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Indian Astrology

(A collection of astrological articles)


By Sreenath OG

A few words
These are some of the aritcles I wrote in yahoo groups such as
'ancient_indian_astrolgy" and "vedic astrolgy" during the past 2
years. Since much effort went into creating them, at that time. I
thought it would be beneficial for others as well if presented as a
book. So I took them, polished them a bit here and there, making
them proper to be presented in a book, and here is the outcome.
The subject matter of these articles ranges from general discussion about astrolgy to more technical issues that were always under contraversy. I have arranged these articles into four sections.
* General articles
* Articles about pure astrology
* Technical articles that involves Mathematics as well
* Non-astrological articles
Hope this division will help the readers in co-relating these
disconnected articles in a helpful way.
These articles cover some unique matrial that you may not find
anywhere else, and so would be useful to every astrologer who
want to master this subject.
Most of these articles contains technical terms and astrological
content and therefore would be of interest to astrologer only, but
still there are many articles primarly in first section which would
be of interest to everybody who would like to know more about
astrology.
Sreenadh OG

Table of Contents
Part -1
1. Base of Astrolgy

03

2. Outline of Holistic subjects

07

3. Arsha School of Astrology

09

4. Jain School of Astrology

14

5. Yavana School of Astrology

17

6. Astrology in Kularnava Tantra

20

7. Tantric Astrology and Dattatreya Mahatantra

25

8. Swastika and Astrology

30

9. About the system of Black Magic

32

10. Tajik Astrology

34

Part - 2
11. Sign and House are the same

37

12. Divisions such as Trimsamsa

39

13. Year Length

42

14. Origin of the word Jyotisha

44

15. Astrology in Epic period

45

16. Nakshatra Chakra

46

17. A Secret Exposed

48

18. Bhava nasa karo Jeeva?

53

19. How to predict with Navamsa

56

20. Vasya Signs

59

21. Marriage Compatibility

62

23. Stars and Planets

64

24. Sakunas and Nimittas

67

25. Chaya Jyotish

70

26. What is Drishti?

73

27. Kunda Birth Rectification Method

78

Part -3
28. True Ayanamsa

80

29. Zero Ayanamsa Year

86

Part -4
30. About the Gospel of Eve

92

31. Rama call Buddha a 'Thief!

94

32. Siva Sankalpa Sukta

97
-000-

Part -I
Base of Astrology
Vedic astrology is a subject originated in Vedas. It is a branch
of knowledge, ancient as Vedas. Astrology is composed of 3
Skandhas (main branches), such as Sidhantha (Astronomy and
Maths), Samhitha (Omens) and Hora (Horoscope-Horary and
Muhoortha).
Astrology was also called Kalavidhana Sastha (Ancient advice about Time and its divisions). To determine the nature of time
(past-present and future), to find out how the flow of time impacts
humans and other animals and plants, and their life containing
pleasures and pains, is the aim of this branch of knowledge. It is
the root purpose of Astrology.
Time is the cause for everything that is good and bad (pleasure
or pain) in life. Time is the cause of all movements. Even thought
is a time bound (It is also a movement). Even thought cannot break
away form the boundaries caused by time, your past present and
experience. To predict the happenings (incidents) of life, we should
study time. But we cannot see, touch, or hear time, but can know
and comprehend it with our mind and analyze it. This is possible
only because we can observe movements. It is by watching movements that the concept of time originates in our mind. The movements on Earth (The flying of birds, fall of withered leaves, the
flowering of plants etc), the sunrise and sunset, the waxing and
waning of moon, if you watch in detail (even the subtleties in
cosmic movements) the movements of planets - every thing shows
us the existence of time. Time is the cause of movements. It is the
cause for the movement of Earth, Moon and Planets. It is the cause
for life and death of plants, animals, and humans, it is the cause of
all our worldly conditions - birth, marriage, accident, disease, death,

wealth, poverty or what ever you name it.


To know about the life incidents of humans (to predict one's
future) we should study Time. We cannot study it directly. But
there is a way out - Time is the cause for movements. So if we
study the movements of cosmic bodies (Earth, Moon, Planets etc),
we can know or understand or comprehend the rhythm of Time its ebb and flow. If we are able to know the rhythm of Time (the
flow of time felt by the human minds), we could predict the life
incidents of humans (what he is, and what he would become - but
don't forget of course the prediction is probabilistic). Astrology
originates from this basic rationale. So never think that it is irrational or irrelevant, don't through mud on the truthfulness and sincerity of Rishis (saints) who created this branch of study. Try to
understand the sincerity they had.
By watching the clock we can determine time. But it is not the
clock that controls time. When the birds cry we know that it is
sunrise. Still it is not the birds that cause sunrise. Similarly the
study of planetary movements helps us to predict the past-presentfuture events of life. But still it is not the planets that controls human destiny. Neither the sunlight that is reflected by the planets,
nor the attractive force of planets that has little impact on earth,
has much importance. It is a truth both the wise astrologer and the
scientist know. Planets are just instruments that helps us in understanding the rhythm of time, the instrument that helps us in predicting the human destiny. It is the way planets are utilized in astrology. Every believer of Vedic astrology should understand this
truth.
Only when you understand this basic rationale of astrology,
the unnecessary arguments and debates will stop. Try to see astrology in its true theoretical foundation. Why should we argue
whether astrology is an art or science? Astrology is nothing but
astrology. If somebody asks whether bat is bird or not, what would

be the answer? It will only create an unending array of positive


and negative arguments. If somebody asks whether history is science or not, without my intervention, you know that the result
would be the same. Bat is bat, history is history and astrology is
nothing but astrology, neither science nor an art.
The fault is with our view. Why should we try to cast something into a particular mould, or to limit subjects into some colored
boxes? Man wants to classify everything. But the truth would be
always beyond all the classifications. It stays outside all the classification attempts. The fault lies fundamentally with the fragmented
human brain that tries to classify every thing, which ultimately
leads to erroneous knowledge. This fundamental error remains
unsolved, and we are trying to limit subjects in to predefined boxes.
It is the second mistake. Will these repeated errors lead us to correct knowledge and view?
When I have written this much, I felt that the fundamental classification error of fragmented human brain should be clarified further. Let me explain. We divide time in many ways, such as hourminute-second, or as Nadi-Vinadi in Indian system, or as cristianvikrama-kali-yuga era or using many other systems that could be
used to divide time. Year-month-day divisions, let it be solar-sidereal-lunar, it is all the same. There are thousands of methods! All
these classifications originated in human mind. But truly time is
beyond all these classifications. Is it the hour-minute division or
the nadi-vinadi division that is correct? You know that this question itself is stupid and irrelevant. Time is continuous.... All these
classifications are created by the fragmented human brain to comprehend time. Our view is fragmented. It is like a fragmented mirror that shows the picture of the complete and continuous world in
a fragmented way. Even though these classifications are necessary for humans to study and comprehend time, the continuous
entity "Time" does not need or necessitates all these classification.

All these classifications are there or not - the time will prevail.
Existing always there - beyond... Yes, all the classifications are
wrong. But human brain cannot live without them. That is why it
is said that every branch of study is nothing but "attempts to comprehend the incomprehensible and complete world with fragmented classifications".
In a fragmented mirror the reflected world would also be fragmented. It is the fundamental limitation of human brain or mind.
That is why it is said, "the eternal truth is realized only in a mindless state". The Vedic verse that says, "where the mind turns back
with the unreachable words (etho vacha nivarthanthe aprapya
manasa saha) - that is truth" also points in this direction. Due to all
this we cannot but accept the fundamental error of trying to comprehend the non-fragmented existence (world), with the fragmented
mind. Can't we at least avoid the second error, i.e. trying to limit
astrology into some predefined boxes such as science or art? Can't
we avoid such arguments as whether astrology is art or science?
Try to comprehend astrology in its true theoretical foundation. View
science as science and art as art, don't mix-up all. Like humanity
is a quality of man neither limited by class-creed-color-religioncast etc, astrology cannot be limited within the classifications such
as science or art.
When I see the efforts of people to classify astrology into predefined moulds such as science or art, I am just feeling compassionate, because even these classifications are unscientific and nonsystematic. A relevant doubt is, how to classify all the subjects
under human study. The thought process of human mind can be
broadly classified into two - 1) Analytical 2) Wholistic. The astrologer refers to this duality using the words ooha-apoha,
mathematician's uses the words Differentiation -Integration, and
others uses the technical term Analytical approach-Wholistic approach. What ever be the terms used they point to the fundamental

difference in the thinking approach. These are two different thinking methods. Most of the braches of knowledge we have today is
the product of one of these approaches.
Science is the product of analytical approach. We used to say
that science tries to study everything by dividing it into smaller
and smaller parts. Science has its own method (based on analytical approach) called Scientific method. Data collection, concept
formation, analysis, verification are part of it. A theory is the final
output. These theories may later herald as the true mirrors or knowledge (laws), or based on new data input refined or discarded. Thus
science is a continuous search for truth. Starting from small laws
that controls our daily life, unstopping it searches for a single law
that comprehends everything and describes the whole world. Some
theories that are refined further and further become stronger rationally and experimentally, and heralded as laws, that becomes the
foundation of science and promotes further study. Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology etc are all branches of science. Maths even
though does not follow the scientific method, has a systematic
foundation and is a product of analytical approach. "Fact to generalization" is the prime motto of analytical approach. But wholistic
study method is an entirely different one.
The wholistic approach also had given raise to many branches
of knowledge. Let us start from the most common example - i.e.
Psychology. Psychology says that all the mental diseases (which
may have even physical symptoms) are caused by unhealthiness
of mind. In other words Psychology finds its foundation in the
concept called Mind. If we knew all about the processes in brain,
nervous system, and the chemical reactions in brain and body this
concept of mind will not be necessary. We feel the Mind because
of the combined and coordinated function of all these. Even though
we cannot find Mind by subdividing the body in to its minutest
parts (i.e. by physical analysis) nobody will say that psychology is

a useless subject. By using the classifications such as conscious subconscious -unconscious, id-ego-superego (or the Indian classical division chitt-budhi-ahankara), we believe that psychology
leads us towards truth. All the branches of knowledge that originates from wholistic method use one or more non-provable concepts as its foundation, which are accepted based on their usefulness. Psychology is no exception to that. The ancient Indians used
the word Sasthra (ancient advice) to indicate such branches of
study. Psychology that speaks about Mind, Ayurveda that speaks
about Tridosha (Vatha, Pitha and Kapha), Homeopathy and
Naturopath that speaks about Vital force, Astrology that speaks
about Planets and Signs (Rasis) all are the product of wholistic
approach. In this sense subjects such as Psychology, Ayurveda,
Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Astrology etc does not come under
the broad classification called Science. Still we know that nobody
will dare to say that Psychology, Ayurveda etc are useless. In the
view of ancient people sasthras leads us to truth, they helps us to
comprehend truth more clearly, they helps us to know truth that
are useful for our existence. Astrology that depends on wholistic
approach is no exception to this. In this study method called
wholistic approach, firstly to cover all our ignorance about the
details of something and to help the further study, some basic concepts are formulated. This hypothetical foundation becomes a
springboard for further study. Here also psychology can be taken
as a suitable example. When we know 100% about the processes
and behavior of brain and body, when we understands which
chemical reactions leads to each thought and emotion, when we
could clearly state how and where memory is encoded (with its
minutest details), when we attain the ability to control all these
using chemical and physical mechanisms (machine driven or otherwise) we could discard the concept of mind and psychology.
Till then psychology will exist, no matter how ever the scientists
express their reaction to it. Similarly when we understands how

the rhythm of time impacts the living organisms and their life incidents (100% i.e. to its minutest details) astrology will also be discarded. Till then whatever opposing arguments originate, this
branch of knowledge will prevail.
Even those who accept that Psychology Ayurveda Homeopathy etc are wholistic methods, tend to reject astrology. Why? They
ask - How can you say that astrology is based on a fundamental
concept like Mind, Tridosha or Vital force used by other branches
of wholistic approach? Can you consider Sun Moon and Planets
as concepts? Signs (Rasis) such as Aries, Taurus are the divisions
of sky - how can they be concepts? All who sincerely study the
ancient Vedic astrology knows the answers to such questions. I
will explain.
Think that we collect the common characteristics or life incidents of children born, when the sun is in some particular sign.
Instead of considering these characteristics as that of time, they
are projected to sun. Sun is considered the significator of all such
characteristics. Later when the sun in the same sign, if a child is
bom, we predict that, that child will have those predefined (precollected) characteristics. It is a sort of give and take policy. The
technique of projecting the characteristics those are not of sun to
sun, and later taking them back from sun. Here the sun becomes
not the sun that we see with our naked eyes. Sun becomes a concept. This sun is the god Siva, father, gold, soul, courage, success,
light, king, govt. service, light, forest, peak, hill... and so many
other things. Sun is man, middle-aged, bald, and the significator
of diseases due to heat. All these ideas are formed thus. Not only
the Sun, Moon and the Planets becomes concepts in this way.
What ever is called significators in astrology, they are all concepts
(Hypothetical constructs to mould the truth). Yes, in astrology Planets, Houses and Signs are called significators. Therefore Signs,
Houses and Planets are the basic concepts used in wholistic study

method called astrology. Apart from this some other basic concepts that are used by Vedic culture such as Panchabootha (EarthWater-Fire-Air-Sky), Triguna (Sathwa-Rajas-Thamas) etc are also
well utilized in astrology.
Of the two approaches such as Analytical approach and
Wholistic approach, Astrology and Ayurveda is closer to wholistic
approach. As these two methods (Analytical and Wholistic) are
fundamental to the thought process itself, why should they compete each other? Why should the branches of study that are part of
wholistic approach try fruitlessly to become part of science (a product of analytical approach)? Even physics should resort to the use
of concepts such as stress, strain, force, time etc. Ayurveda cannot
stand away from the fact that the use of its methods should cure
the patient. The world we see is composed of both facts and concepts (matter and mind). Because of all this, the analytical approach
that takes facts as the starting point and the wholistic approach
that takes concepts at the starting point should ultimately meet and
help each other to the ultimate fulfillment of human knowledge.
They are like yin and yang, the opposing counter parts of one and
the same thing. As both of them are the foundation of thought
process itself - one defeating the other is impossible.
Don't think that even this classification such as Analytical and
Wholistic is complete. Don't ever think that you can bring all the
subjects under the sun into this classification. As I told earlier, all
the classifications are nothing but the creations of human mind.
The truth would remain outside all classifications. In this case also
it is true. (Just think of bringing subjects such as art and history
into this classification. You will see what I mean!!) A Vedic astrologer should be ready to approach astrology with such realizations, because astrology is part of a wholistic approach to study
the rhythm of time and make probabilistic predications.
Hope I have succeeded in conveying the idea that I had.

Outline of holistic subjects


We can structurally classify the subject matter dealt within any
holistic subject (Such as astrology, Vastu sastra, Ayurveda etc) into
the following 4 categories: 1) Philosophy 2) Concepts 3) Rules
4) Rituals. Let us understand this in a better way by taking astrology as an example.
1) Philosophy
The philosophy such as "Sarva vidyam Brahma vidya
Pratishtam" (All knowledge is based on Brahma vidya - the knowledge of the soul and the eternal) is at the root of astrology. Everything is a small print of the eternal. The microcosm and the macrocosm is in rhythmic correlation. We cannot define the eternal Brahman or the duality it has with in, popularly known as Prakriti (Matter) and Purusha (Energy + Time). Brahman represents the spacetime continuum and anything beyond it. It also includes everything the mind can understand and everything beyond it. Brahman (of which space and time is just components) is the reality
and what we understand though the classifications and theorems
is just the reflection. Mind can only reflect truth and can never
comprehend it. The Sun and its reflectionon in water should be
entirely different in essence, though seems to be similar. Understanding this truth is the first step in utilizing the study methods
(scientific or holistic) provided by the mind itself. So in reality we
can not define Brahman (Since every definition has existence only
within mind, and Brahman represents mind and things beyond it.
Every theorem exists only in mind). Same is the case with Prakriti
and Purusha. Even though we cannot define the eternal (Let it be
Brahman, Purusha or Prakriti), it can have many practical definitions. For example in Astrology Purusha = Kala Purusha (Energy + Time)
Prakriti = Zodiac (3 Dimensional Space including sky and

planets)
In Vastu SastraPurusha = Vastu Purusha (Built space + Energy)
Prakriti = Vastu (3 dimensional space including as land and
environment)
In AyurvedaPurusha = Body (Soul + Mind + Body)
Prakriti = Nature (Nature of body + Environment)
Any one can expand/explore this or similar philosophic content in astrology or in any other holistic subject. The holistic philosophic content is a thread that is common to all holistic subjects.
2) Concepts
(i) Concept of Universe (Zodiac)
The universe around us (for the people living in earth) is spherical in shape. We can use the ecliptic to represent the circular horizontal plane in it and the celestial poles represents the other two
directions up and below that sphere. But this spherical representation causes problems, since it is difficult to project the 8 directions
correctly in it, and it is difficult to draw. Therefore in astrology the
spherical circular shape of the zodiac is represented as a square.
Yes, as you know it is the Rasi chakra (The Zodiac), as popularly
known to us, starting from the first point of Aries and Aswini stellar division. (Reasons for fixing this point as the first point and
dividing the ecliptic into 30 deg and 13 deg 20 min divisions etc is
the stuff for another discussion, involving lot of mathematics.
Chandrahari has done it in an excellent way in his book Hindu
Zodiac)
Other similar/fundamental concepts in astrology are: (ii) Kala
Purusha (iii) Prakriti-Purusha (iv) Signs (v)Planets (vi) Houses

