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[1-10] Choose the one closest in meaning to each sentence.

1. Political campaigns vary in the effectiveness with which they
transmit their messages via the news media.
A. Different political campaigns send different messages through
effective media.
B. Not all political campaigns use the news media with equal
C. Various political campaigns convey messages effectively by
way of news media.
D. Most political campaigns have effective media to get their
messages across.
2. New research shows it does not necessarily take an industrial
accident to expose us to potentially toxic agents.
A. According to a recent study, we are sometimes subjected to
toxic substances by other causes than industrial disasters.
B. There is a new finding that some victims of accidents in
industry are immune to the poisoning of toxic chemicals.
C. As shown by a new survey, it is not necessarily that accidents
in the work places lead to the leaks of toxicants.
D. A new report reveals that we often cannot protect ourselves
against exposure to toxic materials in industrial settings.
3. In spite of the low esteem in which the public hold the finance
industry, it seems to have no trouble attracting talented youth.
A. The banking institutions have failed to earn the public's respect,
but they appear to set no obstacles to young gifted applicants.
B. While ordinary people turn their back on finance companies,
it seems easy for smart youngsters to enter into the industry.
C. The general public are unfamiliar with the financing business,
but there seems to be no problem with its recruitment of
qualified youths.
D. Although looked down on by general people, the banking
industry appears to be very attractive to young talented job
4. Having an effect on an entire language is an awful lot to ask
of any writer.
A. All writers find it terrible to learn a language completely
in an effective way.
B. Changing a language for the better requires any writer to
study it very much.
C. No writer can be expected to make a difference in every
aspect of a language.
D. The ability to command a language fluently is a prerequisite
for writing in it.

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5. Only about 30,000 of the over one million adults attempting

suicide every year are actually dying by suicide.
A. Only a few of the adults who seek to kill themselves are
actually failing to do so after being noticed.
B. A large part of the elderly feel tempted to take their own
life but only a small part of them put it in action.
C. Aborted suicide attempts are increasing among adults every
year but fail to attract public attention.
D. An overwhelming majority of the attempts of grownups to
commit suicide are in reality ending in failure.
6. If knowledge alone could save the world, we would be in a
far happier condition than we are, since knowledge has been
vastly extending its range.
A. Though not the only thing that can save the world, knowledge
will make us happier because it has been applied for varied
B. To make the world happier than it is, we need more than
to increase and broaden knowledge, which alone cannot
improve the world.
C. Because knowledge can do more than to recover the world,
we will be far happier in the future thanks to ever-increasing
D. Relying only on knowledge to safeguard the world, we are
in severe distress, for the more we know, the unhappier we
7. This year marks a quarter of a century since the series of
revolutions that marked the end of the Soviet Union.
A. This year is the twenty-fifth year that the breakup of the
Soviet Union has triggered several revolutions.
B. Twenty-five years have passed since the Soviet Union began
to collapse through a sequence of revolutions.
C. This year celebrates the twenty-fifth anniversary of the most
remarkable revolution in the Soviet Union's history.
D. One revolution after another has occurred for twenty five
years, which reminds us of the end of the Soviet Union.
8. Arab culture encourages the gender segregation to an extent
greater than has ever been the case in the West, but that does
not mean women are without influence.
A. As is more the case in Arab culture than in the West, gender
discrimination leads to the lowering of women's social status.
B. By bringing about gender segregation, gender-biased culture
has a greater influence on women's life in Arab than in the
C. Arab women are not completely powerless, though they suffer
from greater gender discrimination than their Western
D. Sexism is more prevalent in Arab culture than in the West,
which does not mean that Arab women do not have their
own culture.

