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Neuroanatomy Dr.

Estrada
Cerebral cortex forms the complete covering over cereberal hemispheres
Made up of gray matter
1.5 4.5 mm in thickness
Functional areas:
Frontal Lobe
Precentral area divided into 2 regions:
1. Posterior region motor area / primary motor area / broadmann area 4
Found in precentral gyrus extending to the anterior part of the paracentral
lobule medially
*lateral aspect image
Fxn: stimulation produces movements on the opposite side of the body
(contralateral)
Exceptions: bilateral movements: extraoccular muscles and muscles of the
upper part of the face, tongue, jaw, larynx and pharynx
*parts of the body in primary motor area image
Upper part of body lateral side
Lateral medial side
Motor homunculus
Area of face, hand, and fingers larger than other body parts =
representation related to skill of the movement not to the muscle mass
More neurons are involved in motor movements
2. Anterior region premotor area / secondary motor arean / BM area 6
Loc: Anterior part of precentral gyrus, posterior parts of sup, middle, inferior
frontal gyri
*image lat view of brain
Fxn: stores programs of motor activity related to past experiences, programs
activity of primary motor area
3. Supplementary motor area
Found anterior to the paracentral lobule
Fxn: contralateral movements of the limbs
Ablation og this structure = No effect on limb movement (as long as primary
motor area is intact)
4. Frontal eyefield / BM area 8
Located in middle frontal gyrus
Fxn: voluntary scanning movements of the eyes independent of visual
stimuli, eyes can moves even without stimulus
5. Motor speech area/ Brocas area/ BM area 44, 45
Located inferior frontal gyrus
Bm 44 pars obercularis
Bm 45 pars triangularis
Left dominant individuals (right handed): brocas area is in left cerebral
hemisphere
Right dominant: brocas area right cm
Ablation of non-dominant part: no effect on speech

Fxn: motor movements employed in speech / ability to speak


6. Prefrontal area / BM areas 9, 10, 11, 12
- part of frontal lobe anterior to precentral area
occupies sup, middle, inf frontal gyri, orbital gyrus (inferior part of frontal
lobe near olfactory bulbs), ant of cingulate gyrus
fxn: personality resides, determines judgment and initiative, regulates depth
of feeling/ emotions
*hypothalamus where emotions generate, amygdala strengthens emotion,
prefrontal regulates
Parietal lobe
1. primary somesthetic area / bm 3, 1, 2
loc: post central gyrus extending to the post part of paracentral lobule
fxn: reception of general sensations (pain, touch, temp)
receive afferents from ventral posterolateral and vpmedial of thalamus
senasations from opposite of body go to primary somesthetic area
exceptions: laryx, pharynx, perineum (bilateral)
representation: same as motor homunculus ---- sensory homunculus
related to functional significance not to size of body part
two-point discrimination test, face: easily determined, thigh: X
2. somesthetic assoc area / bm areas 5 & 7
loc: superior parietal lobule
fxn: integrates different sensory modalities
stereognosis testing: facing familiar objects in hand without vision.
Identifying objects without seeing it. Differentiating through feeling/touch
relates it past experiences object can be interpreted and recognized
Occipital lobe
1. primary visual area / bm 17
loc: lies on the bank of calcarine sulcus/fissure
fxn: reception of visual input (vision)
2. secondary visual area / bm 18 & 19
loc: surrounds primary visual area
fxn: relates visual input received by primary visual are to past experiences
( what is seen is recognized and appreciated)
ie: binigyan ka ng flower, na-appreciate mo, kinilig ka beh
occipital eye field within secondary visua area
fxn: movement of eyeballs when following an object
Temporal lobe
1. primary auditory area / bm 41, 42 / gyrus of heschel
loc: inner aspect of sup temporal gyrus,
need to move lateral fissure of sylvius to appreciate it
fxn: reception of sounds
ant part: receptions of sounds low intensity/frequency
post part: reception of sounds of high intensity/frequency
2. secondary auditory / bm 22
loc: just posterior to the primary auditory area
fxn: interprets sounds, association of sounds with other sensory modalities

3. sensory speech area of Wernicke/ wernickes area/ in other books: bm 22,


pero in discussion X
loc: post primary auditory extending to the parietal lobe, encompasses sup
temporal gyrus
related to brocas area via the arcuate fasciculus
received input from visual and auditory areas
fxn: comprehension of written and spoken language
defects in brocas and wernickes:
brocas: speech is labored and difficult (cannot speak well) but can
comprehend
wernickes: cannot understand what is being spoken and reading, produces
meaningless speech (word salad) parang yung ibang students pag nag
recite, word salad
4. taste area/ BM 43
loc: inferior part of postcentral gyrus extending into the insula
fxn: reception of taste
facial chorda tympani -> nucleus TS -> vpm thalamus -> bm 43
clinical sig: electrical stimulation
patients undergoing electrical stimulation -> movements opposite of the
body occurred
fMRI: dye injected absorbed by brain cells -> when person raises his hand,
neurons in motor activated (there are also activated in sensory area)
~ for diagnosis
Ambidexterity plasticity of the brain
For example:
Blind people: auditory area extends to the ___area9u