(vii) Nakshatras (viii) Pancha Bhoota etc


I invite others to go into the depths or give an introduction to
such concepts in astrology for the benefit of all, for the benefit of
beginners for understanding them as concepts. Here, in this discussion, the point I want to emphasis is that, many such concepts
forms the foundation for any holistic subject.
3) Rules
The Rules can be divided into two - Laws and Principles. Well
tested, well founded, unchangeable rules with a mathematical precession are termed Laws. And the flexible and simple rules that
are used to describe, modify, expand and apply the Laws can be
termed principles. Laws are nothing but, well accepted principles.
Let us understand them in the light of astrology.
(i) Laws
Even though we have the concepts in its place, we need to
know the laws to utilize those concepts. In astrology it starts with(a) Rules to divide the zodiac into Signs and Nakshatras.(b) The
7-fold rule for calculating Yogas (which ultimately lead to prediction) (c) The rules for calculating Dasa and Gochara.
(ii) Principles
Let us understand them with some examples- (a) Rules that
explain how the Signs, Houses, Nakshatras and Planets can be
made use in prediction, (b) Rules that tells us about the 7-fold
prediction system and the exceptions related to it. (c) Rules to be
followed while predicting with Dasa and Gochara. Almost the
whole of the astrology is nothing but this rules (which base themselves on the fundamental concepts) and there application.
5)Rituals
Rituals that is associated with implementation etc. For example(i) Rituals (Actions) associated with Prasna such as determination

of Arudha.(ii) Rituals associated with worshiping of the signs, planets etc.(iii) Remedial rituals associated with etc
In this short essay I have tried to categorize the content dealt
with in any holistic subject taking astrology as an example. Yes,
the categorization of subject matter into- Philosophy, Concepts,
Rules, Rituals is important in any holistic subject. This fundamental classification should be considered, and any subject should be
weighed against this, so as to ascertain whether it is holistic or not.
If it is a holistic subject, then it will fit into this categorization and
also will not obey the path of scientific method
Any comments on this regard are welcome. I also request others to weigh other subjects such as Yoga, Vastu, Naturopathy, Psychology, Ayurveda etc as per these structural norms.
Arsha School of Astrology
India is a country with a great tradition. In every branch of
knowledge it has its uniqueness. Agama (Tantric) and Nigama
(Vedic) knowledge molded the foundation of everything. Before
looking into these foundations, let us have a look at the astrological system that grew up from these very roots, and became the
great river from which almost all the other streams drew energy.
This vast knowledge base is the Arsha or Sanatana school of astrology of which great saints like Vasishta and Viswamitra
(Kousika) and the others of Saptarshis were the gurus. It is the
purest flow of original astological knowledge, which I cherish in
my mind, and want to learn more about. It is the school of astrology from which most of current knowledge of astrology draws its
power from. It is the school of astrology which all the other schools
fully accepted but later modified.
Was it from an effort to unite the Agama and Nigama systems
of astrology that this school stemmed? Otherwise why Skanda
(kartikeya /Muruka) of the Tantric system was considered the origi-

nator of this system when the text itself tries to emphasis the importance of Vedic (Nigama) knowledge as well? In the whole of
Vedic literature or in the epics we can not see the Rasi chakra but
only the Nakshatra chakra. In the whole of Vedic literature we can
see only the Tropical solar and lunar months, but not the Sidereal
Solar months like Mesha (Aries), Vrishabha (Taurus) etc. The Vedic
(Nigama) system of astrology was fully based on Tropical Months
and (fixed) Sidereal Nakshatra system. But the Tantric (Agama)
system of astrology was fully based on (fixed) Sidereal Solar
Months and (fixed) Sidereal Nakshatra system. The Tantrics used
the fixed framework of Rasi + Nakshatra to study the sky. For
them the point 120 deg away from fiducial starMoola (Mahakala,
the path of pritr Yana) was very important since it represented the
point where the 7 planet conjunction occurred (Meshadi). Ra-Si
chakra was their symbolic Yogic body of Kalapurusha. The
Kalatantra the Tantrics cherished was a result of a mix of Yogic
experience and the Mahakala who himself is the universe - the
rhythm of universe becoming one with that of human body. The
Suras (Vedic followers) and Asuras (Tantrics) fought for long! Over
theoretical issues, importance ofYaga and Yoga, Tropical and Sidereal Calendar systems, importance of Nakshatra and Rasi, No
temples or Temples, Architecture methods that should be followed
and many more. A merge of the two was the only possible outcome of this struggle, which eventually happened, even after the
strong opposition from puritans. As far as astrology is concerned
there emerged a uniting stream of thought, that merged the concepts of both (Agama and Nigama) and that was Arsha (Sanatana)
School of astrology. It was an adaptation of Tantric knowledge by
Vedic followers rather than the Tantric adopting the Vedic stream.
In this struggle many great Tantric gurus and there concepts were
left out - to mention some, Bhrigu, Agastya, Ravana, Nandi, Kaka
Bhusunda and the like. But their knowledge too survived to an
extend as we would see later when we try to have and under-

standing of Tantric stream of astrology. The true knowledge of


astrology held by Vedic (Nigama) and Tantric (Agama) cultures is
still there in mystery and demands a lot of study to eradicate the
darkness surrounding them and the related literary history.
But in this article my effort of not to de-mystify the astrological
knowledge possessed by neither Vedic nor Tantric culture, but to
reveal the efforts and knowledge base of the new stream emerged
- that is Arsha (Sanatana) school of astrology. Let us try to have
an idea about the texts and gurus of this school of astrological
thought.
Skanda Hora
This text is also known as 'Jyotishmati Upanishad'. In the end
of every chapter of this text the words 'Atharva kile
jyothishmatyamupanishadi ithi' is present. This indicates that this
text was considered as an extension of Atharva Veda. Many slokas
of this ancient text is quoted by many. The language of this text
itself indicates that it is the oldest of Rishi Horas. It is said that
Skanda advised the knowledge of astrology to Brahma. So it could
be considered that it is a text written by Brahma as per the advice
of Skanda Deva. This text is not available today except many
slokas from it. We could find elaborate description of the Rasis in
this text. Apart from this the subject dealt with are Prediction related to - Significance of Signs-Houses-planets, Exaltation-Debilitation etc for planets, placement of planet in Rasis, placement
of planets in Bhavas, conjunction of planets, Drishti and Drishti
phala, Different Sign-House-Planet combination related Yogas,
Raja Yogas, Introduction to Nabhasa Yogas, Special Yogas like
Pravrijya Yogas, Adhana Lagna, Hora-Drekkana-Navamsa etc,
Life span determination, Pinda Dasa calculation, Drekkana
Swaroopa, Horoscope of women etc.
That means almost the whole of popular astrology that we find
in use today can be found in this age old text! The whole of astrol-

ogy used today is nothing but an extension and interpretation of


the concepts and ideas presented by Skanda Hora only!
In Sounaka Hora it is said that after leaning this knowledge of
astrology from Skanda, Brahma taught it to Daksha Prajapati alone
but none else. That means the prime continuation of this tradition
(school of astrology) is through Daksha here after.
Brihat prajapatya
This text is an elaborate explanation and interpretation of the
subjects dealt within Skanda Hora. As said by Sounaka Hora,
Daksha is the direct disciple of Brahma who learned this knowledge from Skanda. Brihat prajapatya is a Vyakhya of Skanda Hora
rather than an independent presentation of ideas. This text might
had been very large and that is why the prefix 'Brihat' (Big). Leghu
Prajapatya:- This is abbreviated version of Brihat Prajapatya. Both
these texts are not available today except many slokas from them.
Vasishta Hora
This is a very reputed and authentic text of astrology based on
Skanda Hora and Brihat prajapatya. In Sounaka hora it is said
that, Vasishta hora contained 16000 slokas. Many slokas from this
text is quoted by various authors. Vasishta had authored texts for
all the 3 branches of astrology. They are Vasishta Sidhanta, Vasishta
Hora and Vasishta Samhita. Mihria, Kaikulangara (Author of
Hridya padha vyakhya of Brihat jataka - a well known kerala
scholer), Balabhadra etc quotes Vasishta extensively.
Vridha Vasishta: Another Rishi with the name Vridha Vasishta
is also popular. He has authored 2 texts known as Vridha Vasishta
Sidhanta and Vridha Vasishta Samhita. Of them Vridha Vasishta
Sidhanta is available even today.
Kousika Hora
In Sounaka hora it is said that, Kousika (Viswamitra) created

this text to compete the Vasishta Hora, based on Vasishta Hora


erroneously thinking that it was a copy of Skanda Hora. This text
contains 36000 slokas says Sounaka. This is the text where the
logical and astronomical inconsistencies evolve first. Vasishta simply applied his logic to extend the concepts presented in Vasishta
Hora, and didn't know much about astronomy which caused the
trouble.
He is even speaking about the predictions that should be given
to Mercury placed in the 4th house from Sun etc, which is an
astronomical impossibility. It is said by Sounaka that, Vasishta later
learned astronomy from Maya (the sishya of Surya, the originator
of Surya Sidhanta) and regretted the errors he committed.
Even though this discrepancy is there in this text, this is also a
well reputed ancient astrological classic.
Surya
He is an acharya with astronomical par excellence, who taught
Maya. He is regarded as one of the 18 great gurus of astrology.
Maya collected the advice given by Surya and presented it in the
form of 'Surya Sidhanta'. It is the modified version of this text is
what we find in 'Pancha Sidhantika' by Mihira. It is though Maya
and some other rare references that we know about this guru. A
text known as 'Surya Hora' or 'Surya Jatakam' or 'Surya-Aruna
samvada' is also available in the name of this Rishi. It is in the
form of a guru-sishya conversation between Surya and Aruna.
Acharya Balabhadra quotes extensively from this text.
Maya
This is a great scholar well versed in many fields of knowledge
such as - Astronomy, Mathematics, Architecture etc. It is he who
wrote or modified 'Surya Sidhanta' and presented it to the world.
Many texts like Mayamata (Architecture), Maya Hora etc are
authored by this acharya. Both 'Surya Sidhanta' and 'Mayamata'

are available today but not 'Maya Hora'. Chandra Hari is deriving
the concept of 'True Ayanamsa' and the mathematical foundation
of Rasi-Nakshatra division based on this text (Surya Sidhanta)
only. If this text was not available, it would have been an impossibility to judge the true mathematical foundations of Rasi chakra
and the astronomical concepts and methods cherished by the ancient scholars and Rishis. It is erroneously considered by many
that Maya is an astronomer of 'Yavana Kula' and the student of
'Yavaneswara'. But as evident from classics, 'Maya' is a student
of 'Surya Kula' and the student of the great guru 'Surya Deva'.
But still there is a possibility that he may have some connection
outside India, judged from the fact that he was called 'Yavana' by
some. He was a follower of Asura (Tantric) tradition and not Vedic.
Remember that he was well known as 'Asura Silpi' (Architect of
Asuras) It may be this non-Vedic foundation of the knowledge
cherished by Maya that might have caused the trouble, of misjudging him as 'Yavana' by later day scholers.
Atri
He is one of the 7 great gurus (Saptarshis) of astrology, from
whom astrology descendent to the 18 gurus. The text written by
Atri is known as Atri Hora. Texts in the names of other gurus like
Mareechi, Chyavana etc are also mentioned here and there. Atri
Hora is not available today. Atri is supposed to have written some
Ayurvedic texts as well.
Brihat Sounaka Hora
This is a very good and large text, many slokas of which are
available even today. The available slokas from this text helps us
very much in rebuilding the literary history of ancient Indian astrology - especially of the Arsha (Sanatana) school of astrology.
This is a text written as advised to Sounaka Rishi by Soma
(Mo). Here one thing we should remember is that in that era no

body called Arsha school or Sanatana school, like Hindu religion


was never called by that name by Hindus. It is we who name this
original school of astrology as Arsha or Sanatana school of astrologySounaka Hora: It is a summarized version of Brihat Sounaka
Hora.
Mandavya Hora
Rishi Mandavaya who was a true devotee of Siva wrote this
text. Many slokas of this text is quoted by Mihira and many others. This is a well reputed text of the original stream.
Chyavana Hora
Chyavana is a well reputed name both in Astrology and
Ayurveda. Chyavana Rishi is the author of Chyavana Hora. Very
few slokas from this text only is available today.
Sukracharya (Brigu)
Brigu is the well reputed acharya of astology. He is the author
of 'Brigu sutra' and 'Brigu Samhita'. 'Brigu Sutra' is a very good
text with deals with 'Planet-House' combination and the related
results to be predicted. 'Brigu Samhita' is not a samhita text at all!
It is a book that deals with natal chart prediction based on the
'Nadi System' of Astrology'. It is also possible that the authors of
both these works are different gurus of 'Brigu Kula'. (judging
from the difference in approch and techniques adopted by both
texts)
The language style of 'Brigu Sutra' indicates that it is a very
old text. (Also not that it follows the 'Sutra system' rather than the
normal poetic sloka system, which also indicates that this book is
very ancient). Brigu (Sukracharya) is well known as Asura guru
(Agama system).

Brihaspati
The authorship of the text 'Brihaspati Hora' is ascribed to Deva
guru Brihaspati. It mentions subjects related to Muhoorta and Marriage compatibility elaborately. Even though mentioned by some
the slokas that are said to be of this text available today seems to of
later origin.
Mention of 'Brihaspati Sidhanta' and 'Brihaspati Samhita' is
also available in some texts. Brihaspati is well known as Deva
guru (Nigama system).
Badarayana Hora (Vyasa)
This Badarayana does not seems to be the author of
Mahabharata, but some later time scholar guru of Vyasa Kula.
Many slokas form a text with the name Badarayana Hora is available. Hridyapadha and Many other texts quotes Badarayana extensively, which indicates that he too was a reputed scholar though
not to the stature of Rishis. Even the literary quality of his slokas
does not have much in comparison with that of Rishi Horas. It
would be good not to confuse this later time scholar of astrology
with the Badarayana Vyasa who wrote Mahabharata.
Soma Jatakam
This might be a text of later origin, since we find no mention of
it in ancient classics, but only by the time of Acharya Balabhadra
of (10th century). This might be a text created following the style
of Surya Jataka which is an ancient text.
Suka Hora
A text written by Suka Rishi. Many other texts like Suka
Jatakam is also popular by his name. It could be possible that these
texts are also of later origin.
Satyacharya Hora

Satyacharya is a well reputed acharya lived before the period


of Mihira. He is considered almost equal to the Rishis in authenticity. Satyacharya Hora is extensively quoted and mentioned by
Mihira. Mihira had a special repute for this acharya. Many slokas
form Satyacharya Hora is available today, but not the original text.
Geevasarma Hora
Geevasarma is another acharya who was the contemporary of
Satyacharya or one lived after him. Mihira quotes and mentions
Geevasarma also in his works. He has developed many modifications and alterations to the original system which makes him stand
apart from the general stream.
Vishnu Gupta (Chanakya?)
He is the famous minister of emperor Chandra Gupta Mourya
of Pataleeputra. Vishnu Gupata Hora is a well authentic text and
well reputed by the ancient scholars. But except some slokas, this
text is also not available today. (Note that a detailed study of
Arthasastra reveals that Chanakya, Koudilya and Vishnu Gupta
are 3 different Teachers; it is Vishnu Gupta who was the minister
of Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya and wrote Arthasastra)
Varaha Mihira
He is the great acharya who caused the destruction of ancient
Rishi Horas. The reasons are He created a very good and very small text named Brihat
Jataka, containing 573 slokas, which briefed the contents of Rishi
horas. Therefore the people with less memory and scholarship
started learning this text instead of learning the original Rishi Horas,
which were very big.
He mixed the teachings of Arsha school with that of Yavana
school. He authored many texts such as - Pancha Sidhatika, Brihat
Jataka, Brihat Samhita, Leghu Jataka, Brihat Yogayatra and many

more.
Bhattolpala
Bhattolpala (Utpala Bhatta) wrote a very good commentaries
for Brihat Jataka and Brihat Samhita quoting many Rishi horas,
which enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi
Hora slokas.The vyakhyas Bhattolpala for Brihat Jataka and Brihat
Samhita are available today.
Acharya Balabhadra
A great scholar of 10th century who wrote a text called 'Hora
Ratna' which presented the contents of many Rishi Horas and the
astrological classics before his period in a systematic manner. This
text also enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi
Hora slokas.
Kerala Astrology
The astrological system followed in Kerala is an extension of
Arsha or Sanatana school of astrology especially due to the efforts
of the following acharyas.
Krishnacharya:- He wrote a very good text named
Krishneeyam. This acharya might have lived in the 15th century
AD, and was the contemporary of Madhavacharya who wrote
Madhaveeya.
Vishnu: - He is the son of Madhavacharya, who wrote an elaborate and very good commentary for Krishneeyam with the name
'Chatura Sundari' in Sanskrit. This commentary became very
popular, and is appreciated very much by the Kerala astrologers,
and is in line with the interpretation system of Rishi horas.
Talakkulattu Govinda Bhattatiri:- He wrote a very good commentary for the first 10 chapters of Varaha Hora (Brihat Jatakam)
with the name 'Dasasdhyayi' in Sanskrit. This commentary became very popular, and is appreciated very much by the Kerala

astrologers, and is in line with the interpretation system of Rishi


horas.
Kaikulangara Ramavaryar He wrote a very good commentary for Varaha Hora (Brihat Jatakam) with the name
'Hridyapadha' in Malayalam, quoting hundreds of Rishi hora
slokas. In Kerala 'Hridyapadha' has become another name for
'Varaha Hora'. It is well appreciated by Kerala astrologers. This
text also enabled/ensured the survival of at least some of the Rishi
Hora slokas.
I have listed the names of some Rishis and acharyas of Arsha
school of astrology and tried to emphasis why Kerala astrology
could be considered as an extension of this school of astrology.
This list is not at all complete. The lot many scholars who collected and presented the slokas to us from the texts available to
them (but not available today - the lost treasures) from all schools
of astrological thought also helped in the survival of this school of
astrology at least to this extend. Collecting and classifying the
knowledge imparted by these different schools of astrology separately and uniting them to one single stream, identifying the opinion differences clearly are the need of the moment. I hope such
studies and classifying efforts could be of great help in this regard.
If I am able to depict, even a glimpse of the size of this vast
treasure house of ancient astrological knowledge, I am satisfied. I
hope this effort was not futile.
Jain School of Astrology
Rishabha Deva of Vedic period is thought to be first teerthankara
(enlightened guru) and originator of Jain stream of spiritual thought.
It was traditionally believed that there were 24 teerthankaras (enlightened gurus), and the 23rd Parswanadha and the 24th
Vadhamana Mahaveera. In the ancient past the teachings of en-

lightened masters like Rishabha Deva were also considered to be


part of Veda-Vedanga teachings itself, but later gradually it became a separate stream. The Jain stream of spiritual thought form
the clear shape of a religion by the period of Mahaveera, and therefore he is thought to be the originator of Jain religion. We have
nothing to do with these enlightened masters of spirituality, but
are more interested in the astrology they cherished.
Garga
The first guru in the Jain school of astrology is thought to be
Brahma. In Garga hora it is said that, Garga Rishi got this knowledge from Brahma. I will quote the sloka for youSwayam swayambhuva srishtam chakshurbhootam
dwijanmanam
Vedangam jyotisham brahmaparam yejncha hitavaham
Maya swayambhuvaH praptam triyakala prasadhanam
Devanamuttam sastram trilokya hitakarakam
Mattaschanyanrisheen praptam paramparyena pushkalam
Tistada srishtibir booyo grandhaiH swaiH swirudahritam
(Garga hora)
[(Garga Rishi tells) This system of knowledge is created by lord
Brahma, and became visible to the people who took second birth
with true knowledge. This system of astrology is part of Vedic
knowledge, and helps to become enlightened, and is useful in Yaga
(for determination of Yaga timings etc). I got this system of knowledge from lord Brahma. (In other Rishi horas it is told that, Skanda
taught astrology to Brahma, and that the text written by lord Brahma
is known as Skanda Hora) The knowledge of astrology is appreciated even by devas (heavenly beings) and is useful in all 3 worlds
(past- present-future). The other Rishis learned this knowledge
from me, and thus the tradition flourished. They have also created
astrological texts of their own]