9. Your liking of a person tends to grow every time you see him,
because the more contact you have with him, the more chances
you have to get to know him.
A. Because repeated contact brings familiarity, which in turn
breeds affection, the more we interact with someone, the more
likely we are to be fond of him.
B. You tend to meet only with familiar faces, so if we want
to have more friends, we should try to get along with as
many people unknown to you as possible.
C. Without physical proximity, it's nearly impossible to establish
romantic relationships, which proves the truth of the old saying
"Out of sight, out of mind."
D. Your knowledge of someone depends on how much affection
you have for him; therefore, the more you know about him,
the more often you want to see him.
10. Men apologize less frequently than women not because their egos
are more fragile but because they have a higher threshold for
what constitutes offensive behavior.
A. An apology is less tempting to men than to women, which
implies that men hurt their self-image more easily than women
but that men's behavior is more offensive than women's.
B. Men would make an apology more often than women if they
were not more sensitive to their self-interest but more
concerned with the effects of their misdeed than women.
C. It is not because they are more egoistic that men are less
willing to beg pardon of others than women, but because
they think more highly of offensive than of defensive behavior.
D. Not their more vulnerable self-esteem but their more readiness
to accept offensive behavior as inoffensive makes men more
reluctant than women to express regret for their wrongs.

14. "We're going to Mars!" __________ declared a Zambian

schoolteacher in 1964, revealing to the world his fanciful plans
for his country to beat the United States and the Soviet Union
in the battle to conquer outer space.
A. solemnly
B. circumspectly
C. audaciously
D. bitterly
15. More than 1.3 million Americans lost federal unemployment
benefits on Dec. 28 as an emergency measure passed during
the depths of the recession expired. The government condemned
Congress's failure to __________ that measure.
A. devise
B. enforce
C. abolish
D. renew
16. Admittedly, the tradition of being __________ in hospitality is
now under severe strain from war refugees in countries whose
resources are already stretched.
A. profuse
B. indiscriminate
C. parsimonious
D. square
17. Shoppers in China spend three times as much on November 11th
buying heavily discounted goods on websites as American
consumers fork out on Cyber Monday, when retailers offer similar
__________ online after Thanksgiving.
A. improvements
B. reductions
C. premiums
D. handbills
18. The word 'demand' is so common and familiar to every one of
us that it seems __________ to define it. The need for precise
definition arises simply because it is sometimes confused with
other words such as 'desire', 'wish', 'want', etc.
A. effortless
B. perfunctory
C. superfluous
D. roundabout

[11-30] Select the one that most logically fits the sentence(s).
11. Heat waves are increasingly common across Asia, but many
people don't realize how __________ they are. Over 750 deaths
were attributed directly to the weather last year and heat was
the leading cause of weather-related death.
A. recurrent
B. lethal
C. contagious
D. enervating
12. Now, medical research has unscrambled the misconception that
eggs raise cholesterol, and reports that they are instead loaded
with important nutrients. Up-to-date research __________ old
A. cloaks
B. verifies
C. bolsters
D. nullifies
13. You might not care if someone rocks up a few minutes late
for a meeting with you, but your colleague would go berserk
if anyone were late. That's because your colleague values
__________ more than you do.
A. punctuality
B. expertise
C. deportment
D. rapport

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19. The $11 billion merger between US Airways and American

Airlines was __________ by the Justice Department, after the
pair agreed to reduce operations at some airports in America.
The merger will be completed next month.
A. cleared
B. dismissed
C. outlawed
D. hailed
20. When Abraham Lincoln accepted the nomination to be Illinois's
Republican candidate for U.S. Senate in 1858, he used Jesus'
words in his speech without __________, knowing his audience
would understand whom he was quoting.
A. authorization
B. rendition
C. attribution
D. premeditation
21. Often the work was __________. At a zoo in Moscow in 2003,
he had to operate on nine walruses in three days. One session
started at 8:00 am and didn't finish until 4:00 am the following
morning. No toilet break for five hours.
A. concurrent
B. arduous
C. inconsistent
D. exhilarating

