George Hathaway
Hathaway Consulting Services
39 Kendal Avenue
Toronto, Ontario M5R 1 L 5
Canada
Phone 416-929-9059; Fax 416-929-9059
Peter Graneau
Center for Electromagnetics Research
Northeastern University
Boston, M A 02115
Phone 508-369-7936; Fax 508-369-7936
obtained separately.
E7 must supply the surface tension
where IO is the intercept of the exponential energy increase required by f o g formation and
envelope on the current axis, T is the it may accelerate the droplets a little. This
damping time constant, o = 2 n f the ringing has to be done by electrodynamic Lorentz or
frequency, and t stands for time. From the Ampere forces. T h e Lorentz pinch force can
current oscillogram we can determine T and produce thrust in the direction of current
the damping factor R given by standard flow. Northrup (1907) proved that the pinch
circuit theory as thrust will be of the general electrodynamic
form
R = 2 L/T. (2)
1716
P2/P1 = v2/v1. (12)
where m is the mass of the fog and Uav its T h i s makes the ratio of final t o initial kinetic
average velocity. This should be compared energy
to the mechanical impulse received by the fog
droplets from the electrodynamic impulse P7. E2/E1 = % m vz2 / % m vi2 = (P2/Pd2, (13)
W e may write
which proves equ. (9).
P7 = JF7dt = (p0/4n) k Ji2dt. (6) For the impulse ratios of 50 - 100 of
the water arc experiments this implies E12 is
T h e action integral Ji2dt is available from the at least 1000 times larger than E7. W e
current oscillogram. T o compare P12 with P7 therefore claim that virtually all the kinetic
w e express Pi2 by energy of the fog jet leaving the water plasma
accelerator is derived from the internal water
P12 = (p0/4n) k’ Ji’dt, (7) energy contribution, Es.
1717
T o determine the fog jet m o m e n t u m , a and equs.(lO) to (14). T h e table shows these
secondary projectile consisting of balsa wood energies to vary between 1 3 . 0 and 29.2 J .
stands on the accelerator barrel. T h e dry Take shot SP24 with the largest kinetic
mass of the projectile is labeled M while the energy output. For this shot the fog mass
f o g mass absorbed in the wood is denoted by was m=0.504 g and its average velocity c a m e
m. C=0.565 p F capacitance i s charged to the t o uav=306.4 m/s. This resulted in an
voltage VO and then discharged through the impulse exerted on the secondary projectile of
accelerator by closing the switch S . A n P ~ = m u a v = 0 . 1 5 4N s. T h e action integral of
oscilloscope records the discharge current i (t) . this shot was l i z d t = 1 2 0 . 5 A's. Then with the
T h e throw height h of the secondary
projectile is measured with a freeze-frame TABLE OF RESULTS
video camera. This defines the initial
velocity vo of the projectile as Shot VO E2 Min LOSS u a v E12
# kV J J mls J
vo = d ( 2 g h), (14)
SP12 10 28.3 24.4 258 21.0
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. SP13 9 22.9 22.4 273 21.5
Because of momentum conservation, the SP14 12 40.7 27.2 235 21.5
average velocity, U a v , of the f o g mass that SP15 12 40.7 27.2 244 17.8
penetrated deep into the balsa wood is given SP16 12 40.7 27.2 229 20.9
by
SP17 10 28.3 24.4 172 13.0
SP18 10 28.3 24.4 258 21.8
SP19 10 28.3 24.4 274 23.1
In s o m e shots not all the capacitor energy is SP20 10 28.3 24.4 218 17.8
discharged, leaving a residual voltage Vr on SP21 10 28.3 24.4 191 16.1
the capacitor terminals. Hence the energy
actually discharged into the circuit is SP22 10 28.3 24.4 251 19.7
SP23 12 39.8 27.2 243 22.3
SP24 12 39.8 27.2 306 29.2
SP25 12 39.8 27.2 275 28.5
The kinetic energy of the fog jet is
Ampere force factor k=200, equ.(6) gives
P7=2.41xlO 3 N s. T h e impulse and energy
ratios, therefore, are Piz/P7=63.9 and
Neither the mass distribution of the fog E12/E7=4083. Hence E7=7.15 m J , which is
droplets nor their velocity distribution are negligible compared to E12=29.2 J and
known. As on previous occasions, the demonstrates that virtually all the kinetic
simplifying assumption is made that the energy developed by t h e explosion must be
droplets are of equal size and their velocity internal water energy.
distribution is half a cycle of a sine wave. In spite of the gain in internal water
This results i n energy, the overall energy ratio, E12/E2 is less
than unity because of the five loss
components indicated i n fig. 1. Additional
losses occur because of electrolytic action i n
T h e table lists the results of 14 shots. In the water and the emission of light and sound
all cases the water charge was w = 1 . 5 c m 3 of from the arc. W e have made a rough
distilled water at room temperature. estimate of the circuit losses. E3 is derived
from the short circuit resistance RC and the
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS action integrals of the water shots. E6 is
T h e kinetic energies of the f o g jets obtained from the water temperature rise of a
(E121 have been derived from the dry and wet f e w degrees measured with a thermocouple
weights of the balsa wood secondary projecting through t h e barrel into the water
projectile, M and M + m , the throw height h , cavity. T h e ionization energy is estimated by
1718
a method described by Graneau and Graneau
(1996). T h e s u m of the three loss
components is listed in the table under
minimum circuit loss. It varies between 67
and 94 percent of the input energy E2,
providing further confirmation that E12/E7>1.
To utilize the internal water energy for
electricity generation, large reductions in
circuit loss and barrel losses have to be
achieved. Our objective has been to prove
t h e liberation of internal water energy. We
have made n o effort to optimize the process.
REFERENCES
Azevedo, R . , Graneau, P . , Millet, C .
and Graneau, N . , 1986, "Powerful Water-
Plasma Explosions", Physics Letters A ,
Vo1.117, p.101.
Frungel, F . , 1948, " Z u m mechanischen
W i r ku n g s gr a d vo n F1u s si g k e i t s f u n ken , 0p t i k ,
Vo1.13, p.125.
Gilchrist, I . , and Crossland, B . , 1967,
"The Forming of Sheet Metal Using
Underwater Electrical Discharges", IEE
Conference Publication, No.38, p.92.
Graneau, P . , 1996, "Gaining Solar
Energy from Ordinary Water", Proceedings of
the World Renewable Energy Congress IV,
Denver, CO.
Graneau, P. and Graneau N . , 1985,
I'El e c t r o d y n a m i c Explosion s in Li qui ds ,
Applied Physics Letters, Vo1.46, p.468.
Graneau, P. and Graneau, N . , 1996,
Newtonian Electrodynamics, World
Scientific, New Jersey, pp.249-271.
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