This essentially means that by the time of Garga many astrological texts existed, probably closely related to Rishi names. The
Rishi kulas were like universities, were every enlightened new
master would be known by the name of the originator of the kula.
It is similar to the Sankaracharya tradition of today where every
new person coming in charge would be termed Sankaracharya.
Similar was the case with all Rishi kulas like, Garga, Vasishta,
Kousika, Atri, Chyevana, Agastya, Parasara etc. The head guru
was like the chancellor of the university, and his designation was
the name of the originator of the Kula. We should remember this
fact while learning the knowledge taught by Rishi Paramparas.
Otherwise we may confuse many individuals who held the same
designation as one and the same person. (For e.g. Parasara Kula
was another such tradition)
Garga wrote books on all the 3 branches of astrology, namely,
Sidhanta, Samhita and Hora. That means the 3 popular texts written by Rishi Garga are - Garga Sidhanta, Garga Hora and Garga
Samhita. Many slokas from Garga hora and Garga Samhita is available but not anything from Garga Sidhanta. In Hridyapadha, Brihat
Samhita etc we could see many quotes form Garga Hora and
Garga Samhita. There are many more ancient texts that quote from
these age old texts by Garga Rishi. All the texts written by Garga
Rishi are in Sanskrit language. Garga Samhita is said to be available even today in some manuscript libraries. The language of this
text (Garga Samhita) is a mix of Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Astrology texts not only by Garga, but Gargi and Gargya are
also available. These names either indicate other acharyas of Garga
Kula, or the son of Garaga, and the son's son of Garga. Many
texts which ascribe their authorship to Garga, Gargi and Gargya
are available (e.g. Garga Jataka) - but it seems that we can not be
sure about the authenticity of these texts.
Garga Rishi was also known as 'Jainarshi' (Jain Rishi), indi-

eating that he followed Jain religion. A sloka quoted in the text


'Bharateeya Jyotish' (by Nemichandra Sastri) supports it.
Vridha Garga
This is another famous scholar of Garga Kula. Two texts are
known by his name - Vridha Garga Sidhanta and Vridha Garga
Samhita. Of these Vridha Garga Sidhanta is available even today,
but only some slokas of Vridha Garga Samhita is available. Like
all the Rishis of Garga Kula he was also a reputed Jain Rishi.
Rishiputra
Rishiputra is the son of Garga Rishi. He too wrote texts on all
three branches of astrology, such as Sidhanta, Hora and Samhita.
He was well versed in Sanskrit and Prakrit. From Prakrit only
Sanskrit originated. Prakrit was the common mans use of Sanskrit, but later it became a separate language, and due to continuous use it deviated very much from the organized, systematic, and
clearly grammatical use of Sanskrit. This deviation from Sanskrit
was evident even from the period of Rishiputra. Almost all the
teachings of Jain gurus are in the common mans language, i.e.
Prakrit. Rishiputra is also no exception to this, even though he
wrote some book in Sanskrit as well. Rishi putra was never known
as Garga which might mean that he deviated from the original
stream of astrological knowledge taught by Garga Rishi or it could
also be that he never held the position of head guru of Garga kula.
Mihira in Brihat Samhita quotes extensively form the Samhita
by Rishiputra. A text called 'Madana Ratna' mentions 'Rishiputra
Samhita', which proves the existence of Rishiputra Samhita.
Rishiputra Samhita is a text written in Sanskrit. Rishiputra is thought
to be the originator of the study of Omens (Nimitta). A text on
Nimitta Sastra (Ancient advice on Omens) in his name is also available. Brihat Samhita quotes Rishiputra extensively. The ancient
and famous Jain sidhantic texts on astrology Surya Prajchapti and

Chandra Prajchapti are also thought to be the works of this great


astrologer. These texts are in Prakrit. (Prakrit language is considered divine by the followers of Jain religion, since most of the
teachings of Mahaveera and other gurus of this religion is in
Prakrit). There is another trend that should be kept in mind while
studying Jain school of astrology. Prakrit was the revered language
of Jain religion and the common man's language at that time. So
the astrologers of Jain school of astrology almost invariably resorted to Prakrit while writing texts. But the side effect of this is
that, almost all the texts written in Prakrit was later considered to
be part of Jain school of astrology, which is a wrong interpretation. (I too can not escape from this pit fall, while trying to locate
the teachers and texts of Jain school of astrology. Please keep it in
mind)
Jyotish Karnadak
This is an ancient text of Jain school of astrology. We don't
know who wrote this book. It is in Prakrit. In this text, we encounter slokas which considers 'Nakshatras like Swati and Aswini as
lagna of equinox'. Does it give any indication about the period of
this text? Learned one's can think about it. This ancient Jain astrological texts mentions Rishiputra as guru, and thus it is part of the
Jain school of astrology.
Anga vidya
It is ancient text about predictions related to the touching of
various body parts by the qurent. This is a text on omens (Nimitta).
It speaks elaborately about the body language of the qurent. It is a
very large text containing 60 chapters and is in Prakrit.
Kalakacharya
He is well known among the gurus of Jain school of astrology.
He was the son of King 'Vayara singh' who was the king of
'Dharavas' city. His mothers name was Surasundari and sister's

name 'Saraswti'. He was the student of Jain Muni 'Gunakar' who


wrote 'Brihat Katha'. Kalakacharya was also known as 'Kalaka
Suri', meaning the knowledgeable person with the name 'Kalaka'.
Kalkacharya is first guru of Jain school of astrology who mixed
this ancient knowledge with the systems of Yavana, and thus originated the system of astrology known as 'Ramala vidya' or 'Ramala
Jyotish'. The Ramala system of astrology originated from the mix
of Pharsi (Parsi) and Indian system of astrology. (So the word
Yavana means Pharsi or Persian in this context). This also gives
some indications about the period of Kalakacharya. Kalakacharya
has written a Samhita text as well. [The text known as 'Ramala
vidya' written by 'Bhojsagar Gani' mentions the name of
Kalakacharya as the originator of this system] His period was before, Varaha Mihira. Mihira mentions 'Kalakacharya Samhita' in
Brihat Samhita.
Mahaveeracharya
This acharya lived after the period of Brahmagupta, the famous
astronomer. He wrote 2 texts with the names - Jyotish Patala and
Ganita Sarasamgrah. He was also the follower of Jain system. But
the texts are in Sanskrit. Both these texts deal with astronomy.
Kamataka, the southern state of India, seems to have developed
some strong relation with the Jain school of astrology in later years.
Sridharacharya who wrote the texts like Ganitasar, Jyothirjchana
Kalanidhi, Jatak Tilak etc and many more reputed later astrologers of this stream were the natives of Karnataka. Bhattavesari
(also known as Damanandi acharya) who wrote the text Aya jchana
tilak in Prakrit was a follower of Digambara Jain religion, and is
thought to be a native of Karnataka. In this text he mentions an
ancient acharya of astrology called 'Sugreeva Rishi' as the originator of Prasna system giving importance to 8 directions (Dwajadi
Yoni). He calls it 'Aya' and that is why the name 'Aya Jchana
Tilak' (the texts which tells about the use of Aya in prediction)..

Other Jain astrologers


Durga dev who wrote astrological texts like Ardha Kand and
Rishta Samuchaya, Mallishena who wrote 'Aya sadbhava', Ballala
sena who wrote the Samhita text called 'Adbhuta sagar' etc are
the followers of Jain school of astrology. Actually this list is very
long and you can have a list of it from the text 'Bharateeya Joytish'
by 'Nemichandra Sastri'. The text 'Adbhuta Sagar' demands special mention, because this text is a collection of slokas by great
ancient acharyas such as, Garga, Vridha Garga, Mihira, Parasara,
Devala, Vasanta raja, Kasyapa, Yevaneswara, Mayoora chitra,
Rishiputra, Brahma gupta, Maha balabhadra, Poulisa, Surya (Surya
sidhanta), Vishnu Chandra and the like. It contains more than 4000
slokas. Existence of texts like this also means that the whole astrological knowledge taught by the Rishis is not yet totally lost, and
if someone is willing to selectively collect Rishi slokas from such
texts, and present it before all in a systematic manner, the original
stream of ancient Indian astrology can be restored. One thing I
should mention here is that, there were many astrologers who followed the Jain religion. But it may not be necessary that all of
them were the followers of Jain school of astrology. This truth
also should be kept in mind while trying to study the astrological
system of thought taught by the Jain school of astrology. The ancient language Prakrit is a vast store house of ancient astrological
knowledge and ancient Rishi hora slokas. It is another treasure
house where too we should concentrate our search upon.
Ref: 1) Bharateeya Jyotish - by Nemichandra Sastri
2) Bharateeya Jyotisha Sastretihas - by Acharya Lokamani
Dahal
This article is very long by now itself and therefore I conclude.
Hope this might have stirred your interest in Jain school of astrology, and would provide clues and guidance for further study.

Yavana School of Astrology


There is a controversy about the meaning of the word Yavana.
Modem historians almost always erroneously take 'Yavana' to
mean 'Greek'. Of course Greeks where called Yavana by Indians
for a long time, and so it is not completely wrong to take 'Yavana'
to mean 'Greek' if one is talking about the a limited historic period, i.e. Period after the invasion of Alexander. But when we look
at the literature, we see that the word Yavana is used to indicate
Pharsi or Persian in several instances. The popular definition of
this word, supported by classics is that, any person who is not a
native of India and does follow our custom and tradition is called
Yavana. So the point to be kept in
mind is that The 'Yavana' has some link outside India
Their tradition and system is slightly different than ours.
The heir (sons and daughters) and successors of a 'Yavana'
(Gum-sishya paramapara) would be termed 'Yavana'.
The 3rd point is often ignored by even the learned. It essentially means that at times even people who were and bom and
lived in India, and even followed the Indian custom and tradition
where termed 'Yavana' only because, they were the descendents
of Yavana. Before the arrival of Greeks it was Persian peoples
who were known by the word 'Yavana', and even before that?
Yes, at that time it could mean even people from 'Afghanistan',
'China', or 'Egypt', i.e. any where outside India or their descendants or followers (students).
Yavaneswara
Someone in ancient past brought some new knowledge of astrology to India. It was even before the period of Parasara (1400
BC), and this great scholar gets mentioned by Parasara, Narada,
Kasyapa and many more. He must have been an astonishing store

house of knowledge, and well versed in Sanskrit, even the Rishis


considered him as an Rishi.
His great knowledge, made Rishi Garga speak outMlescha hi yavanasteshu samyak sastramidam stitam
Rishivattepi pujyante kirn puna daiva vad dwija
Meaning, even though a person outside from, by native place
or tradition followed, the knowledge of astrology is well settled
and find comfort in ' Yavana' (Yavana Kula). Because of this they
are worshiped like Rishis. Then why not if a person who took
second birth by devoting himself to knowledge and is learning
astrology?
We should remember that Garga was the head guru (like chancellor of a university) of the Garga kula. Many great learning centers like Vasishta Kula, Kousika kula, Atri Kula, Mareechi Kula,
Angira Kula, Bhrigu Kula, Chyvana Kula, Vyasa Kula etc existed at that period - and the knowledge preserved was so vast.
Garga know about this all, and was part of this great tradition.
Even then he felt astonished by the astrological knowledge preserved and propagated by another such learning center - Yavana
Kula. This is wonderful! We could see that later acharyas started
mentioning the name of Yavanewara, including him in the list of
18 great gurus of astrology. Narada, Kasyapa, Parasara - no body
failed to mention his name! How great an influence he and his
school of thought would have been to Indian astrology?!!
Yes, this 'Yavaneswara' is a great Rishi, vast treasure house of
knowledge, worshiped Surya, had some connections outside India, was well-versed in Sanskrit, was the head guru of Yavana
Kula, and lived before BC 1400. He very much appreciated the
astrological tradition and knowledge of India, adopted many concepts from India streams and tried to modify them. This too made
the Indian scholars give special attention towards him. This is the
knowledge we have about his mountainous individuality - he

stands tall and unique even among the peaks!


Yavanewara Hora is the text known by his name. His successors (sishya parampara) like Sphujidwaja, Meena raja amply quotes
from this text. Later day scholars like Mihira too quotes him and
mentions the opinions by him. Yavanswara says that he got this
knowledge of astrology from Brahma (Prajapati), which indicates
that he was a follower of Indian tradition itself, but with somewhat slight difference.
Some problems surfacing
If even Garga felt astonished by this knowledge stream how
Mihira can not? But due to these mutual appreciation (between
Arsha and Yavana schools of astrology) and scholarly interaction
many problems surfaced. They are Ancient Indian Rishi Kulas appreciated the knowledge of
Yavana school, but never mixed it with there own system.
Even Garga was not an exception to this even though he
himself was somewhat outside the Arsha or Sanatana stream due
to the fact that he was a follower of Jain philosophy (originated by
Rishabha Deva). But we should also remember that at that time
Jain hadn't become a separate religion, but was part of the Vedic
stream.
Just contrary to this, Yavaneswara tried to lean all the Indian
knowledge as well, modified it applying logic, and taught them as
well in his guru kula. This is evident from the example of Nabhasa
yogas. Nabhasa Yogas are just mentioned in Arha (Sanatana) Rishi
horas like Skanda hora, Brihal prajaptyam etc, but Yavaneswara
took this concept and made the number of named Nabhasa Yogas
1800 by applying permutation combination!!!!! The concept of
Nabhasa yogas were not totally in line with the foundations of
ancient Indian astrology, that is why the Indian Rishis didn't gave
much importance to them. Yavanewara never bothered about it,

took this concept, and applied maths to it! The result was 1800
Nabhasa yogas, out of which hundreds of them were astronomical impossibilities!! Here we see the type of interaction and the
reason for respect or disrespect.
In the Arsha system of Parasara started mixing the concepts
of Yavana, and many of his new concepts as well. Due to this he
was also not considered as a true follower of Arsha stream, and
was even called Yavana at times, even though he was not Yavana.
What ever that be, Parasara is also honored among the 18 great
gurus of Astrology. We should remember that, Yavana, Romaka,
Poulisa, Lomasa & Parasara schools may not be part of the true
(Arsha/Sanatana) stream of astrology. But there was a lot of give
and take, and they where also honored among the 18 like the Rishis
of Arsha stream - Brahma, Vasishta, Kousika, Atri, Manu,
Mareechi, Angira, Vyasa, Sounaka, Kasyapa, Chyevava, Garga,
Brihaspati etc. We should remember the other reputed scholars
like - Bhrigu (Sukra), Agastya, Suka, Soma, Skanda, Daksha,
Surya etc as well. May be this classification itself is not that correct, since every Rishi Kula may have their uniqueness in the system of astrology taught and followed. [We shouldn't forget the
fact that different teachers teach even the same subject differently,
and therefore slight differences are always a possibility]
Unlike the ancient Rishis, Mihira also started mixing Arsha
School of astrology with thoughts and ideas borrowed from Yavana
School, even though he never introduced hundreds of new ideas
like Parasara. Even though Mihira was a great teacher this has
became a big cause for confusion in later years. Parasara was a
Rishi, Mihira a scholar and there is no comparison, but both of
them borrowed ideas from Yavana school and thus the original
school and system fell back to the back side of memory, and logic
and foundations an almost lost memory.
This is the brief history of astrology. A problem originated due

to the presence of Yavana school of astrology, but for sure not


caused by it, as much as the later great scholars like Parasara and
Mihira. If Parasara and Mihira the great teachers of Indian astrology deserve better blame, then how can we blame Yavana school
of astrology and the great Yavaneswara who peaks high among
many?! This school of astrology was successful in preserving its
teachings and books while the Arsha school failed to do so!!
Shouldn't we appreciate them, and leam from them? They adopted
even the Arsha (astrological) ideas as well and still preserves many
and now without their minor help we can not go back and retrieve our originals!!! Apart from this what a
great system it in itself is!! [This essay is becoming too long and
so I would just brief about the other gurus of this stream and
conclude]
Sphujidhwaja
He was an Indian king who was well versed in Sanskrit, Vedic
philosophy and astrology. But he was a follower of Yavana school
of astrology and considers Yavaneswara as guru. A great text with
the name Sphujidhwaja Hora is available - and it is very good in
understanding the contributions of Yavana school.
Meenaraja
He too was an Indian king, well versed in Sanskrit, and a follower of Yavana school of astrology. A great text with the name
Meenaraja Hora (Vridha Yavana Hora) is available. It too is a very
good text.
Maya
Many are confused about whether to call Maya 'Yavana' or
not. He is not the student of 'Yavaneswara' but 'Surya'. As we
know 'Surya Kula' was another great teaching center for astrology. Maya modified/wrote 'Surya Sidhanta', which later became
the backbone of Arsha school of astrology. So even if Maya is

' Yavana', he is Yavana of a different mould and is not part of the


Yavana school of astrology which started from 'Yavaneswara'.
He was a great architect as well. Surya Sidhanta, Maya Hora,
Maya Matam(Vastu) etc are some of the texts by him. He was true
acharya with mathematical par excellence, and may be only
Aryabhata I of later years have any comparison to him. Maya is
not part of this school of astrology taught by 'Yavaneswara'.
Manindha
Manindha Hora is the text by him. Mihira mentions and quotes
form this text and mention the name of Manindha with respect.
Manidha Hora is not available today.
Srutakeerti
Srutakeerti was a hindu king, but he followed Yavana stream
of astrology. Srutakeerti Hora is the text by him. Mihira mentions
and quotes form this text and mention the name of Sruitakeerti
with respect. Srutakeerti Hora is not available today.
Other gurus
There might have been many other gurus in this school of
thought but the names of many are not popular may be due to the
all covering presence of Sphujidhwaja and Meenaraja. Later people
started calling Sphujidhwaja by the name 'Yavana'and Meenaraja
by the name 'Vridha Yavana'. Only a few scholars were good
enough to come out of this shade. One of them is Haraji.
Haraji
He is the author of Manasagari Jataka padhati. He is a Gujarat
Brahmin bom of 'Sandilya gotra'. But he too followed the Yavana
system of astrology. Therefore Manasagari Jataka padhati should
be considered as one of the last text in Yavana school of astrology.
The Yavana school of astrology is one of the well reputed and
respects schools of ancient Indian astrology, like the Arsha school

& Jain school of ancient Indian astrology. The now extinct prediction schemes of Vedic school and Tantric school also needs mention, from which everything seems to have originated. (Call them
Vedic and Non- Vedic or Nigama and Agama origin of everything
if you want).
In this article I had tried to give a brief idea about the Yavana
school of astrology and its books and masters, as far as I know.
History is not always simple - it always hides something far beneath hiding even the sources for retrieving them. I hope this article may help you in getting a glimpse of the almost forgotten
history of Yavana school of astrology.
Astrology in Kularanava Tantra
Kularnava Tantra is an Agama Grantha - meaning it is a text
written if the format of Siva's advice to Parvati. As Osho points
out in his work "Vigyan Bhirava Tantra" "This is a different type of language. You must know something about it before we enter into it. All the tantra treatises are
dialogues between Shiva and Devi. Devi questions and Shiva answers. All the tantra treatises start that way. Why? Why this
method? It is very significant. It is not a dialogue between a teacher
and a disciple, it is a dialogue between two lovers. And tantra
signifies through it a very meaningful thing: that the deeper teachings cannot be given unless there is love between the two - the
disciple and the master. The disciple and master must become
deep lovers. Only then can the higher, the beyond, be expressed"
Usually the tantric texts are not going to teach you the details the philosophical and theoretical. It is more concerned with the
technique, the use and practice. If you are not in the path such
texts can usually mislead you. Before entering in to the study of
Agama (Tantric) texts the core should be understood; otherwise it
could mislead you. In Osho's words -

