J).

O^J

P^U^)> has usually


of the older

^0

human

being (Heb.

h^K

for

J^K

[especially with the article ^UJI], instead

and poetic JLut (Heb. $)}$

Aram. XgOtf

l#-*)).

306. As regards their meaning, the plurales fracti differ entirely


from the sound plurals
for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus, the former a number of individuals viewed
;

collectively,
X

J0 X

example, 03**** are sto^s

Ox

slaves,

For

the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed.


(servi),

i.e.

several individuals
6

ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus)


xx
OxxOx

w^w, yottfA (juvenilis), = w>W-^

fr*****

oW

mm

in

who

are

SJ

oW^

3f0*0

general.

The

consequently, strictly speaking, singulars with a


collective signification, and often approach in their nature to abstract
nouns.
Hence, too, they are all of the feminine gender, and can be
plurales fracti are

used as masc. only by a constructio ad sensum.


w.

30

234

Part Second.

We

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech.

must distinguish from the plurales

which are called


which see

Etymology
u ..*aJl

246 and

the latter concrete

292,

Jo*J

The former may be

a.

A third

collectives.

fracti those

(generic nouns), as

l\+~i\

307

nouns

on

bees,

styled abstract,

formed

class of collectives is

by those nouns, to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness


attaches; as^o^i,

JS&

and

from the j^aJI

differ

formation of nomina unitatis

307.

an army ;

people or tribe, jSL*s>

The

pluralis sanus

not admitting of the

l[+~\ in

and the plurales

of the forms

fracti

and XV. 2jJ\, are used only of

number

persons and things which do not exceed ten in


are therefore called aX$

2/ie

246).

XII. Ij&, XIII. Jill, XIV. Juil,

named

[yjjl camels,

These are called *.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e

sheep].

plural),

Ixfcj,

(3 to 10),

and

whilst the rest are


fy***, plurals of paucity,

This observation applies,

lj5* >*, plurals of abundance.

of course, only to such nouns as have also other plurals, for

the forms alone be used,

it

is

if

one of

necessarily employed without any

limitation as to number.

The Declension of Nouns.

4.

The Declension of Undefined Nouns.

I.

308.

(1)

Undefined

and adjectives

substantives

which have three terminations to indicate the different cases

(Norn.),

(Gen.),

and

\1 or

1 (Ace,

see 8, rem. a).

those which have only two terminations

Ace.)*.
*

(2)

viz.

noun may be

J^,

viz.

(Gen.,

"

^y**c,

indeclinable.

..

of,

the

established in,

C^o^c,

nominal character or nature, or simply


o

is

<

synonymous with i^^ju, and jj-X-oJL

o x

>

o^uU j*s.,
Hi

or possessed

Diptotes are

declined with tenwln, or

The term ^u^-j^t

declined without tenwln.

the

case-endings, which are


2

or

declinable,

1 (Nom.) and 1

noun may be w^**,

declinable

The dual number has only two

in

are,

Triptotes are those

singular number, either triptotes or diptotes.

^jSioZc,

j-*- with ...-L^-*

whilst

II.

308]

The Noun, A. Nouns 8ubst.<& Adj. Beclen. of Nouns. 235


*

common
The

(3)

(Nom.) and <>j_ (Gen., Ace.)*.

to both genders; viz. jjt

0*03

The vowel w
H
is

J^U,

to

equivalent

and

J/

I al//j

and jjXol

j*s.

^jSi^Zc

to

of the nominative is called *ipt,

raising (of the voice),

/*e

*OiO 3 * *

and

(a) <UlJt

^Ac

is

drawn along or

Ail^^t^-U,

the sign

uplifting or elevation (of

tfAe

of objectivity.

si</w

S/4

as

a noun

that

is

*<

Jlg

J^-j,

tJie

The tenwin may be

an d found
O^y^i
^

fully declinable, also called ,j-Jt


*
*
fractus,

attracted

of annexation ;

0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows

JtjJt

pluralis

termed ^^iaJI

i is

3 * *

0*3

j o /-o^ j x ^

oJjaa^JI^U, ^e

is

being
*

designated w*cudl,

is

the vowel

/ks

j^Jt,

(by a governing word, jlaJI), and

the vowel a

* 6*

j 3 -

t^-o-U ^s..

lid/

^ul^U3t ^JLc, the sign of agency

and the

to the fullest extent,

/?

Ae depression (of the voice), or

voice),

pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each

* *&
5 ** * 3
yLc\ &+*, possessed of (the nominal character)

is

(6)

in the singular

bliLJI

^e

v>jj-3,
x

nunation of correspondence, found in the plural feminine, as CA+JL**,


*

because

it

corresponds to the j of

nunation which distinguishes, in


3*0*0*
between the definite, 4ifAJI,
* *

s *

and

(d)

0*3

uayd\

^jj^XJ, the
:

(a) of

of an indeclinable noun,

case

3*

the indefinite,

**

cjSLti\,

0**

as ajj***^
^JJ**

nunation of compensation.

3 0*3 3

where J&*. stands for^oyUaJt

ii

and ye are then looking

p-jjJt

C-Jtb

31 ^>*-, at the

for^jlS jjUJt

it

is

time

when

compensation for a governed


ii

the genitive

on,

*3

the spirit lias reached the throat; (/?) of

*0

may

03 Oi*

+#* ^r-^3
30

when

This last

compensation for the omission of an entire

"330*

*>*

iae

by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih;

proposition, as in jj^Ja-J

0*

CH>^>

0*

be of three kinds

word, as

*3

j*)\

(c)

duy^j, I passed

jj*.\

the
t

and

Ow

^^X^c;

0*

0-

omitted after ^Js or ^axj, as ^o->13 ^Js

03 &

J^ or^lS^^A^

(y) of

compensation for a

letter, as

in the
in jlj*., plural of 4Jjl>, for ^j\^. in the nominative or
\j\ft*
genitive.

* o *

* The form
v>j

is

ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot
I

j^j^^.\, at eve

* *

used dialectically, as in the hemistich ^jkc


it

(a bird) rose

on two nimble (wings).

236

Part Second.

gender;

viz.

Etymology

for the masculine,

for the feminine,

Ol

Oi

(Nom.) and

or the Parts of Speech.

(Nom.) and

Ot-

,j->_ (Gen.,

(Gen., Ace.).

(4)

308

Ace.)*;

Theplurales

fracti are either diptotes or triptotes, exactly like the singular (see
The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined
309, a).

substantives and adjectives.

Triptote or First Declension.


Substantives.

308]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. Declen. of Nouns. 237


Triptote or First Declension.
Substantives.

238

Part Second.Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

308

309]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.Declen. of Nouns.

239

Diptote or Second Declension.


Adjectives.

Masc.

Fern.

Plur. fract.
(of jJte poor)

N.
G. Ac.

iSjii

...

Aja*

...

Rem.
flexional

AaJU mourning)

(of
.

^jy>
r-^y

a.
There are two words in Arabic, in which the final
vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical

o
P J

part of the substantive

and^ul, which are

viz.

Nom.

^i

^Ae

{j**\

Ace.

524,

^o*Ut,

son, for

t^ot

or

fj+\t

^Jj\

5j"*ti

^o-^^

p*t,

Loijt

J ''

a man, and

jj*t

Gen.

i.

P^

JO

jj-t,

also used (see 19, d).

Sing.

[According to

I|j-l

or
or

Sn-Nadr ibn Someil, as quoted by Zamahsari, Faik C

mouth

is

also

doubly declined, ^i,

L*-5,

^oi,

as

Op,

A*i C^tj,

<t*i

j^-o <suLJ

Fleischer, Kl. Schr.

Rem.

b.

I.

f?j-\

180.

and 4i

Comp. Lane and

IJdb.

D. G.]

For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with

that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. Gr. p. 139 seqq.

309.
a.

(a)

The

following nouns are diptote.

Several forms of the pluralis fractus

Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti, the

of which have fetha

and the third

Jstji (XVI.), J3U* (XVII.), JJU*


of nouns which have
causes,

(/?)

w*5U^

j)

viz.

first

and second

syllables

kesra, that is to say, the forms


etc.,

more than three

and

JJU*

radical

etc.

letters)

(I.

as

and

II.

*&\y.

wonders, j-bU5 bridges, ^jJa*^^ sultans.

Plurales fracti which end in

hemza preceded by

elif

memduda

Hii

viz.

(.11),

(XX.) and

friends (compare

^Xati (XXII.), and

men,

^Ct
fract.

and of

of j^.1,

its

&p\

JU3

(XXIII. ),

as j\js- virgins,
^^-j*?-

wounded

viz.

b,

and
'I

(3

and of
fern.

its

fern.

c,

/?).
J ' i

^^S,' first ;
another ;

other,

ij>*>',

of *U***.,

fract.

Various

common nouns and

Common nouns and

elif

memduda

C Compare

a, /?

*a,
fern,

iU-cu, iUZj,

l\sC=>,

j^.1,

of

radical,

rem.

and

(*1 )

i^>

adjectives

\^>

l\jjs>

hemza preceded

a virgin,

at

ii

>

white

.>

296).

c, /?.

as %\js from

299,

(compare

\j3

rem.

adjectives ending in elif

memory, \SjZ~* drunken

Rem.

and

c,

301,

which the

fern, is

wonderful ;
;

r*s

^i

j*>*-\ red.

and

O x

J*ojl

as

232, 16, and

2345), of

and 296)

v**i^ more

as

J*it,

Op

iUil, are

f.
dX*j\ poor, needy,
of this form are usually
t

hawk, J*.t a green woodpecker,

in such as were originally adjectives,

f.

wife,

Substantives

Jj^t a

humming ; but the diptote form

11

c, /?.

radical

is

as J*ojt poor, needy, without

^ar<?,

maksura

But adjectives of the form

e.g.

y and

a,

p'iUi ( 295, b,

without a husband, a widow.

regarded as triptote,

elif

maksura ({-)

213).

Adjectives of the form jilt


x

Compare

295, a).

Excepting those in which the

^JU* guidance (for ^jJb,

(l

viz.

adjectives which end in

as

Common nouns and

triptote

2, rem.).]

e).

(/?)

(y)

(comp. XIV.

This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza

Rem.

w-Jjt

and ^_,

of Jjt,

(a)

is

iUwt, the irregular plural of

b.

fract.

wise men,

etc., // together.

[(e)

as

(XXIV.)

-aj, ^>, plur.

*-**- 1,

by

^Us

309

/?).

Ji'j pl ur

^,

c,

&&L

as

prisoners, btjUfc presents (compare

si

W
plnr.

&*i\ (XXL)

a and

b,

or the Parts of Speech.

Plurales fracti which end in

(y)

Etymology

Part Second.

240

J ,

e.g.

{.

J s

bi

Jj^-t, JuU.

is

admissible

&

A. Nouns Subst.

The Noun.

II.

300]

241

Adj.Diptotes.

J -it

Rem.

a.

Some good

authorities give J^jl as the masculine of

which would be very

iLojl,

Rem.

irregular.

form J*l, when used as sub-

Adjectives of the

b.

stantives, retain the diptote inflection


blackish, dun),

a serpent

>j-*/l

a fitter (properly

e.g. ^oA>t

land (prop.

(prop, black), JjjS stony

j * oS

mottled),

j * o p

a wide, gravelly water-course, 9>j+\ a

^Jflui

of land

tract

without herbage.

Adjectives of the form 0*^**> f which the

(&)

295, a)

as 0\j~>>

&%x3

fern, is

companion.

''

295, rem. a) are triptote

Adjectives
a.

is

^-1*3

those of which the

o^*^> t

as

fern,

*->L<>J^

to

o j

of the form

being formed by adding 3_

Rem.

drunken.

l^m

f-

But

Q%*i

295, rem. a)

are all triptote, their fern,

okr*>

as

*j\jj* } naked.

SxOxSxxOx

Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3,

The

3u*$j&, are rare.

f.

principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail
xO

a sheep)

(of
5

xO

tofi (mo? slender ; ^jLa*-o


* 2 x
x o x
o

forenoon

(,-a-cJI)

fljUdL* Ao

the sun, eating in the

to

exposed

^^

withered;

dry,
a *

5 x

x o x

^J^auo sucking (sheep or

^jS^La thin, slender;

ignorant;

and <jl.^o

^la^o
x

stupid,

<

stiflingly hot

jU*w

O*^**- angry I O^*"^

'

cows) out of greed, mean, vile; ^U^-o stupid, stolid; ^jtoju a boon
9

Some

companion; jjt^cu Christian.

the form
x

^^*s, 0^**>
J

jjUaw-w,

x xx

or

jjUa^w

or
x

as

>

6.

and

^*^i

so

Jx

x J

so,

such

in the feminine &*}Hi, [because

The masculine numerals

(c)

JO

x x /)

4jujI

jx

x x

Jbio iUl^j

6 ^s more than 5

it

an(*

Ox

^l^^o

one,

makes

w.

^^o,

irregularly j)

mere abstract numbers


x x

/^ double of 4

"'?

name

takes the place of a proper

as

or ,jl.^o.

and such a

J^-t^J

3L^

e.g.

** jd

yj** j**^'

***"'

o/^.

Distributive numerals of the forms

as iUj and

The word ^l.^o may

x o x

x J

()

* f +

xOS

Rem.

CW O ^

xx

uW

^Ij^S.

perhaps be merely a mistake for

have also

of these, however,

O^**

,jl.^o

^0

JUi and Jml*

6y New, OU and wJJlo,

Mtm

333)

three.

31

or the Parts of Speech.

309

The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s, when


(rj)
used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. For
example

o>-cuj

*j

declined without

is

<Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the

tenwm

with
j*

asuo JaII (the form) af'al, (used) as

tenwm

form)

(e.g.

J&\

red)

(e.g. j-**-\

when

af'al,

it is

an

adjective,

o^ W

3/& l^wl

an

J**'

indefinite noun, is declined

tremor, Jj^-t a hawk)

*Xx*

4a*JJ ^jjj

*~e\p

t>

Jjitj the measure

Etymology

Part Second.

242

say ^JjaJJ

which

dsuo

*n)

an

is

of Talha and

oi

'isba' is

fa

la

and

But

'if'al.

J**' J^*> every (word of the form)

adjective, is declined without

if

we

af'al,

tenwm, we must employ the

nunation, because J^, in the sense of each, every, requires an indefinite


and so in other cases.
after it in the genitive

word

The diminutives

[(0)

of all

diptote nouns, as

exception of the softened diminutives

283) and of those that are

derived from the distributive numerals of the form

letters,

Jjl>

viz.

elif

as

memduda (compare

^^^

CjU

John,

Ya'ld, j^yJ LUla,

Isaac,

maksura (compare a, y and


p and b, a), whether Arabic or

e'lif

a,

or 2b.>U

Adiyd, l^ij^j Zachariah,

^^ Sulma.

Proper names in jjt_, whether Arabic or foreign

(y)

Gatafan

(a

tribe),

o-o-^ 'Othman,
l

^>->Xw

Jka*~>t

Proper names which end in

and

foreign

l5

333), as

<bjJ Lot.

Noah,

(/?)

Joseph, jjib David; excepting such as consist of three


the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis, as

/?)

Foreign names of men, as ^*At/jt Abraham,

(a)

b,

proper names

Many

c.

JUi

A#]

I,

*.>

ju^t, with the

Solomon, o!/**

ijlyj*, as

common nouns

(ju* and O^^hl-

as ,jUl*

^U*** Hittan, oW*-* Sufydn,

Imran ('Amram),

those that were originally

[with the exception of


of the forms

JUi and

The Noun.

II.

309]

Nouns

A.

Subst.

Adj.Diptotes.

cfc

Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J**

(8)
*

and J*$, or any of the persons of the Imperfect


3d*

^Lw
*

3 3

AhmM,

as

d *

j^> Sammar,

3 3

0*

juJj Yizid, jZ* Yeskur,

/OJ

Tadmur

(Palmyra), w-A*j Taglib, ^y~j

*i

Yubnd,

>oUj

Tumddir,

Yurdmil.

J*\rt

Common nouns

'(c)

than three

of the feminine gender, consisting of

when used

letters,

names

as proper

w^JU a

e.g.

more

scorpion,

J x

0|ic 'Akrab

nine

as

c M"ekka, A+b\* Fdtima

man's name).

(a

Proper names which end in 5 whether masculine or femi-

()

J/ if
Dor ib, jLo*-t

w>o

Jerusalem,

j*c^3

243

Katdda

a*-U Talha, S^U5


O

tenwln, as

their

(a

woman), icj Ztogw

woman),

(a

x*

J x

[Fem. proper names in

(men).

Ol^pt

oUpl

ace.

gen.

Oe-

c,

Ot keep

,, ,

** *

ace.

Oli^c gen.

Ols^c.

and even Oli^.]

Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. ace. Oli^c

Fem. proper names, which do not end in


foreign origin, or consist of more than three

but are either of C

3_,

(77)

letters,

or,

though

consisting of only three letters, are trisyllabic, owing to their middle

* 3

jUw

Zehieb,

e.g.

3 * *

3/33

radical having a vowel

j-a* Egypt, j$*. Gur,

But

names which

fem. proper

three letters, the second of which has gezma,

may

name

or triptote (though the former


0*

be either diptote

(6)

preferred)

as

90

joa or jUA Hind,

0*

js-z or js-}

common

is

of a par-

consist of only

3d

*0*

Tyre, w*^J

3 * *

Su'ad, jZZ> Satar, j*~> Hell/Ire (as the

ticular part of hell).

jyo

Da'd.

Proper names, which are actually or seemingly derived from


substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the
;

* 3

3*3

form Ja$ (from J&ty, as >

3*3

3 *

'Omar,j*j Zufar,^**.

3*3

Gu&m, J^j

the

3*3

planet Saturn,
9*

* *

JUi

^3

male hyarna ; and feminine names of the form

the

(from &Ulf), as^oUai

the sun,

*{%o Saldh

(a

Katdm,

name

**

* *

J*U>j Bakas", j\j^

of Mekka).

These

latter,

3 * *

Haddm,

*-.\jj

however, have

Part Second.

244

Etymology

as^&lii, u^l5j,^IJ^., *jjj,


'

^%o^^Se> Zafdr

as

jUa-

the

war,

j*\jo

Words

a.

309

(a city),^Us the female

x2

hyama, J^- death,

and are wholly indeclinable

J Us,

correctly the form

more usually and

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech.

of the

a year of famine.

jb\j\

form JUS, of which the

last letter is

r,

female hycena, jLo*. Hadar (a star in the Centaur), are

almost invariably indeclinable, even in the dialect of those Arabs


xx

who

in other cases use the form

Rem.
and

are often employed

**!*

Besides being used as proper names, the forms

b.

JUi

JUi.

improbe

^aCOvilis!

f.

w>U- C

f.

J~J b

sceleste !

J Li b

f.

In compound proper names of the

c.

l**-J*o ( 264),

the

word

first

class called

usually not declined at

is

second follows the diptote declension; nom.


J JO

J/

xx

and

ace.

i//J/

Oj^o.,

JOJ/

all,

xx

J^^-olj, gen.

ftffl*.
o

Rem.

J*S

as vocatives, in terms of abuse; e.g.

x j

s^Ss^
and the
j//i/

O^-oj-o*.,

<^XJju,

Each word may,

viXJju, J-^-ctj*.

however, be declined separately, the second being in the genitive,


and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second

xx

acc.

Ofrxo^rw,

etc.

O^-o*-,
"

we may

say

xx

and

gen.

acc.

xx

w^ in

all

w^

w^^
Ox

(like

(like

is

ou^^w, ou^Lii,

(Fdik

i.

5),

Ox

w^

^ juu,
Ox

or

^jju

of men ending
OxxOxOxJ

aj^j-*, *iyl-

sometimes considered as a single compound noun.


xwxc

letter of the

names

OxxO

Oxx

Ox

O^-a*.,

or

O^o^*a.)

three cases (like j^j^j)- Proper

[The kunya

Ox

J J x

xOxxOx

JOxxOx

<

OxjOx
O^e^o*.)

^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*.,

in ajj are wholly indeclinable; as

Ox
\^J*** admits of three

w^>

i^ ***-

Ox

x J

*Ubo, J^-*t;, gen.

The proper name


x

forms, for

xj

nom.

(see 313, foil.);

xJ03

Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt ,Jt

some Kor'an readers read in


x

and well known are wJU

Compare Beladorl 60, last

jt

>*l
1.

Jj

Sur. cxi.,

^j^ft

w^

xxo/

ii.

421,

1.

y*

$j\ tju

jgjOJxxJ

and O^*** J^

and Baidawi

CjxJO

jls.

10.

C&

*sjU*.

D. G.]

Rem.

when they

[as is always
the dual or plural], are

are employed in

jJ

with tenwln

declined

naturally

f*

Abraham have I met;

<CUaJ ^n^j-*^
/
J
Ox
u^S'^-i. o j$}

s~

x x

>oW

[|l^-j

10

as

its

Adam and

pecidiar

aj^a^wj
vetkSj
'
*

and

There

a^klij.
jU-jj
'
*
*

j-<rC-3

_*

Eve]

> any

an>

J s

J* and

each
a

x o

o i ,

so jlo^.1^

is,

*-*J

period has

245

Adj.Diptotes.

Proper names, when used indefinitely

d.

the case

&

A. Nouns Subst

The Noun.

II.

309]

Vj

o!/*^

however, a doubt as
''i*

to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil.


i

Rem.
is

The

e.

<o

6*

*>

O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons

<J>j-aJI

why

a noun

debarred from taking the tenwln, are usually reckoned by the

grammarians to be nine in number ;


J

*6s

Si

name; ^Lio^l

its

being

viz.

>

an

d^Jbdl

Jx

>*M

rt

adjective;

its

being a proper

JOx

being a foreign

its

word ; w^^JJI to
to

o*

feeing
j

to

a compound of

the class

^-^i

or meaning
/te

w*Jl3t

x j 0x>

^^

(2

xx

O^b

^jUsjLa^Jt
x
x

l_5aJ'^)
x x

xx

*>

form

J*^

*-^H
^

ending in

**

termination )\, which resembles the feminine termination it_

j^U

/OxJOxjjOx^

/ x

dJ3\

C/->J

j-U

U*a

*i3

j-Jt* jt UsuJ>j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by


c5

^ J 0-

ul

w*bj^Jt

dJ^

being a plural of a

its

form which
" "

does not occur in the language as a singular (e.g. jt.L~o mosques,

-*4jLa4 lamps, for there


x x

J^cU-ft)

^t

j^>^t

no singular noun of the form

is

**.o

^js-

x X x

iwfo another (as

xx

Ox

or^&Uai, which

which

^c,

is

ite

JjuOt
J#

is

^}s-\slc

or

xOx

6ein^ turned from one form

Ox

Jjjuco, or transformed, from j-olc,

Jxx

0/

and J*i)l ^>Jj

Ajjjut* from A^blS);

ite

resembling

form a part of the verb. Any two or more of these causes in


combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln ; e.g.

in

JWxxflx
(1) a^oJjJI

Hassan,
derive

if

it

+ the termination

we

from y~*,

J xx Ox

as siUbu.

derive this

J 5

meaning, as ili;

(/?)

(2) ^L^JbUi

JO//

UaAJ

*s)

but

if

we

+ w-^JBI,

* /

wsajUJI, viz. (a) .yixoj UaAJ

5 x

Hence we say <jU.

radical u**.

,jll..

M/

fxx

^jUJk.

name from the

it is triptote,

x xOx

(3) a*^JjOI

Jx

,jt_, as

inform and

^i^

tfi

meaning but not in form,

Part Second.

246

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

[310

in form but not in meaning, as 2a


(y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J
wUjjj
(which, though feminine in form, yet is the name of a man).

as

* '0*

ivl

Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*, in


+ J*a)\

as

OJ>

*MJ^

5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI, asjH^.

>jJI, as

names

in

a.

c,

+ Jjudl, as j^.1, which

(7) <Ljloj)\

which

is

Jj**** from Oljlfcp

310.

Nouns ending

245), which follow the

first

in

or t

for

o*

jXai.

or

j-

and those in

declension,

fern.

Jjtst.

^
,

Z+iuo^S +

(8)

//

&%s&,

+ JaaJI Oj j, in adjectives of the form

(9) ILsuo^S

Jjjut* from

is

the termination jjt_, in adjectives of the form

At* Xx)\

(6)

Except the case of -$3 and similar

Petrus.

u*j^}

&U*"'j or r*t

(4) <u*Jjdt

-q.

J/

c,

213 and

and t

for

'

l^ which
,

follow the second

309, a, y

b, f$

c, /?),

retain in the

oblique cases the termination of the nominative, so that their declension

E.g.

only virtual (^JjtJ&i), not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo).

is

and l^-os

toft for 3-ac, >*o,

^j-uj

for

j^j^o and

311.

^^

Nouns ending

218),

in the ace.

D >!;

for

U^o j*3

ace.

1*^*3

for

^5*-j>

and L-j

in

for

^-

or

j_

^-

167, 6, ft

or

and the

(see the

same

have the same termination in the nom. and gen., but

(according to

^y*t;, ace.

acc.

^5^,

t^j-^J.

Paradigms of the Verb, Tab. XVIII.) and


Tab. and

for

L^tj

for

166, a).

Jjuo for

^>*^,

^>*3 {\j&\

~w (verbal

adj.) for

E.g. jl for jjl, ace.

ace.

^a-w,

ace.

1jJa>
acc.

L>JJt*

^J

Ww

^-

for

for

^^J

Cjte

^^^o,

(^^3),

(verbal adj.)

^5^^, acc. L**.

312.
to end in

All plurals of the second declension, which ought regularly

^j

for

follow in the nom. the first declension instead

&

The Noun. A. Subst.

II.

314]

of the second,

and substitute

according to

311, the

Adj.Decl. of Def. Nouns. 247

They moreover

^-).

(for

same termination

retain,

the genii, and conbut in the ace.

in

sequently follow the first declension in that case too

they remain true to the second declension, and have ^-.

a^U.,

E.g.

plur.

nom. and gen.

jt^., for

\S^y^

(instead of \$sb*)> ace.

i&l^

*"

and gen. o^**>

nom.
^y**o, plur.

^U*

and gen.

l\j^~o, plur. nom.

^U^o),

acc.

(instead of

L5

^ULo

j\*>~a, for

ace.

^U*),

(instead of

^jU^o.

The Declension of Defined Nouns.

II.

313.

f r

become defined

Undefined nouns

by prefixing the

1.

Ox

article

2.

I
;

(a)

a pronominal

by adding a noun

in the genitive, or (b)

by adding

suffix.

Only proper names and words used as proper names are C

[Rem.

in themselves definite

309,

b, v,

vol.
3

ii.

78)

if,

therefore, they

x 0+

are not originally appellatives (as ^..o


properly the beautiful)
the
unless
be
used as generic nouns
have
never
article,
they
they
(as in^jJbjjt w>j, 309,

noun

defined

is

c,

rem.

d),

Jy^t

jujJt the first Zeid.

means

called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju


O

w/

defining),

an

undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*^ means leaving undefined).]

314.

If

an undefined noun be defined by the

article,

the following

cases arise.
If it belongs to the first declension, it loses the tenwin.

(a)

Nom.

3 J i s

3**0*

J^jJt

o-^M

i^j^l

El-Hasan,

the city,

o-^-N

alJ^i
'

tiLaJLj\

**

**

the

Gen.

man.

j4-j#
X
* 3

ACC.

& *

J-jJI

Rem.

The

* 0*

O-^
final

Jx

//

'0'

AijJ^t

3**030'
rt

;.

n^

the chaste

) t

{woman),

36*

iUxa^jJt

of the acc. disappears along

the men.

JWif
*

'

oi

JU-pt

yt

JW-jJ'

with the tenwin.

Part Second.

248

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

If it belongs to the second declension,


(b)
minations of the first, and jbecomes triptote.

Norn.

it

assumes the

ter-

j^^^t

i\>yJ\

y4*$\

the black (m.).

[315

the black ().

the nobles.

Gen.

*y<)\

gb^-Jt

jJ^>^t

Acc.

>y~>*$\

eb^-Jt

jJ^^)t

If it be a plur. sanus fern., it loses the tenwin.

(c)

oUJiyjt

c%JLLoJt

oU^JI

the darknesses.

the creatures.

the believing (women).

Norn.

oCubl

Gen. Acc.

Rem.

a.

when the
the

Nouns ending

^yt

as

^;

original

acc. ^j+jjJsAS,

0^5, i)&J? from

315.

If a

noun

from

^L

^ eat">

0^4J^'

O^r^-^-

in

w^

\J^,f^\ ^l0se

article is prefixed; as

b.

oUo^jf

ol^JUUJf

plur. sanus masc. and the dual undergo no change

two men, gen.

Rem.

The

^& I;,

drop the tenwin and resume theirl

^yU^Jt from

,jU*o, l5-h>^I

from

(see 311, 312).

in the genitive is

appended to an undefined noun,

the following changes are produced.

The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are


(a)
declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article
(

314).

Norn.

w>U>

vej^

the book of God.

Gen.

<ti)\

w>U>

Acc.

<8i\

w>Ub

the lowest

part of the

earth,

the

U^J^
J 6

--<<

OlS^Xa^oJ!
the

v*^^

->*.*!

.*

wonders of creation.
x

J G x 0>o

men of the

A-UjUoJt

cM-^t

x x

.>

J^>

everyday.

m< .

Gen.

Oll^U^Jt

w*5U~c-

^j J>

Acc.

Obyo^oJI
*

^U^

>3J

JUg
city.

&jjJ\ JU.j

u*>j^ JA-I

Norn.

3ujj^\

J-i-'t

J>

JU.j

& Adj. Decl.

The Noun. k. Subst.

II.

315]

5 P

Rem.

The words

a.

of Def. Nouns.

a father,

w>t
5

o x

~-t

a father-

brother, J9^.

249

and

less frequently ,ja a thing, after


rejecting the tenwin,
the
vowel.
lengthen
preceding
itit
s *
j x
at
Norn.
j\,
f*.\,
^a~.
yiA; for w>t, etc.

in-law,

Gen.

^1,

^t,

^^o*-,

^yf,

bt,

U.I,

Ci.,

La;

Ace.

for

etc.

yl,

for

etc.*

S\,

The word , the owner or possessor of a thing, which is always


connected with a following substantive in the genitive, has in the
gen.

in the ace.

^5,

used instead of

15

whilst ^, fa mouth (Aram.

makes

or o^i,

either

J X

Nom.

Gen.

j^\
lit.

J>,
first

declension lose their tenwin,


*

when

followed by the word

* The same
Gr. p. 142 seq.

is

is

XX

Ace.

^oi,

J,

Proper names of the

b.

which

^3,

or:

Rem.

ft!)3),

Oxx

oy

^t

in a genealogical series

the case in the other Semitic

In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages


used

Comp. C

see

as

dialectically, as

xx

//

Jx

x x

x J

x xOA>

"

x x OiO

f.

ajUo O-^^J^' iV l^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl


X
^^X
X
XXX
Aas imitated his father in generosity, and whoever tries to resemble his
in the verse j^o Loi <ut

father, does not do

wrong

where we

Some

obt.

cases [bl being, according to

Comp.
X

XX

vol.

ii.

rem.

a],

bt, etc., in all the three

some lexicographers a
as in the verse

xxx

Ox

UJb

jJ>

dial. var. of w>t.

xx

xx

j>,a>,
*
X

)l

.-i, veWfo/

*^x

w
jjl

^eir (the family's) father and their father's

the accus. after

whilst

Ubl btj Ubl

father have reached in glory their utmost limit; where the


is

a*jb and

xf

xOaO

UUjU

39, a,

aj\ for

'

Arabs employ the forms

of the

and

find <aub

J xg

>!,

Ubl
x

and the second Ubl the

xxxx
UlZjU stands by

first

genit., instead of lyot,


J

Ox

xxxx

poetic license (in this case cL*^l) for lyX>l.

[The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion.


Noldeke in Zeitsehr. D. M. G. xlix. 321.]

Comp.

t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion


with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb.
HE) constr. *), with suffix
^Jpfi.

Part Second.

250

j^m

Etymology

jJU.

jAJto- ijj,

son of Halid, the son of


O^t, see

Muhammad,

Muhammad.

On

Instead of OU^, a daughter,

c.

son of Gafar, the

the

the elision of the

we may

The form
except at the beginning of a sentence.
the Kor'an (Sur. lxvi. 12) and often in old Mss.]

The dual

Norn.

loses the termination

ljuft

j\kX~J\

?U.

jjUt^aJt aDI
Gen.

^>~$

to

tffo

in

when

use,

occurs in

C-.-J1

O-

to? slaves of the sultan came; \j*t~m*

ms belong the two holy temples of God.

^t

AaJJa

,jj1j

'Abu Bekr)

'ibn

^jj

jij ^3^1 ,>

transmitted {traditions, poems,


(viz.

315

[The latter was formerly preferred,

genitive follows, the form djj\.

(b)

b.

21,

Rem.

or the Parts of Speech.

etc.)

from

the

/^ learned

two 'Abu Bekrs,

Talha and ('Abu Bekr)

'ibn

Kassum

(see 299, rem. h).

Ace.

^>\

^^jU.

Rem.

If

an

lif

dual, the final


dUL^Jt

I saw

C-utj

the

conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the

takes a kesra instead of a gezma;

jJujl^J / passed by

19 and

20, c)

two female slaves of my father.

the

as

Ojj*

two female slaves of the king (see

j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1.q.< >.)! 2A0

two mansims are the

extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs.

(c)

Nom.

The

pluralis sanus loses the termination

*U*Jt yij eU. the sons

O-

of the king came ; ^o^iL^I

j:>>a-

drawing

their swords.

Gen.

wjU^t

an example, or warning, for those who are


\^3*$ h**

possessed of intelligence (see 302, rem.


*O>0

Acc.

^iJULoJI

^j

tit*

C^t;

St

I saw

kindling the fire.

to

the king's sons; jttfl

c).
j

Co

^j$a U> we

were

The Noun. A. Subst. & Adj.Decl. of Def Nouns. 251

II.

316]

<

Rem.

<ft x

<

If the plur. ends in


^15

acc

>

(^or

0>J
*

ft

<aM

^ kesra, instead of the gezma

final

^akAo

20,

c).

Regarding

the

aOt

otiosum which

though incorrectly, added to the nominal term.


rem.

as

j_ and

these terminations become, before a following gen.,


j_,
the genit. begins with an elif conjunct., the final
j takes

and the

O-srf)>

and

if

damma,
V n

is

often,

jl, see

7,

a.

316.

If a

suffix is

pronominal

added to an undefined noun, the B

following changes take place.

Triptotes

(a)

and the

plur. sanus fern, lose the tenwln, the dual


9

'

and

plur.

Ajusa

Ais book;

OUAI?

and
its

darkness, ly3UJJ

tofo, i)UL> thy two books;

&yJ

sj

i)yJ thy sons;

sons,

w>L& a

as

1st p.

book,

oW^

darkness;

Before the pronominal suffix of the

(b)

sanus masc. the terminations

ajuU

to its

^_

sing.

tow

(see

185, rem. a, and 317), the final vowels of the sing., plur. fractus,
*

and

plur. sanus fern, are elided

^*$& m#

<%s, from *->*$&,

fract.

plur.

followers, from Jty, plur. fract. of *jtf

OU,

plur.

sanus of

If the

(c)

as icjU

my

^J^

of

^U^. my

from

book,

gardens, from

4-i..

noun ends

its original

If the

(<tf)

in

this letter is

3,

form

of)

noun ends

*-

changed into

(or rather,

when

as |LJ

women, gen. ajLj. But when


3

a favour

or benefit,
^JH+su.

in elif mobile or hemza, this letter passes

when

has kesra (Gen.)

ft

as ioju

before the suffixes into J,


it

w#

L5*^>*

resumes

w>U^

it

it

has

damma

(Nom.), and into $,

women, nom. with

has fetha (Acc),

it

suffix

o^LJ,

his

remains unchanged,

<

as acc. d*LJ.
9 t

Rem.

Of the words mentioned in

315, rem. a, wjt,

9 t

-!

and

Part Second.

252

Etymology

o ,

take the suffixes thus

^.,
"

"

"g

,-iA

but

XX

ace.

more

^JA makes
i

i)LA or ^iLA.-^i has regularly

usually,

nom.

Jy, oy

gen. *U$,
x

t3

and

|x**x
j

.-JL

_:

is

j3

ace.

"

in all the three cases.


^x my mouth,
o I
On some dialectical varieties of w>l
suffixes.

oli

,*)li,

X
X

ii

or ,Ua

but
ai, 4i;
X

<jui

[ 31.7

gen. &J\, A-ot

ic^*-, in all the three cases.

^-OA

->xx

^Ui;
X

^-oi;
X
.

si

js-

)y>\, $jt

'

,-jt, l*>\,

i)^Ii or >^JUa;

nom.

Jbt, dbt

or the Parts of Speech.

not used with

see 315, rem. a, note *.

APPENDIX.
The Pronominal

The pronominal

317.

which denote the Genitive.

Suffixes,

attached to nouns to denote the

suffixes

genitive, are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote


the accusative .( 185), with the single exception of the suffix of the

1st p. sing.,

which

Rem.

is

The

a.

^-, and

not

,>.

the 1st

suffix of

p. sing. _,

when ^ attached

Word ending in

maksura

elif

or in the diphthongs

(^

in the long vowels t_,

),

Ox

to a

^_,

j_,

^j and 3, becomes ^, the kesra

the

of

form

^_ (see 185, rem. d) being simply elided. Further,


when the word ends in ^_ or ^_, the final ^ unites with the ^

original

^;

and when

ends in

it

from

and likewise forms ^.

^>A; ^UUafcGZ

xxxxjray

aJaa.

fract. of

^U^

nom. dual of jf$&


4j^l5
x

AXXX
JL*^

from

,>o*}L

x x

Zove,

^bUw*,, from

slaves, for

xxxj
^ U^,

JL
X

xOxxJ

^^c^

^jAisucuo ray

changed

XXX

for ^gt^A,

IjUa.,

plur.

xxj

<jU^,

judge, for L5*olS (.^Uoli), from

my

^JUwo,

i'i

is

from

^^JLyO (^^q.L.c)
xJOjxOJ
*
sanus

*t

ray taw slaves, for

6xJ

^^^

^0

my

ray Muslims, for

.l> . o

(t*^

or j_, the

E.g. j^t^A
for

sins,

ray

j_

XXX

WJ

into ^,

vi

of the suffix into

XX

plur.

x x

of^L**;
X

xOxxJ
OxxJ
(^^w^), from &***$,
x

or ,-^L~o

xOxxOJ

x J

L-S-*^
"*

genit. dual of

xOxxOJ

eto, for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak.^uo) or ^jAJsua*

The Noun.

II.

318]

From words

316, rem.

Rem.
into

^j

like

US, the form

^>A,

^I^A, i^Ui.

[^> a

On

little

w>l,

son has both

Just as the verbal

b.

rem.

185,

c),

so

^Xj and

suffix

.J

the vocative
ii.

Rem.
the

as

38, rem.

^.]

l><5

sometimes shortened

is

c.

in

o,

jb^3

it is

my

attached

peojrte

l^A, ^Jb,

<t*Z>jl.

U^jU^, ^o^jU^
older form]

[Rem.

d.

ii

185, rem.

b,

([before wasl and] in verse

^_, or

is

the plural, as U-v*^

The

E.g. <u\Ss

^j\&,

[which

is

the

etc.

the dual before

arise,

not unfrequently replaced by the singular or

and'l^ylS
B.

1.

^_,

his murderers,

du)o\.9

no ambiguity of meaning can

a suffix in the dual

318.

[Com p.

of the change of

^Jb, into kesra after

his two female slaves,

or^^U^),
'
' S *
If

in

13

has been said in

applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes.

of his book,

is

b.]

What

damma

see

>*>

the nominal suffix ^_ occasionally

my Lord !

w>j

an ^

t>*> J<P>

f-\, j**-,

used dialectically

is

^>A, ^5,

becomes _, particularly when the noun to which

vol.

253

from QjkitfOt*, yj^A^auc, plur. sanus of


j^aJxcl*.

Ly a ftJft.>A),

instead of

The Numerals. Cardinal.

B.

the heart

of them

both.]

The Numerals.

The Cardinal Numbers.

cardinal numbers from one to ten are

254

Part Second.

Rem.

For

a.

Etymology
rem.

( 6,

of this

a).

view

also write *Xj, 2Xj,

and

is

Arab

stands, according to the

14,

and that

c),

for

^juj.

proved [as they say] by the diminu-

9 J J

the fraction

&>, jw,

C*w

Oju> (compare

* J

tive

319

lexicographers, for

The correctness

we may

>L?$3, aj*}U,

o*

ft %f i <
for dJloJ, S-mLoj

or the Parts of Speech.

^ju,

and the ordinal

sixth,

^jl*,

adj.

sixth.

Rem.

we compare

If

b.

the above numerals with those of the

easy to perceive their perfect identity; and,


The Assyrian
therefore, only one or two forms deserve notice here.
for one in the sing. masc. is istin
apparently identical with

cognate languages,

it is

Qft^W,

the Heb.
(for

Wy

in -|fety
>fijjpi

rnnN)- The

Aram.

may

becoming

as in tfiPft, snow,
-

as in

n^l)
_

rwe,

as

Heb.

it

in

v v

a contraction for

is

=pnt)j
T

Heb.

(H

exchanging with ^,

single, sole.

##, HB^.
T

The daghesh

indicates
CH^K)
-

'

&}$

or> as others think, derived from the

were the dual of jjj

o^- The
'

J?^, and

a l so pronounced
D^Hfe^
(
_

fern.

= ITIIK

(HPIK)

be either the equivalent of the Heb.


t

fern, is ihit

tWl^l

}Hfi,

Tift? which
gjf,

but the

in the

the loss of the

stand for BHBf, plBHB> (see


T

and compare the ^th. sedestu and sessw, for sedsu). The
Jewish Aram, form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic;
rem.

a,

whilst in the Syriac ]A- or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its
trace in the hard sound of the

319.
when the

The

(compare D*fi$).

numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern, form,


numbered are of the masc. gender and conversely,

cardinal

objects

the masc. form, when the objects numbered are fern.


or

JU-j

J^p

Zj***, ten

men

(lit.,

E.g. c>j*

JU->,

men, a decade, and a decade of men)

gUJ, or sUJ j-&s, ten women.

Rem.

a.

The cause

of this

phenomenon, which

also occurs in

the other Semitic languages, seems to lie in the effort to give


prominence to the independent substantive nature ( 321) of the

The Noun.

II.

321]

The Numerals. Cardinal.

B.

255

cardinal numbers, in virtue of which they differ from the dependent


That
adjectives, which follow the gender of their substantives.

wJLj,

xftc

etc., fern.,

are really masc,

etc.,

*.jj\,

and

5/1^

9++t&

consequently aXj, aajjI,

evident from the construction of js-, in the sense of


broken plur. (viz. the

is

ten days, either as a singular masc. or as a


5 Hi

We may

implied j>\A).

also 322, rem.

5Uu ([or juoj],


^

literally,

a part or

320.

[Comp.

The

vol.

They

The

ii.

is

expressed by

few
J

years.

as j^wl

The

J s

<buu some

99, rem.]

s*0

0^t> and O^*^

in the genit.

oU^>

ace.

''

,0

or

LjUj

0^*3

O^

stands for

(according to 311).

cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives.

either follow the objects

with them, as

See

ft

,0

^jUj, and has

etc.

cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote, with the

exception of the duals

321.

jx)\

as JUfcg Jt*aJ some

portion)',

<-

ft

'o.'ft
use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times

months.

j-+-*$\

jj

undefined number from 3 to 10

**su some women, yj*+~i %*cJ ,-i in a

S^J

men,

*t>*

JLs&\

o.

An

6.

oioto j o

h^t^\

days of R., or Jx^lj^t j^jOI, j^-t^J j^*M,

the last ten

Rem.

^o

middle ten days of Ramadan, ^Laucj y*

the

^jLaaj

ft

say, for example, either

d.5*$3

JU^, of

numbered, and are put in apposition

three

men

(lit.,

of men, a triad)

or they

precede them, in which case the numeral governs the other substantive
in the genitive of the plural, as

JU-j aj^U,

men), except in the single instance of

Rem.
ace.

a.

three

men

4jU a hundred

,jl*j has, in the construct state,

(lit.,

a triad of

(see 325).

nom. and gen.

.yOj

^UJ (see 320).


Rem.

b.

If the numerals

course lose the tenwin

Rem.

c.

from 3 to 10 take the

article,

they of

314, a).

^U>t and ^UiS! are very

rarely construed with the

j)

256

Part Second.

Etymology

genit. sing, of the objects


final

j^j

315, b)

^JJa-o^JI ^^-o, or

or the Parts of Speech.

322

numbered, and then of course drop their

as JJa-ia. LUj two colocynths, instead of <jU^jt

simply ^jUUsO^..

0^0

Rem.

d.

%*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered,

which are in the genitive of the

plur. fractus (see 319, rem.

b).

20.

Part Second.

258

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

The undefined unit

Rem.

in

is

uuj

case

this

325

excess,

(lit.,

0x6
surplus), as )3J-**3

**-*jH

twenty and odd ; but juaj and

are

also used.

325.

The numerals from 100


100.

&U

600.

a5U

200.

oU5U

700.

a5U

800. J*

400.

#U 1HS
#U ajjt

500.

asu ,1U.

900.

300.

Rem.

a.

*
PlX/!!D>

,0't.

9>*

'

'

,?

t":

me'e*,

^O

a5U

..."

Heb. ntf> Aram.


"
T

6/

IhA

we

Assyr. mS)

OP

find often a**,

For

also find dJU [and sometimes 5U.


"
"

Ox

we

ill>

a5U

For i5U (^Bth.


"

Ox

aLc

900 are :

to

and more recently

2u*.

xx

The dual <jU5U

is

.0

written occasionally ^)IjU, and hence in poetry ^)UU.

The

xJOx

plur. is

O^**6

^U;

Olio, or

Ox x

| J

the forms ^Jjyc, O**** (like


Ox

^>~w from iUw a

year),

D. G.]

and , (with the

article, .JU-M)

are rare.

Ox

The strange

spelling of

a5U seems

to be

due merely to a piece

of

bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. The was
probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable, but
I

was inadvertently placed

before, instead of after, the j

(5).

Ox
J)

Rem.

b.

The numerals from 3

into one word, as 5loiij.


scripts

4jIoJUj

i.e.

a5Lo.3UJ,

[In this case

we

find often in

though the correct form

The regular construction ^>~U


employed

to 9 are often united with

is

a5U

manu-

a5U ^U-3.]

w*Xj, etc. (see 321),

is

very rarely

[in poetry].
Ox

Rem.

c.

a5U

genit. sing.; as

usually takes the objects numbered after


* '
XX
*++ *\
x
Jtx,

4w

jU,

&w

"

U5U, i^w

ijl^JLj.

it

in the

II.

327]

326.

The Noun. B. The Numerals. Cardinal.

The numerals from 1000 upwards

1000.

are

259

260

Part Second. Etymology

2.

328.
Masc.

The

or the Parts of Speech.

The Ordinal Numbers.

ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are

:-

328

The Noun.

II.

330]

Rem.
the art.

b.

<jtf

Rem.

so with the rest

Jtf,
x

are occasionally used.

*U~/)

Ox

OL

loU>) and

(ace.

Qui

(formed directly from C-w,


2

etc.
ijl5,
ijlif,
X
X

Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L>


'
'
2

and with the

in the ace. iJlj, construct state

And

iJ&\.
^^X
c.

261

makes, of course, in the construct state and with

jJIj, ,yU)t

art. /jl5,
^^

The Numerals. Ordinal.

B.

ace.

L3U, also occurs for *Jtf [and^eli. for ^^l*.].

329.

The

ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are

Masc.
j-uft

ajlj

S^ft

axjIj fourteenth.

etc.

These numerals are not declined, when they are unif defined by the article, they remain unchanged,

Rem.

and even

x x x

x Ox

say j-&

^>la*Jt

when

XXX

^$t-

andj-c

^yuH we may

Some, however, admit the

defined, as %LsX

Ml

^U*ji

Bx

and jJLs

inflection of the unit,

case

For j^ft

S^c- 33UM.

asJJLft *JUM,

which

aj^I- eleventh.

ZjJLs.

etc.

defined

Fern.

^2\*'

j-&t

wJUM, S*c

ii)U)l

in

OX

jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI

is

nom. and

the

genit.,

]* (fjJlBl) ^>iJ1 the accus.


330.

The

ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in

form with the cardinals

as

Ojj*^

twentieth,

Ox

^jJju\

the twentieth.

If joined to the ordinals of the units, these latter precede,


x

are united by

xOx

(gen.

x
;

as

and the two

>^

03J**3

rtj***3 >{*, ace.

compound

one anc^ twentieth, twenty-first

xJOx

O^J-^J ^3^*),

fern.

9x

03j**c,3 *^**-

of this sort be defined, both its parts take the article

If a
;

as

Part Second.

262

JO

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

331

b>o.

^jUJt

ijjj-l*)lj

CrtJ****h

(ace.

the

ijptiiJf)

twenty-first,

f-JJpt

jj^j-tAJtj a twenty-fourth.

Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G

[Rem.
\Jj,jJS*&

%Aj and with the

2/*e ,/rs

o/* /ie

article,

twenties, the

B
331.

The numeral

vol.

ii.

adverbs, once, twice, thrice, etc., are capable of

being expressed in two ways,

sj^Uy9 jt &ji je\S, he

rose

C O***^ U^^Ij,
life twice, i.e.

words, in the accus.

nomen

is

also

as 5^o once,
S^d

^t

(&)

0*h*

nomen

verbi

j^l^ ^U5

as

JJlS,

permitted to use the simple

verbi being understood

an(i O-a-^W*-'-

thrice;

nomen

By

0++&\ twot

as

and thou

hast given us

the noun S^, and similar

twice,

Ot^o wJJ,

or j\j*o stJJ,

CHj*** twenty times; \^j^3 *jU oweg

etc.

again ;

332.

It

thou hast given us death twice,

O-s^^

OU3.S wJJ,

the accusative of the

By

up once or twice; O-JUS

he fought once or twice.


cardinal numbers, the

(a)

should be wanting, of the

vicis ( 219), or, if this

Com p.

fourth of the twenties.

The remaining Glasses of Numerals.

3.

<m<#

\J^jJ^ ^jUJl, O-O"^ #!pt

D. G.]

108.

or

^3^,

The numeral adverbs a

j^stf, second,

third time,

etc.,

are

expressed either by adding the accus. of the ordinal adjective to a


finite

form of a verb

(in

which case the corresponding nomen verbi


OS

U)U eU.

i*0

is

J/

by means of one of the words S^, isij, etc., in the


accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. E.g.

understood)
accus.,

(i.e.

*U.

or

liltf

(i.e.

IW*

i*0

*W), or ibtf 3j-o *U.,

jj-^iJf *U.), or

aio

came a third time;

sJ^T *W, A* came

tfe

third time.

333.

The

distributive adjectives are expressed

by repeating the
J ' J

cardinal numbers once

or

by words of the forms

J S

JUJ and Jma,

either singly or repeated.

fji^y

c&wtf

^r^

6?/

three

//

Jx

J//

>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a

Jx

xJ x

//

'i'

three

and four

^0 x

AJUU
to 10

J x

x J

and cbj,

[;

S^SjM

pleaseth you of women, two

The most common words

x J

J x

and Jmuo are >UJ, *U-j,

J l*j
J

marry what

at a time.

Jx x

3 x J

j^yo

xO x

0-*J

^Lo

2Uj,

of the forms
J x

(for

>uj-; but the formation

is

The

adjectives

multiplicative

fix

A^>* fourfold, square;


is

335.

are expressed by nomina

^^a^

Numeral

fivefold,

e.g.

triangular;

triple,
etc.

pentagonal ;

adjectives,

made

is

number

expressing the

up, take the form

^1*$

triliteral, three cubits in length or height

four spans or cubits in height, a tetrastich;


five spans in lieight

The

as

Single or

of

parts of

^Uj

biliteral ;

336.

jji* (nom. patient. IV.).

which a whole

^^Vj

^-^ij quadriliteral,
' >

^wUfc

quinqueliteral,

etc.

fractions, from

tfttrtti

9 3J

up to a

Ox

foftf,
i /t(

are expressed by
OJ

JJ

as w-Jj, *Jb,
words of the forms Jj*3, J*s, and J**$, pi. J Us
x

0,
J
J J
X
X 0*

|A
Ia
7
7
or w^Jj, pi. C/^Lm, a third; ^ju, ^ju*, or er*>ju, pi. ^tjwl,
x
Ox*
0.}
a mom; 0+3> t>^ or O*-*^ pi- O^j', #w eighth. [The form JUiU
I

Ox

jf

0x6
is

exclusively employed for


J

with

<5

}J

Jj, jj;

and

a fourth pW>* and a


J

^, js.

Ox0
tenth. jILjlc, together

or j~*x.

According to Zamahsari, Faik

x
ii.

admitted [by some] up

^j* twofold, double, dualized; **++ threefold,

5 *

*t>^,

patientis of the second form, derived from the cardinal numbers

simple

x J

u***)

the best authorities mentioning only jlic].

334.
uix

6#s

/iii/0

|V-UM ^ra

cbjj ^'iUj ^j*

and

wJJl* tjlU.

lj*U., or

party of men, {walking) by twos and threes ; y> j$ w>lb


x

263

etc.

>>^' *W, or j^Ai\ sU.

came two by two ; ^/}U >*&

the 'people

wJjlo,

0**^

E.g. \J~\

, 6

Numerals. Distributive,

B. The

The Noun.

II.

336]

659 the form

%^j

never occurs in this signification, nor, according

Part Second.

264

to

The

less frequently

fractions above

ouaj,

uLo

CHJ**

li^

OJjOj

-*- fl

337

^
f

(vulg. uou), or

<

'

-S

^4

&*(/* is
fi " **

pi-

^itoil.

by a circumlocution

e.g.
J

Mr^

porfc ow

00

9IJ/

o/*

twenty, $

oLaJ
00

00

OOJ

jf* Tstj**

D. G.]

i .

tenth are expressed

v>* Slta^ **^>

6,

Zeid (Nawadir 193) *~tf and u~**-

OjxOOi-xOfjxIx

'

or the Parts of Speech.

Abu

00
uLaJ,

Etymology

^-^J *** IS;

etc.*]

00 J

The form Ja9 occurs

Rem.

Heb. and Aram.;


titih

<*

in the

]A^oZ a

e.g.

third,

same sense in Assyrian,


"rubu,"

Mh>

a fourth,

fifth.

337.

The

end of which an event usually

period, at the

recurs, is

expressed by a noun of the form J*$, in the accus., either with or


x

<

without the article

0x0*
etc.)

as

UU,

Ujj, or JjJt> every fourth; etc.


o*o
but &
8 j
wk J
wi

Oirf

or w*U)t, every third (day, month, year,

as w%X3t j*^*., or w**JI L5fr*,

338.

w-%tf is

w*,

fortw

The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva.

C.

article),

Synonymous with

We

treat

of the

nomina demonstrativa (including the

and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina

inter-

rogativa), in one chapter, because they are both, according to our

terminology, pronouns, the former being the demonstrative pronouns,


the latter the relative.

1.

339.

The Demonstrative Pronouns and


,

The demonstrative pronouns,

0<<

the Article.
-

3jlw*^t l\+~*\, are either

simple

or compound.
*

[On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see


Goldziher in Zeitschr. D. M. G. xlix. 210 seqqJ]

The Noun.

II.

340]

340.

C.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265

1.

The simple demonstrative pronoun


Masc.

Fern.

li

Sing,

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

Gen. Ace.

(oti)

o-*S (v>)
.1

Plur.

comm.

gen.

^t,

O^

(0).

o*3

(o*3).

~A

x l

^t, or ^J$\

6 *^l

~,
or

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun


a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

Rem.

a.

The w
In

scriptio plena.

jjjt,

the

in

this

^Jjt

and

^l

is

always

way ^J$\ can be

of Jj$1, first, in

fern,

^t.
is

used to indicate

short,

3 being merely

distinguished in verse from

which the w

have been inserted in order the more


g

is \l, this, that.

is

The 3 may

long.

easily to distinguish .Jt

and

^t from ^Jl and ffl

P i.

The diminutive

Rem.

b.

u3

,yy.

t,

Rem.

c.

monosyllable,

q
of

1$

Closely connected in
viz.

commonly used

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

is L>3,

its

f.

tJ

origin

Phoen.

du. ^Ij3,

with

and JX>

in the sense of possessor, owner.

It

is

1^

is

this)

f.

^U3

another

which

is

thus declined.

Part Second.

266

The u

Etymology

and O^Jjl

in jJ$t

The form *lj$t is used as a


of the names or surnames

OM

\j*W
2

3>>

formed as

t>*Jt,

much

so

O^J

if

pounds

&*$&!

>>

\mr

word forms part

etc

These are called l\\

_,

or many,

is

^js)

compounded
Comp. Vol.

tj.

By adding
S

of
ii.

i)

44,

and

thus, so

e,

rem.

d.]

are formed com-

the pronominal suffix of the second person

By

(b)

342.

(/?)

of the persons addressed.

to several
is

usually

*i)

prefixing the particle U.

The gender and number

to a single

(i),

with the interposition of the

of the pronominal suffix,

appended

number

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and

woman,

In speaking to a single man, i))S


to two persons, lit$

ni)\h;

women, ^>ly

But the form

employed, whatever be the

^)\$

to several

may

sex and

also be

is

used

mm,j&\$

and

in fact

number of the persons

and

In regard to their signification,


so with the rest.
forms
from
the
differ
simple pronoun in indicating a
compound

spoken to
these

so

and the

like

as,

so,

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or


demonstrative syllable J.

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

U^

6 *^l.

(a)
y

this

341

from a singular \^^>.

demonstrative pronoun

341.

when

^jt and

as in

sAortf,

plural of j3,

3$)

always

\j* (sometimes written

d.

[Rem.

and

3*>

is

or the Parts of Speech.

distant object.

Masc.
Sing.

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

iUli

iJUU.

*U>5

UJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

that.

[Some say that

iX5t$

i)^,
is

k&).

itf^f or iXS^I.

a mispronunciation for

*)Uy]

The Noun,

II.

343]

Rem.

~J

Rem.

343.
nominal

sAor^ in

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

340, rem. a,

of

Jt*

JCy

is

we get a longer form

before the proiJU$,

Sing.

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU3

^Uo.

a.

comm.

iUj

is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

a contraction for ^XL3.

JUUD; and dUji,

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

Some

Rem.

iLU (iUU).

that

itfll

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

second n

Fern.

ItflS

Plur.

stead.

^iUtj or <*J3 (often written

Masc.

The

i)C5, etc.

f.

a).

Rem.

lAS^l

In the dual,

*iUt3,

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

the

being in their opinion merely corroborative.


b.

Some grammarians

ence of meaning between

assert that there is a slight differx

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in

two distant

objects, the latter to the

,*)!$

their opinion to the nearer of

more remote.
c.

The

sition yj (which,

must not be mistaken

for the prepo-

when united with the pronominal

suffixes of the

syllable

Jx

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a


demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

Rem.

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *UiJ.

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

Rem.

c).

inserting the demonstrative syllable

suffix,

rem.

-.

is

The diminutive

b.

By

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267

1.

and ^jt

rtjl,

6,

The u

a.

C.

d.

See

345 and 347.

The diminutive

of

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second. Etymology

pound

of j)

and

or the Parts of Speech.

344

*iUi (comp. 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle

(which has the same demonstrative force as


od

the Latin ce in A^ce)


that excites attention.
13,

and

to the

is

called

It is prefixed

*y

jo

*-) t wj^., the particle

both to the simple demonstrative

compound Jti (but not

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

by the Arabs

to *iU>).

before Jli in

Before

t it is

full, i)!3li.

usually

The Noun.

II.

345]

C.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

1.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to
quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox

345.

The

instrument of definition,

j^\^

and lam,

the elif

t*JJ^)t

prosthetic

(J^yt

which

I,

x0/ jx

is

(see 343, rem.

and

c,

i&

oLj^jCM

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,


the demonstrative letter

by the Arabs

Jl called

article

'i

the

i\*\

j**$ [or \Jj+*\

composed of

is

347) and the

only to lighten the pronunciation

prefixed

3>*A,

19 a, and rem./).

with the following word.]

always written in conjunction

[It is

Though

was originally demonstrative, as

has become determinative,

it

still

it

appears in such words as^e^JI

x ,xOx

o^t now,

to-day,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e.


[Kem. a.
any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
0,

O/tf

U m
J *

X>/

<M

d x

and dirhem bring men

man m

a.

than

better

0/

6.

woman ;
Ox

lar individual it is called j^sOl

Rem.

//OP

<

^LJt

as

j*$,

iUAl

J J &
perdition, Ja-jJI

to

fi

if

indicating a particu-

Some grammarians regard the

Ox

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

elif as

of the article,

and say that


Ox

was

it

an integral part
o x eo

Ox

times the Arabs suppress the

Rem.

Ox
x x

ii.

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of

But some-

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.

(comp. Vol.

J /

jl^jJI vo*j).J

oZ

saying for instance

I,

x
)

j-qj*.

J x

f Ox

for j+***)\

242, footnote).

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative


xx ^
x x O/O
x
Jxx
pronoun (= ^JJI, 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^U Jljj *n) ^> /te ?/>Ao
c.

It

is

xOx

fix

c?oes ?io cease to be

where

has),

OxxOx
4**JI =

grateful for

what

J x x

6J0

fix

<uu ^JJt
X

with him (or for what he

is
\

tO

^or^xx*&1

people of
a?

J /

401 J^-^

whom is
xjxjj
;

^.

<U<3

the Apostle
/

xj

of God, where

xx 0/0

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

x o

wJl

x0/

/O

J>^
i

(j

^o

Slj^t

u,.j;aJt

rO

*t

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar


iO xO/O

J x

0/

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply

Tii

aM
X

t>*
x

>>*)'
x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

J^jJt = O-i^'
X

tfAow art

not the judge

Part Second. Etymology

270

whose sentence

or the Parts of Speech.

approved, where L5->Bl

is

^>y

German, der = welcher, and our

for example, in

346

Compare,

^JJI.
that for

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

[in all probability (see

is

Jt

with the Hebrew

art.

for

.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

In South Arabia Jf was (and even

7H-

ex>

still is)

jr*~~*\

used for Jt, but without assimilation

f^J fasting in journeying

lm.tj ^^^wcb
^tjj ^6

and

stone

2.

77><?

a*

^^J

behind me with arrow

^^-JU and OtJtj.

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI,


^iLJI,

and

Conjunctive (Relative)

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.

(a)

346.

wi

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

not (an act) of piety ;


t^j-i

is

casts (standing)

<* .

The conjunctive pronouns

are

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

O-*

(2)

^ wfo, she who,

U that which,

^t

(3)
o

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

tit

(4) tj-^M

whoever ;

<w

^r#

w&>, whosoever ;

'**

U^t everything which, whatsoever.


o

Rem.

Si

Oii

Lo,

^j}\,

<ul,

^a,

also interrogatives,

351 and

which

and

,2ti

*&

their compounds, m\, l-{t, are


indeed is their original signification (see

They ought therefore to be treated of first as


and
then as conjunctives but it is convenient to
interrogatives
reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon-

foil.).

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

demonstrative letter

pronoun

15,

or ^3

(see

340, rem.

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

343 and 345), and the demonstrative


c).

When

used substantively,

it

has

347]

II.

The Noun. C.

the same meaning as

whatever; when used

U,

v>,

and

he who,

viz.
it

adjectively,

that

signifies who, which, that,

It is declined as follows

case.

Masc.
wlx

Sing.

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

(J}\

J*\ (cJI

^JJt,

cJt

(O^

^tifif (gfjAf; U&1).

^&S

o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt).

o*UUt (o*0l).

$*

[^M]

JF&

[Cu$$f Nom.,

CHsfi&f Gen. Ace.])

^JJt, j^t, and

^tj&f

^^Jl

^t

,<fW or Jjj0l+.
.

crfjfii

0j&)

or

all

J^^l.

and

^jjjli\.

in such constant use, generally

of the article

modern, vulgar form, for

^)-

sJJtJM, are written defectively, because

The other forms, which are not

";

(otflfol)

f$S\

)!

of their frequent occurrence, instead of ^JJJt, ^-^JUt,

retain the double

agrees in

Fern.

JJI

chJJI (^Jjf

Rem.

it

and

ut*

j^JJt

Du. Norn.

which, whoever,

substantive, with which

refers necessarily to a definite

gender, number,

and Interrogative Pronouns. 271

Relative

2.

and the demonstrative.

numbers and genders,

is

The

,JI or jJUt.

*J

Rem.

6.

The

grammarians, used

and

ace.

This

tribe of

Hudeil (J^Jus), according to the Arab

\jjj>)\ in

)3^

the nom. plur. masc, ^J>i\ in the gen.

must, of course, at one time have been uni

a*

employed as the nom., ^->JJt being the form which belongs


but gradually the latter supplanted the
to the oblique cases
versally

[According to as-Sabban, as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's


'I"
Specimenschrift, p. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l, the article
sufficing to distinguish it

D.G.]

from the prepos. jJI.

Comp.

340,

rem.

a.

Part Second.-Etymology

272

or the Parts of Speech.

347

modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur.


has
sanus, sjj,
everywhere usurped the place of the direct form
former, just as in
j

fix

Even the

^j

^JJI

sing.

Jul-'

ought properly to be
ic2

Si x

3JJI.

is

an oblique form, the nom.

The

of

which

i.i*a

forms ^j^^Ut, gen. and

ace.

^^^Jt, and j^^Ut are

also said to occur.

fix

Rem.

^JJt was

c.

strative pron.,

and has

coram.

fern. !)J*?>n,
..
_

f^H
T _

its

(=

Hebrew

precise

equivalent in n?7Pl>

See Gomp. Gr.

J3t).

p. 117.

ds

Rem.
Si

St

du. <j\iMS,

fi

From ^JJt

d.

SisSt

w/2

^
J

i/i

Oj*W

pi.

fi

St

"St *

are formed the diminutives bJJJt, UlWt

J^&\

demon-

originally, as its derivation shows, a

',

/u/ fixuj *
forms bJJUt, UJJt,
5

The

OUJUt.

are vulgar and incorrect.


St*

Rem.

Instead of ^JJI, some of the Arabs, especially the tribe

e.

of Tayyi'
(?J),

It

employ

(Heb.

^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5 w a *^
*

with them (of their property)

x x

(LiU^
se 0

wor&

^-3U&); di;U Ut
earnest on the bone which I

rhyme
tf

what

is

OJ

x x

in

which I

am

for

meditating),

for

x
J Ox x
J
Oxx
J x
C-j^l? j$j C^a. y$ lj+43

lined (or cased), for


^Jt

Him

whose residence

and

more usual

mV

^i^

me, for

am gnawing

za).

as

that which
jSi-o

^c
wi

(on the satire


JJ

'

(a5jU in rhyme for a5jU)

we H

'which

[sU~M

in lieaven, 'Aganl

is

else declined as follows

an d

H=

^JJt
J
6x0
OxxOCx
33 ^=uJJ ^a*.*.'^ /
suffices

ej

^jJt

is

-ffith.

^ w enough for me of

fix

I)

Aram. H, ^,

then either wholly indeclinable, which

is

LjU^ U
is

JR,

xi.

^
25,

I dug and which


<*~^ ^>3
1.

18.

^ wo/

by

D. G.] or

349]

II.

The Noun.

C. 2. Relative

and Interrogative Pronouns. 273

Part Second.

274

350.

Etymology
x

or the Parts of Speech.


x JSp

Of ^1 and &*, U, are compounded

to

whosoever, U->t

compound admits

which, whatsoever.

of being declined

^ wfo, s^ who,
part of the

first

gen. 0-*i'> \+jS

has been already stated

It

Only the

ace.

350

0^> U^'.

The Interrogative Pronouns.

(b)

351.

O-*!'

346, rem.) that the conjunctive

pronouns, with the exception of ^JJt, are also interrogative, which

To them may be added jJSs [and

indeed their original signification.


vi

vii

how much

\^\s or C>A>],
(b)

is

many\ which

[or

are (a) interrogative,

according to our ideas, exclamatory, according to the Arab gram-

marians, enuntiative (jC.*$J)

Rem.

but never conjunctive.

The interrogative

may be*

shortened after preposi-

tions into j*, and is then united in writing both with those
prepositions with which such a union is usual, and with those with
which it is not, (though, in the latter case, it is better to keep them

apart)
*

^,

e.g.

48 <*

Jj,

^5,

JJ*,
xx

>ftU. (better ^o ^)l, ^o

J^

(for
8

^ ^*-)-

j-U,

J ^,

^),

Ji

Ji^t,

^U,

In such cases, the accent

is

transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima, Hid ma, etc.);

whence

it

happens that

j^ and j

are

sometimes shortened in
x

poetry into^j and^J.

lo^

(lit.,

Aram.

tJie

like

of what

^D3 2
(/

This

[see

( fi/

is

the

also the origin

worth of what

Comp. Gr.
/

and

Heb. HJIS^

In

HIED

pause these words


x x

are written a*j, a^c, <lU., etc.

wAai 2Am

p. 125].

?),

x x

of^^a, for^o^ or

Similarly

we

*-x

find a*i for

l*i

what

<taif> Aa2

[Rather, "is usually shortened."

for what purpose

Zamahsari, Faik,

as

ii.

when one

159

calls it

J x 6 t *x

"the commoner" form (*w^l). The grammarians of the school of


Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose; in poetry the
elif

may

be retained.

Comp.

Fleischer, Kl. Schr.

i.

364.

D. G.]

353]

II.

fi

The Noun. C.
x J

says U*^i
x

2.

Relative

JO
Ojboi I went

Ox
,

a kindness.

is

*Jt
x~

v>-.l
x

so,

to which

you

mig^tf do

Aim

,
w>

tfAatf

tences as oJi*. v* 2l<*- * wAatf


v*

[The shortening of to takes place also in such senx

wJI

and

house of) so

to (the

A+gfe and the answer

rejoin

and Interrogative Pronouns. 275

manner did you

J^

what are you

The

interrogative pronoun v>o,

arrive

and

like ?]
x

352.

of gender, number,

and

case,

only when

who? has the


it

stands alone

distinctions
;

as

if

one

should say Some one is come, or 7" have seen some one, and another
should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows
:

Masc.
Sing.

Nom.

Fern.

Part Second. Etymology

276

it

w>li^
^

to&tcA

lO

or fountain

O^b-o-N l' which of the two women

which of the women

occurrence, as aJibt

[The feminine form

ZA which female? (Dlw. Hudeil, n. 201,


j^Sl
second case, when prefixed to a fern, pronoun,
d

ivii-

In the

be masc. or

may

it

and

17)

1.

D. G.]

vs. 2).

fern.

Ov^' which of them ? meaning women,

Oiri^ or

the latter being the

m
Sing, masc, nom. ^$\ or ^t, gen.
i

Ji

or ^j\, ace.

^t

g en

acc

^t and

OiJc

g en acc
-

\j\ the final vowel

acc

if

v>rf'

s&e.

nom. 0^'> S en

fern.,

in 352, it

fern. xjt.

0*iS

wf

0^>

L1

Oi

oW>
it

masc, nom.

it

wi

vt

St

Dual masc, nom.

In

of rare

is

86,

B more common. When standing alone, or used like v>o


has all the numbers and cases, the pausal forms being

U
&A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad

, a I

Plur.

Ml

^j\

fi

w>U^ ^t

ace.

^cf,

o^o /D<3 i J

^t

w>U^

ft&rt) ? gen.

gmV?

(lit.

Hi

353

j^t tpjfc&A foo#

it

or the Parts of Speech.

fem

>V

said to be obscurely sounded or

is

slurred (v&jjJt).

Rem.

With

a.

/jf
ll*

Lo^-jt,

'J

j^A what

for

sometimes shortened into ^t,

is

^1

Se-

which of the two

for U^->l,

*o

the suffixes

&

J^u ^t

^t, as

vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA2

and

so in [the interrogative

- ot

wAa

2Aow say

efostf

for .*

and] the

^1.

5 *

Rem.

Instead of

b.

^1

with

noun

[a following

in the genitive

,i

or] a suffix, the more general


,
,*
,6,
it
,
o
,ii

as

\j\

yb

js\

*iLJt

^^t

and

Lo-*1,

,it

which example

Lo-jt

c.

which

is

dearer

to

sometimes used

you, he or I? in

From ^t

yt

are formed the relative adjective ,->t


"

what
or

'place? (see Lane,

O-i^

and

\=> (

Rem.

art.

^1,

also wr> itten %\!L or

351 and Vol.

d.

stands for tut, which of us?


2

Rem.

indefinite i+j\ is

ii.

34,

from
Ml

p.

134c), and the compound

^\^>,
e,

t^j2>, {j*>

rem.

d).

See CWijo. r. pp. 120122.

or

^l^

&>, \J\>

The Noun.

II.

353*]

C.

The Indefinite Pronouns.

[3.

Ox
353*.

The

277

The Indefinite Pronouns.

3.

and

have passed
of
with
the
sense
somebody,
p. 125)*,
something, but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative
into

1.

interrogative pronouns <>*

Gr.

indefinites (Comp.
9x

complement

(aa-o),

complement

is

and are therefore called

an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody

13

This

348).

very rarely an adjective or participle, but usually a

preposition with following genitive, as


or

Bj^y*

something which

have,

a qualificative clause, as

here, or

^y one who says.

The

2.

indefinite

88,

ii.

(Vol.

conditional clauses as
x

jo 5

>o

as &**-> jJt

nouns,

it

pronoun

masdar or

equivalent to the
4jjJua^JI

Comp. Vol.

or ^LJUpt

gives

whatever ;

and

noun,
(Vol.

it

ii.

ii.

reference to time

6), or in

ii.

(Vol.
ii.

7)

84,

rem. a and b)

s a

it

J*

136

a,

rem.

e)

and JjU

is

the end, and Vol.

36, rem. e)

36,

(ibid,

it

(see

is

hinders
rem. d)

rem./) and

an indefinite

called

xx

ju&uAJ 3ju>&

ii.

in apposition to

strengthen the affirmation


ii.

(Vol.

added to the affirmative


8 x

<L*ly^t

serves to

it

an example

U D

361 near

often inserted after the

[Prym, Diss, de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis, p. 100 and


706 seq. reject this theory, considering
i. 360 seq.,

Fleischer, Kl. Schr.

Ox

the indefinite meaning of yo and


interrogative has been derived.]

r\

UJL^ wherever, when-

^t, ^l and ,>)

has a vague intensifying force and

signification, as the

a t x

therefore called SilXJI

added to C*J;

use in

added to certain adverbial

tt

^>l,

its

if

l*^! wherever,

e.g.

appended to

it is

a clause

introduce

in that case called

ti

is

hence

if

is

with the same effect


to ^>j (Vol.

and

114, 127, rem. e);

their regimen

used to

is

them a conditional and general

, o *

Uy*

172, rem. a.

infinitive,

U (Vol.

Latin termination cunque,


ever,

"...

aJ^JI
x.2 >o

Ct

ii.

as the original,

whence the

Part Second.

278

prepositions ,>*, >s>


j x

x<

then called

5jl>oJI

manner

also

it is

ii.

(Vol.

c/M

xPO

or the Parts of Speech.

and w> without


x

*>

or Sj^lpt

affecting their regimen,

put after w>j (Vol.

(Vol.
ii.

xJ

"

O*^

a5^i

fern.

0*>

309,

b,

8,

is

In like

rem. /).

70,

and

84, rem. a)

in other cases

^ oUU>

as LS^C]
^^ x

b),

o,

CJ$** Setva tov Setvos,

may 6W

C*al,

rj

and

Sctta, so

JxxJdJxOxxx

&^U ^{ji}

and

or
xx

JI/0

N.;
^

xC

3l*yi aOI J315

*n)I

and

so."
J

./

M.

so,

x JJ

ct*rw a// talebearers

awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so

fib

ii.

rem.

'J

L>^

iU.

iJ^Jd

and

*>

^^
as

354

stand for names of persons, like


j-^U^I,
x

90, rem.).]

3.
*

Etymology

their saying

^^,

Syr.

fem.

J/ /J/

JOx

In speaking of animals, vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are

Heb. 0/3.
A-i_L\3,
i

XX J
employed, as ^/^ii\
thing,

and
*x

jj-iaJI

XX

fem.

its

tf

CsA;

rod!?

ow swcA awe? swe^ a

one.

are similarly used for substantives of the class

3ujb,

Oi

lU^t

qa

191, rem. b, 3, 4).

On

the use of these words in the

vocative, see the Syntax.

THE PARTICLES.

III.

0x

354.

There are ./Mr sorts of particles (^,

ff

pi.

'

tJjLH*, [or

xg

Sl^t,

xxg

pi.

Otj.it])

Prepositions,

viz.,

Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Inter-

jections.

The

A.

Prepositions.
W X

355.

M0

prepositions are

called

by the Arabs

rtxxOx

particles of attraction, or jt^aJt (from the sing.

attractives,

the

are also
X

The

<

SiLi^l

i.e.

named
J

J J

*ijj,

^Jt/*-,

tf* particles

J J

JjJ^-,
jfi

x Ox

or SjUJI),

the particles which govern the genitive.

/iK

5xx
jUJt

O0

j*Jt

They

of depression, and

particles of annexation or connection, because the

The Particles.

III.

356]

distinctive vowel of the genitive


called

itself, is

^^AaUt

The Prepositions.

A.

and consequently the genitive

(i),

(see 308, footnote),

and because

peculiar place in that connection which


their genitives really represent (see 358).
its

separable prepositions,

and inseparable,

279

this case has

many

prepositions with

They

are divided into

those which are written as separate words,

i.e.

those which are always united in writing with the

i.e.

following noun.

356.
its

The

vowel.

^*

(a)

inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with

They

are

in, at, near, by, with,

[^b, without, is a

ba).

Vol.

ii.

56,

rem.

compound

O by, in swearing, as

(c)

J
A:

loJb,

<uitf

God !*

by

**"

by, in swearing, as aDI^

The damma

a.

^b,

tjJb,

rem.

185,

b,

is

and

God !

Rem.

after

317, rem.

The kesra

b.

Q
3d

pers.

into kesra; as du,^yj.

See

of the suffixed pronouns of the

changed

by

The ancient and

c.

changes either both vowels, or the

^oJb

of the prep.

first

*
of

rem.

(=
b.

or^.

^)

especially in use at

some word, as

O*^

onlyj^yj

to us.
him,^S3 to you,
Except the
the 1st pers. sing., which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me.

was

[O

poetic form

passes before the pronominal

suffixes into fetha; as <J to


suffix of

sition

Comp.

^).

Ice).

Rem.
d,

of w> with the negative

the Dative), for, on account of (Heb. Aram. 7,

to (sign of

(d)

through (Heb. Aram. 3, JEth. ft:

c.]

(b)

-33th.

OW-

it is

Mekka.

(probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j***

Comp. the abbreviation

I take the 3 in <t0tj

remnants of words.

It seems to be the

D. G.]

of

and the m^j j\j

aDI ^>-jt,

(Vol.

ii.

remnant

0^5 ?) and

Vol.

ii.

62,

235) to be also

Part Second. Etymology

280

"

Rem.

c.

as,

i),

like

(Heb.

or the Parts of Speech.

Aram.

357

which js commonly

3),

reckoned a preposition, is really not so. It is a formally undeveloped noun, which occurs only as the governing word in the
genitive connection, but runs in this position through all the
relations of case (similitudo, instar).

357.

The separable

first class,

all biliteral

or triliteral, have different termina-

those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms


in the accus. sing., determined by the following genitive, and they
tions

which are

Those of the

prepositions are of two sorts.

consequently end in fetha without tenwin ().

358.

The

separable prepositions of the

(a)

JUo (Heb.

(b)

^^al

up

till,

dialectic variety is

^*

(c)

*>,

to,

first class

are

-*?).

as far as (Heb. Itf, iEth. "KflYl:).

^^.

over, above,

upon, against,

to,

on account

of,

notwith-

standing (Heb. *7B, "79, Aram. ^JJ, ^1).


(d)

sjefrom, away from,

(e)

ij? in, into,

0^>

(/)

0*> (W,

(9)

or

CM-*.

-*

among, about.

lS^ (W),

O^X

w 'ith

after, for,

0*>

(Heb.

with (penes, apud).

(lM*)>

D#,

Syr.

O** (&*),
^Ol)

*>>

Karer forms are

^,

*>,

dialectically

<*>

*-,

which

becomes in the wasl **.

v>*

(ft

*X9m

'(9?M,
j

(i)

and

Q/

^W>

^ account of (Heb. Aram.


Jp,
or "K9 : #)?
See 20, d.

iEth.

>

Ju*, or Jco,

ji, as

^-So,

g^o; see

/row a

certain time, since

347, rem. e

(compounded of i>*

Ezra
and comp.
T'jD,

v. 12).

Karer

J^

20, d), rarely

a.

The Prepositions.

A.

^y

and ^jJ, preserve before the

^)

and

of the suffixes of the

3d

317, rem.

combines with
into

See

^y.

Rem.

suffix of the 1st pers. sing.,

^t, ^JS, and ^jJ


317, rem.

The

o.

The

c.

into

^c, and

with the suffixes of the 1st pers.;


s

Rem.

^JU

, ,

6>o

assimilated to the

etc.

359.

UJt L5^.

*b

c\+Xz for

(see 14, b).

[Comp.

as

before (of place)

Caj
*!**.,

behind, after

^a

and C

orw
;

against,

^> below,
is

among

(J*3)

dimin.

(fiTTl

!),

opposite

class

are

^UI

jju q/fcr

C^ J
>

(*7SJ2l),

dimin.

*UJ> or dUJ,

J>- round, about;

to;

under, beneath, on this side of dimin. O-ij*

the modern and vulgar form, rarely jus) with,

in possession of (apud, penes, Fr. chez

for ;

JUJt y>

,o,

,j-o between,

which

sbiO

J-, for

p. 24, note.]

b*

under, beneath

(also jUft,

of,

JU

or

JUX*,

Examples of prepositions of the second


-

w.

is

followed by the article, the prepositions

and Jl
^s. into Jft

instead

the ^j

If

etc.].

are occasionally abbreviated in poetry, Jt ,j*o being contracted


b

jUc

.<U, i*5 ^, [li,

^ ^,

or

,>o^

into J^*,

*UJJ,

L,

doubled in connection

and the two are usually written as one word

U-, for

When

c.