22. Chronic lack of shut-eye is linked to a bevy of health issues,

such as obesity, heart disease and diabetes. Because slumber is
so crucial, experts often advise that you make up the __________
whenever you can.
A. recess
B. disorder
C. fitness
D. deficit
23. An influential Dallas retailer warned that his city wasn't safe
for a presidential visit. Kennedy shrugged off the message. But
the possibility of violence __________ as he prepared to visit
Dallas. His widow would recall that he reflected on the ease
with which a sniper could open fire from a high-rise window.
A. seemed remote
B. was ruled out
C. kept him aloof
D. was on his mind
24. The Navy is seeking a way to do underwater what the Air Force
has been doing by flying a drone, or an unmanned aircraft, in
the sky: __________ for long periods of time and gather the
kind of data that could turn the tide in war.
A. lurk in the trench
B. prowl stealthily
C. glimmer faintly
D. drift with the current
25. Criticism makes or breaks relationships. The best predictor of
relapse for married adults with depression is their response to
the question "How critical is your spouse of you?" Patients who
relapsed rated their spouses as significantly more critical than
did patients who remained well. It's crucial to criticize without
A. disparaging or humiliating
B. bemoaning or deploring
C. entertaining or flattering
D. venerating or commending
26. When we saw the huge second wave hit, we knew we couldn't
risk taking the main road that ran parallel to the coast.
__________, we walked through a paddy field and along the
railway tracks. We were __________ to our waists by the time
we reached our destination.
A. Rather amputated
B. However soaked
C. Instead drenched
D. Otherwise bruised
27. The Arab Spring was triggered not just by the oppression of
despotic regimes, but also by a __________ time bomb. More
than half of the 350 million people in the 22 Arab League
countries are under 25, and youth unemployment statistics are
extremely high. __________ young people are always good
candidates for starting revolutions.
A. subcultural Overbearing
B. democratic Underreacting
C. geopolitical Overorganized
D. demographic Underoccupied

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28. Whatever the government does for individuals or classes, to a

certain extent, takes away the __________ of doing for
themselves, and where they are subjected to over-guidance and
over-government, the inevitable tendency is to render them
comparatively __________.
A. liability inert
B. willpower reserved
C. stimulus helpless
D. boon assuming
29. __________ is inculcated in the schools through a culture of
teasing. People tease about skin color, and dark skin is a negative.
If a child allows the teasing to bother him, he is teased more.
If he __________ it, it stops. If he gets mad and reacts, he loses.
If he learns to laugh and takes it without any reaction, he wins.
A. Self-control ignores
B. Prejudice appreciates
C. Companionship opposes
D. Indulgence encourages
30. A time came in the progress of human affairs when men ceased
to think it a necessity of nature that their governors should be
an __________ power, opposed in interest to themselves. It
appeared to them much better that the various magistrates of
the State should be their tenants or delegates, __________ at
their pleasure.
A. absolute executable
B. independent revocable
C. alienable empowered
D. inherited detained
[31-60] Read the following passages and answer the questions.
The easiest communication tool is to listen to what your partner
says. This may sound simple, but listening well requires
__________. One of the main complaints of both men and women
is that they never have their partner's undivided attention. If the
other isn't listening, how can you tell if you've been heard? One
corrective model is the Imago therapeutic method, which slows
down conversation and ramps up communication. It includes an
exercise in which one person speaks his or her mind and the
other partner listens. Then the listener recaps what he or she
has heard. This is either ratified or corrected by the speaker.
Once both partners agree the message has been correctly heard
(the content of the message doesn't have to be agreed with),
the listener gets to speak. This goes back and forth, giving each
person a chance to speak and listen well. The Imago method
worked for Hungarian couple Martha and Zoltan, who have been
married for 18 years. One of their problems was that Zoltan,
manager at a big company, felt he could not talk about his job
issues at home, so he got closer to a young woman in the office
who always listened to him. This led to an affair. To try to
save their marriage, they visited a therapist, who guided the
couple in the Imago method. After a couple of months using
this tool, they were able to listen to each other and talk honestly.

31. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.

A. focus and openness
B. clarity and tolerance
C. tension and attention
D. trust and affection

35. Which of the following is not true about "Mars"?

A. It has been depleted of its air by solar radiation storms.
B. It has the possibility of being home to life, but it actually
C. It has the solar wind blowing over its surface now.
D. It does not have a magnetic field or magnetized rocks.

32. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A. Inquisitive conversations can be a cause of the arguments
between a couple.
B. The more slowly you speak, the better you can make yourself
C. To be all ears is a shortcut to improve the communication
between spouses.
D. The Imago method is an effective way to make a couple
overhear each other.
33. What is the purpose of the passage?
A. to point out that efficient communication begins
to others
B. to show how a couple could manage to tide
in their marriage
C. to stress the point that communication is
successful marriage
D. to introduce a therapy which helps develop
listening to others

with listening
over a crisis
important to
the habit of

An alien astronomer, observing Earth's solar system from afar,
might conclude that two or even three of its planets were clement
enough for life. The worlds that humans call Earth and Mars
lie within the sun's habitable zone, being far enough from it
for liquid water to exist on their surfaces. Venus, which skirts
the zone's inner edge, would be a marginal case. In reality, only
Earth is inhabited. Venus is the devil's greenhouse, wrapped in
a thick layer of planet-heating carbon dioxide that gives it a
surface temperature of more than 450. Mars is the opposite:
a frigid desert almost bereft of atmosphere, with all its water
locked away as ice. But __________. Ancient Martian river beds
and sedimentary rocks suggest that, early in its history, around
four billion years ago, the planet was wet, with the pressure
and warmth provided by a thicker atmosphere allowing water
to run freely across its surface. Researchers have several theories
about how Mars might have lost its air. One prominent one
involves the planet's lack of a magnetic field. Magnetized
minerals on the surface suggest that, like modern Earth, ancient
Mars had such a field. This would have helped protect its
atmosphere from the full force of the solar wind, a stream of
charged particles that radiates from the sun, by deflecting them
away. At some point between then and now, however, Mars
lost its field. That loss let the solar wind thin its atmosphere
to the wraith which remains today.
34. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. Earth lies in between
B. it was not always thus
C. nothing changes per se
D. it never had its day

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36. Which of the following is not required for a planet to have life
on it?
A. liquid water on its surface
B. a proper distance from its star
C. enormous amounts of carbon dioxide
D. a thick enough layer of atmosphere
There are anchor stores in many shopping centers like Macy's,
Nordstrom, Bloomingdale's, Sears, and the Mall of America.
Anchor stores are larger department stores that are used to provide
a major point of interest for a shopping mall or center. Sometimes
referred to as a draw tenant or key tenant, it is usually a
well-known chain store that is popular with consumers. The
presence of this type of store can entice consumers to visit the
shopping center or mall, and possibly continue to shop at the
smaller stores in the complex. The expectation is that the smaller
stores surrounding it will sell goods and services that are
complementary to, but not in competition with, those offered
by the bigger store. As a result, consumers could possibly
With the advent of the shopping mall during the 1940s and
1950s, an anchor store's value to a shopping venue was expanded.
Instead of including one anchor in the venue, malls began to
be constructed with a minimum of two anchor stores. With an
anchor tenant at each end of the mall, smaller retailers would
occupy storefronts that connected the two together. A shopper
may enter the mall at one, then shop at the smaller stores while
on the way to the other main store at the opposite end of the
Anchor stores are so important to a mall's success that
management regularly give them discounted rental rates to entice
them. The departure of key tenants portends the atrophy of a
shopping mall. Without the larger stores to help maintain
consumer interest, the smaller stores usually begin to seek retail
space in other malls or centers as soon as possible. Once the
anchors and most of the smaller retail outlets have left the facility,
it is usually referred to as a dead mall.
37. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. be given more care and attention
B. use the mall as a point of reference
C. complete their shopping at one place
D. purchase better items at lower prices
38. Choose the closest in meaning to the underlined "portends the
atrophy of a shopping mall."
A. puts a shopping mall into an economic hardship
B. is the first sign of the decline of a shopping mall
C. leads a shopping mall to turn over a new leaf
D. proves to be a hurdle to the growth of a shopping mall