"It is concerned with method, with technique - not with principles at all. The word 'tantra'means technique, the method, the
path. So it is not philosophical - note this. It is not concerned with
intellectual problems and inquiries. It is not concerned with the
'why' of things, it is concerned with 'hownot with what is truth,
but how the truth can be attained."
The core concept in Kulamava Tantra is n.ctm a. [iilft't'cifo ulfeciT
sflcifleiciZtdt mfk
!
[Whatever things that cause the downfall of people moving in the
path of spirituality, the same things can become true tools in the
path of enlightenment as well. (They can teach you how to save
yourself from downfall, if you are a true seeker of the ultimate). It
is the subject dealt in detail by Bhairava (God Siva) in Kularnava
Tantra as well (similar to Bharava Tantra)]
nfcofifu flcb'HypcA fem SvUcH
qyel(3l)qycH?I Ttct^T: qpleifcioUfk&Uuf 11
[Kula means Sakti (Parvati = feminine = Mooladhara = Sex) and
Akula means Siva (Bhairava = masculine = Sahasrara = Super
consciousness). The one who attains the relation or oneness between Kula and Akula is termed 'Kaula' (Kulamava Tantra deals
with this subject)]
The Agama path (Kaula Path = Tantric Path) has got two
branches - Varna (Left) and Dakshina (Right). The text Kularnava
Tantra appreciates the Kaulachara (The Path of Kaula) and in that
itself the Dakshina Patha (Right Path; also known as Samayachara).
Actually Vamachara (Left path) is the original and pure Agama
path. The Dakshinachara (Right path) mixes the Vedic slokas into
it to an extend. Unlike the pure Vamachara it combines the Vedic

suktas as well and has an aura of Vedic ritualistic in it. You can
find many examples for the same in texts like Kularnava Tantra.
Possibly it is caused by the uninvited entering of Vedic priests into
the Agama patha. Vamamarga (Varna patha = Vamachara = Left
path) is the pure branch of Agama and is purely outside the Vedic
realm. The Agama path is purely outside the Nigama (=Vedic)
path. The Parasurama Kalpa sutra clearly states that Hc}cl^luli (Hdclltilccl VlgcpifeitlM:
[Without any doubt clearly understand that, all Tantras (Agamas)
are outside the Vedic path]
Thus it is clear that the Agamas does not appreciate the vedic
path of Yagas, the caste differences etc. For the Tantric any human
being can attain the ultimate (=enlightenment) if he is a sincere
seeker. It states that all human beings are equal and that there is no
meaning in caste and creed differences. With clarity Gautameeya
Tantra states-

[Everybody can practice Tantra, including women (No doubt remains!)]


The true worship of Siva (=God) with a sincere heart is better
than 1000 yagas. Thus it is a great path of spirituality to be practiced and valued, one of the oldest and truly ancient indian contribution to the path of spirituality.
As we all know astrology too is an Agama Sastra (Tantric discipline). About Tantra Osho states - "TANTRA means technique.
So this treatise is a scientific one. Science is not concerned with
why, science is concerned with how. That is the basic difference
between philosophy and science. Philosophy asks, 'Why this ex-

islence ?' Science asks, 'How this existence ?' The moment you ask
the question, how?, method, technique, become important. Theories become meaningless; experience becomes the center". In the
context of astrology also this statement is valid. We trust in astrology not because of its thousand theories - but because of our experience; Our experience that it can reflect truth; Our experience
that the time, the rhythm of the universe can greatly influence us;
our experience that we are one with the world; our experience that
the universe reflect s itself even in the minute.
Even though not part of the main body of knowledge,
Kularnava Tantra deals with, it mentions and speaks about, astrology here and there in bits and pieces - of course this is normal and
expected since Astrology too is nothing but an Agama Sastra; A
branch of study that has its foundations in Agama (Tantra). As we
know it is from the experience of oneness of human being with
the universe around him that the branch of astrology originated, as
evident from the fact that the Zodiac as we comprehend it is composed of 21600 minute and the human day is composed of 21600
breaths. They rhythm is one and the same - inside and outside.
Kulamava Tantra mentions Astrology, as present and practiced
in ancient India, while dealing with the selection of Mantra that
are proper for a Sadhaka (one who practices Tantric worship). I
am not interested in explaining and elaborating those slokas to
clarify the various situations where the co-relating of alphabets
with Signs and Nakshatras dealt here in can be used. I am quoting
and describing the meaning of those slokas here in brief to show
that Nirayana astrology as we practice today is (and was) an integral part of Agama Sastra; and also that the subject is dealt with in
many Agama texts.
Selection of Mantra and Astrology
Chakras (Circles) such as Siddha Chakra, Rasi Chakra,

Nakshatra Chakra, Kulakula Chakra etc are used for the selection
of Mantra that will give good results for the Sadhaka (the one who
practices the path of Tantra). As stated earlier, in this article I am
not interested in explaining how to use the same for selection of
Mantra that is proper for practice for the individual. Here I am
only interested in quoting those slokas and giving their brief meaning just to show that Kularnava Tantra and Tantric texts as a whole
considered Nirayana Astrology as an integral part of Agama Sastra.
Nakshatra Chakra and Alphabets
The following sloka describes how to correlate Nakshatra chakra
with the alphabets so that the same can be used for the selection of
proper Mantra.
JfFT eftm TTS um
etAt TC7 umi MeiluMfcctll fM
cmfl

cj $c[czi?mcft U^ll I

[Starting from Aswini in order to write the following number of


alphabets in each Nakshatra (starting from the first alphabet in
Sanskrit). Pra = 2; Pa = 1; Lo = 3; Bha = 4; Pa = 1; Tu = 1; Pra =
2; Ya = 1; Ru = 2; Dra = 2; Ya = 1; Adri = 2; Ru = 2; Ru = 2; Ka
= 1; Ram = 2; Lo = 3; Ka = 1; Lo = 3; Pa = 1; Pa = 1; Tu = 1; Pra
= 2; Ya = 1; Kha = 2; Lo = 3; Gho = 4] We get the following table
as per this rule.
STlPsfh

- 31 3U

afZpn
(pfrPP?

- F
- ^
ef ej

^[ Tfk'RJ
3U^f

- U
- ri
- 3Tt 3ft

g'sr
suzetm

- cp
- m

- et s7
- EZ
3rR" tplcdjJM - & m
*im

^ ol
frz^l
^crrfcZ

- 5" 3^
- S"

fccviuni

- 75 m

ST^Um
cnilc^l

- U 21 ^
- 87
- 7^ IJ q5

Srttrntt

- e[
- aj

Z[cFn

- 37
- 57 7

?Zc7f^W7
^cf atigmdi

- e7
- c[ ?l

3rre" ajjgpj^j - 1% & ^ (&)


$crfcl

- o5 57 37 377

This completes the table with 51 alphabets. [Do Sanskrit alphabets have a Tantric origin? The number 51 is considered sacred in Tantra due to several reasons. This question won't be dealt
within this article, but provides clear scope for further study]
As per another available Tantric reference describing the same,
Ksha should be ascribed to Uttara Proashtapada and there for the
same is shown with in brackets in the above list. The relevant
sloka is given belowc7c7: 575P777 dcrilcl:....^ 3^77

^TcT?

[The letter Kha should be ascribed to Uttara Proshtapada] This

completes the list of all Sanskrit alphabets.


Kularnava Tantra further states that the following is the prime
mode of association of Nakshatras with the native's life. As you
could see it is nothing but a description of Janmadi division starting from birth star.
fwm ztM xozfzi
ciw
357? 357?//
[Starting from Birth star the names of 9 Nakshatras are -1. Janma
(Body), 2. Sampat (Wealth), S.Vipat (Danger), 4. Kshema (Prosperity), 5. Pratyari (Enemy), 6. Sadhaka (Gain), 7. Vadha (Death),
8. Mitra (Friend), 9. Parma Mitra (Dearest Friend). These names
will repeat for other Nakshtras twice in order to complete the count
of 27 Nakshatras]
Thus it becomes clear that this is the prime mode of association
of Nakshatras with the native's life while using Nakshatra Chakra
for prediction!
Rasi Chakra and Alphabets
The following sloka states how to correlate Rasi chakra with
the alphabets so that the same can be used for the selection of
proper Mantra.
cTTef

737" 7ztw
kfkcn cmfi

77ft?3
^mi 1

[Starting from Aries in order to write the following number of


alphabets in each sign (starting from the first alphabet in Sanskrit).
Ba = 4; Fam = 3; Gau = 3; Ram = 2; Khu = 2; So = 4; Nam = 5;
Sa = 4; Me = 4; So = 5; Bha = 4. The remaining alphabets starting
from 'Sa' should be written in Virgo]. We get the following table
as per this rule.

^7

- 31 3U ? i

cpc^

- 3" 37
ef ej
- U&

f?m

- Sit 3ft
- 3t 3T1 VI W ?{ & (a5)

cien

- ^ m
vi ^
E5 ^ ?7 sr

er^

- 5" ^ s" s w

SEW

- cE e? ^ 87 5T
- Tf xp e[ aj &[

sfe

- 5E 7" eE cE ^

[Qn: The above sloka uses KTPY notation for numbers. When
did KTPY system originated? This question won't be dealt within
this article, but provides clear scope for further study]
As per another available Tantric reference describing the same,
Ksha should be ascribed to Meena (Pisces) and there for the same
is shown with in brackets in the above list. The relevant sloka is
given belowmffiylfcfeRznd xESEEeE SEWTCTJ sffe^E?
[The letter Kha should be ascribed to Meena (Pisces)] This too
completes the list with 51 alphabets.
Kularnava Tantra further states that the following is the prime
mode of association of Signs with the native's life. As you could
see it is nothing but a description of houses starting from Lagna.
eEWt 8ESE mclci^pIVT^^
W^E VlActxHfo cWE ^E^E UVTZHII
- cpeEE^fcEcEo^
[The 12 signs are 1. Lagna (Body), 2.Dhana (Wealth), S.Bhratru

(Co-bom), 4. Bandhu (Relatives), S.Putra (Children), b.Satru (Enemies), 7.Kalatra (Wife), S.Maranam (Death), 9.Dharma (Righteous path), lO.Karma (Job), 1 l.Aya(Income) and 12. Vyaya(Expense)]
Note that the above quote is clear proof also for the fact that
Signs itself should be considered as Houses. As per ancient Indian
astrology, the various house calculation techniques (such as Sripati
method, Placida's division etc) does not have any meaning. The
signs itself should be considered as houses; with the only difference that the signs are always counted from Aries, where as houses
are counted from Lagna.
[Note that the study of astrology mentioned in the Tantric texts
gives us unique insights which we may miss even when dealing
with the standard texts of astrology, which deals with such things
in detail. This itself point to the Agama (Tantric) foundation of
nirayana astrology]
3T$iRt ufemzrk

//
-

[Intelligent individual who practices the Tantric system should start


counting the Signs from his own Lagna, and the counting should
go up to the Mantra sign. If one does not know his Lagna the
counting should start from Sign indicated by his name (Namakshra
Rasi = Lagna
indicated by the Name of the individual)]
Since this sloka comes after discussing alphabets associated
with both Nakshatras and Signs, the rule could be taken as commonly applicable to both Nakshatra Chakra and Rasi Chakra. This
rule may indicate two further possibilities * One should start the study of astrology by studying his own
horoscope! This is a unique advice not found anywhere else!

* Nakshatra Chakra and Rasi Chakra are both independent systems complete in themselves - Nakshatra Chakra uses Nakshatra
Lagna as starting point, and Rasi Chakra uses Lagna as starting
point! The system of using Nakshatra Chakra in this way is almost completely lost to us; But this is the system visible in Vedas,
Epics and Puranas. A dedicated individual might be able to reconstruct this system from the available rudiments after a detailed study
of the same. This too provides a clear scope for further study. In
ancient texts the use of Nakshatra Lagna is clearly visible, as clearly
stated in texts like Sukra Neeti and Surya Pranjapti. The uses of
Nirayana Rasi Chakra (starting with Nirayana Mesha Sign) as an
independent system, is well popular as we all know and practice
today.
This article is just the continuation of my effort to shed some
light on the Astrology present in Tantric texts, which I have started
with an article about the astrological statements contained in
Dattatreya Maha Tantra. Such glimpses clearly indicate that Astrology is an Agama Sastra and also that the Agama (Tantric) tradition was well versed in astrology, and also that they always followed the Nirayana system. Unlike Nigama tradition of Vedas,
which used Tropical Zodiac, combined with Fixed Nakshatra system, Agama (Tantric) tradition used the Nirayana Zodiac with the
common starting point of Meshadi (starting point of Aries) and
Aswinyadi (starting point of Aswini Nakshatra) as the point of
reference; as the starting point of Zodiac as we know it today.
Note_l: Kaul ji (Avatar Krishnan Kaul) at times blindly argues
that "the Tantras contains no astrology" without ever even studying them with an inquisitive perspective. As the name indicates
Kaul ji is a person born in Tantric tradition of Kashmir. But currently he is after Vedic Tropical zodiac and the restoration of Vedic
calendar based on his beliefs about the same. I think that as he
discards the fixed Nakshatra Chakra proposed by Vedas his be-

liefs do not tally with even the Vedic tradition. I hope that this
article may inspire him to look back into the Agama tradition to
which he himself belongs, and come up with positive or negative
responses (after a detailed study) which may further strengthen
our knowledge about the same.
Note_2: As I always used to say, it is rather than the subject
and slokas, the consciousness that looks into it and the new inner
light in which things can be viewed is more important in generating clarity of vision. Let the words "Know what is before you,
then the things hidden from you will become revealed to you" be
our motto in our search and reconstruction of near lost elegance of
ancient indian astrology.
Dettatreya Mahatantra and Tantric
Astrology
"The available text on Dattatreya Maha Tantra is a small
text"containing 15 chapters and 160 slokas. This text is also
known"as "Siromani", meaning "gem in the head'. The text is
structured as a"dialogue between lord Parameswara (lord Siva) &
Dattatreya Maharshi."Kala Tantra (Astrology) and Kala Mantra
(Medicine) are the 2 subjects"dealt with in. These are 2 knowledge streams the tantrics (tantric"disciples) learned with
attention."Kala Mantra is the branch of Tantra that deals with the
use of'medicine related to the tantric worship for the secret purpose of'Killing others, attracting others, making people enemy to
each other,"make people leave their native place, Magic, de-poisoning, re-"establishing sexual ability etc. Yes, it is a secret branch
of study"and you will encounter thousands of superstitions and
stupidities as"well in such texts, along with gem like knowledge
bits." Kala Tantra (Astrology) is the branch of Tantra that
deals"with the study of time for the purpose of knowing about the
past-"present-future, time of death etc. Of these two (Kala Tantra

and Kala"Mantra), Kala Mantra is the subject dealt with in the


available part"of Dattatreya Mahatantra - the description of how
to use medicine in"worship along with mantras for the purpose of
Shadkarma (Marana,"Mohana, Uchadana, Sthambhana,
Vidveshana, Akarshana) etc. But we can"also find some small
description about Kala Tantra (Astrology) as"well, here and there
in this text."
[Use of medicine in worship seems to be a superstition. But"hundreds of medicinal plants are mentioned in such
slokas, which F'think should have served some secret purpose in
the hands of true"guru and sishya of Tantric culture. Tantra is a
secret discipline,"and so who could say what would have been
the real purpose and use of'these medicines mentioned - even
though in the text it is stated that"it is used for the worship like
Homa etc]" Since Dattatreya Mahatantra speaks about Kala Mantra and Kala'Tantra, we could guess that only one part of this text
that deals"mainly with Kala Mantra is available to us and the other
part that"deals with Kala Tantra might have been lost, in the turbulent flow of'time." Listen to the request of Maharshi Dattatreya
to lord Siva -""Approaching lord Siva, the lord of all lords, the
divine, the welf'wisher of all worlds, savior of devotees, whose
adobe is Kailasa,"humbly, with folded hands, Dattatreya asked:
Oh lord, for the benefit''of the devotees please give advice to us
about Kala Mantra"" In the same style Dattatreya might have
learned Kala Tantra"(Astrology) as well from lord Siva
(Maheswara). That is why we could'Tind Kala Tantra (Astrology) as well, here and there in this text." Only because Dattatreya
mentions astrology here and there in"this text, can be conclude
like this? No. It is not the lone reason'Tor this conclusion. As mentioned earlier, "Siromani" (gem in the"head) is another name for
this text. Which branch of study is praised"as "gem in the head"
by the saints? Listen to this sloka in Vedanga"Jyotisha-" "Like the
crest of peacock, like the gem stone in the head"of a cobra, Astrology is at the head of all Vedanga sastras (like a"gem)"" Yes,

the praise "gem in the head" usually goes to Kala'Tantra - Astrology, Astronomy and the related mathematics. Because of'this even
the other name "Siromani" of Dattatreya Mahatantra,"indicates
that Kala Tantra (Astrology) is one of the subject mattefof the
text. But that part of the text is lost, and is not available"anymore."
There is one more point that proves this argument. Dattatreya"gives
a list of chapters that are present in Dattatreya Mahatantra af'the
beginning chapter of the text. Here 18 chapters are mentioned,"but
only the subjects mentioned in 9 chapters is available in the"printed
text. Chapters 1,9,12,13,14,15,16,17,18 (Total 9 chapters)"seems
to be missing. This also proves that the available text of'Dattatreya
Mahatantra is an incomplete one."
If we agree up to this the
question rises, "Is itVedanga'Astrology that Dattatreya wanted to
learn from lord Siva?" No! As he"wanted to leam medicine (Kala
Mantra) that could be made use fofworships aimed at purpose
such as Shadkarma etc, he might have'Tequested to teach astrology (Kala Tantra) that could be made use in"Shadkarma etc. Listen to his request to lord Siva-"In this world many types of talismans, manta, tantric worships are present. Many such are described
in Agama, Purana, Veda and Damara, and in many other texts as
well. Please advice the knowledge of Kala Tantra that would help
to utilize all that knowledge (on Yentra, Mantra etc) in the right
method for fulfilling the intentions" This is what Dattatreya requests. As said earlier knowledge about medicine (Kala Mantra)
and Astrology (Kala Tantra) that would be of help is Shadkarma
etc is the subject matter of Dattatreya Mahatantra. This knowledge lies scattered in Agama, Purana, Veda, Damara etc. Dattatreya
is requesting lord Siva to collect all these knowledge and give
advice/teach him the same 'in the right/correct method'." Agamas
are Siva Tantric texts - old as Vedas. The word Purana here indicates 18 Puranas and the Sub Puranas. The word Veda here indicates the 4 Vedas and the allied literature called Brahmana,
Aaranyaka, Upanishad etc as well. They are also known as

