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REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE

REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN REDUCED FORM


1) They had a personal office in which they could interview for recruitment.
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2) Here are some tips that you should follow.
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3) The next person that was selected was Anna.
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4) John visited Paris, which is the capital of France.
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5) Her sister, who is a coordinator, often travels to Asian countries.
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6) Tim was the only one who recognized his award.
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7) I have some housework which I must do after school.
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8) Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.
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9) The baby was awakened by the song of a bird which came from the garden which was behind her room.
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10) There were about ten academic reports which have to be delivered.
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11) New York, which is best known for its fashion trends and modern living styles, attracts many tourists all
over the world.
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12) Animals that are born in a zoo generally adjust to captivity better than those that are
captured in the wild.
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13) Few tourists ever see a jaguar, which is a spotted wild cat that is native to tropical
America.
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14) He is the only woman who won the lottery this month.
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15) The floor is dusty but I haven't got a brush with which I can sweep it.
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16) A person who serves in a shop is called a shop assistant.
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17) John, who is my friend, has studied English for ten years.
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18) There are many exercises that we have to finish before school.
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19) The mistakes which you have to correct are very important.
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20) We have a few exercises that we have to do.
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21. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.
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22. The queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which has been built on the island.
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23. Arizona, which was once thought to be a useless desert, is today a rapidly gowing industrial and
agricultural.
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24. The country now has 300 power stations. All of them are part of a national network.
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25. The picture is beautiful. Tom is looking at it.
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26. Where can I catch the bus? It goes downtown.
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27. I have a class. It begins at 8 a.m
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28. Mr. Marks, whose farm the stream flows across, is unhappy about the plans for the new dam.
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29. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.
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30. He was the first man who left the burning building.
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31. I've just bought a house which has five storeys.

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32. Have you ever seen a cow which has six legs ?
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33. The girl who is ten years old is my sister.
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34. Give me the note which costs ten dollars.
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35. Vietnamese students have a summer vacation which lasts 3 months .
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36. We have two breaks which last 30 minutes.
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37. That is a car which has three wheels.
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38. The man who has one leg looks at me angrily.
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39. The snake which has two heads is not found .
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40. Mikoon is a monster which has 6 heads.
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42. My house is very nice. It has 5 storeys.
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43. I like my friend's cell phone . It has two numbers.
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44. The fans are very interesting .They have 3 levels of speed.
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45. Do you want to take part in the trip ? It will last 5 days.
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46. With a capacity of power of 10 horses, this machine is good for your workshop.
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47. I have just attended a wedding. There were 30 tables in this wedding.
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48. I buy a house. It has 11 rooms.
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REWRITE THESE SENTENCES IN A DIFFERENT WAY WITH UNCHANGED MEANINGS


1. Some people live in HongKong. They earn a lot of money.
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2. He married a girl. She later became a successful writer
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3. They seem to give the children anything that they want.
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4. Well, they said they want a pay rise. It is unreasonable.
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5. We often visit our friends in Shekou. It is quite near the ferry.
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6. Who was that lady? I saw you with her last night.
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7. The people who I work with are very friendly.
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8. Where do those guys come from? You borrowed their car.
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9. Our boss had a heart attack last week. He hasnt been back to work yet.
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10. The woman with whom he has been having an affair, has been moved to another office.
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COMBINE THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF SENTENCES, USING PREP WITH PRONOUN
1. That's the man. I got the bag from him yesterday.
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2. Economics is a subject. I am very interested in it.
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3. This is Joanne. I gave my notes to her.
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4. The friend spoke French. Jim was travelling with him.
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5. The ladder began to slip. Tom was standing on it.
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6. This is the city. I was born in this city.
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7. Paul is fitter than you. I play tennis with him on weekends.


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8. The woman said the machine was very good. Jim bought the machine from her.
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9. The chair is in bad shape. You are sitting on it.
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10. The house was abandoned for a long time. Dirt and insects cover most of its surface.
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TEST YOURSELF
I.

Choose the word whose underlined part is pronounced differently from that of the others.