39. Which of the following cannot be inferred about "anchor stores"?

A. They were initiated by the shopping malls in the mid-twentieth
B. They can contribute to increasing the occupancy rate of the
shopping mall.
C. They tend to be given financial advantages by the shopping
mall management.
D. They are scientifically positioned to get as much consumer
traffic as possible.
40. What is the best title for the passage?
A. How Have the Modern Malls Evolved?
B. How Does a Mall Manage Its Stores?
C. What Does an Anchor Do for Consumers?
D. What Is an Anchor Store in the Mall?
The strange thing is that man goes on year after year making
good resolutions, believing for an hour or two that by some
means he will in the end be able to outwit the human nature
of lacking willpower. The experience of six million years mocks
him, but faith has always been indifferent to experience.
Experience calls us liars as we promise to mend our ways, but
we in our turn accuse experience of ignorance of the future,
and bid it confine itself to the moldy past where all its scholarship
lies. We tell ourselves that for experience to express an opinion
about the future is as absurd as it would be for a professor of
Latin to dogmatize about the moons of Jupiter. Experience said
for centuries that men cannot fly, that they cannot go in boats
under the sea, that to travel a thousand miles in a horseless car
is impossible. Faith replied that this only proved the ignorance
of experience, and today experience is compelled to admit that
faith was by some miraculous means right. It would be going
too far to say that faith has nothing to learn from experience,
but, on the whole, if we look back over the records of our absurd
and noble race, we shall find that faith has taught more things
to experience than it has learned from it. History is a story of
the achievements of faith. Take faith out of the story, and you
would have nothing left but man running about wild in a jungle.
41. Choose the closest in meaning to the underlined last sentence.
A. Without faith, man would be violent.
B. History reveals man's faith in nature.
C. Without faith, man would have freedom.
D. Civilization is a product of man's faith.
42. Which of the following is true about "experience" and "faith"?
A. Man has developed faith by experience since he appeared
on the earth.
B. Faith turns to experience for help but experience turns away
from faith.
C. Experience discourages man but faith gets him to venture
beyond his power.
D. Man of experience ruled the past and man of faith will rule
the future.

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43. What is the tone of the passage?

A. sincere
B. critical
C. humorous
D. skeptical
The turn of the 20th century was a generally __________
era, as life in Europe and the United States underwent some
dramatic shifts. Industrialism was on the rise, many nations
participated in the First World War, and society was rapidly
changing. As the rules of life shifted underfoot, some dancers
began to feel that the formal rules of classical ballet were too
restricting, and they began to develop their own style of
free-flowing dance, which came to be known as "modern" dance,
to differentiate it from classical ballet.
Modern dance is now more closely mingled with other
disciplines like jazz dance, ballet, and tap, and some dancers
work in both modern and classical dance styles, drawing
techniques from both. In a modern dance performance, the dancer
is often barefoot, or wearing soft shoes. He or she moves in
a free, almost improvisational style, and it is common to see
controlled falls and other interesting interplays of body weight
and gravity. Unlike ballet, which reaches for the stars with leaps
and high kicks, modern dance often lingers near the ground,
especially in a piece heavily influenced by psychology and intense
emotional states.
44. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. frivolous
B. hedonistic
C. treacherous
D. iconoclastic
45. According to the passage, what does not characterize "modern
A. performing impromptu
B. following the rigid rules
C. combining various elements
D. staying low to the floor
46. Which of the following cannot be inferred about "modern dance"?
A. In an era of nonconformism, it was born to break boundaries.
B. It uses body weight and center of gravity to embellish
C. It places emphasis on the serious expression of inner emotions.
D. It was hailed as an answer to social maladies in the twentieth