Nigama. But for Tantric devotees the word Nigama indicates Devi
Tantra. So the statement 'Agamokta' should be taken as indicative
of both Siva Tantra (Agama) and Devi Tantra (Nigama) texts.
Another branch of Tantra is Vishnava Tantra. Damaras are also
texts on Devi Tantra. That is, the request of Dattatreya to lord Siva
is to collect and systematically present and teach him the vast
knowledge on Kala Tantra and Kala Mantra which is beneficial
for the purpose of Shadkarma etc, clarifying the right method.
This sloka indicates that Tantric astrology was in a corrupted
state at the time of Dattatreya, and even for this great Maharshi it
was very difficult to separate the right and wrong statements from
the pile. The sloka also indicates that even in that remote past Vedas
and Puranas borrowed the knowledge of astrology and medicine
from Tantrics and incorporated it in those texts! We can feel the
pain of the Rishi when he see that this pure ancient secret knowledge is becoming lost knowledge for the Siva devotees. He wants
it to be the heritage of Siva Tantrics. Listen to these words - "This
great knowledge (on astrology and medicine) - which saves one
who devotes himself to this subject, secret, difficult to get even for
davas, first told by lord Siva, shines like a gem in the head all
secret knowledge branches - should be taught only to a person
who is the true devotee of the Guru. This knowledge should not
be imparted to persons who does not believe in acharyas, tradition
and the purity of knowledge. One should teach this pure knowledge to an individual who is strong willed and is a devotee of lord
Siva alone. The statement, "Astrology is originated from lord Siva"
(Tavagre kathitahyesha) asks for special attention. Even in the
period of Prasnamarga (16th century) this truth was appreciated.
Even today traditional astrologers read horoscope, or cast prasna
after bowing to that lord of lords Maheswara (Siva). This is the
reason for the importance of Dakshinamoorti (lord Siva in the form
of Guru, God of knowledge) in Astrology. Lord Siva is the ultimate Guru and originator of astrologic knowledge as per Tantric

tradition. Here I would like to mention a curious fact. If we consider the concept about the originator of astrology as per different
schools of astrology, we will find that - Vedic School - lord Brahma
(Tropical/Sayana); Tantric School - lord Siva (Sidereal/Nirayana);
Arsha School - lord Skanda (Sidereal/Nirayana); Jain School lord Brahma (Sidereal/Nirayana). This is curious! This difference
in concept about the originator of astrology, probably indicates
that, these are all different schools of thought in astrology, which
probably originated and existed in the same era. Is it not so? Since
the basic concepts (Such as Rasi and Nakshatra) where the same,
they might have got intermixed in a later stage. It is also possible
that, all these basic concepts such as Rasi and Nakshatra was originally borrowed from some other civilization which existed before
all these cultures, such as the Sindhu-Saraswati civilization. Only
an in-depth study and new evidences could prove whether any
amount of truth is present in this guess or not. In this essay I started
by discussing the astrological content in the available slokas of
Dattatreya Mahatantra - and so let us go back to that. Most of the
slokas after this discuss how medicines could be utilized for
Shadkarma (Kala Mantra) etc. Lord Siva tells Dattatreya -"Now I
will speak about Kala Mantra which is beneficial for the upliftment
of th individual. This secret knowledge (on medicine) which is
beneficial even in this kali yuga, I will teach you, putting aside the
knowledge of astrology. Because - (For the benefit with medicine) it is not essential to consider Tithi, Nakshatra, Vreta, Day,
Pooja, Japa, Homa etc. Even the determination of an auspicious
muhoorta is not essential. Merely applying the medicine that suits
well for the well being of mind and body serves the purpose. By
the use of it the disease gets cured. (Medicines are invaluable, and
their effect mysterious. Because of this I will explain to you, how
to use these medicines in Shadkarma worships). With this advice
lord Siva starts to speak about Kala Mantra (Medicine). Since those
slokas are not related to astrology, I am not discussing them here.

If anyone is interested bye and read the printed text of Dattatreya


Mahatantra to know more about that. But the last chapter of the
available printed text (chapter 15) deals with Kala Tantra (Astrology). The determination of the time of death is the subject discussed. Siva said: "Oh, Maha yogi, Dattatreya Mahamune, for the
benefit of human beings I will tell to you about death time determination. Listen "Dwadesa dala chakrastham Mrityukalam cha veekshitam
Chaitradi masa sankhayani likhyante dwadese dale
Meshadi rasaya sthapya suryadi likhyate grahaH
Janma riksha janma rasim veekshante mrityukarake
Surya vedhe manastapam budha soukhyam pravartate
Yatrayam teertha jeeve cha chandre stri sukha sambadaH
Bhrigu vedhe rajya labhaH mase mase vicharayete"
(Dattatreya Mahatantra)
[From the Rasichakra with 12 petals, we can have an idea bout
the time of death. For that first write the numbers of months starting from the month of Chaitra in each petal. In each of the petal
place signs starting from Aries. Now, as per current planetary position write down the names of Grahas such as Sun, Moon etc in
the Rasi chakra. If the Mrityu Karaka Graha (Saturn?) aspects
(Drishti) the Lagna (Lagna star?) or Moon sign then it is death
time. If Vedha is present, then for sun - sadness, for Mercury happiness, for Jupiter - pilgrimage, for Moon - happiness from
sexual acts with women, for Venus - gain of land results. This type
of prediction can be done every month. Some interprets that the
Sripati's system of Gochara-Vedha is mentioned here (?!). They
also argue that if Nakshatra Vedha and Rasi Vedha is present at the
same time then for sure it is time for Kala Mrityu (Ultimate/Sure
chance of death) (?!). But this sloka was a real problem to me and

I just got confused. Why? I will explain.


(1) Mention of months starting from Chitra
Why it is said that after drawing the Rasi chakra we should
write down the numbers corresponding to the months starting from
Chaitra in each square of the Rasi chakra? Did he mean to say that
-Chaitra = Mesha (Aries); Visakha =Vrishabha (Taurus) etc? If
so does it mean that the starting point of Aries should be calculated, taking Chitra star as a reference? That is, as if the point 180
deg away from Chitra star is the starting point of Aries or the like?
(2) Mrityu Karaka Graha
Is Saturn mentioned with the word Mrityu Karaka? If so, the
wordings "Janma riksha janma rasim veekshante sanaischare",
directly mentioning Saturn would have been enough. Then why
the author chose to omit directly mentioning Saturn and instead
used the word Mritru Karaka (Significator of death)? If not only
Saturn but also other planets should be considered, then what other
house lords and planets we should consider?
(3) Riksha - Nakshatra or sign
The word Riksha has got 2 meanings - Nakshatra and sign.
With the word Janma Riksha Dattatreya Maharshi is mentioning
Lagna Nakshatra, Lagna sign, Moon Nakshatra or Moon sign? If
we think that here the word Riksha represents both Nakshatra and
Sign, then is it that we should consider both Nakshatra Vedha and
Rasi Vedha for death time determination? How to calculate
Nakshatra Vedha and Rasi Vedha in planetary context?
(4) Vedha and the related prediction
Here if Vedha is present for beneficial planets, then it is said
that results also would be beneficial!! This is contradictory to the
Vedha concept of Sripati. As perTantric astrology how many types
of Vedha is present? How to calculate Nakshatra Vedha, Rasi

Vedha and Graha Vedha in the planetary context? What are the
rules to be observed while predicting with this type Vedha concept?
(5) Transit or Gochara
This Gochara-Vedha system of prediction can be used for prediction every month (Mase mase vicharayet) says Dattatreya. Did
he meant to say that Transit should be considered for the determination of death time? If so why he avoided mentioning the transit
prediction for Mars, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu?
(6) Vedha and Tantric Astrology
Probably Sripati who lived in 10th century AD, is the
person"who introduced the concept of Vedha in astrology. But
here we encounter a similar concept in Dattatreya Mahatantra as
well! What should we observe from it? Should we think that
Dattatreya Tantra originated after Sripati of 10th century AD? Or
should we think that Sripati borrowed the concept of Vedha from
Tantric astrology especially from Dattatreya Tantra?
No. I don't have answers to such doubts. If we want to find
answers to the above or similar questions, an in-depth study of the
astrology mentioned in Tantric texts (Tantric Astrology) is a must.
For simplifying the study of ancient astrology, we can classify
them into several categories:(i) Astrology in Sindhu-Sarasvati period (Sindhu-SarasvatiAstrology)
(ii) Astrology mentioned Vedas and allied literature (Vedic Astrology)
(iii) Astrology mentioned Epics (Epic Astrology)
(iv) Astrology mentioned in Puranas (Puranic Astrology)
(v) Astrology mentioned in Tantric texts (Tantric Astrology) -

It is the biggest treasure, thousands of unexplored texts (and a


whole secret tradition) waiting for us! [Chandra Hari is specially
interested in Tantric Astrology and the Sidhantic astronomy]
(vi) Astrology of Arsha school which is scattered in various
ancient astrological texts. This is a well accepted stream in Indian
astrology starting with Skanda Hora, Brihal Prajapatyam, Vasishta
Hora, Kousika Hora etc. The acharyas in this school are great
Rishis like Skanda, Daksha, Vasishta, Kousika, Sounaka etc, and
the authentic Sidhantic text 'Surya Sidhanta'. [I am specially interested in this stream of thought]
(vii) Astrology of Jain school which is scattered in various "ancient astrological texts. This is a well accepted stream in Indian
astrology starting with Garga Hora, Surya Prajchapti etc. The
acharyas in this school are Garga, Rishputra etc. (Jain Astrology)
[Yes, of course there are other streams of thought as well like Yavana
and Parasara. But books on that them is not yet lost completely,
and that is why I am not including them here on the above list]
There is not even a single authentic text available that tries to explore the depths of any of the categories mentioned above! There
is a vast area available for research! They are requesting to us,
"please, please, come forward and reveal the knowledge we preserved for you..." All this ancient knowledge on astrology are still
behind the dark curtain of half forgotten, unexplored literary history. This vast knowledge is praying to us,
" Ta m a so m a" J y o li rga m ay a...". Yes, there is a large amount of work
pending, and is seeking our immediate attention. All these knowledge is meditating there inside the dark cave and is ready to shower
their secrets before the true seekers of knowledge. Those who are
truly inquisitive can start their search from here. Let us begin our
search for the hidden treasures of astrological knowledge. Enjoy!
It is child's play- and the vast treasure house waiting for us, to be
explored! Let us begin search and present the valuables we find,

before the all, for the benefit of posterity! And Enjoy the fun of
learning!
Swastika and Astrology
Swastika was famous in Sindhu-Sarasvati Tradition. It is a famous Tantric Symbol used for various kinds of worships. Does it
have some relationship with astrology? Can it clarify to us anything about the tradition of Mohanjadaro-Harappan civilization
and the kind of astrology they followed? The answer is: Yes.
Before proceeding to this study, let us understand what Swastika is - as you know, it is a symbol. Symbol of what? That we will
see. Two sets of Swastika representations are given below. The
first is considered male and the second female.
Male

Female

(Closkwise)

Fig. 1

(Anti-clockwise)

Fig. 2
J

I
r
J
n
Fig. 3

r
Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. i

This is a symbol that was and is famous throughout the world


from the ancient past. Tibetans believed that the devils liked the
female Swastika. In Japan and China both the male and female
swastikas were considered auspicious. North American people too
considered both of them as auspicious! In Scandinavia, Arabia
and many other places this symbol was well known. Now a days
Swastika is not only used by the Agama (Tantric) tradition but
also by the Nigama (Vedic) tradition and many other religions and
cults; It is popular in India and outside; even though the original
home of the symbol is known to everybody as India.
Hitler made the male swastika notoriously known - and many
say that he selected it by mistake; instead of the currently popular
female swastika selecting the transposed one. May be they don't
know about the history of Swastika and its Agama tradition. In
truth as per the ancient Agama (Tantric) tradition there are two
type of Swastika - symbolically termed male and female. Both the
swastikas were used for worship based on the nature of worship.
But Hitler selected the one symbolizing Male (representing good
deeds?) and made it famous as a bad symbol. Due to this or not I
don't know, today's Hindus seems to have a preference for the
female swastika; may be to escape from the bad name Hitler caused
to the male swastika.:) But even now in Agama tradition the Male
swastika is used for the worship for good deeds (worship for spiritual uplift or for the benefit of all) and the Female swastika is especially selected for bad deeds (worship for selfish achievements).
The original shape of Swastika is shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. It
is the shape of swastika famous in India from the ancient past and
is part of the Agama (Tantric) tradition. For tantric worship when
the swastika chakra is drawn different colors (usually with 4 colors - White, Yellow, Red, Black) would be used to color the differ
areas within the swastika chakra (circle). It is cute to not that even
though drawn as square shape, Swastika drawn for Tantric wor-

ship is known as Chakra (Wheel = Circle!). Yes, as the word indicates, it is actually a circle or wheel represented in square shape
similar to the zodiac circle which even though a square we usually
represent as a square for
convenience of drawing. Actually
it is nothing but the Zodiac itself! How can we say so? What is the
proof? The answer is - Do you ever noticed the Agama (Tantric)
directions given to draw swastika? If not, here it is. For Male swastika -

Hdltk

^Aul l t

[In the infinite zodiac starting from Mesha (Aries) 3 padas (signs)
each, cover, each area represented in swastika chakra. Gods such
as 'Vaiswanara' (=The universal god) etc sits in the middle of
Swastika Chakra. After drawing the Chakra fill it with colors such
as White, Yellow, Red and Black in order]
For female swastika this description would be as 'Meenadika'
meaning 'Pisces onwards' in anti-clockwise direction.
The 4 quarters of Swastika indicates the 4 directions; as malefemale combination it is the representative of Siva-Sakti itself; as
the zodiac it represents the universe; it indicates the oneness of the
universal god with the universe; the oneness of the universe and
the human efforts to grasp that oneness with fragmented classifications. In the practical plane of astrology - It represents the Zodiac, it represents the Year.
Thus it becomes clear that Swastika is a symbol of Agama
(Tantric) tradition, well-known, well understood, well described.
Yes, it was the tradition with a glorious past; with a glorious continuity from the Mohangadaro-Harappan civilization! The
Harappan people practiced Yoga (remember the Moolabandhasa
posture of the Yogic figures), Tantra (remember the Siva symbols
of Harappa and the worship of Sakti, the mother goddess). Yes,

the ancient Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization followed the Agama tradition; which once spanned throughout the world; It is the same
Asura/Agama tradition - which created the Nirayana astrology;
feeling the rhythmic oneness of the universe within themselves!
The original name of Harappa is Meluhha. Even though the
Kalibengan Vedic people who lived on the Indian side of Sarasvati
started calling them Mlechhas ('Meluhas' = Meluhans = People of
Meluha), initially with equal respect and later with contempt for
not following the Vedic (=Brahmanic) path; the Agama tradition
was spread throughout India; Siva and Sakti and the Tantric symbol of Zodiac never lost its relevance; and it was the path followed
by the true seekers of the ultimate; and is in use still today. Be
proud to be the followers of such a tradition - and be proud that
we are the students of a great branch of Agama Sastra that is
Nirayana Astrology. Don't you wonder - The Vedic tradition gave
more value to the Tropical Year and months and the fixed frame
of reference provided by Nakshatra divisions; but still the Agama
tradition of Niryana astrology which consider the fixed from work
of Meshadi (starting from Aries) signs survived and is the most
popular system in India even today. Yes, the same is the case with
the culture and gods of India - the Nigama (Vedic) tradition is an
almost forgotten past; but the Agama tradition is the reality in current practice throughout India! If you don't believe look at the
gods - Siva, Sakti (Devi, Chadika, Kali, Durga), Naga (Snake
worship; Kundalini Pooja) etc; and also at the popularity of
Nirayana Zodiacal astrology. Do you find the Vedic gods Indra,
Mitra, Varuna any where? Even after the epics and puranas how
many temples for later day Vishnava cult gods of Brahmins such
as Rama and Krishna can you find in India? Alas! Even the Vedic
gods had to resort to the temple worship of later day Agama tradition to preserve their existence! You could easily see that the Vedic
culture got submerged here in India by the original Agama tradition! Only the trace remains in the form of Vedic literature - but
yes it is much valuable; since the Agama tradition never succeeded
to that extend in preserving the scriptures.

Note 1:1 think now you know the answer to the question, "What
Swastika symbolize?". Yes, it is a holistic symbol with utmost relevance.
Note 2: The Vedic tradition borrowed much from the earlier
Agama tradition; proofs are many for the same in Vedas. The current Archeological evidences too point to the same direction.
About the system of Black Magic
"We the children of cosmic divine destroy the incarnation of
sin 'Niriti' (the god of death) and thus destroy the evilness and
diseases that eat us up every day, every moment, by following the
consciousness. Thus we destroy the evilness in us and remove the
darkness that covers over understanding. Oh! God give us the
power to do so!"
- Atharva Veda
Let it be the malicious path or the good path, to study mantravada
(A deviant path of Tatra, which aims at fulfillment of intentions) a
guru (teacher) is necessary. Why? Atharvada says that- 'Death,
Water and Moon are my teachers. Rice, wheat and all other food
materials I am getting due to the compassion of the teacher. Everything and every event in the world are my teachers' Ashtanga
hridaya (A book on Ayurveda, which speaks about medicine and
healing techniques, written by saint Charaka) also speaks in the
same line- 'For an intelligent individual, in his every act, the world
itself is the teacher. Because of this in worldly matters after understanding the ways methods and nature of nature and living beings
one should follow the same'. These messages may give us the
feeling that a separate guru is not necessary to learn even subjects
like Mantravada. Ultimately, 'Siva, the god which is present in
and with which the whole universe is made up of, is the first guru
and he himself lightens himself in everybody as consciousness thus says the knowledgeable ones' (Quote from Suta samhita) The

ultimate or the only real possible guru is within ourselves - which


is nothing but consciousness. The teachers can only show the way,
actual teaching and learning happens from within - we ourselves
are the real gurus for ourselves. This being the real situation, we
may feel that the stress on having another individual as guru to
teach Mantravada (or any other similar subject) is something over
stated. But it is not so. Kulamava Tantra tells us that- 'Siva (or the
enlightened consciousness), the ultimate guru is divine. It may not
be possible for common people to see or decipher it - they always
live in confusion, and darkness encompasses their consciousness
always. Due to this the students of subjects like Tantric worships
should take someone who is truly spiritual (who wish and act for
the well being of the universe and himself, by following his own
nature) as guru, and follow his teachings (till he himself lightens
up, and becomes a guru who could see his own path or true nature
- i.e. 'Dharma'). [By the way 'Dharma', 'Tao' all mean almost
the same and could be translated as 'the path'; But even this definition does not clarify full depth of the word 'Dharma'. An example may clarify further. 'Burning is the true dharma of Fire'. Or
in other words 'Dharma' could also be translated as 'true nature'
(of something)] Thus it becomes clear that to study 'Mantravada'
in the right way, a teacher is a must. This stays true for both DurMantravada (Malicious Mantravada or 'Black Magic' and 'Good
Mantravada' or 'White Magic'). If not we will end up having an
erroneous understanding of this subject - as truly visible from the
words 'Black Magic', which itself can cause confusion regarding
the depth and nature of this subject itself.
The Fundamental constituents
Having said that, I think now we have the minimum ground
necessary to embark on this subject. But before going into this
study, we should have at least a minimum understanding of the
constants and of this subject - i.e. Dur Mantravada. It should be
clearly noted that I am speaking about Dur-Mantravada (Black

Magic) which is a deviation happened in the path of Tantra and


not about Tantra itself. The fundamental constituents differ a lot in
both. [If you want to know more about 'Tantra' read the book
'Bhirava Tantra' by Osho] Here I am speaking about the constituents of the system of Black Magic and not about Tantra. 'Tanta'
means 'Technique' and it is more about attaining enlightenment
by the union of opposites - Man and Women, Siva and Sakti.
Dur-Mantravada (Black Magic) is more concerned with various
beliefs, and techniques to fulfill intentions, anchoring on those
beliefs. Black Magic is more or less based on the following beliefs1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

The belief in the power of secret hymns.


The belief in the principles of similarity and transition
The belief in Ayurveda system of medicine
The belief in astrology
The belief in para-normal and para-psychic powers (of
ours and non-human)
6) The belief in the words of our ancestors (the belief in
traditional beliefs)
7) The belief in ceremonial act or worship techniques used
8) The belief in the theory of Karma (Karma sidhanta): Eg.
What you do, the result of that you are sure to get, in this
life or the other.
9) The belief in re-birth.
10) The belief in multiple gods
11) The belief in the ability of dreams to foretell future
12) The belief in time
a. The knowledge of Time and its nature (Time is the
ultimate counter part of the universe, providing the
extra dimension)
b. Knowledge of the effects of time (Calendar and
Muturta systems)

c. The belief that we can defy time and thus death


(through meditation and breath control)
d. The worship of the destroyer of time (Kalakala 'Siva' who can cause the death of time itself)
13) The ultimate state (enlightenment)
a. Duality (Siva - Sakti) = Dvaita
b. Single God (There are several systems which
consider Tripura sundari or Akhora as this single
god) = Eka Daiva
c. Unity (The realization that the creator, creation and
the rules are one and the same) = Advaita
Except the last one, all the others are beliefs - but the last one
is rather a realization than a belief. If somebody gross from the
preliminaries of 'BlackMagic' (ceremonial worships for
intension fulfillment) to considering this as a path for
enlightenment, then he is in the path of 'Tantra' rather than
'Black Magic'.
we should try to elaborate and understand these beliefs in more
deapth. The aim of that effort sould be to understand a method to
differentiate the pearls and waste material and literature that is
present in the system of 'Black Magic'.
Once the above steps is covered, we should look into the classification (Shad Karma = Marana, Mohana, Uchadana etc) and
functional constituents (Mantramsaka = Mantra deeksha, Snana,
Dyana, Pranayama etc), and technical constituents (Mantra recitation, Homa, Use of flowers, gems and garlands, prasada dana, use
of medicines and chemicals etc)
Only such an elaboration can give us the ground to have a
minimum understanding about the system of 'Black Magic'. I hope
that, I have succeeded in providing the outline of the point under
discussion, and the area it covers.

Tajik Astrology
'Tajiki' is the language that present in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
in previous USSR. This language comes under the Indo-Iranian
language family, which is a branch of Indo-European language
family. Languages like Persian, Kurdish, Baloochi, Dardik, Armenian etc are also part of Indo-Iranian language family in which
Tajiki is also present.
The primordial form of Persian language is the one used in
Persia and Armenia in Arcadian ruling period. The books of
Zaratushtra (BC. 1500) are written in such old Persian known as
Sent Avaste. The middle age pertain is known by the name Pahlavi.
The script of this language is also different. Later when the Arabs
conquered Iran, the Arabic language greatly influenced Persia and
the modern Persian language (AD 9th century) originated.
That means, much knowledge transfer happened via the path:
Tajikistan > Armenia > Iran > India. Or in other words via the
language path: Old Tajiki > Old Armenian > Sent Avaste (Old
Persian) > Pahlavi (Middle age Persian) > Persian (Modem Persian) > Arabic > Indian Languages.
One of the knowledge branches, which got transferred through
this path, is a particular form of astrology. It is the ancient astrology prevalent in Tajikistan, Armenia and Uzbekistan which reached
through Iran (Through Persian and Arabic) that later became popular as 'Tajik Astrology'. It is astonishing to note that the system
still preserved its old roots of origin even after this much transfer
and transformations. Thus 'Tajik Astrology' means 'the system of
astrology originated in Tajikistan'.
It was with Mohammed Ghazni who entered India in 10th century, that this system of astrology reached Kashmir, and then later
with the spreading of Arabs in India, spread throughout North
India. In India the meaning of the word 'Tajik' transferred to refer

to Arabs. Remember the quote -

[The attack of the Arabs caused much sadness and loss of radiance to the whole world] Note that in this quote the word 'Tajik' is
used to refer to the Arabs.
In Arabic Taj means 'crown' - thus 'Tajik' system could mean
'the crown among the knowledge branches'. Remember the Sanskrit verse that praises astrology as the crust (or crown) of peacock. The quote reads as follows urn
ct&ci

zii&cum

f&icil I
nroxruol
COO (TummauftjBsroratimtimonmaotimnJtimcy
CO -2 CO
CO COO (TO CO <50 CO-2
[Like the crest of peacock, like the gem stone in the head of cobra,
astrology is the crown of the vedic knowledge branches]

Thus it is clear that both Ancient Vedic Indians (Suras or Devas)


and the Ancient non-vedic Asura empire (which ruled Iran, Armenia, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) which worshiped Ahur Mazda
(Asura medha = Asura wisdom) in the period of ancient Zoroastrian religion (BC 1500) considered astrology as the crown among
the knowledge branches. It is one of the rudimentary branches of
this ancient non-vedic astrology that was popular in Tajikistan,
which is available to us now in the name 'Tajik Astrology'.
In AD 1544 an indian scholar with the name Neelakandha translated this system of astrology from Arabic to Sanskrit. This
Neelakandha is the son of an astrologer named Ananta (Ananta
Daivajna) and is the grand son of the famous astrologer Rama
(Rama Daivajna) who wrote the text 'Muhurta Chinatamani'. The
son of Neelakandha named Govinda, later wrote a famous commentary called 'Peeyoosha dhara' for Muhurta Chintamani and a
commentary known as 'Rasala' for Neelakandha's text on Tajik
system of astrology. The text written by Neelakandha on Tajik

system of astrology is well known today as - 'Tajik Neelakandhi'.


At the time of Neelakandha Kashmir was known as Vidarbha.
Note that this ancient kingdom Vidarbha was very popular from
Upanishad and Epic period onwards.
There seems to have lived one scholar who wrote some well
appreciated text on this branch of astrology in Sanskrit prior to
Neelakandha known as Samara Simha. Samara Simhas text on
Mundane astrology must be available even now in some manuscript libraries.
The book Tajik Neelakandhi is composed of 3 parts - knows
as Tantra texts. They are 1. Samjna Tantra (Naming system or the basic knowledge)
2. Varsha Tantra (Mundane Astrology or Varsha phala or Predictions connected with year beginning)
3. Prasma Tantra (Horary Astrology)
Just as this system preserved its old roots of origin in its name
as 'Tajiki' (pointing to 'Tajikistan') the use of the word 'Tanta' to
denote the branches is also cute to note. In ancient times all the
vedic knowledge branches were known as Nigama, and all the
non-vedic knowledge branches were known as 'Agama' or
'Tantra'. Thus the naming of the various knowledge branches in
Tajik system of astrology also points to its ancient Tantric origin.
The old tradition rooted in Asura wisdom.
As noted above - during the continuous transfer from Tajikistan

to Iran via Armenia and from their through the Arabs to India,
even though some part of the inherent knowledge got preserved,
the naming conventions used and words used changed and modified elaborately. Many words, especially those used to denote various yogas, used in current Tajik system of astrology, such as the
following seems to denote that the origin or acceptance of words
from Arabic than from its original source or origin.
1. Ikkabali (lucky)
2. Indu vara (destruction or loss)
3. Itthasala (mutual aspect)
4. Eesarapha (separation)
5. Naks
6. Yamaya
7. Manavoo
8. Kabbul (acceptance)
9. Jauri Kabbul
10. Khallasar (Empty)
11. Radrim (waste)
12. Duphali kuddhe (normal)
13. Duddhodha divir (self support)
14. Tambir (benefic)
15. Kuddh (Powerful)
16. Duraph (weak)
Actually many of the yogas mentioned in this system are popular in ancient Indian astrology from age old period itself. As an
example, I will take the first of these 16 yogas, named Ikkabali

and elaborate.
The yoga named Ikkabali is formed when all the planets are 1. In Kendras
2. In Panaphara
3. In Apoklima
[There is an argument regarding whether the words 'Kendara',
'Panaphara', 'Apoklima' etc are of Greek origin or not. This I
won't touch here, because it is another big controversial subject in
itself]
Tajik Neelakandhi is tells us that "If all the planets are in Kendra,
Panaphara or Apoklima the yoga named Ikkabali is formed and
the native would be very lucky". This is a general statement. The
ancient Indian astrology, deal with these 3 conditions seperatly
and gives them seprate names and provides some unique details.
Let us see what are the named given by the sages for these yogas
considering these 3 conditions seperatly.
As per Indian astrology
The word kendra refers to square, i.e. 1-4-7-10 houses. If all
planets (both benefics and malefics) are in Kedra it is known as
'Kamala Yoga'. Brihat Jataka provides the following quote cp<n(n&r ft & a?

ct a 141 cieifh cho^mt-uct:

[If all planets (both benefics and malefics) are in Kendra (1-4-710) then it is known as Kamala Yoga. If they are in signs other
than Kendra (i.e. Panaphara and Apoklima) it is known as Vapi
Yoga] From this it is clear that * If all planets are in Kendra (1-4-7-10), it is Kamala Yoga.
* If all planets are in Panaphara (2-5-8-11) it is Vapi Yoga.

* If all planets are in Apokilma (3-6-9-12), then too it is Vapi


Yoga
Kamala yoga is also known as 'Padma Yoga'. What are the
results to be predicted for these yoagas? Brihat Jataka provides
the following results ft[ClCl
m^ii

^rmi I
(^CT^6rTU)12ia-(^m9CT^CT^(^CT\)^(^

[If Kamala yoga (Padma Yoga) is present, the native would be,
famous (very popular), he will lead a happiest life with a multitude of virtuous qualities. If Vapi yoga is present, the native would
be, healthy (having a body without diseases, enjoying all kinds of
bodily pleasures), and wealthy. But he won't donate anything to
others (means he won't help others much with his wealth or property)]
It is clear that the combination is mentioned in Brihat Jataka,
but how can we be sure that these combinations are mentioned by
the great sages who lived before Varaha Mihira? Even though
Mihira tells us that he had created his text only by abbreviating or
brewing the essence of ancient Rihi Horas, is there any proof available to argue that the same is or might have been dealt with in
those ancient Rishi horas as well? Yes there is! Kausika hora provides the results for Kamala yoga as follows srfcussjicmmi
0 CT\)3CTD(TDCT\)29
v
29
cu cro cu0 eO-CmOSTT)
coo em cm
co (ffl-SCCTDaDCTDCTD)
ou co co co/
[If the native is born in Padma yoga (Kamala yoga), he would be
very famous, and would always enjoy happiness and wealth. He
will have a wealth of virtues and will have tremendous amount of
wealth as deposit]

This quote amply proves that such yogas were dealt within

Rishi horas in much detail. It is clear that Mihira collected and


discussed these yogas based on Rishi horas only.
Actually there is a big collection of dealt with in ancient indian
astrology with the name Nabhasa Yogas. Nabhasa yogas are
subcategorized in to branches, such as 1. Asraya yogas
2. Mala yogas
3. Sankhya yogas
The yogas such as Kamala and Vapi comes under the Asraya
yoga sub category, because these combinations results due to the
Asraya (deposition) of Planets in houses with the names as Kendra,
Panaphara and Apoklima.
[The detailed discussion of all possible Naphasa yogas is another
big subject and therefore I am not going into it, and the
categroization, sub categoration, and the various yogas involved]
Hope this article much have helped the readers in * gaining insight about the origin and development of Tajik
system of astrology and
* understanding the both Tajik system and ancient indian astrology sprung from the same root source of Asura wisdom, which
spanned many countries in some ancient past.
If this article inspires you to look in this unique branch of astrology in a revised new perspective, and also if such an efforts
brings out new insights about the correlation between various cultures and ancient wisdom promoted by them, I would be happy.

Part -II
Sign and House are the same
We may think that Sign are House are different, because there
are so many methods - such as one put forward by Sreepathi (10th
century), Krishnamoorthi, 30 Degree equal division etc. Now what
was the opinion of ancient Rishis on this subject? Have they
considered Sign and House differently - except from the fact that
Signs starts from Aris and Houses starts from the Ascendant? Let
us go through some of the available refferences.
Parasara
If you use Jagannatha hora program to calculate houses, you
already know of many methods for calculating houses the first
option is, 'Each Rasi is a house (Parasari /True Vedic)'. Which
itself shows that PVR and Rath has done sufficient study on the
subject and came to the conclusion that Parasara considered 'Each
Sign as a House'. I take it as sufficient proof and do not want to
discuss the slokas put forward by Parasara in detail. Let us see
what are the opinions of others.
Varahamihira (6th Century)
Varahamihira says that - 'Rasi kshethra griharksha bhani
bhavanam chaikardha samprethyaye'. Which means - the words
Rasi, Kshethra, Griha, Riksha, Bham and Bhavanam are used in
the same meaning through out the text Varahahora. (Note the fact
that the words Rasi and Griha are used in the same meaning). Ok.
For that what? I will explain. In the 15th sloka of the first chapter
he states that'Horadayasthanu kudumba sahotdha bandhuputhrari pathni maranani subhaspadaya
ribhakhyamithyupachanyari karma labha-

duschithka samgjitha "grihani" na nithyameke'


Which means that - the Houses (Grihani) starting from ascendant
have the names Thanu (Body -Ascendant), Kudumba (Own house
- 2nd house), Sahotdha (Brothers - 3rd house), Bandhu (Relatives
- 4th house), Puthra (Son - 5th house), Ari (Enemy - 6th house),
Pathni (Wife - 7th house), Marana (Death - 8th house), Subha
(Good things - 9th house), Aspada (Job - 10th house), Aya
(Earnings -11th house), Ribha (Expenditure - 12th house).
Everybody will accept the fact that houses are mentioned here.
I am attracting your attention to the word, which was used to
describe these houses - it is 'Griha'. In earlier statement
Varahamihira has already said that the words Griha and Rasi and
used in the same name throughout his text. Is it not a convincing
evidence for the fact that Varahamihira considered Sign (Rasi) and
house as the same? If you are not convinced note the next sloka.
'Kalya swa vikrama griha prethibha kshethani
chithodha randhra guru mana bhava vyeyani
legnachathurdha nidhane chathurasra samjche
dunam cha sapthama "griham" desamarkshamajcha'
Which means (only the relevant portion) - the houses (Griham)
starting from the ascendant have the names Kalya (Fame Ascendant), Swa (Assets - 2nd house), Vikrama (Courage - 3rd
house), Griha (House were you are born - 4th house), Prethibha
(Intelligence - 5th house), Kshethani (Wounds - 6th house),
Chithodha (Ego - 7th house), Randhra (8th house), Guru (Teacher
- 9th house), Mana (Proudness - 10th house), Bhava (Next birth 11th house), Vyeya (Expenditure - 12th house).
Here also note the fact that the word Griha is used - which
explicitly means Sign and House at the same time, because the
words Sign and House means the same thing, with the only

difference that Signs are counted from Aris while the Houses are
counted from Ascendant.
Therefore it becomes clear that even at the period of 6th century
AD, Signs and Houses are considered the same. It was people
like Sreepathi (10th century) who made all the confusion by
interpreting Sign and House as two different entities, and by
providing new techniques of the calculation of Houses. (And just
look - in what a mess we are!! There are 5 or more methods for
calculating house!! In which we should depend on?! I don't want
to go into the detail)
Even after all this happened there were learned scholars who
never let away the correct system - and if you are not convinced
read Krishneeyam and Saravali.
Krishneeyam
Krishneeyam is written by one krishnacharya who probably
lived in the 13th Century AD. A well-known and fascinating
commentary for this classic text is chathura-sundari, written by
Vishnu (the son of madhavacharya who has written madhaveeya).
While commenting on the 9th sloka of Krishneeyam, he says,
"adha moorthyadishu dvadesa rasishu dwadesha bhavanaha".
Which means, 'Starting from the ascendant the twelve signs are
also known as twelve houses'. This is so clear and explicit a
statement, that no true learner of astrology can deny the fact that,
Vishnu considered Signs and Houses as the same thing. This also
points to the fact that, Krishnacharya and Madhavacharya also
considered Signs and Houses as the same thing.
Conclusion
If all these ancient acharyas (Rishis, Parasara, Varahamihira,
Krishnacharya, Madhavacharya, Kalyanavarama etc) considered
Sign and House as the same thing, who are we to say that they are

different. Therefore any true learner of Vedic astrology, should


accept and follow the path shown by these acharyas, and consider
Sign and House as the same thing. (Probably Sreepathi had started
all this trouble)
Divisions Such as Trimsamsa
Before some days somebody has asked the question "Why
Trimsamsa lords are for 5-6-7-8 degrees while the name suggest
that, one Trimsamsa should be equal to 1/30 th of a sign (i.e. 1
Degree)". Let me try to answer this question.
Initially there were 2 systems in astrology for deriving predictions based on divisions.
1) That gives importance to Rasi vargas, especially to 12 Rasi
vargas (Dwadesa Rasi varga)
2) That gives importance to the lords of Rasis (signs) [This
system was later came to be known as shadvarga, saptha varga
etc]
Let us study these 2 systems in detail.
1) Dwadesa Rasi varga
There should be a systematic method for the mixing of the characteristics of signs (Rasis) without which minute analysis is impossible. Thus came about the Dwadesa rasi varga system.
"Sphugidhvaja Hora" (An old classic on astrology of AD 250)
states that zivft cj

arm

^ ^ tpet tigemferl

11

Which means - signs have 12 vargas. The characteristics of


each division (varga) of sign differ due to the inter-mixing of the
qualities and characteristics of other signs.

Now what is the systematic method for deriving Rasi vargas?


While describing hora (2 fold division of rasi) "Parasara hora"
states that dm

sorfffzt sfdu / /

Which means - the hora division circles the zodiac 2 times,


starting from the sign Aris.
Putting it mathematically, we get Hora = Sputa x 2
i.e. if we multiply the longitude (planetary longitude or the
nirayana longitude of any degree) by 2 we get the hora sputa.
Thus first half of Aris would have the characteristics of Aris itself,
while the second half will have the characteristics of both Aris and
Taurus. For Taurus, the first half of it will have the characteristics
of Taurus and Gemini, and the second will have the characteristics of Taurus and Cancer. It goes on like this.
This system is true for all Rasi vargas. For example, while discussing Drekkana, Parasara states that md dm dmd simzft mdiin
Which mathematically means Drekkana sputa = sputa x 3
Thus from Aris: - the first Drekkana will have the characteristics of Aris, while the second is a mixture of Aris and Taurus, and
the third Drekkana will have the mixed characteristics of Aris and
Gemini. For Taurus: - The first Drekkana will have the mixed
characteristics of Taurus and Cancer, the second of Taurus and
Leo, and the third of Taurus and Virgo. It goes on like this.
Now is it a generalized system, which could be used for all
Rasi vargas? Yes, it is!! Because in Saravali (another classic text
of astrology), we could see the statement -

felWl itm ?c[


c[^t MJJ.ftlcll
3mn^?T?maTcPT etmi 7^141 Rhci) cpyfll I
Which means - If you multiply the sputa of the Ascendant and
the other planets with the varga number and then divide it with
1800 you can find out, in which sign the varga sputa will occur.
Thus for 4th varga (Chathurdhamsa) = sputa x 4
5th varga (Panchamamsa) = sputa x 5
6th varga (Shadamsa) = sputa x 6
7th varga (Sapthamsa) = sputa x 7
8th varga (Ashtamsa) = sputa x 8
9th varga (Navamsa) = sputa x 9
10th varga (Desamsa) = sputa x 10
11th varga (Ekadesamsa) = sputa x 11
12th varga (Dwadesamsa) = sputa x 12
There is only 12 Signs, and as you can intermix only these 12
Signs the important Rasi vargas are Dwadesa rasi vargas.
But of course you can also mathematically derive other rasi
vargas such as,
Trimsamsa = sputa x 30
Shodasamsa = sputa x 60 etc
If you are deriving the Dwadesa rasi vargas or the higher multiples, the lords of signs and the lords of these divisions are the
same. If you are not sure, see Krishneeyam apg Vlfel TcRlt fer apg
Which means - the palents Mars, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Sun,

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupitor, Satern, Satern, Jupitor are the lords
of Signs and Vargas, starting from Aries in order.
Is it not a clear statement to prove that all the vargas should be
counted from Aris and that the lords of vargas are the lords of
signs itself?
But you should also remember that, if a clear method for mathematically asserting the exactness of birth time is not present, there
is no point in using higher rasi vargas. Because if there is an error
of 4 minutes in birth time Trimsamsa will change, and if there is an
error of 2 minutes Shodasamsa will change. (Remember also the
controversy - What exactly is the birth-time? How to rectify it
mathematically if there is an error of say, more than 10 minutes?)
Understand clearly that while considering the divisions of signs,
Parasara, Kalyanavarma, Krishnacharya, Sphugidhvaja etc all
emphesis the point that, for mixing the charecteristics of signs, the
only method to be followed is Rasi vargas. The genral formula
would be Varga = sputa x multiple
If we follow this system, not only we can get a clear understanding about the load of varga, but also the method for predection
while using such multiples. This statement is especially true for
Dwadesa rasi vargas.
So much about the first system of Divisions. Now let us discuss the other system of divisions - namely Shadvarga system.
2) Shadvargadhipa system
Rather than giving importance to mixing of the characteristics
of signs, this system gives importance to the lords of the signs.
The names used are - Kshethra, Hora, Drekkana, Navamsa,
Dwadesamsa, Trimsamsa.

May be it is this use of same names as used in Dwadesa rasi


vargas later caused all the confusion. The interpolation of new
slokas (and dropping of some old slokas) both in Parasara hora
and Saravali should have added to the trouble. Both this texts as
we get today are not in their purest form (There are many evidences to reach this conclusion - which are not relevant here).
What ever be the connected reasons let us discuss this system.
Kshethradhipa: Lord of the sign
Horadhipa: Lord of the 2-fold division. (For odd sign - for 1st
half it is sun and for the 2nd half it is moon. For even sign - for 1 st
half it is moon and for the 2nd half it is sun.)
Drekkanadhipa: Lord of the 3-fold division (For chara sign lords of 1-5-9 signs in order. For sthira sign - lords of 5-9-1 signs
in order. For ubhaya sign - lords of 9-1-5 signs in order)
Navamsadhipa: Lord of the 9-fold division (Navamsa lords of
Dwadesa varga)
Dwadesamsadhipa: Lord of 12-fold division. (Dwadesamsa is
counted from the sign of the sputa in which the sputa is posited)
Trimsamsadhipa: Lords of some sets of degrees. [For odd sign 5 Deg (Mars), 5 Deg (Saturn), 8 Deg (Jupiter), 7 Deg (Mercury),
5 Deg (Venus). For even sign - 5 Deg (Venus), 7 Deg (Mercury),
8 Deg (Jupiter), 5 Deg (Saturn), 5 Deg (Mars)]
This Shadvargadhipa system, which gives importance to the
lords of these divisions, rather than to the signs (Rasis), helps us in
asserting the good/bad effects of the planets. How to predict using
this system is well depicted in texts like Varaha hora.
Why the name Trimsamsa?
Now let us come back to the question 'why the name Trimsamsa
means l/30th (i.e. 1 degree) of a sign while lords are counted for
different sets of degrees?'

The reason for this might be that the older of the two systems is
the Rasi varga system (especially Dwadesa rasi varga system),
and the names used in it were latter adopted to the Shadvargadhipa
system.
Note the fact that in the Shadvargadhipa system, Horadhipa
and Trimsamsadhipa does not even use the rasi lords. Even for the
other vargas in this system the rasi lords might have been selected,
just for the sake of convenience. For example see the fact that if
you multiply Drekkana sputa with 3 it does not fall in to the correct rasi, the lord of which you can select as the Drekkanadhipa.
The same is true for Dwadesamsadhipa. Only in the case of
Kshethradhipa and Navamsadhipa, the lords of Rasi varga and
Shadvarga coincide. This system, which uses vargadhipa for prediction, does not even provide a method to derive the lords of
higher varga divisions. It becomes clear that out of the 2 systems,
it is the most unsystematic one. Therefore better go back to the
clear Dwadesa rasi varga system and try to make use of it in the
predictions and derivation of higher rasi vargas.
Another question that comes to mind is that why the meaning 1
Deg is dropped and the meaning (at least) 5 Deg is taken for
Trimsamsa division? The only reason I could point to is that - by
the time Shadvargadhipa system became popular the clear method
for fixing the birth time should have been lost, and to minimize the
error possibility instead of 1 Deg division 5 Deg (at least) divisions are taken. (So that allowable error in birth time leaps from 4
minutes to 20 minutes).
If there is other possible explanations for the question on
Trimsamsa put forward by the curious learners such as "Why
Trimsamsa lords are for 5-6-7-8 degrees while the name suggest
that, one Trimsamsa should be equal to 1/30 th of a sign (i.e. 1
Degree)", please let me know.

Year Length
There is a wide spread confusion among astrologers about the
year length to be followed in calculating Dasa, especially Vimsottari
dasa that is most widely in use. None seem to be sure about the
opinion of the ancient sages on the same. This article is an effort to
bring some clarity on this issue.
Year Lengths
Several type of year lengths were in use from far ancient past.
A list of some of them is given below.
Savana Year = 360 days [This seems to be the average of Lunar and luni-solar year. i.e. (354+366)/2 = 360 days] Many civilizations seems to accept 360 days as year length including Vedic
Indian and Maya civilizations. There could be other logic as well
behind this year length.
Normal solar Year (Soura Year) = 365.2425 days [The time
taken by sun to reach the degree from where it started]
Solar longitude based Year = 360 degree
Nakshatra Year = 27 x 12 = 324 days
Lunar Year = 29.5 x 12 = 354 days
Luni-Solar Year = 366 days [The time taken by moon to conjunct with sun again after a complete cycle]
Jupiter year = 361 days [The average time taken by Jupiter to
cover a sign. Jupiter takes 12 Years to cover the whole zodiac]
Year to be selected for Dasa Calculation
The primary observations show that even the authentic texts
are of different openion on the Year length to be selected. Let us
look through the available references to have a better picture. While
discussing Pinda Dasa Bhagavan Gargi says-

xTTcTotofc? cprfcSTT

//
- 377#7

[For longevity calculation (Dasa), repentance (Prayaschitta),


Fireworship (Yaga/Homa, Satra) etc should be done as per Sayana
Year] Following the same, Bhattolpala saysuci y.&yw
tJpccllriWlfhfemZttT^d cllett>l[ei4> ^ccn um
cTcll SilJllfcidVTU&ei clrt>c411
- Hddlemei
[After calculating Day, Nakshatra, Tithi etc, based on Savana Year
system the Maha Dasa, Antar Dasa, Paryantar Dasa etc should be
calculated]
It is clear that both Gargi and Bhattolpala advice the use of
Savana Year (360 days) for the calculation of Dasa. There is a
sayingdj<nl<ni c[rjM ?ic4 <H^cic4
- tniacpi&Ryi
[Those who would like to have well being should accept the words
of sages (and follow the same)]
Astrology is an Agama Sastra (Ancient Tantirc advice). The
advices of sages are of maximum importance in it. If we accept
this, it becomes clear that for Dasa calculations we should use the
360 day year length.
But there could be an opposing argument. Gargi and Bhattolpala
speaks about using Savana Year of 360 days, while discussing
Pinda Dasa. How can we be sure that the same is the case with
Vimsottari Dasa? But this argument will not stand, because even
though Gargi and Bhattolpala does not discuss Vimsottari Dasa,
they never discards it as well. Bhattolpala was well aware of

Parasara system. He refers to to Parasara with respect in the commentary on Brihat Jataka. This indicates that he was well aware of
Vimsottari Desa system as well. More over the same issue of year
length is applicable to Kalachakra Dasa as well. Apart from Savana
year neither Gargi nor Bhattolpala suggests no year lengths for
Dasa calculation. Thus it becomes clear that as per their opinion,
for all Dasa systems the year length of 360 days should be used.
If this is not enough, Dumdi Raja in Jatakabharana tells us3rt>l[k ticlctU%ict>luU
HicIcHi

cTet UlPclfctd
qich^cluafct ttrivftlll
- tnidcpi&cz17!

[Whatever results I have predicted earlier for Prabhavadi Year etc


will become applicable in the Dasa of Savana year lord and the
Ritu results and Ay ana results in the dasa of Sun]
Here also the reference to Savana Year for calculating Dasa
indicate that Dumdi Raja also accepted the Savana year of length
360 days for calculating Dasa.
Thus it becomes clear that if we follow the ancient astrological
advice, as per the direction of sages, then we should use ONLY
Savana year length of 360 days for Dasa calculation! Thus my
advice is thatIf you are following the True Ayanamsa derived as per the
ancient Surya Sidhanta (provided to us by Chandrahari) then
you should use the Savana year length of360 days for calculating the Vimsottari Dasa.
[True Ayanamsa of Chandrahari is approximately 46' more
than Chitra paksha Ayanamsa]
But this is not the end of the story - there is one more valid and
authentic opinion regarding the year length to be used. Sage
Mantresvara in Phaladeepika says-

sucfzry^ifeci ^mcxict>i<nt

u^e^m
- Lfrelciltkcl?

[Based on the longitude of the Sun at the time of birth, when the
sun reaches the same degree in the next year, a year should be
considered as completed. Based on this the Year, Month and Days
of Maha Dasa, Antar Dasa and Paryantar Dasa should be calculated]
It is clear that sage Mantresvara is referring to the use of Normal solar year (SouraYear) of 365.2425 days! How this happened?
Is it that sage Mantresvara is discarding the opinion of earlier sages?
No. There is a specific reason for this advice. By the time of Sage
Mantresvara the theoretical foundation of ancient Surya sidhanta
was lost and people started considering the point opposite Chitra
star as the starting point of Aries, or in other words 'Chitra paksha
Ayanamsa' came into existence! This must have necessitated the
use of 365.2425 day year length for the results to match with prediction. Thus my advice is thatIf you are following the Chitrapaksha Ayanamsa then you
should use the Solar year length of365.2425 days for calculating the Vimsottari Dasa.
The cute thing is that both of these systems in most occasions
will give the same Dasa, Antar Dasa and Paryantar Dasa for most
of the events.
I am just presenting my understanding about the Year lengths
in use and their acceptability based on ancient texts. The learned
may correct me, and provide their inputs on this regard.
Origin of the word Jyotisha
The word Jyotisha does not seems to be appropriate compared to the original word that is used to denote astrology - the

words used is "Kala Tantra" and "Kala vidhana sastra", meaning


"subject that deals with time" or the "science of time". Now coming to the word Jyotisha the better word used by our ancestors is
"JyothiHsastra", which is a combined name for Astrology, Astronomy and the related Mathematics. If we divide the word, it
would be as follows:
JothiHsastra = Jyotis+Sastra (and NOT jyoti+sastra).
"Jyotis" indicates the light emitting bodies, or the light reflecting bodies as seen from earth. Thus is indicates both stars and
planets. "Sastra" means "Ancient advice" (Sasyate ithi sastra).
There fore in essence "JyotiHsastra" means "Ancient advice about
stars and planets" or if you want to use the word science then say
"Science that deals with stars and planets".
My friend Vinita ji says: "Jyotisha" mean Jyoti + Isha = light
of god.
That meaning is entirely new to me, and never heard any one
mentioning such a meaning. If we consider the word "Jotisha"
and if we want to divide it, yes, of course we can say it is
"Joti+Isha". But what is that "Isha"?!! In Sanskrit "Eesa" or "Esana"
is god, god Siva, who is the lord of North-West direction. But
what is "Isha"?! How can we say that it means "God"? So I don't
agree to such defenitions.
If we consider the subject matter of astrology, we will recognize that it deals with destiny, the rhythm of solar system, and
movements of planets and mathematical points, though all of which
TIME runs as a connecting thread. It is better scientific, when
known as the "subject that deals with time" or the "science of
time" rather than "Ancient advice about stars and planets". The
demerit of the second definition is that in predictive astrology we
are not at all dealing with the stars, but only with Nakshatras (fixed
area in sky covering an area of 13 deg 20 min). Still, the words

Kala Tantra, Kala vidhana sastra, Jyotisastra are better than the
word "Jyothisha" I would say.
The Origin of the word "Jotisha"
The ancient names for astrology were Kala Tantra (Science of
Time), Kala Vidhana Sastra (Study of classification of time - i.e.
Calendar system), Jyotisastra (Study of light emitting or light reflecting celestial bodies) etc. This branch of knowledge was also
known as Jyotishmati (An intellect/brain enlightened by the
thoughts on cosmic spheres & light sources) from the period of
Atharva Veda. 'Mati' means intelligence and also denotes an individual with intelligence, brainy person. The first text on astrology,
i.e. Skanda Hora (as per Arsha school) is also known as
'Jyotishmati'. It is said that Jyotishmati text (Skanda Hora) is the
appendix of Atharva Veda (Atharva Khila), and is an Upanishad.
Many slokas from this text is available even today. Only a person
with Jyotishmati (An intellect enlightened by the thoughts on cosmic spheres & light sources) can predict accurately. May be the
word 'Jyotish' is the natural abbreviation of the ancient word
'Jyotishmati', which denotes astrology, astrological texts, and the
astrologer. The exact meaning of the word 'Jyotish' alone would
be Tight related' or 'study of light emitting objects in sky' and
does not seems to depict the exact subject matter of astrology.
My friend Vinitaji says Time is always with regard to motions....motions with respect
to something fixed like the Nakshatras....i remember reading somewhere that if there was no movement with reference to something
fixed, there would be no time, according to the theory of relativity.
We should better think according to relativity - as per context.
Newton's law of gravitation is wrong as per Einstein and there is
no force called gravitation but only curvature of space. But this
statement does not keep us away from using Newton's laws of

motion when we consider the planetary movements in solar system. Same is the case with 'Fixed' areas in sky - Nakshatras.
Similar to the concepts of relativity, movements etc brought
into picture by the statement of Vinita ji -1 would just like pose a
puzzle. As per Newton, the force or attraction between two bodies is proportional to their mass and the distance between them.
You know it right? I am just twisting the contextThe force of attraction one body exerts on another depends on
the mass of the other body and the distance between them! This
means that the first body should 'KNOW the mass of the other
body and the distance between them before hand!! And gravitation depends on that! How an inert body can 'KNOW the existence of the other body - is it that Newton wants to say that every
body has a 'Mind' within?! :) Now may be you could see, how
things could be misinterpreted, when taken out of context, or out
of the framework where they are supposed to be used. In Science
they use the word 'System' to denote the framework with in which
each concept is valid. Same is true for the concepts used in any
holistic subject. Yes, I suggest, dive deep into the subject and understand the importance of the concept 'System' or 'Frame work'
used both in Scientific and Holistic study methods.
Again during our conversation Vinita ji said I came across an interesting link regarding how the 0 point in
the zodiac would determine the extent to which there is equal division of the signs (and the nakshatras?). Intuitively, it is difficult to
think of how each nakshatra could be placed EXACTLY at a distance of 13 deg 20 minfrom the other, just as it is difficult to imagine that all the constellations/signs of the zodiac can be contained
EXACTLY within 30 degrees.
My answer was as follows. Signs and Nakshatras are mathematical divisions of the ecliptic, and in the current developmental

stage of astrology has nothing to do with the imaginary shape of


stellar constellations. If you want to know more about the mathematics and concepts behind the fixing of Zero point in the zodiac, and also how the signs and Nakshatras got divided, read the
book "Hindu Zodiac" written by Chandra Hari. Anyway, we all
may find several questions for which none of us have any answer.
But yes, we can enquire, search, ask others, and yes, when we are
genuinely interested some answers will pope up from some corners when the time is ripe.
"Ohm... S ahanavavatu... S ahanou bhunaktu...
S ahaveery am Karavavahi
Tej asweenamadhenamastu...
ma..Vidishavahai
Ohm....Santi..Santi..Santi.."
Astrology in Epic period
In the ancient text 'Jyotisha Karandak' (probably a text in the
Jain school of astrology), it is said thatLagnam cha dakhinavisute suvi assa uttaram ayane
Lagnam sai visuvesu panchasu vi dakhina ayane
This sloka is in Prakrit. In Sanskrit is should beLagnam cha dakshina vishuveshwapi asvam uttara ayane
Lagnam swati vishuveshu panchaswapi dakshina ayane
In this sloka the Nakshatras Aswati and Swati are said to be the
'Lagna' of the equinox!! This probably means that there was a
time when Nakshatras where considered similar to Rasi!!
Consider it along with the fact that in Epics only Nakshatra
chakra and placement of planets in Nakshatra is mentioned! For
sure we know thatIn Vedic period : Tropical calender + (fixed) Nakshatra chakra
was used

So if Vedic astrology was Tropical, and if Nakshatra chakra


was a gift of Vedic astrology, then is it that Nirayana (Siderial)
system based on Rasis is of Non-Vedic origin? Is it that epics depicts the extension of Nakshatra chakra system?
Chandra Hari ji asks:
Whatabout the Weekdays? Epics have no mention of them.
Without weekdays can there be astrology?
As far as I know, it might be 'Yanjchavalkya Smriti' that mentions week days first. It says SooryaH Somo MaheeputraH Somaputro BrihaspatiH
SukraH sanaischaro rahuH ketuschaite grahaH smrita
Meaning, Su, Mo, Ma, Me, Ju, Ve, Sa, Ra and Ke are the
Grahas. We can see the planets arranged in the order of Weekdays
in this sloka.
Is it that week days originated in the period of Smriti only? Or
is it that the Non-vedic (or Vedic?) concept of Weekdays got a
mentioned in smritis only by the period of Yajchavalkya smriti?
By the way, Do you know which is the text that first mentions
the name of Rasis (Signs)? I have a cute info. In 'Bodhayana sootra'
it is said that"Meena Meshayor Mesha Vrishabhayor vasnta"
It might be the first mention of signs starting from Aries (Mesha)
in available literature. In Yajchavalkya smriti also the signs are
mentioned. Which of them is oldest? Who knows!! Just sharing
some info.
Nakshatra Charka
In Vedic civilization mainly used the Nakshatra Chakra for astrological prediction. The same can be observed in epics as well.

Now the question is - What is this system? And how they used it?
Let me try to answer it as per my limited knowledge. First we
should accept the following points.
Originally Nakshatra division was related to path of Moon,
and in that unequal division, the 28 Nakshatra scheme was used.
But later for mathematical clarity the Nakshatra divisions were
associated with ecliptic (movement of earth/sun). Thus came the
definition of Nakshatra as 1/27 th of the ecliptic, which is equal to
13 deg 20 min. Since Nakshatra Chakra is an equal division of the
ecliptic only 27 Nakshatras are important in this system. The concept of Degree-minute was present, as evident from the
Mahabharata sloka bit - "KashtaH kala muhoortascha diva
ratristhatha lavaH". Here, Kala = Minute. Bhaga = Degree (This
is not mentioned in the sloka)
The 28 Nakshatra scheme, that is associated with the path of
moon, will not be discussed here. (Due to the fluctuations in the
path of Moon this system can not give correct results for long).
The 27 Nakshatra scheme (as told in Titireeya Samhita) is closer
to the system we follow today. This is the reason for neglecting
the 28 Nakshatra scheme in this study.
The movement of equinox through Nakshatras was observed
in Vedic period. This was possible if a fixed frame of Reference of
Nakshatra Chakra was in use. That means the Nakshatra Chakra
used in Vedic period was not Tropical but Sidereal in nature.
Thus, Nakshatra Chakra is the fixed frame of reference based
on which the movements of planets were studied.
The Sidereal Year was also in use and many other year systems as well. The use of Sidereal year is clearly indicated by the
Titireeya Brahmana sloka bit "Nakshtrani Savatsarasya Pratishta",
meaning, "The year is calculated based on Nakshatras (fixed stellar divisions)".

The importance of 360 day Savana year (used in Nakshatra


Dasa) is due to the (intentional) association of the ecliptic (movement of Sun) with Nakshatras done by Rishis. Sun stays in a star
for 13.333 days on an average. Multiplying it with 27 we get 360 days.
Classifications used to study the nature of Nakshatras
1. Nakshatra devatas were assigned
I don't want to discuss here in details, you can get these details
from any slandered text of astrology.
2) Male-Female classification
Nakshatra names that end with i, e or a where considered female and others male. Mrigaseersha and Moola were considered
Kleeba (impotent) nakshatras.
3) Kula-Upakula-Kulopakula classification
Three Nakshatra may fall into a lunar month division of the
zodiac. The Nakshatra name based on which the lunar month
(Aswini, Krittika, Mrigaseersha etc) is named, that Nakshatras are
called Kula. In other words, in the corresponding lunar months
full moon occurs in those Nakshatras. The next Nakshatra is called
Upakula and the third Kulopakula. The same strategy for all the
lunar months.
4) Sthiradi classification.
Nakshatras were classified into 5 categories and lordship assigned to planets. This lordship is different from the one considered now. But here the thing to remember is that the meaning of
Stiradi names assigned to Nakshatras were considered more important than this lordship. The list is given below:
Sthira (fixed) - Utra, Utrada, Uttara Bhadrapada, Rohini - Sun
Chara (movable) - Swati, Punarvasu, Tiruvonam, Srevishta,

Satabhishak - Moon
Ugram (Fierce) - Purva Phalguni, Purva Ashada, Purva
Bhadrapada, Bharani, Magha - Mars
Misram (Mixed) -Visakha, Krittika - Mercury
Kshipram (Fast) - Hasta, Aswani, Pushya - Jupitor
Mridu (Soft) - Mrigaseersha, Ravati, Chitra, Anuradha- Venus
Teekshnam (Sharp) -Moola, Jyeshta, Ardra, Aslesha- Saturn
This classification was used to understand the nature of
Nakshatra
and the people born in them.
5) Nakshatra Purusha
Just like the Kalapurusha (Rasi purusha) concept related to Rasis,
Nakshatra purusha concept was in use. (Ref. Mahabharata) We
may be able to find many more classifications if we are willing to
search the allied Vedic literature. I think the above is sufficient to
have a start.
4-fold prediction system
The Nakshatra Chakra, Planets including Ra and Ke, BeneficMalefic classification of planets, Exaltation and debilitation of planets (in Nakshatra Chakra), eclipsing of Sun and Moon, Retrograde
of planets The ephemeris components such as Nakshatra-TithiVara-Karana- Nityayoga, waxing and waning of Moon - all these
were considered to make elaborate prediction. If we look at the
epics we could find that a 4-fold system was in use. That means,
predictions were given for1) Nakshatra Lagna (Ascendant star)
2) Placement of Planets in Nakshatras
3) Conjunction of Planets (in Nakshatras)
4) Janma-Sampad-Vipat etc naming of Nakshatra was in use.

This might have been in use some what similar to the Bhava system.
It is not certain, whether the Drishti of Plants was considered in
that period or not. If it was, then Drishti should have meant, Drishti
between plants in opposite Nakshatras. An elaborate study will
reveal the intricacies of this 4-fold system of Nakshatra based prediction system that was in use. An elaborate study of the Nakshatra
Chakra (27 Nakshatra scheme) based prediction system used in
Vedic literature and Epics calls for a detailed study. Hope that before the system is lost someone will come forward to collect, arrange, explore and elaborate this original system of Nakshatra based
prediction.
I started this article by thinking of writing a very long article
based on the same, but is seems that my fuel is over, as far as this
subject is concerned :) Now I know that it needs a lot more study
in my part, to write good long articles on subjects like, ancient
system of Nakshatra Chakra based prediction etc. :) Hope you
will pardon my ignorance.
A Secret Exposed
In Prasnamarga it is said that "if a person with true inquisitiveness is approaching an astrologer, then the astrologer should tell
him about problem he is facing and should suggest the appropriate solution". But how? How should we (astrologers) know, what
the qurent is thinking about, if he is presenting the query by himself? In places like Kerala, usually a person approaches an astrologer and just says : "I want to cast a prasna." !!!! And it becomes the responsibility of the astrologer to decipher:
1) What the prasna is about?
2) What is the possible solution for the problem faced by the
qurent?

Yes. It is real challenge!! A challenge towards the capability of


the astrologer, and also about the accuracy of horary astrology!!
How the learned astrologers solve this situation? Do you want to
know? Then read on There are 2 slokas (good and authentic) that help the traditional
astrologer to predict what the qurent is thinking about or what the
query is about. One of them is from Prasnamarga and the other is
from Varaha Hora. In this mail I will explain the first one - the one
from Prasnamarga. The sloka is like this :
"Aprishtatha prishtatho va jinchasyoresya kasyachil
Hora Kendra Trikonebhya Subhasubha Phalam Vadeth"
Actually this sloka is not of Prasnamarga, but of Vasishta Hora.
The author of Prasnamarga has just quoted (included) this sloka
from Vasishta Hora as evident from the next sloka - "Vasita
vachanadasmath
." Meaning, Since Rishi Vasishta said this
and also me (author of Prasnamarga)
Yes, since Rishi Vasishta told this secret and author of
Prasnamarga (Edakkad Nambootiri) supported it, the sloka gets
double authenticity!! What is the meaning of that sloka? Let me
quote it again:
"Aprishtatha prishtatho va jinchasyoresya kasyachil
Hora Kendra Trikonebhya Subhasubha Phalam Vadeth"
Meaning, If somebody approaches the astrologer with curiosity, even if he asks or not, the astrologer should give predictions to
him, BASED ON HORA, KENDRA AND TRIKONA. Yes, it
seems to be simple, and it seems that there is no secret hiding
behind. NO! It is not like that! There is lot to explain a SECRET
behind, as is known to all traditional astrologers. What is that?
The advice by Vasishta is that prediction should be based on
"Hora Kendra Trikonebhya". What is "Hora"?
"Horeti legnam Bhavanasyachardham" (Varaha hora) -

Meaning, Hora is the name for Lega (Asc) or Half of a sign.


For our above sloka, the meaning Hora=Lagna is the apt one.
There for in essence it means, if there is any planet in the Lagna,
then the qurent is seeking answer to the things indicated by that
placement of that particular planet!
If there is no planet in Lagna, then what to do? Read on the
sloka"Hora -> Kendra->"
Yes, if there is no planet in Lagna, then look for the placement
of planets in Kendra. Kendra means 4th 7th and 10th Houses/
Signs from Lagna. Now the question is where to look? In 4th, in
7th or in 10th. The traditional answer to this question is first in
10th. Why? Because if you look in Laghu parasari, you will see
the statement "Pradabala Utharotharam", Meaning for Kendras
the strength increases in the order 4th->7th->10th. That means 7th
is stronger Kendra than 4th, and 10th is stronger Kendra than 7th.
Indications the strength order 10>7>4. So look at the 10th house
first. If there is no planet in Lagna, then if there is a planet in 10th
house, then the query is related to that placement! If there is no
planet in 10th as well, then look in 7th to see whether there is any
planet in it, if not look in 4th. Now what to do if there is no planet
in Lagna as well as 10th, 7th and 4th? Look what the sloka says?
"Hora -> Kendra->Trikonebhya" Yes, if there is no planet in
Kendra, we have to look for the placement of planet in Trikona,
meaning 5th and 9th. Now, here also where to look? In 5th or 9th.
The statement "Prabala Utharotharam" applies here as well. That
means 9th is stronger trikona than 5 th and so we have to look for
the placement of any planet in 9th first! Now you can say that, if
there is no planet in Lagna and Kendra (10-7-4) then look for
planets in 9th or 5th. If there is a planet in 9th then the prasna is
related to that. If 9th is vacant and if there is a planet in 5th then the
prasna is related to that. If there is no planets in Lagna, Kendra

and Trikona, then what to do? :) Then there is no point in that


prasna, since the person is in an utterly problematic unsolvable
situation, and even the guidance by the astrologer would be of no
use to him.:) But still, there also you can look for the bad placement of Lagna lord first. I think at least for some the method is
clear by now. Somebody can come forward with examples, to
check how much it becomes true in his own experience.
Of course, the secret is not complete. There exists 1 more method
(as told earlier, from Varaha Hora) that is used for the same purpose (i.e. Locating the underlying problem that caused the qurent
to approach the astrologer). The learned astrologers use this method
(the method described earlier), and the one given in Varaha hora
together, and considering the indications supplied by both of them
come to a conclusion. I will explain the other method in another
mail. Till then, let us experiment with this method.
Method -2
In Prasnamarga it is said that "if a person with true inquisitiveness is approaching an astrologer, then the astrologer should tell
him about problem he is facing and should suggest the appropriate solution". But how? Let us see, how the traditional astrologer
are approaching this question, by making use of a Varaha Hora
sloka. Which sloka is that? I will quote it for you.
"Kandaka Kendra Chatushtaya samjcha
Saptama Lagna Chaturdha Khabhanam
Teshu yedheshu hithabhi baladya
Keeta narambu chara pasavascha"
Meaning, Kandaka, Kendra, Chatushtaya are respectively
names for 7th, 1 st and 4th Houses. Of them Reptail signs, Human
signs and Water signs, and quadruped sign are strong in order.
i.e. In 7th House = Reptail Sign is strong.
In 1st House = Human Sign is strong.

In 4th House = Water Sign is strong.


In 10th House = quadruped (four footed animal) sign is strong.
This seems to be simple. What secret is there? How can it help
us in understanding the thought of the qurent? Wait...Wait..I will
explain. Think that the presna Arudha (or Lagna) at the time of
query was Aries. Now look is the 7th house a reptile sign (Sc and
Cn)? No. Is the 1 st hose a Human sign? No. Is the 4th House (Cn)
a water sign? Yes! Is the 10th House a quadruped sign? well, yes/
no, it is Cp, partially water sign and partially quadruped sign. OK.
Thus is means that the 4th house (the born home/native_place of
the qurent where his mother, father, brothers, sisters and relative
are present) is (at the time of prasna) a a very strong influence and
controlling force in that persons life.
But what is the natural tendency of the Lagna? Lagna (In this
case, Aries) is a quadruped sign, which should naturally gets its
strength if placed in 10th!! That means the natural tendency of the
person is to concentrate and immerse himself in work! He is more
interested in work, and don't like any disturbances in that, but the
family is holding him back!!
Yes, with the fact alone that Aries is the ascent, you are able to
reach this much! Now, whether this influence +ve or negative?
Whether his actual problem is the family (4th house) or the job
(10th house)? To know this look at the chart again to see the placement of 4th lord and 10th lord, and also see how strong is Lagna/
Lagna lord?
1) If 4th lord is badly placed then the bad influence or condition of the family/relatives is causing the trouble.
2) If the 10th lord is badly placed then the loss of expected
success / failures / problems in job is causing the trouble.
3) If the Lagna is strong and lagna lord is well placed (they
indicate the qurent himself) then the qurent is able and the prob-

lem is just with the situation. If not the inability (financial or otherwise) of the qurent is also causing the situation to become worse!
Does it mean that all prasna indicates bad things only? No! It is
not like that. When presna Aruda (or Lagna) is Aries and if there is
no problem with 4th and if there is a well placed planet in 10th
then the query is related to 10th, about a positive subject, such as
a promotion in job or the like! Similarly if there is no problem with
10th and if there is a well placed planet in 4th (e.g Mo) then he is
thinking of constructing a new house or the like for sure!! (i.e.
something that the 4th house and the planet placed in it signify)
Yes, I have explained the example situation by taking Aries as
Lagna (at the time of query). Now if Taurus is Lagna/Arudha at
the time of query, then what? Yes you know the answer. ;) The
sign "that becomes strong" is the 7th house, since it is a retail
sign. (Retail signs are strong in 7th) - So the query could be about
marriage or a marital problem. The "that should become strong"
(or the natural tendency of the Taurus lagna) is 10th house. (Taurus in a quadruped sign) - so he should better concentrate on work.
Does he do so? or is it causing the current problem? Locate what
the qurent wants to ask about (could be either good or bad situations) basing your thinking on these lines. It is easy to locate combined with the additional clues the planetary placement gives
us!!
I think atleast to some of us the idea is clear by now. The traditional astrologers try to logically locate the prime problem/thought
of the qurent by using both these principles. If both of them leads
them to the same conclusion, then usually they won't allow the
qurent to speak, and tell his problem on his face, and thus catching
him in absolute surprise!! Once this happens then it becomes a
very easy task for the astrologer since, after that what ever he says
would be accepted by the qurent by not even without a question!
The good astrologers take it as a positive tool to give good guid-

ance and counseling to the qurent and direct him in the right path.
Bad astrologers - humm....You know what that do.... Yes, that is
why it is said that astrology is a double edged sward. It can be
used to guide the qurent to the right path, or to make him believe
and first and then destroy him/cheat him totally, by giving wrong
guidance! Yes, I agree, all knowledge is similar - good in the hands
of good people, and bad in the hands of bad people.
Ok. That were some side thoughts - back to astrology. Experiment with the above principle.
Lesson to remember : Some slokas that seems simple hides
ample secrets within!! And it demands hard efforts form the part
of us to bring them out.
I would just like to add some more info. About the sloka taken
from Varaha hora. That concept of Human sign becoming strong
in Lagna, Water sign in 4th, Retail sign in 7th and Quadruped sign
in 10th is not a new idea introduced by Mihira. The Garga Hora
sloka stating the same is also available. Garga was a famous sage
of the Jaina Parampara, and might have lived in the time of Skanda
himself, since may ideas mentioned by Skanda by 'others', found
its place in Garga Hora. Skanda is the author of first book on
astrology, known as Skanda hora (many slokas of which is still
available). Skanda hora is also called Jyotishmati Upanishad. Most
of the Rishi horas like Brihat Prajapatya, Vasishta Hora, Kousika
Hora, Sounaka Hora etc are based on Skanda Hora. All these texts
are already lost though many slokas and references about these
texts are available in many medieval astrological classics. Varaha
Mihira might have collected the above mentioned idea, possibly
from Garga or Skanda. The Garga kula provided many texts and
gurus (Garga, Gargi, Gargya, Rishiputra etc), like the Arsha stream
(Skanda, Daksha, Vasishta, Viswamitra, Sounaka etc) that followed
the ideas put forward by Skanda.

Yes, it is a mysterious literary history, that needs a lot of study


and data collection. Just supplying some side thoughts. Point to
remember:
1) The "Hora Kendr Trikona " theory finds its authenticity in
Vasishta Hora.
2) The "Kandaka Kendra" tehory finds its authenticity in Garga
Hora.
Curious! Isn't it?!;)
Dear Souvik ji, Depend on your clear understanding, since the
list given by various texts may vary slightly.;) I won't talk much
about the conflicts in texts, but will explain how to depend on
your clear understanding of the symbolic shapes ascribed to signs.
Let us consider the (imaginary) shape that is ascribed to each
signs:
1) Aries : The Sanskrit word is 'Mesha', meaning Ram
(uncastrated male sheep). As you know it is a four footed animal,
so, Aries is a quadruped sign.
2) Taurus : The Sanskrit word is 'Vrishabha', meaning Ox.
Yes, it is also a quadruped and thus Taurus a quadruped sign.
3) Gemini: The Sanskrit word is 'Midhuna', meaning couple
(A Male and A Female standing together). So it is clear that it is a
Biped human sign. (But this sign also represents many beings with
2 legs, Biped, such as chicken etc as well, since the synonym
' Jootuma', of Gemini represents chicken, or many other 2 legged
birds that mingle with humans. Remember it is the same situation
with all the other signs as well. Each sign is significator of many
living beings. I am not going into it, since I want to limit this mail
to the subject under discussion)
4) Cancer: The Sanskrit word is 'Karkata', meaning crab (yes,
thecrab that lives in water). Here a confusion popes up. The

Nakshatra 'Aslesha' represents snake, the Nakshatra Pushyami has


got the other name 'bee hive'. