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THE CULTURAL SCENE: ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELDWORK

Introduction:
Ifugao, commonly known for its Banaue Rice Terraces, is said to be one of the most
beautiful provinces in the Philippines. When we knew that Kiangan, Ifugao was one of
the places that we could go to for immersion, we immediately grabbed the opportunity. At
first, we thought that its just going to be another school trip wherein the tour guides try
to feed our brains with too much historical background and all. We also thought that it
was going to be very cold since we know that the Ifugao is located on the mountains. We
hope to learn and acquire the value of appreciation towards Mother Nature. We also aim
to know more about the culture of the people living in the North. The research methods
we plan to use are interviews, background research and participant observation.
Physical Description:
A. Elevation
Kiangan topographical features are generally mountainous and rise at an elevation from
approximately 500 to 1,500 meters above sea level. The highest points are indicated
within the mountain ranges of Santo Domingo with 1,290 meters, Mount Capugan (1,054
meters) Mount Nazaragay (1,482 meters) and Mount Anapawon (1,492 meters). The
lowest points are those along the Ibulao Rivers ranging from 500 to 700 meters above sea
level.
B. Slope
Slopes ranging from 0-180 with a total area of 3,085.82 hectares comprising 15.10% of
the total area are found in ten of the barangays.
C. Geographical Location and Land Area
Kiangan is located at 16-46.8 NL, 121.05.3 on the map. It is the oldest and most historic
town in Ifugao.
The municipality is composed of fifteen barangays. These are Ambabag, Baguinge,
Bokiawan, Bolog, Dalligan, Duit, Hucab, Julongan, Lingay, Mappit, Mungayang,
Nagacadan, Pindongan, Poblacion and Tuplac.
D. Physical Features
Kiangan is mountainous, its terrain marked by rugged and steep ridges. Creeks flow
down between mountains to form rivulets that drain to the IbulaoRiver. Extensive
terraced rice fields are found in all the barangaysmany of them carved on precipitous
mountainsides.
On account of its mountainous terrain and medium elevation, the climate of Kiangan is
generally moderate throughout the year not as hot as that of Lamut and Alfonso Lista

during the summer months nor as icy cold as that of Tinoc, Hungduan and the high places
in Banaue, Mayoyao and Asipulo in November through February.
E. Mineral Resources
Materials like boulders, sand and gravel available at the Ibulao River which serves as
quarry for the municipality. There are no mining operations in the municipality.
F. Freshwater Resources
A. Surface Waters
For surface waters, three (3) lakes are found in the area, the famous Ambuwaya Lake at
Barangay Ambabag, the Balangon Lake in Barangay Tuplac and the underdeveloped Ala
Lake in Barangay Baguinge
B. Groundwater Resources
Groundwater is abundant in Kiangan especially in the urban area as evident by the
shallow water table found almost everywhere. Until this time, there is no direct
utilization of groundwater for domestic purpose. Few artesian wells constructed brought
out undesired quality of tap water. A possible cause for this poor quality is that the source
came from the unconfined aquifer layer hence susceptible to contamination. The
difficulty to derive good quality of groundwater suggests that the confined aquifer lies
deeper into the soil sub-strata.

From: kiangan.gov.ph
Description of the People

Cultural Analysis

Personal Assessment

Photographys
FOOD RESEARCH PAPER
Questions for our Interview:
1. What is the food specialty of Kiangan?
2. Where did that food originate?
3. What are the main ingredients?
4. Do you have food products that are availble for export?
5. Does the government officials here have a program for the expansion of food
businesses in Kiangan?
*Our target principal informormants are our tour guide, public market food vendors and
barangay officers.
Scope:
This research is only concerned with the food culture in Kiangan, Ifugaos - including the
preparation, distribution, and appreciation of its food. The lack of time and the lack of the
qualities of a professional researcher were factors that affected our research.
Objectives:
The objective of our research paper is to appreciate and to have a deeper
understanding of the food products offered in Kiangan. We also want to assess the key
strengths and weaknesses of the specialty food they offer. Also, we want to know the
different programs that are made or can be made by the local government for the
improvement of the Kiangan food products. Along with this is to identify the strategies
that can be designed for the development of their food system and its further
dissemination to the population.
Significance:
The significance of our study is that well be able to produce a critical examination
of the food products in Kiangan and its contexts within history, society and other fields.
Through our research, we can also acquire other information and knowledge on other
food-related areas such as nutrition, agriculture, gastronomy and culinary arts. With this,
we would be able to have an understanding way beyond the mere consumption,
production and aesthetic appearance of the food. Our research could illuminate the other
Filipinos on their knowledge of the the specialty food products especially in the
provinces. The impact that our research may bring could be beneficial not only for the
other Filipinos but for the Kiangan natives as well. Hopefully, this could help their