1. a. subscribe

b. finite

c. prohibit

d. wild

2. a. exhaust

b. anxious

c. exist

d. exact

3. a. weather

b. growth

c. wealthy

d. geothermal

4. a. eradicate

b. habitat

c. endanger

d. panel

5. a. pleased

b. raised

c. practiced

d. used

II. Choose the word whose main stress pattern is not the same as that of the others.
6. a. geothermal

b. environment

c. alternative

d. pollutant

7. a. scientist

b. industry

c. agriculture

d. potential

8. a. interference

b. consequences

c. electricity

d. entertainment

9. a. preserve

b. devastate

c. endanger

d. release

10. a. fertilize

b. deliver

c. imagine

d. destroy

III. Choose the word or phrase (a, b, c or Ii) that best fits the blank space in each sentence or
substitutes for the underlined word or phrase.
11. Several rare species are dying ______ owing to human beings' deforestation and careless hunting.
a. up

b. out

c. away

d. down

12. They are all at work doing some research ______ alternative sources of energy.
a. for

b. in

c. on

d. with

13. If you have anything important to do, do it straight away. Don't put it ______.
a. on

b. off

c. over

d. up

14. The headmistress is very competent. All the teaching staff look ______.
a. up to her

b. her up to

c. at her up

d. for her up

15. He wouldn't have failed his exam ______ he hadn't been ill.
a. unless

b. if

c. in case

d. although

16. We should responsible for the ____ humans are doing to the enviroment.

a. destroy

b. destructive

c. destruction

d. destructibility

17. She lost her balance when she ______ to reach out for the balloon.
a. had tried

b. was trying

c. tried

d. had been trying

18. He suggested ______ a jumble sale to try and raise money for the scouts.
a. me to hold

b. me that I held

c. holding

d. to hold

19. They are excellent students ______ I have complete confidence.


a. who

b. that

c. whom

d. in whom

20. The students in this class, ______ are from the provinces, are having trouble finding decent
accommodation.
a. most of whom

b. many of them

c. some of who

d. all who

21. You have to be aware of the damage humans are doing to quicken the ______ of wildlife.
a. extinct

b. extinctive

c. extinction

d. extinctions

22. Cameron, ______ directed The Titanic, is one of the leading faces in Hollywood.
a. that

b. whose

c. whom

d. who

23. The population of the earth is increasing at a tremendous rate and ______ out of control.
a. it will be

b. soon will be

c. have become

d. are soon going to

24. The teacher gave some suggestions on what could come out for the examination
a. effects

b. symptoms

c. hints

d. demonstrations

25. While southern California is densely populated, ______ live in the northern part of the state.
a. a number people

b. many people

c. few people

d. a few of people

26. Mohandas K. Gandhi, ______ Mahatma, lived a noble life of fasting and poverty in order to work for
peace and independence.
a. that was called

b. was called

c. called

d. calling

27. Your failure is the consequence of not studying hard enough for the test.
a. cause

b. motive

c. result

d. status

28. She ______ to study more English before enrolling at the university.
a. was recommended

b. recommended

c. has recommended

d. recommends

29. The teacher asked those who ______ their tests ______ in their papers.
a. completed/ turn

b. completed/ turned

c. had completed/ to turn

d. completed/ turns

30. Historian Barbara Tuchman was the first woman ______ president of the Academy of Arts and
Sciences.
a. whose election as

b. to elect

c. was elected

d. to be elected

31. There are believed ______ over 300 species of trees in EI Yunque rain forest in Puerto Rico.
a. to be

b. being

c. they are

d. there are

c. tornados that

d. tornados do

32. Rarely ______ last longer than an hour.


a. do tornados

b. tornados

33. ______ for the fact that he was working abroad, he would willingly have helped with the project. .
a. If it had been

b. If it hadn't been

c. Had it been

d. Hadn't it been

34. New words are constantly being invented ______ new objects and concepts.
a. to describe

b. a description of

c. they describe

d. describe

35. A home computer ______ an opportunity for convenient and efficient work at home.
a. provides
IV.

b. to be providing

c. which provides

d. providing it

Choose the underlined word or phrase (A, B, C or D) that needs correcting.

36. Liquids take the shape of any container which they are placed.
A

37. Winslow Homer, who had no formally training in art, became


A

famous for his paintings of the sea and seacoast.


C

38. Because of habitat loss, there are less Asian elephants than African
A

elephants.
D
39. Even though they are among the smallest carnivores, weasels will
A

attack animals that are double their size.


C

40. All of the mammals, dolphins are undoubtedly among the friendliest
A

to human.
V. Choose the word or phrase - a, b, c or d that best fits the blank space in the following passage.
By 1984, nonrenewable (41) ______ fuels, such as oil, coal and natural as, provided over 82 percent of
the commercial and industrial energy (42) ______ in the world. Small amounts of energy were (43) ______
from nuclear fission, and the (44) ______ 16 percent came from burning direct perpetual and renewable
fuels, (45) ______ biomass. Between 1700 and 1986 a large number of countries (46) ______ from the use
of energy from local sources to a centralized generation of hydropower and solar energy (47) ______ to

electricity. The energy derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels has been (48) ______ produced in one
location and transported to another, as is the case with most automobike fuels. In countries with private,
rather than public (49) ______, the age of nonrenewable fuels has created a dependency on a finite (50)
______ that will have to be replaced.
41. a. clean

b. unleaded

c. fossil

d. solid

42. a. used

b. produced

c. supplied

d. stored

43. a. produced

b. derived

c. extracted

d. released

44. a. resting

b. leaving

c. restricting

d. remaining

45. a. as

b. therefore

c. such as

d. for

46. a. shifted

b. transferred

c. obtained

d. applied

47. a. saved

b. reformed

c. delivered

d. converted

48. a. actually

b. increasingly

c. gradually

d. consequently

49. a. transports

b. transportation

c. transporters

d. transportable

50. a. reserve

b. material

c. resource

d. power

VI.

Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer.


Scientists believe they now have scientific evidence to prove that ecosystems work better when there is

greater variety of species within them. This biodiversity is being lost destroying natural mechanisms that
could repair the damage caused by man.
Findings show that losing plants and animals is not only reducing our quality of life but actually
endangering our very existence. We cut down rich rainforests and replace them with one species
plantations, such as pine and eucalyptus. We plough up meadows rich in different grasses and herbs and
replace them with one grass, for instance rye or wheat.
When a natural ecosystem is simplified the basic processes in the ecosystem are altered and even
damaged. Without their biodiversity they are not able to serve as the natural clearners of our planet. No
longer are they able to absorb the carbon dioxide that is being produced in excess. The result is global
warming, caused by the increase in the 'greenhouse effect', and ultimately, or even 'sooner, there will be' a
change in the world's climate.
51. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
a. How Ecosystems Work Better b. The Loss of Biodiversity
c. The Variety of Species

d. Natural Mechanisms

52. Which of the following is not a species used to replace a rich ecosystem?
a. Herbs

b. Pine

53. What is the purpose of paragraph 2?


a. To show natural mechanisms at work.

c. Eucalyptus

d. Rye

b. To give examples of the loss of biodiversity.


c. To give example of variety of species.
d. To show how ecosystems can work better.
54. What, according to the passage, might be the final result of the simplification of natural ecosystems?
a. The basic processes are altered

b. There is loss of biodiversity

c. There is global warming

d. There is a change in the climate.

55. What is the author's attitude to the loss of biodiversity?


a. Indifferent
VII.

b. Negative

c. Positive

d. Neutral

Choose the answer - a, b, c or d - that is nearest in meaning to the printed before it.

56. She has always got on well with her colleagues.


a. She has always had poor relationship with her colleagues.
b. She has always been on good terms with her colleagues.
c. Her colleagues have always put up with her.
d. She is trying to establish a good relation ship with her colleagues.
57. Julia didn't listen to what her doctor told her.
a. What the doctor told Julia was not worth listening to.
b. Julia couldn't hear what the doctor told her.
c. The doctor told Julia to listen to what he said, but she didn't do so.
d. Julia took no notice of what her doctor told her.
58. John Smith is a farmer. I bought his land. .
a. John Smith, whose land I bought, is a farmer.
b. John Smith, who is a farmer, whose land I bought.
c. John Smith, whom I bought his land, is a farmer.
d. John Smith, a farmer, bought his land.
VIII. Choose the answer- a, b, c, or d - that best completes the sentence.
59. ______ who made Thanksgiving an official holiday in the United States.
a. Abraham Lincoln
c. Abraham Lincoln was

b. He was Abraham Lincoln


d. It was Abraham Lincoln

60. Four miles off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts ______, a popular summer resort.
a. lies the island of Martha's Vineyard
b. the island of Martha's Vineyard lies there
c. does lie the island of Martha's Vineyard
d. where the island of Martha's Vineyard lies