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English landscape gardens.

Many people consider that the landscape garden are the greatest
contribution of England to world culture after Shakespeare.

Concept behind it!

William kent
In the early years of 18th century , the Artist and Designer William
Kent began to compose gardens look like landscape paintings.
Kent is recognised as the Father of the English landscape garden
and a pioneer of picturesque {adjective (of a place or building visually attractive,
especially in a quaint or charming way.)}

What these paintings had in them


Attractive groves of trees in which visitor was

an important element

They look alike

English landscape gardens

The English landscape garden, also called English
landscape park or simply the English garden
It is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in
the early 18th century.
These English garden replaced more formal, symmetrical jardin
la franaise of the 17th century as the principal gardening
style of Europe.

Why did the shift happened

Before the introduction of English landscape, nature was
viewed as dangerous , cranky .

the English landscape completely changed this view to

appreciate and value the natural world.

Before English garden..

Before English garden most garden was arranged in French or Dutch
style .

These French and Dutch gardens have rectangular subdivision.

Straight avenues & paths and water contained symmetrically shaped


Gardens before English garden

French garden layout

dutch garden layout

Elements within English gardens

Elements within English gardens:

Recreations of classic buildings
Temple of Ancient Virtue at Stowe

Elements within English gardens:


Garden of Rousham House

Elements within English gardens:

Stourhead English garden

Elements within English gardens

Natural stone

Dessau-Wrlitz Garden Realm

Elements within English gardens


Elements within English gardens

Wattle edging & panels

Elements within English gardens

Bee skep

Common characteristics of an English garden

There was always a lake in the English gardens, most were man-made but all appeared
to be natural forming basins.
Their edges were meandering and irregular and often had pathways weaving through the
trees and close to the waters edge.

Common characteristics of an English garden

Rolling lawns

rolling lawn topography allowed visitorrs for surprises as they

come around mounds or niches

Common characteristics of an English garden

1.Tree groves
Tree groves - were spread throughout the landscape with paths that
allowed the gardens users to wander in and out of the groves and provide
a view of rolling lawns against mass tree plantings.

Ha ha wall
The purpose of ha ha wall was to separate garden from the
grazing land but was invisible from a distance .
Cattle could be kept securely in their fields without the use of hedges or
fences to interrupt the view

Ha ha wall


grottos were used as romantic hide outs.

They were manmade but build to resemble a dark natural
forming cave.

Case study : Garden of Rousham House

Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most

accomplished and significant of William Kent's work.
The patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin
the garden in 1727.

But then brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737

He has used a statue of Apollo inside the garden , depicting a theatre

play that how a groove of trees draws the eye on the statute .

To achieve a paintly effect Kent instructed his Gardner to use dark

colours of evergreen trees

dark colour evergreen trees

To create the illusion of unbroken landscape kent has used several

technique at the garden of rousham house.
One of those technique is ha ha wall
A wall that separated garden from grazing land , being invisible from a
Cattle could be kept separated without the use of hedges or fences

Haha wall

At rousham kent extended the views into the distance by designing a

gothic style alteration to an old mill on the other side of river.

High up in the hill he created a large triple arch architectural folly

called the eye-catcher

It was made on purpose to direct the view towards the field above
the garden

Ke ts rafted ie s are est appre iated fro the seat he has

designed and scattered throughout his gardens
this rustic seat provide the view of garden to watch the river flow
beneath the stone bridge

Ke ts garde ofte a ou ed the sel es ith spe ta ular gates ,

entrances ,
He has put those gates and entrances on the perimeter of the land
owner holdings in roushams

After years of experimenting with cascades and different commissions

he created the spectacular veil of venus at roushams
it had fountain at that time which went up as long as 50 feet in air