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Quantum yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_yield

Quantum yield
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The quantum yield () of a radiation-induced process is the number of times a specific event occurs per photon
absorbed by the system. The "event" is typically a kind of chemical reaction.

Contents
1 Applications
2 Examples
3 See also
4 References

Applications
The quantum yield for the decomposition of a reactant molecule in a decomposition reaction is defined as:

Quantum yield can also be defined for other events, such as fluorescence:

Here, quantum yield is the emission efficiency of a given fluorophore.

Examples
Quantum yield is used in modeling photosynthesis:[1]

In a chemical photodegradation process, when a molecule falls apart after absorbing a light quantum, the
quantum yield is the number of destroyed molecules divided by the number of photons absorbed by the system.
Since not all photons are absorbed productively, the typical quantum yield will be less than 1.
Quantum yields greater than 1 are possible for photo-induced or radiation-induced chain reactions, in which a
single photon may trigger a long chain of transformations. One example is the reaction of hydrogen with
chlorine, in which a few hundred molecules of hydrochloric acid are typically formed per quantum of blue light
absorbed.

3/8/2015 9:44 PM

Quantum yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 of 2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_yield

In optical spectroscopy, the quantum yield is the probability that a given quantum state is formed from the
system initially prepared in some other quantum state. For example, a singlet to triplet transition quantum yield
is the fraction of molecules that, after being photoexcited into a singlet state, cross over to the triplet state.
The fluorescence quantum yield is defined as the ratio of the number of photons emitted to the number of
photons absorbed. Experimentally, relative fluorescence quantum yields can be determined by measuring
fluorescence of a fluorophore of known quantum yield with the same experimental parameters (excitation
wavelength, slit widths, photomultiplier voltage etc.) as the substance in question. The quantum yield is then
calculated by:

where is the quantum yield, Int is the area under the emission peak (on a wavelength scale), A is absorbance
(also called "optical density") at the excitation wavelength, and n is the refractive index of the solvent. The
subscript R denotes the respective values of the reference substance.[2]

See also
Quantum Efficiency

References
1. ^ Skillman JB (2008). "Quantum yield variation across the three pathways of photosynthesis: not yet out of the dark".
J. Exp. Bot. 59 (7): 164761. doi:10.1093/jxb/ern029 (https://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fjxb%2Fern029).
PMID 18359752 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18359752).
2. ^ Albert M. Brouwer, Standards for photoluminescence quantum yield measurements in solution
(http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/83/12/2213/) (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 83, No. 12,
pp. 22132228, 2011. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-09-31.

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Categories: Radiation Spectroscopy Photochemistry

This page was last modified on 24 November 2014, at 14:21.


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3/8/2015 9:44 PM