^jjJ, is

^^,

^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and

0+*> U* v>**,

^5 B

with

),

a.

^) of ^fc,

j* in pronunciation,

b,

^_ (orig. ^

^Js., ^jjj

J^JJ,

pers.

passes after the diphthong into kesra, according to 185, rem.

and

suffixes their

^ jj (compare ^tf

The damma

tj-j jJ.

J,

usually becomes

or a^.

^Jt, ^jic,

aJJ, <uXft,

S*

In the wasl

*x*.

pronunciation ^1, ^s., and

original

281

OJ

J J

J-U, *Lu, JU, and

Rem.

as

forms are

J*

The Particles.

III.

359]

[*]*?)$?)
*

JJy afow?, dimin. JJj^3

J~3

[J**'

63/07*0 (of

^]> u*^

time,

7M),
"It;
36

Part Second.

282

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

dimin. jl* ;>tjJ> before (of place,


D*7p)

These are

ix^j in the middle, among.

dj3 behind,

06

etc.

The Adverbs.

B.

360.

beyond;

such as ,j-o interval, J>- circumference,

360

as before said, the construct

all,

0*

accusatives of nouns

after,

The

There are three sorts of adverbs.

first class consists

particles of various origin, partly inseparable, partly separable

second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u

of

the

the third class of nouns

in the accusative.

361.

The

inseparable adverbial particles are

t,

^lyAlw^t

interrogative,

(num? utrum? an? Heb.

dialectically, for

for

^JJt

6tO >o

(a)

tjt,

example

is this

|"l)

in

who

he

U*

JO -

the particle

^J/*-,

[comp.

21, d].

nonne

for

Ul

of questioning

The form

(see 362, h),

[In alternative questions

occurs

^JJI

it is

IJJb,

followed

byj*\ or^t.]

[Rem.

is

followed by another

elif

inserted between the

two hemzas, as

some do not do

If the following lif is

it is

When

this.

converted into ^ with hemza, as

with hemza, an

is

written C-Jtt, but

C-Jttt, also

pronounced with kesra,

tj^t, *ii5t.]

prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real


J\*e
Oxx
jj/
It is
futurity, as aDt ^JUlSL*, God will suffice t/iee against them.
(&)

cr>

an abbreviation of

sJ$*, in the

Out >o

[and

is

(c)

^-JUt,

called i>~ACJl sJ>^. the particle

#0

la that corresponds

GW, /

&*|D,

to,

\2*Q&, end),

of amplification].

J, affirmative, certainly, surely.

>U*'n) A&tj 6y

end (Heb. Aram.

JO *

This

may

be

or is the complement

wi7 certainly do

(it)

(a)

of,

w>t^^O)

an

oath, as

.j. jJU aOt^ by God,

The

III.

362]

The Adverbs.

B.

Particles.

xW x J

he has certainly gone out ; (/3)^~JJ a^Uj^JI


the

way for

(y)

'/'

me

^JjJj

<

X X

(if)
ij/ *xx

jjO/.'vO/

tO

the la that smooths

p
ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n)

honour,

aOU
Jj3
x
x

will certainly show you

J X

vl*^

complement of lau
x

jt>*^)\

the oath, as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l jc^\


^^x

by God, if indeed you show

honour ;

283

**$ the

and

lau-la

la that corresponds to, or

^/

not), as

^y^

J^

<#'

the

2*s

ty

C^-;j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God


towards you and His mercy, verily ye would have followed Satan;

J*) the
[(ju>Qf)
J~>j2\
x
X
x
X

(8)

inchoative or inceptive
as <uM

0-^^*;j^-^

their breasts than

Lord
Jx

la,

affirmative

prefixed to a
***j jwl

God;

^J*$

Uftll v>J

jx

xO-o

distinguishing

i3

which

la,

jxAx

from the negative &\], as

verily over every soul there is

we were

but verily

(c) js?A\

careless

prefixed to the

is

,jt), [in
xx

iail. lyJx. 1J

^^Aj

order to
J

J^

of their

^j\

Xxx6xx0xj0x
U^

a guardian; ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c


[Comp. Vol.

studies.

The most common separable

362.

verily thy

jo^tf

xxOxx

it

distinguish

0\

the resurrection

more feared in

^j

predicate of ^1, standing for ^jl (aLa3I ,j- AiAa^Jt


.

the

or a verb in the imperfect,

verily ye are

day of

J<)

5 x

aXoUM ^o*>Ut] &

aSjUJI [or

Jju$f
XX

or]

^*v^ j^**^

<

will judge between them on the

xD9

noun

la,

ii.

<jlj

36.]

adverbial particles are the

following.
o

Ot/

JDt

jjj

i.

yes,

ft

to

thee,

J^i

yes,

up, J^.1 yes, (he did not)

o x

^s, (/ will).

J**.t
xx

xx
90x
Joj jA3

has come

jc5 2/^'<i

Zeid did not stand


away,

confirming a previous statement, as

certainly;

xp

J-^-t

(a)

But

(he has)

X X

ft

Ao?4 wi'ft

...

in reply to

w-Jbju <*i>w

U D

an interrogation,

it is

go

better

ft

to use

(b)
xx

jl
ft

and

W~j

Cx

1h*

L$Lj

ft

and

in the sense of lo

lit

see

behold

3J

is

used after

Uu

OOxxOx

x
,

while,
ft

and

is

followed by a verb stating a fact, as juj U,o

x/

while

Zeid was

standing, behold, he

saw 'Amr;

Part Second.

284

Ojb

U-W

3 I j~~*Jt

or the Parts of Speech.

prosperity has come round,


/ ja>o

i x

t3t,

that

13],

lo,

jo*

by the grammarians 3l.U*Jt

called

to say 'ida

is

13 1,

indicating something unexpected,

followed only by a nominal proposition, and refers to the same time


x*J

as the preceding statement


lo,

or 4*5U*a)I
is

362

yor while {there has been) adversity,


x

j2 ^

//J//

J te

^iU

Etymology

Zeid was at

B wM#

the door

as

U*U

3x

oUb

juj

[(c)

JI3

(<#)

oM>

or i)t3]

It

A rare dialectic form

is

out,

and

Zeid came upon

us.

See

367,

b.

&$.

nonne?

*^l

Compounded

of

very often followed by

[It is

N/H)-

went

\j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf

t3j

then, in that case, if it be so.

(e)

lo,

x x

tfcft.]

W> wg ^

or

x x

*.lb j>i juj

w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place,

w<?

W ^^^ I

361, a) and

oi

or

ojj

*9

w<?

wow

....

H),

(ol$) Oi

(Heb.

surely.]

[(/)

aofM

S)f

syn. of

&.]
^

interrogative,

j*\,

(#/)

an?

....

j>\

Dtf

(Heb.

utrum .... an?


Ul ^o^w^ ?

Compounded

XX

XX

(h)
x

U^,^,

U*,^a,

are^et,

^Ut

[(i)

[(k)

XX

XX

or

^tftt

oi nt> svn

In later times

it is

corroborative,

oi

Kl. Schr.

i.

of

and

XX
and l^- or ^**~.

361,

(w)

JH

Hiin

[oi

^ &*%, wow

surely.]

f ^i frequent in the

Koran and

in old poems.

only used in combination with the negative

noi indeed (comp. Vol.

ii.

U as

158 and Fleischer,

448)/]
x

writy, called

Oi
c, ),

Dialectic varieties

not.
5

in that case, then at least.]

[(f)

XX

#&

3t

j x

5 x

jo*>

lightened 'in (L3l o-* <UALJ

o>

usually without government.]

oj

certainly, surely, truly; literally /o/ *e/ #w, 0<#0 (Heb.

Syr.

_.-]).

It is joined to the accus. of a following

noun

or

The

III.

362]

pronominal

but in the 1st pers.

suffix,

(Heb. 0311), [and in the 1st pers.

(,jUJI **- [or a-oaJI j-x-o]

j~i

dttl

God

is

inceptive or inchoative la

jm a&I f} } whence
18

pushed away (from

in the

compound

(n)

\j\

^>\

sing.

flfo

pronoun of

its

used as well as

The

^j\

suffix a

36#,

the fact).

,jl

introduces

with the predicate; as

This the grammarians regard as an

great.

it is

is

285

Ul as well as U>l].

frequently followed by

is

verily

^jt,

pi.

The Adverbs.

and anticipates a whole subsequent clause

in this case often represents

the subject, and

B.

Particles.

the example given standing for

c, 8),

sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the

proper place).

The form J>A

la that

said to occur

is

for <J^-

<j>yJ

U3], restrictive, only (dumtaxat), [verily].

Compounded

of

and U.
it

^y\ whence

(o)

[where

?]

With the

how ? [when ?

whencesoever, wherever, however, whenever

it

is

signification of

a conjunction.]

(p)
(q)

i^t, explicative, that

^t

This formula

aDI

The

when

if)

J^>

72, 7ltf

to occur.

said

is

aOt

^1,

^t

<M

From

yes,

by

^1, and
<OtM^

^1

o^j! [ojjJ, I^jI].

Dialectically also

^bl.

It

is

a conjunction

whenever.]

Ch' where?

(Heb. |$t in

sometimes shortened into

variety ^yb

O^' when?

it signifies

(s)

is

dialectic

comes the vulgar


[(r)

frequently used by commentators.

yea; always followed by an oath, as aOIj

yes,

God !
I.

is,

{$&,
^<^y>

^\

o-* whence?

o-l

^31 whither?

1*jj\

wherever

JX, it**).

way

Phcen. 73).

rather,

[When

not
it is

so,

on

the

contrary,

but (Heb.

followed by a single word

it is

conjunction.]
(u)

j^jXj yes,

used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative

A.

Part Second.Etymology

286

or the Parts of Speech.


.

J '

J**

362

question, or in affirming a negative proposition; as \^i\3 jj.j4 w%-JI

^k

am I

Zeid did

not your

not stand up,

^Aj

They

Yes, {Thou art)

said,

Joj

^sb^i

yes, (he did).

while, whilst (connected with the prep,

U~^]

Ljo [and

(v)

Lord?

o**

between, among).

(w)

(x)

JJi [or a^f], in pause

sometimes j-j.,

j-j*.,

D>
T

TfGX? s' Syr. J&L).


^
T T

'

y^s.

Jaii 0#/y, solely, merely

(y)

there (Heb.

$,

(lit.

awe? enough).

jS, with the Perfect, now, already, really (jam). It expresses


(z)
that something uncertain has really taken place, that something

expected has been realised, that something has happened in agreement


as
with, or in opposition to, certain symptoms or circumstances
;

da. jJ&

really

now

t%

OU

come;

lie

5**^ c*u,

hoping that he would come,

jJte ta.,^.^=> 1JL,

o^>

he

mark the

It also serves to

dead.

is

/ was

was

and

hale

and

he is

well,

and

position of a past act or

event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event,


and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the
j o ,

o *

means sometimes, perhaps, as Jjusu

j>i

it

Imperfect

j *a*

^>^M\

(habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth, in which case it

used J-jiSXU

to

(aa)

two acceptations*].

its

jsi

as iai <xZAj U, or iai

djt

j^,

jot*

&

j ,oi,

o x

tive sentence iai <&\j

Ja

te

iai, iai, iai, iai, iai

and a negative,

ever ; always with the Perfect or Jussive


,

&

the

said to be

express rarity or paucity; [but also frequency, thus

according with l+jj in

is

<j!

and

[In poetry jj^l jj>

Noldeke, Delectus, 32,

1.

I have

never seen him

did you ever

see

[or in

him?]f.

an interroga-

Rarer forms are

in pause iai.

may be used
2

98,

1.

4.

for

R.

jj^l

c<u ji videbam; see

S.l

t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences, and


with the Future, see Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 434 seq.]

its

vulgar use

The Particles.

III.

362]

\S> thus

[(bb)

340, rem. d) and

iuj^>

likewise

not at

repelling or averting

despised

as

pjpt

*^ t^^' ^ij

mV

used

*$,

(a) as

*Jj*~

the particle

of

Lord hath humbled

or

negative of the future and indefinite present,

as representative of the other negatives after

a prohibitive particle
(like

343, rem. d).]

me ; by no means.

(dd)

and

by no means,

all,

JO

OlJ *>

*$&

(cc)

287

The Adverbs.

B.

X7T

the Aram.

(ne),

]])
'

(and), not
It thus

the significations of the Heb.

oA OA ften with 3 prefixed, to,

(if)

joined to the Jussive.

X7

o^

yet.

(/?)

as

combines

and ^X.
~

is

placed only

before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative, but in the


f

jS

io

^yA U#

1st pers.

<^uf

are used as well as ^^^i, U^J.

followed by a single word,

it is

[When

,>) is

a conjunction.]

{ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ], negative of the Perfect, but always


joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect, not.

O not

(gg)

that

joined to the Jussive.

a contraction for

J>J,
),

yet,

<jt

*^

(i.e.

o'

0&

it

w^ mi

be

not, joined to the Subjunctive.

[(H)

*$ and

(kk)

U, negative of the

u) why not t syn. of

% and & (Vol.

ii.

definite or absolute present

169).]

and of the

perfect, not.

(II)

^JU when?

Heb. VlD.

[It is also

used as a conjunction,

367, q.]

(mm) j^o

yes (abbreviated for^ju,

preceding statement or question


OJ/

yes, (he has)

^> ^

j^A

thus

agreeable), affirming

as joj jb\\ has

Zeid

stood

any

up? ^xj

i - '

J/

he has not stood up,

forms are^xi, and more rarely ^*3,


[(nn)

it is

j>\*,

344, rem. b).]

j^u
and

yes, (he

has

not).

Other

Part Second.

288

interrogative, ww-m

Ja,

(00)

*$a

(pp)

(*n)I)

wow^ ?

I)La, and iUlIi (see

La

(rr)

or the Parts of Speech.

The form Jt

utrum ?

of

Compounded

Ja

also occurs.

and ^.

342344).

La and

(also

La), demonstrative, there (compare Heb.

whence are derived L^a, UaIa or LyA,

363.

The same substantives

prepositions

J La,

and ^)UyA.

of which the accusatives serve as

359), can in general be used as adverbs, in which case

"

they take the termination u, and are indeclinable.

mostly

in

negative

ju^], jju

phrases;

CsaJ ,>*, beneath; Js>

cM

u0j

w^o. y>

c^^

(also

[w~>

3/0M ; j->, in j*

enough, only ; also

The

accusative

few of the most

0-*> above;

m^

or j**- ^^J, nothing

while ago

wz7/

after

ratf

do

an adjective

common examples

\*-f**r-

right;

\jt^ much,

[On the various forms

Mo'all

p. 41.

R.

S.]

Jtfjtfl

*>),

only this ;

the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic.

is

decidedly]

whither,

**>a-*].

of it are the following


;

jta. ^ri/,

together, of

^r^ wwcA,

[Uut

^-jX3

two or more

to

?&&; *^J ^ night,

of this phrase see

Ij^l,

^W^ wow, a

&Jt

<*Jj*il

^)

extremely, placed

without; *il.b inside, within; \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^


to /fo

else,

ilJt decidedly, usually with a negative

it,

J-i,

joined to the

u*^

negative, as

referring to future time, ever, with a negative, never


little

^i

[yet,

c-sa*J,

' *

364.

kw

o *

whence,

j*j

E.g.

afterwards;

Jy

and u^j^)

Imperf Indie, but always preceded by a

/ f0t# w^^r

,j*&,

,>* above*; J>i,

%** where,

v>*> before;
;

363

La, demonstrative, for^; whence are derived LaIa or LyA,

(57?)

Jliin)
"

Etymology

W-jU-

outside,

^ ^A
\j1^j

L*^>

by day;

en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais

U^j one

tomorrow;

To the same

UU^o

o/rata's

p-<7:

j>yA\ today (JEth.

(Aram.

class belong the following

289

The Adverbs.

B.

Particles.

day, once; ^*j)t wow, at present

\js>

yom),

The

III.

364]

JUft)

adverbs

etc.

together;

xOx

juj except, but.]

[(a)

O**- w^ft

(b)

a the time of).

(lit.,

x5 J

but more usually] sometimes ; perhaps;

lo-ij [often,

(c)

which

quantity of that
x

xO

361, b)

U-J-*

'n),

^)

above

U-j~>,

Ut

and U-w

^).

mos certainly

lit.,

^r^

**-j,

(i)

JxOx

afott*?,

sense = 1$

in

tent to

;&ry a/o^.

HT? DID?
,

*j).]t

i.

suffixes,

as

*7H*

but in
(

xxxxx
*L~
^Lc

^^ri/ morning
of

uu

see

and evening ;

my

next-

xxxxxx
OUw oU m

a conjecture of Fleischer's,

381, footnote.]

compounded
'

It is

Cw

{j*j*?.

i.

etymologically =

may

[On the derivation

w.

and

it,

6 x

^a jufc.^

neighbour ;

Kl. Schr.

synonym ju

be mentioned the adverbial expressions


x Ox
xOx
X
x J
tent or house to house in
c~o (J^U. yb fo u

[Here too

Kl. Schr.

wo avoiding of

used only in connection with pronominal


J x

A^

s*

c].

there is not the equal or like of

lit.,

therefore also construed with ,j- like its

84, rem.

and, with the omission of the negative,

5JlaL

[(A)

oJoor

sSJs> howl*

(g)

lit.,

ii.

m f& end.

xa

especially, particularly ;
XX
X

J^j

[comp. Vol.

whilst, during.

Rarer forms are U*~>

lit.,

(/)
all,

= Heb. y\)

J>w, prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see

(e)

(w>j

the

lit.,

x x x

woj, U^j,

(d)

(also jbjx.

of *$

449

13

*^

and

j**. 13 ^), verily, truly,

nay and the verb jbj**.

seq.)

it is

seems to be

decided (comp. Fleischer,

D. G.]
37

Part Second.

290

The

sundry parties.

Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

when two nouns

rale is that

made

are

365

one, they
" " * "

x x x

indeclinable, ending in fetha, as & ...tk

and become

lose their tenwin

In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and

j&:

x Ox

x x

D. G.]

bad, vcuj t^u. straitness.

Rem.

mark

In

a.

u~*\,
X

yesterday,

Heb.

the kesra

fc^ftX,

is

not the

...

of the genitive, but merely a light vowel,

added to render the


x o Ox

oi **>

pronunciation more easy.

"We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t.


x ot

Some

of the

Arabs used

o j

^-^t J^, since yesterday.

Ox

Rem.
seem to

at

o j

^^moI j~o instead of

Ci

xx

/ and
C*J, utinam, would that
^J* or J^x), perhaps,
be, not nouns in the accusative, but verbs.
They are
construed with the accusative, and take pronominal suffixes; as

b.

X Ox

j^J would

that

3 XX

0--

(rarely ^^IJ),

X 3 XX

^JUU), etc.
(rarely .yJUJ),
'

genitive.

O^

The word has

0^ OV> J*> and

C.

365.

x Ox

Ml

^J,

etc.

.3x3x3^3

several rarer forms, viz. ^fc,

The

The

JO

^ (uUa*

co-ordinative,
x

sbiO

Ojja-

Qju^ conditional

[or

ac-

call,
J

x xOx

oLblydl]

particles, etc.) are,

and adverbs, either separable or

inseparable.

which connects words and clauses as a simple

*-*/*-),

and

xx

^j\, ^jjt)

Conjunctions.

inseparable conjunctions are

(6)

^&,

O-*;-

connective particles, or J^-uJt

366.

JjO governs the

Dialectically, however,

cording to their different significations, Quoad

(a)

perhaps

The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians

like the prepositions

xx

^i

3 XX

(iEth. fl):
JO

w,

Heb. Aram.

Q> (oiLc Q>., or more exactly

),

!)).

JO x

v~?p ^b^,

particle of

gradation), which sometimes unites single words,


indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are

classification

or

The

III.

367]

Particles.

The Conjunctions.

C.

291

closely behind one another;

but more usually connects two clauses,

showing either that the latter

is

in time, or that

it is

that of cause and

and

connected with
It

effect.

immediately subsequent to the former

may

by some internal

it

be rendered and

consequently, for, although in this last sense

link,

and

so,

more usually

is

(jU

such as

thereupon,

employed. In conditional sentences, *J is used to separate the apodosis


from the protasis, like the German so; and it also invariably introduces
the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *.

The conjunctions 3 and

[Rem.

interrogative particle

This

J.

may be

thus ^jl means nonne

6$.

(c)

^5

may be

preceded by the

nonne igitur ?]

? *$J\

j *

0>o

(a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the

li

of command, which

usually prefixed to the 3d pers. sing, of the Jussive, to give

imperative sense, as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J

preceded by ^ or
3

o,

therefore let
3 *

be

may

it

thy heart be at ease.

an

it

When

^J l^^aJ^Ji

them hearken unto me, and

believe in me.

is

%36s

^j \y^c^^,
Or

let

is

usually dropped, as

the kesr

(/?)

u>

10

a *

^LoUt ^JJI

the

li

which governs the verb in the C

Subjunctive of the Imperfect, signifying that, so that, in order that, as


dDt

^U j*kJ

repent, that

identical with the preposition

God may

forgive

c),

356,

used

purpose for which, or the reason why, a thing

Arab grammarians take

it

This latter

thee.

is

J^f^ to indicate the

is

done

and hence the

to stand in all cases for the fuller

&*)

or

The most common

367.
(a)

}]

when,

1.

10,

separable conjunctions are

since, of past time,

or a verbal proposition.

[Compound

[Sometimes in old poetry,

and very often in

wi after

O when.

e.g.

and prefixed

U $t

either to a nominal

whenever.]

Hamdsa

74,

1.

9,

Tabarl

i.

852,

later prose, the apodosis is also introduced

D. G.]

by

Part Second. Etymology

292

(b)

\>[

dition, in

or the Parts of Speech.

367

when, usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition.

Both of these conjunctions, as well as


the obsolete noun

in Ju l**, at that time,

Aram.

362, d), are connected with

which occurs,

for example,

Compare Heb.

on that day.

j*&

>*

-33th.

JHK,

lit (

time, the genitive of

$t,

Bibl.

Ttf

oq^H,.. when?

H,: now,

and *TX

[Compound

Utjt whenever.]

j*\ or, as syn. of jt in alternative questions.]

[(c)

Ul, followed by

(df)

j^Jt

^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^

worked on
it

is

Like

CU5U3

belonged to poor

Used twice

also occurs.

O^

&

as

Further:

Ul

men who

or oftener,

dialectic

>*$ that, in

were, as if;

that not (ut non, ne, quod

*$\

a*

(see 14, b)

*$

l^LJ

8c.

and

in order that not (ideo

'iU)

">2

in

Heb. and on in
3*ui*30/O

ykjh

direct quotations {f

g.

O i

non), comp. of ,jt

and

ix.lv

Compounds

<>s.

order that, because; see

ne).

lo-;t

it

e.g.

that, so that, in order that (ut), that (quod).

o'

variety

as for the ship,

The form

the sea.

corresponds to the Greek


(e)

as for, as regards ;

o,

also serves to introduce

Gr., ,jt

f.

&\

the explicative 'an),

JO

OS

3*

h&3

as^C^ O'

shall be proclaimed to them, That is Paradise ; even an


o
o 3
a*
o * * z
Imperative, as UJ^i. <jt
0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning
it

^t

Take

her.

conditional
q\ [and Ut,

(f)
*

0^3
O^j

although

(etsi),

361,

o%

if>

an(i

verily

if,

if indeed;

Aram.

compounded of ol an d

stands for a whole clause

(fi)

if,

dialectically

,...,

^jtj, to distinguish
to

*0>O

hence called duLoj)\

DN- ^',

o>.)

tO*

sometimes written jjtj or


3

from oi3 an ^

Heb.

it

c),

particle] (hj>

jtf

,jt
9

.1

compounded with

JEth. >*o*J

'ema;

<

*$> ( a )

if not, in which case

U*t u^. (exceptive

it

particle), unless,

The Particles.

III.

367]

saving, except, but*, with a preceding negative, only.

Aram. tfW, $1

^th. ?\A= (alia) but.&\,

or

O'

(9)

and

of ^jt

compounded
^'^r

^^ (quod).

It is followed

in the accus., but in the 1st pers.

The

See

See

^UJt

*t

at

Heb. IX, Syr.

(i)

^j, c*j (CJ,

an

366,

Ut

suffix
at

Ut are used as well as


^j^\,

and anticipates a whole

j-tr^, the pronoun of the story


it
s>t ,
O^* as ** were, as if;
t

o^

e.

j\ or (vel, sive).

e. Si

Compounds

362, m.

(A)

v^jj

y ...

^t,

0/0 J

subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a, or

because.

M],

rarely Ujt [or

by a noun or pronominal

suffix 6 in this case often represents

or fact).

K?~DK,

U3t.

Heb.

.... Utj .... Ut, or ....

293

The Conjunctions.

C.

6),

j<,

.{
o|.

^m, thereupon, next ; a t^?^.

c-s^i),

connecting words and clauses, but implying succession


[In genealogical statements

interval.

is

often used (like the

to indicate a transition from the general to the


* *0*> SJ
*0 2t/0 i*0* J
&

German und zwar)

3l

more

special, e.g.

Dubyan and of

(J^lj^t^J

^yW^

the subdivision

**i****>

Fazara.]

Hudeifa of

the tribe

Connected with

it

is

of

the

adverb J^j (362, w).

^5^

(k)

till,

position, 358,

b.

until, until that, so that;

[On

its

I#

* *o

UjUfc when (syn. of UJ).]

(m)

^*

0*

(0*^

52,

rem. c]

^j/*'}

a particle assigning

in order that, with the Subjunctive.


*

ii.

'

[(/)

identical with the pre-

sense of even, see Vol.

Compounds

the motive or reason) j)


:

^j)

in order that,

%+*

0*S.

in order that not.

,0,

=
[o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but
D. .]

Part Second. Etymology

294

9*

1J (also

(n)

with the Perfect.

(o)

also syn. with

is

[UJ

[as, since

(quoniam),]

unless, especially after the

y\

D. G.]

hypothetical particle, if (Heb. !p).

ji,

368

S>*

UJ) after, wlien (postquam),

verbs that signify to beseech.

<

or the Parts of Speech.

Compounds:

^,jj>

0' *

\*3*> if not, [3J3 even though].

(p)

ma

(ic^jjJt U,

denoting duration), as long as, with the

Perfect.

^y* and

[(q)

The

D.

368.

Some

tones.
ft

The

^j\,

of those most

C without the

Ut

dli

iEth.

>

(*jt),

ajl

oofrae

to

wp)

(tjl,

in use are

*Z

ojt,

<oj, l^j,

in

lyjt

01

b,
I

or

(6

.j|),

0I3I

Zil

cowe om

u*
w como/

it

'

ZZ

^1, *}U,

with

up

^^U, and

!i^***

^^U

come Aere

come Aere

to us,

oome Aere, 6nw# Aere

J OJ

haste, or j>jH\ keep to, or


/

c^t call)

(Heb.

[Heb.

ww
,~U
or

,-*.

*^***-

also with w> (in the


-

make

-iO,

come

or

jl, jt, jl

followed by jic, as OkoJt

^1

at, o\, &\,

hip

woe/ (Aram.

(3

0*0

oi

it!];

juJl vJUl),

or

o *&,*

.Ujt (Ujl)

(otjl),

al, at, at,

composition, Jv* or Jv*,

TiarX ^Uy^.

sense of pj-*\

from

before nouns in the nomin.

(see 344)

j&

OA/ oA/ oias/

rr?n];
t-

prayer

C^Ly**. or

by the Arabs Ot^ot, sounds or

before nouns in the nomin. or accus.

lol seel there


o iv>

UtJ,

tj,

Aram.
HX/H,
t;it'

Ow

(D.P

Interjections.

commonly
!

1^1, or

article;

<o

(dU);

I0 /

with the article


oi

w^ew, wAewever.]

bl (La),

fi

//)

interjections are called

,*

,1

362,

j^^i* (

D/H)

*+

'

w*db (c^Jb)
as

UJt

^Xa

jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses ; [olylfc far


^, Ua, and U* W* make haste; o\j, Ut^, Utj, 0/

The

III.

368]

The

D.

Particles.

295

Interjections.

well done! bravo!


excellent! bravo! *->,
f-J, *->, *-j, *~} 4-J, etc.,
"

capital!

f-\, f-\

alone

aj t

mentioned
*^U

aj!

^js-

mules,

go on

~Jb,

^J

sheep or goats, ^-a


-*jb,

l->jk

^a,

animals

a*,
!

in

s\*>

too

up

give

be

may

driving horses,

making camels B

in
',

' "

in calling camels to water,

stop

<*-,

Here

e.g.

ugh! faugh! fie!

words imitative of

(/?)

up!

say on

in calling a dog,

*fij

Sit,

juA or juA, v>*->

- "

kneel, ?u>t or

give

proceed !

to domestic

camels,

3*
131,

dl

uti

\^>\be silent

ml

uil

wit, wit, wit, wit, wit,

calls

(a)

ot,

silence

let

il

ol

mi

^Us
cries

O^*.

in driving

in driving a dog away,

and sounds

e.g. g

(the

bleat of an antelope), JjU (the croak of a raven), w~Ji (the sound

made by
or

the lips of a camel in drinking),

*a *A

(the

(vomiting), Jjlb (a blow),

sound of a

Rem.
o/*

falling stone),

a.

is

GW/

brother!

my

^b

has a feminine

ct

(the stroke of a sword), JU

often written defectively


Wl

(laughter), cl

^Jo

JU (the splash of a

i\

sin
lyjt

s^

Jo

frog), etc.

as 401

J>*/4

Apostle

x GA>x

son o/ ?ny uncle!

^^s> ^>jb

iZi

lyL>t,

but the masc. form

is

often used even with

feminine nouns.

Rem.

The noun that

b.

follows

1j

[and

oh /] not unfrequently

takes, instead of the usual terminations, the ending


[called 4jjuJI

w^Jt]

dUxJ-o^t afos for


ends in

elif

added, as

t>

as

the

tjuj

dU^o

t^,

or

otjuj

is

tlie

grief!

0A Zeidf j^S

tj,

Believers I

changed into

xxJx

0A Moses! though Uwj-o

Instead of 1

0A my

1^,

Commander of

maksura (^.1), the

xJx

also be used.

^j**

we sometimes

1_, in pause dt_

t^

find

1,

noun

If the

and a simple
J

or dU*j*o

tj

' '

^_,

tj

as

^u1

may
1^,

or

J)

Part Second.

296

Rem.
woe

From

g.

to thee
!)

^j

which

(to

may be appended,

suffixes

368]

as ^Ljj

say, for example, jujJ 9-Z3, JujJ Is*j>

Juj ?-!>

6 s

*>

^j,

iU*-}> Aa^jj, aJ J*)j, a)

expression

a**})

or a**})

^j

written thus in one word.


5/

is

Jjj

The

Jj^JI, ^jkj, >&&3, etc.

aJ

contracted into a^JLj^, usually

Ox

Rarer

nouns are

interjectional

and

uO>
B

or the Parts of Speech.

are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^,

whence we can
<

Etymology

jj.

Rem.

d.

[Many

verbal force

and are

called therefore

either originally Imperatives, as

JUi^t

OU

use, a certain

by origin or

interjections have,

^l^wt, that

give here

is,

they are

45, rem. d), or

equivalent to Imperatives (comp. Vol. ii. 35, b, 8, rem. b), and, in


some cases, admitting its construction and inflection. Accordingly]

some
ni

of the

Arabs decline JJXfc

an Imperative;

like

aJ *

J *

it

J '

j-JUb,

dual UJUb, plur. masc. t^JLA,

Gothic

hiri, du. hirjats, pi. hirjith).

(compare the

^>o^U

fern.

^yb

e.g. sing. fern.

takes the suffix of the

2nd

pers.,

3x
l^jjfc.

dUk, or JLa, and

U may be joined with the pronominal

person, in which case

l^U
m.

it is

equivalent to the Imperative of

f.

as

)$\*',

follows
as

<uU&

2x

Other varieties are


f.

L^^'

etc -^ an(*

second

w*i

tjl^St

^ L^^i

(like *-**)>

etc

^jU,

take,

^),

dual

read

my

*
e*c

as

and
'l~ *

$U

f.

^W*i

m. *U,

sing.

' i

Jtt

substituted for the


<-

Gb,

plur.,

suffixes of the

**

^U,

and

Or a hemza may be

take her 1

the word declined


pi.

said to form a dual

is

***

U5U,
book.
x

u ke

^tj),

PAEADIGMS
OF THE

VEBB S

w.

38

298

FIRST
TABLE

I.

ACTIVE.

Perfect.
Indie.

Sing. 3. m.
f.

/JO/

0/

/JO/

JlS

cJ&

JO*

2.