Inflammation occurs when you're injured or exposed to
disease-causing germs. In response, your body's immune system
releases proteins called cytokines to fight off harmful microbes
and repair damage. But now some experts believe that chronic
exposure to cytokines from inflammation caused by stress,
diet and environmental toxins may lower the feel-good
hormone serotonin and contribute to depression.
Scientists first made the connection in the 1980s when they
injected animals with bacteria to trigger inflammation. The
animals exhibited symptoms of depression: lethargy, loss of
appetite and avoiding social contact. Subsequent studies have
found that depressed people have higher levels of inflammatory
chemicals such as C-reactive protein in their blood. Intrigued,
a team of researchers gave infliximab an anti-inflammatory
drug that treats auto-immune diseases to people with major
depression and found that subjects with high levels of C-reactive
protein reported __________ than those without inflammation.
While inflammation isn't likely the primary cause of
depression, experts increasingly agree that it can prolong or
worsen it. Treating depression in patients who have high levels
of inflammation with anti-inflammatory drugs may have a big
impact on their mood.
47. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. greater improvement in depression symptoms
B. smaller improvement in depression symptoms
C. greater improvement in inflammatory symptoms
D. smaller improvement in inflammatory symptoms
48. Which of the following is true about "inflammation"?
A. It impedes the release of cytokines and facilitates that of
B. Its relation to bacteria was first shown by animal experiments
in the 1980s.
C. Its level is in direct proportion to that of C-reactive protein
in the blood.
D. It is a process in which germs attack impaired body parts
and cause disease.
49. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. Depression is caused by low levels of the feel-good hormone
B. Inflammation resulting from the ways of modern life may
trigger depression.
C. A scientific team has developed a cure for depression called
D. Treating depression with anti-inflammatory drugs may be just
a makeshift.

Superstitions are very much part of the culture. The commonest
is the "evil eye", a concept going back to Roman times, where
a particular malevolent look is thought to bring misfortune to
the person at whom it's directed. People hang ceramic eye
talismans in their homes, cars and offices to dispel evil. It's
thought that gazing __________ may accidentally cause harm
too. This is why the Evil Eye is often portrayed as blue, because
foreigners are more likely to have blue eyes and to have a habit
of staring. Another good luck charm is the so-called Hand of
Fatima the prophet Muhammad's daughter often used as
a door knocker to protect the house and its occupants. Belief
in genies is also common they are mentioned in the Quran.
These invisible spirits can be good or evil.
50. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. suspiciously
B. in admiration
C. askance
D. in despair
51. Which of the following can be inferred about "superstitions"?
A. They all involve tangible objects with special powers.
B. They are all intended to promote good among people.
C. They are found in all the cultures in the world.
D. They all have their origins in the world's major religions.
An estimated 25,000 species of orchids, over the past 80
million years or so, have managed to colonize six continents
and virtually every conceivable terrestrial habitat, from the deserts
of western Australia to the cloud forests of Central America,
from the forest canopy to the underground, from remote
Mediterranean mountaintops to living rooms, offices, and
restaurants the world over.
The secret of their success? In a word, dupery. Though some
orchids do offer conventional food rewards to the insects and
birds that carry their pollen from plant to plant, roughly a third
of orchid species long ago figured out, unconsciously of course,
that they can save on the expense of nectar and increase the
odds of reproducing by __________, whether that ruse be visual,
aromatic, tactile, or all three at once. Some orchids lure bees
with the promise of food by mimicking the appearance of
nectar-producing flowers, while others, as in the case of a Dracula
orchid, attract gnats by producing an array of nasty scents, from
fungus and rotten meat to cat urine and baby diaper. Some orchids
promise shelter, deploying floral forms that mimic insect burrows
or brood rooms. Others mimic male bees in flight, hoping to
incite territorial combat that results in pollination.
52. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. drawing on natural enemies
B. hiding in their surroundings
C. evolving a clever deceit
D. sharpening their sensibility

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53. Which of the following can be inferred about "orchids"?

A. They primarily use fragrant smell to decoy flying bees and
B. They are of ancient origin and are nearly ubiquitous on the
C. They are vulnerable to extreme weather, as their appearance
D. They cannot but provide their pollinators with reciprocal

57. What is the main idea of the passage?

A. Despite the rise of feminism, women are not free from the
suffering of ageing.
B. Female celebrities can inspire common women to lead a more
valuable later life.
C. A key to the problems of ageing women is to continue doing
meaningful things.
D. For all people, it is a secret of happiness to engage in creative
social activities.