products be more well known which could boost the economic aspect of their society.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Inlagim is a native mountain province dish for chicken.
o Procedure:
Slit the chickens throat and drain the blood in a bowl
Using firewood, sear the chicken.
Remove the feathers layer by layer, plucking the already seared
layer then placing the chicken back in fire after this is done. Repeat
the process in as many times as required.
When the chicken begins to turn black, remove it from fire and cut
it up. Clean the entrails and all the rest of the internal organs.
Prepare the chicken and water, enough to cover the chicken, in a
big pot. Peel three big ginger roots and two onion bulbs. Slice them
thinly. Add them to the chicken and water. Use salt to taste.
Bring it to a boil. Cook chicken for 45 minutes or until tender.
Make sure that the firewood is replenished regularly.
Serve to your liking.
Binakle is a traditional rice cake wrapped in banana leaves.
o Preparation: The mixture of pounded rice and sugar is placed in banana
leaves, folded and cooked/steamed on boiling water.
Baya is a native rice wice. Two kinds of baya: the red rice wine and white rice
wine.
o Ingredients:
1.5 kgs Ifugao native rice or other ordinary rice varieties
1 kg glutinous rice
1/3 yeast cake to be pulverized
o Procedure:
Mix ordinary rice with glutinous rice and cook (not well done).
Spread cooked rice on a winnower to cool then sprinkle powdered
yeast.
Mix evenly with a wooden spatula.
Place the mixture on container to ferment and cover. Container
must have a small opening at the bottom to allow initial juice to
flow. Collect the juice in a basin or any vessel.
Keep in a dry and dark room for two to three days.
Transfer the mixture into a very clean and sterilized jar. Cover
tightly.
Rice wine may be extracted after two weeks or more.
Mixture could produce two liters of rice wine in two weeks
fermentation in the jar. Four to five liters of wine could be
produced when the jar is opened after one month.
o Note: Avoid contact to acidic food or materials during the processing
Tinudok is a product sold in the market.

o Ingredients:
1 pack of mochi flour
2-3 cups of meat of young coconuts (grated)
1 tsp of baking powder
1 cup of brown or white sugar
6 Eggs
Evaporated milk
Oil
Skewers
o Procedure:
Put together the mochi flour, eggs, coconut, sugar, and baking
powder.
Incorporate (carnation) evaporated milk to create a smooth thick
dough.
Shape the dough into small balls and deep fry in moderate hot oil.
Wait until the balls float and turn brownish.
Take them out to drain on a colander.
Squash ball is a product whose main ingredient is squash. It is introduced by a
barangay officer.
Doughnut is a product sold in the market.
o Ingredients
250 ml warm water
1 tbsp. instant yeast
tsp. salt
1/3 cup white sugar
4 cups bread flour
1/8 cup vegetable shortening
2 cups cooking oil, for frying
o Procedure
Sift the bread flour and salt in a large bowl and make a well in the
center and set aside.
In another bowl, mix warm water, instant yeast and white sugar,
stir and let stand to activate the yeast.
Pour in the yeast mixture into the flour and mix from the inner part
until everything is mixed.
Transfer dough on a clean flat surface, dusted with flour and knead
the dough.
Add vegetable shortening while continuously kneading the dough
until becomes smooth and no longer sticky.
After kneading, set aside the dough in a bowl covered with plastic
wrap for 30 minutes until has risen.
After the dough has risen, sprinkle flour lightly on clean surface
and on the dough as well.

Flatten the dough with a rolling pin until half inch thick.
Cut the dough using a doughnut cutter or a round cookie
cutter uses the bigger one for the size and the smaller one for the
hole in the center. Place and arrange doughnuts on a tray and prick
with a fork to avoid doughnuts from swelling during frying.
Set aside the dough and give another 30 minutes and allow it to
expand a little bit.
Pour in the cooking oil into a pan until its hot.
Fry doughnuts by batches to avoid dough from sticking to each
other, until golden brown and flip them over to cook both sides.

Pancit is a product sold in the market.


o Ingredients
1 tbsp. cooking oil
1/2 lb. pork, sliced
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 onion, sliced
1 large carrot, julienne
1 red bell pepper, julienne
patis (fish sauce), salt, pepper and soy sauce to taste
2 cups chicken broth or water
1 cup cabbage leaves, cut into thin strips
1/2 lb. pancit bihon (rice sticks noodles)
wedges of lemon or calamansi, for garnish
o Procedure:
Rinse pancit bihon with tap water. Drain. Set aside.
Heat oil in a large skillet. Stir-fry pork slices until no longer pink
in color.
Add garlic and onion. Saut for a few minutes until soft.
Season with patis, salt, pepper and soy sauce to taste.
Add julienne carrots and red bell peppers. Stir-fry for a few
minutes.
Add chicken broth or water. Correct the seasoning.
Heat until boiling and add the drained pancit bihon.
Let it simmer and stir to loosen the noodles (separate noodles by
using a fork and a ladle)
Add a little more water or broth if you notice that is almost dry up
and noodles (pancit) are not yet cooked well. You may also add
soy sauce if you find it pale and taste bland.
Add cabbage leaves (do not overcook) and then turn off the heat.
Mix well.
Serve with lemon wedges or calamansi. Enjoy!
Pancake is a product sold in the market.
Suman is a product sold in the market.

o Ingredients:
2 cups white glutinous rice
1 1/2 cans (13.5 oz) coconut milk
1/2 cup sugar
1 teaspoon salt
banana leaves for wrapping
o Procedure:
Rinse the rice until water runs clear then drain.
In a wok or heavy pot, combine rice, coconut milk, sugar and salt.
Bring to a boil. Simmer for about 30 minutes in medium heat while
stirring constantly then reduce to lower heat.
Mixture is done when rice becomes very sticky and almost dry.
Let the temperature cool down before wrapping.
Prepare the banana leaves by wiping away any white residues with
a damp cloth.
Remove the spine and trim (size preference).
Scoop the rice mixture and place it over the prepared banana
leaves.
Start rolling to secure the rice mixture and fold the sides.
Repeat until rice mixture is finished. Set up the steamer.
Arrange the wrapped mixture into the steamer. Single layer or on
top of each other.
Steam over medium heat for about 45 minutes.
Remove from steamer. Serve with sugar. Enjoy!

Source: http://www.nikeprogramme.org/index.php/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=116:rice-wine-making&catid=82:knowledge-wewrote&Itemid=1
www.reciping.com/recipe/tinudok
http://www.pinoyrecipe.net/filipino-donut-recipe/