J^a5

ci3

if*
jjoi

1. c.

m.

3.

f.

2.

c.

CJJ>

f.

m.

2.

&3
C&3

c4^
^JU3
S JO//

f.

i. c.

m.
f.

JO/

JO/

$3

Plur. 3. m. IjJUS

Sing.

/j/

m. cJjtf
f.

Dual.

Sub}.

JJO/
JJ

o^

ul3

J31S
IJblS

OR SIMPLE FORM

,joi

299

OF THE STRONG VERB.


TABLE

PASSIVE.

II.

Perfect.

Imperfect.
Indie.
x

Smg.

m.

3.

i x x

xxOj

Ox

xxOj

0x0 J

JxOj

.>

J/4J

m. cJj;*

XX

II.
J

x xo j

5 x xO J

xx

8J

v^X:5

Oxl

0^

J^a5

9
f.

I.

Energ.

s , a )

wJUS
'

2.

JlS
o

f.

Jussive.

Subj.

L5'
XX o|

OxOp

xOJ

XxOj

xxOj

xxOx

x xftx

XxOj

x x

uJ

x x 0

xxoi

1. c.
X
x

Dual.

3.

Ml

xxOj

xxOJ

wl

xxOJ

0J

Ml

xx

J x

m. 'fcs
f.

UJU5
X

JO

2. c.

xOJ

UUUS

!yU>

JxOJ

Plur.

3.

m. t^JUS
x
f.

JxOj

w y ^ vy

^ * v*

OxOx

OxOJ

OxOx

xOxOx

ul

UUI

J^iu

Jj&>

Norn. Pat. Sing. m.

Other Forms of the

Perf., Impf.,

Per/.

^
x

(2.

m.

J x

6w

C^^i)
x

(2.

m.

CUfe^)

Ox

J>&*

and Imper.
Imperf.

m. u~^-

^>Uii

J^3

3.

xOxOj

0&3
xO

Sing.

Hi

jj^JjS?
x

1. c.

Ox Ox

JxOj

m. ^c^US
f.

t/j

o?
OJ

2.

f.

^J^-S-o

Act.,

and the N. Verbi.

300

TABLE
ir.

Active Perf.

Jl3

in.

IV.

III.

DERIVED FORMS
VI.

301

OF THE STRONG VERB.


VII.

IX.

302

TABLE

FORM OF THE

FIRST

V.a.

Active.
Imperfect.

Perfect.
Indie.

Sing.

ft

2.

jx

j *

St

3 x

a J*

Si

J-

s>

j*

Si

Si

ft

ft

s s

o*

o j

s>

m. Co***
* *
f.

Cojuo

1. C.

COJc

Ml

J'

Hi

J/

3.

m.

\j**

2. c.

Wo***

s>

j*

Plur. 3. m.

Ijjlo
,

f.

2.

* *

>

O^^o^

j*

s i/

mi

2 J*

5 JX

Ml

i j,

S>

A J/

Ml

<

'***!

Uju>

Ml->

& if

x -

f.

S w j/

w jx

Dual.

s>

Ojk

f.

Energ. n.

I.

Energ.

o j o*

*M

m.

3.

Jussive.

Siihj.

ft

Ml

->X

Ml

J X

OS****
x

Os

, S 1

ft

ftx

mi

Ox

xft J

o>**-
,

i j,

J ft-

ft

m.^o*x*
x

J ftx

mi

xft J

ftx

o>**+>
ft

1. c.

J ftx

Si

iV.

^.

iV.

F<?r^.

m.

En.

.x

Sing.

m.

2.

iJL*t

ftJ

^j^t

JJ

En. n.

I.

d x J

J OJ

jU
0*3

f.

ft

Imperative.
Simple.

Sing.

j s

Si

lb***

OJ

ft

x J

ftj

O****'
j * j

ft

fcU
Dual.

2. c.

[tjj^t]

o^^'
3

j j a j

Plur. 2.

m. [Ijjj^t]
x

i.

ft

J ftj

O****'

j j

ft

o^J^'
W

ft

oj

0>***'

O^^*

303

VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. GEMINATJE.


Passive.
Perfect.

Imperfect.

Indie
Sing.

x o

x j

Hi

*J

xl

m. O^juo
'

Hi

/J

f.

Ojju>

l^*^

1. C.

O>juo

Jcot

O^

c^

2 /J
3.

m.

5 /J

tfju>

2. c.

l*OJ^

2 ^j

i ^

Plur. 3. m.

- j

Hi

S/J

Hi

S/J

U*3
2. J

i,J

2 xj

2 xj

\jj*o
x

OJ

Hi

^ 0J

o>^

f.

OJO

4. J

m.^jjuo
*
f.

S XJ

Hi

Ijl*

f.

2.

II.

OjCO

f.

Dual.

#n.

.Efo. I.

m.

3.

2.

Jussive.

Subj.

t*

tjJ^>
x

b^NftJ

OJ

OJ

/0

hi

x OJ

CP^^
'

1. c.

2 xj

OJ

XJ

Hi

Iojl*
V

Other forms of the

Perf

Perf.,

4"

J X

Sing. m. >>Xo-,

1)

f.

and Imperat. Act.

Imperf., Jussive,
Jussive.

Imperf.

Imperat.
a

Sing.

or

3.m.
a

;>>,

>i,

or

>i

jj3, Jj, or
j

2.

((2.m.

(/ tc

S//

<i

//

cM^j, J^, or J***

/ J

>

JA*!, Juo, or

>i

J*

304

TABLE

Y.b.

IV.

III.

Active Perf.

*j

^Ui

VI.

U3

ax

ju*1

JJu\

x Ox

jx

J^J

xx o

iWj

or
a

or *1j

Imperat.

ixo

ju>t

x.

VIII.

VII.

S/l

>U

or

Imperf.

DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM


MEDLE RAD. GEMINATJE.

3iU^!

J*-*}

or jLoIj

Ox

0?

3jU

jjuat
2

0^0

3jW>

JJ&I

0x0

3J^-t

3Ju*t

viz t

or jc*l

or ju*1

or
a

N. Ag.

>>W*

J^C

>^U

Ox

0x0

5J //

,)**

>lj^l

^l^

OxxxJ

02xJ

OjU^

or S^l^o

>
Jx xx

Uj

Imperf.

# xJ
xj

j/tj

U~>

JM!

or

>.>l-

***

Act.

jjuo

Pass.

>**

V. Act.

ij

Pass.

at

J*t

J-^'

iixOJ

^^

jcIt

cixxOJ

J^

>UX>
xxx

SxOJ

3>U^

Ji^

Ox

or

)W^

Imperf.

irregularity

SxxOJ

Ju^o

JiI

2i-0

3 x.x

xx

The remaining forms present no

II.

a xx.

2 x J

Perf.

fi

Jx xxJ

or >U-

jIjlo^w!

$-c*

xj

0x0
jlju*l

J^f

or >U-

N. Pat.

0x0
J^UJI
X X
*^

jOj

xx

Ox

>U3

or
5

Passive Perf.

JUI~

iU^*

or

JU^O

or ^U^o

N. Verbi.

JJU*

e.g.

305

TABLE

VERBUM PRIMJE RAD. HEMZAT^l.

VI.

II.

i.

Active Perf.

"

j~>\

y\

III.

ute-

jj\

jj\

>.

jj\j

jj\3 or

jj\

j^^-i r

\}*t

or

jjt^J

VI.

V.

j3\

IV.

>.*>

Imperf.

j-^W

j^^i

j^3-i

j^l#

j^^i

j^+i

Imperat.

j~ot

y^t

jJI

j^l

j.51

^0

N.Ag.

At

Al

..

jJU
*|

*.

At

..

306

TABLE

VERBUM

VII.

MEDLffi RAD. HEMZATiE.


IV.

III.

II.

.-

x C

Active Perf.

c o x

Imperf.

J?

c o s

Jul* j

J >/J

<^>*!

><Aj

>^^

JU

Imperat.

o o

a j

>A{

^x

a o

Of

B
N. Ag.

J5L,

^U

^b

g J

six

10

N. Verbi.

Ox

9f

S x x J

JtjX

Passive Perf.

UlJ

Jw

, ol

fj

joj

J*x J

Imperf.
it

6 J

C
o

o x

ipx j

N. Pat.

J>%*
V.

VI.

xtxx

>*

* *

Active Perf.

jf$3

j^i^J

Imperf.

W///
j*%Zj

J*?&+i

jH$

j>H$

Imperat.

Sl// J

j&U

N. Ag.

li

VIII.

x o

x xO

J*%*
X.
x

*" xx

^t

x x J

spte*
0^0

J^tt

J$5

Passive Perf.

J2L5

J&5

Imperf.

J^-i

J>?&k

JtiiJ*

j&&

N. Verbi.

VII.

Ofoeo

-x j
9 r>*
J

J**)"*

^al

'A*

0J

jox

o j

a
j

N. Pat.

oj

o j

307

TABLE

VIII.

VERBUM

TERTLffl RAD.

HEMZAT^l.
in.

Active Perf. 3

308

TABLE

IX.

VERBA PRIM^ RAD.

3 ET ^.

i.

Active Perf.

*3

j*?3

* *

J * 6 *

f " *

A3
&

< *

4*

jay

Imperf.

js>

Imperat.

Oj3

js-3

N. Verbi.

HO

JUj

5 x

3->

Sjoi

j^j

fr*

Imperf.

js>^j

^jy.

{fa

N. Pat.

>}*y*

^3jy*

Passive Per/,

JO

, oi

jMJt

^-r^yi

J-*^

**+i

Imperat.

w*.jt

j~j\

Jowt

^t^/l
j

vis

Imperf.

^~Jt

v**^>*

j-^>*

J^

N. Verbi.

wA^

iWl

J 1*31

j^t

j~i$\

jupt

j~J\

Imperf.

w^->J

J-*^

****^

>~^

1/0 4

S / fij

N. Pat.

w^>

j~>5*

jju.0

6 x

t/t

0^0

Gx

^wt

>

0'

.<Mii>w

*-**..$

o x o x

js>^

wj

N. Ag.

Passive Perf.

xOx
t

jy****

xx o*

Active Perf.
J

>3>3*

VIII.

IV.

JG

?*5*

J X

J x

6x

S x

>

Ox

Ox

309

TABLE

X.

VERBUM MEDICI RAD. >

Active Voice of the First Form.


Perfect.

310

TABLE XL

VERBUM MEDIiE RAD.

Active Voice of the First Form.


Perfect.

Sing.

3.

m.

jL

f.

2.

ft

ft

f.

1. c.

Dual.

3.

m.

tjL>

f.

UjL/

2. c.

U3j~>

Plur. 3. m.

IjjC

^.

311

TABLE

VERBA

XII.

&

RAD. 3 ET

MEDLffi!

Passive Voice of the Fiest Form.


Perfect.

Sing.

Imperfect.
Subj.

Jussive.

J-J

JUj

JUj

Jlaj

cJL3

JU5
J

X XJ

0/j

2/ ^j

x x j

m.

szS*

JU3

JUu

Ji5

^>J15J

v>JU3

f.

cis

o*iUu

^Uu

jud

^la

3.

m.

/J

J
f.

2.

Energ. n.

Indie.

Jx

Energ.

i.

v>JISj

o-^

xj

tfxJ

x xj

Ox /J

JUD

Ji3

J>JUu

oJ^

xj

,,i

,**

CJLd

1. C.

Dual.

3.

m.

f.

2. c.

J13I

%3
UL3

U&

/J

J X J

O-^

CP^

Ml

Plur.

3.m. I^Ls

^)Uu

J,

/J

/J

x * xJ

L>^*i

O^J

m.

^3

0>JU5

f.

&6

,>U3

^>U5

^>Uj

o^^

U3

JUL*

JUL

JiJ

^Ui

2.

^Uj

t>JUu

c^5x

f.

1. c.

./j

om

/j

x x

- J

I^Uj
x x

xJ

x j

xj

s J

o-JUu

t^JU3

xO

vt

0^**i

Ch*^J

*x

J X

f.

SJyU
9 x

xj

^JUu

xxx

wl

X x J

iVom. Pat. Sing. m. j>&,

xx

O-^

312

TABLE

VERBA

XIII.

MEDLffl RAD. 3

ET

&

The Derived Forms.

Active Perf.

IV.

VII.

VIII.

x.

3. s.

m.

JUfl

JUJt

JUSt

^Uwt

2. s.

m. cJLSt

cJUtJI

cJUSt

c^Al^t

J^Lj

J^J

J^J

^o*^l

Jil

J-uJI

Jjtft

jt&~\

JJU

JU-u

J12U

SSlij

JLiJt

Just

Imperf.

Imperat.

N. Kg.

N. Verbi.

61

a*

63

<

J-j*^>t

J*^l

^o**^'

Imperf.

JUL*

J^

J^J

->*

N. Pat.

JUU

JU-u

J12U

III.

v.

II.

Active Perf.

Imperf.

J^S
\}$H
Ox

J-JM

Passive Perf.

N. Verbi. J^j*3

j~j
j**~
6

Os
*

'IX. Perf.

XI.

%yJS

3V3l

j-w

jjL

0"

VI.

J^so j+~3

Jb^J j^^i J>*^


Oxx *J

xo *^ &$U*
yt

Passive Perf./ J>3

JjU

Old//

9d//

SjjL**

J|>>

j-*~3

svtJJ

JjU3

j^tli

j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J

* J

--

vl

J J

OJ

OJ

* *

Jb^
s

J J

^Hj-**5

jj^w

Imperf.

>jm^

N. Verbi. jb>wt

jf>~i

jtj>.J>~>l

j-j~j

/ ,

j^S^

Jj>$

J^>

//j

Jj>J

313

TABLE

XIV.

VERBUM TERTLE RAD. y

MEDICI RAD.

FETHAm

Active Voice of the First Form.


Perfect.

314

TABLE

XV.

VERBUM

MEDI2E RAD.

TERTIxE RAD. ^,

FETHAm

Active Voice of the First Form.


Perfect.

315

TABLE

VERBA TERTIJE RAD.

XVI.

&

ET

MEDIAE RAD. KESRAT^l.


Active Voice of the First Form.
Imperfect.
Indie.

/(/
Sing. 3. m.

^y6j

L5^
xo

xox

xox

o *

//

ox

xox

<f

<o "

s /

/0/

t>

Ox

L5-*x*
xo

o x

xOx

xOx

xOx

O-a^J3

^^ojj

^ojj

o-t^y

/jf

3 x xo

W*^

O^-^J

Cwwtfj

1. C.

LT^
x

3.

m.

f.

k~j

2. c.

U~o>

Plur. 3. m.

xOx

0#?J

x x

//

O^s-f;

x x

Ox

x x

ui

xOp

xOx

oW^H

xOx

xOx

xOx

c>*^hJ

x Ox

xOx

xOx

hi

O * ^} O^^H
1

xOx

x Ox

U*-)

xO"

vi

xO

Ox

O"*-^'"'

t>*^P

Chj^P

^) U <wop

Ox

xOx

xOx

2 x xOx

L5*^

LT^H

*-^H

v>-^P

u^tj

0x0
f.

x x

xOx

Ox

iV. Fr6*.

Sing. m.

xOx

Ox

Chj-^xH

1. c.

Ox

j*~?bj
a j

f.

\$*oj

m.

L*p

x
f.

o-*y

xOx

x x

j x

xOx

Uj
x

2.

En. n.

S///

m.
f.

Dual.

I.

xOx

*j

f.

2.

En.

Jussive.

Sub}.

xOx

O**^

316

TABLE

XVII.

VERBA TERTI^l RAD.

3 ET ^.

Passive Voice of the First Form.

Pe

317

TABLE

VERBA TERTIJE RAD.

XVIII.

The Derived
ii.

*t

IV.

V.

x o

5xx

xxx

^31

^^xaj

^Uj

Oj

a XXX

L5^

L5^*^

x3

Imperf.

N. Ag. m.

VI.

XXX

xx

lT* 1*^
xxx

^51

^oaj

^Uj

ulxxj

xxj
ijoIaLo

Imperat.

ET ^.

Forms.

III.

Active Perf.

^AA4
9x

Si

^^Ua4
SxulxxJ

xxj

0/

iLxoliLo

f.

Ox

N. Verbi.

^L3t

Passive Perf.

c-A*

Imperf.

^oaj

u*i

L5^

LTf**

XJ

IXXJ

L5^5

LT* *^
1

L^ *^

SLailxd

SwAfcU

SloU&e

XXJ

X
1

N. Pat. m.
f.

iV/
VII. Act.
Pass.

VIII. Act.
Pass.

X. Act.

Camforfoge

PRINTED BY

J.

AND

C.

F.

CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PJ