54. What
A. to
B. to
C. to
D. to


is the purpose of the passage?

describe the ecological features of various orchids
compare the ways orchids camouflage themselves
give various information on how to identify orchids
explain a reproductive strategy of orchids in detail

Feminism does not prepare a woman better for the dilemmas
of ageing. It is easy to disdain the dictates of youthful beauty
when she is young, but it becomes rather less so when she feels
more likely to be ignored because of her age. Indeed, the ageing
female has long been a figure of scorn, from the hags and
harridans of myth to the witches (usually older widows living
alone) targeted in the Middle Ages. Old age often brings
loneliness and sadness, but also a greater appreciation of the
transience of all things a thought that can be moving, not
just depressing.
Women in search of a meaningful way forward can find
inspiration in the words of Simone de Beauvoir. At 55 the French
writer complained of feeling marginalized and undesirable, while
her frail paramour Jean-Paul Sartre enjoyed the admiration of
young, beautiful women. But ten years later she was revived
with a new love for a much younger woman and a new
political vitality. If old age is not to be an absurd parody of
our former life, she wrote, it is essential to go on pursuing ends
that give our existence meaning, such as devotion to other people,
causes and creative work. This may well be the secret to enjoying
life at any age.
55. Choose the closest in meaning to the underlined "If old age is
not to be an absurd parody of our former life."
A. If the old generation must not be made fun of by youngsters
B. If we cannot remain as cynical in later life as in earlier life
C. If old age is not a ridiculous time we repeat our life before
D. If we do not wish to live as if we were young in our later
56. Which of the following can be inferred about "old age"?
A. We can find a silver lining in the cloud of it.
B. It brings about many gender-specific troubles in life.
C. It does not affect how conscious women are of their beauty.
D. The more intelligent one is, the more easily one can deal
with it.

2015 1 (KUET) -7

/2014-04-10 15:05

Watching his grandson playing in his pram one day, Freud

observed him throwing a toy out of the pram and exclaiming
fort!(gone away), then hauling it in again on a string to the cry
of da!(here). This, the famous fort-da game, Freud interpreted
as the infant's symbolic mastery of its mother's absence; but it
can also be read as the first glimmerings of narrative. Fort-da
is perhaps the shortest story we can imagine: an object is lost,
and then recovered. But even the most complex narratives can
be read as variants on this model: the pattern of classical narrative
is that an original settlement is disrupted and ultimately restored.
From this viewpoint, narrative is a source of __________: lost
objects are a cause of anxiety to us, symbolizing certain deeper
unconscious losses and it is always pleasurable to find them
put securely back in place.
Something must be lost or absent in any narrative for it to
unfold: if everything stayed in place there would be no story
to tell. This loss is distressing, but exciting as well: desire is
stimulated by what we cannot quite possess, and this is one source
of narrative satisfaction. If we could never possess it, however,
our excitation might become intolerable and turn into displeasure;
so we must know that the object will be finally restored to us,
that Tom Jones will return to Paradise Hall and Hercule Poirot
will track down the murderer. We have been able to tolerate
the disappearance of the object because our unsettling suspense
was all the time shot through by the secret knowledge that it
would finally come home. Fort has meaning only in relation
to da.
58. Choose the one that best fills in the blank.
A. consolation
B. bereavement
C. trepidation
D. intemperance
59. Which of the following can be inferred about "fort-da"?
A. Fort-da was a discovery made through Freud's continued
B. Fort-da was seen by Freud as representing lack of maternal
C. Fort guarantees a narrative's fictitiousness and da its reality.
D. Fort cannot initiate a narrative if da is entirely impossible
to attain.
60. What is the best title for the passage?
A. Freud's Contribution to Literary Theory
B. Fort-da: A Primitive Form of Narrative
C. The Duality of A Famous Baby Game
D. The Roles of Fort and Da in Narratives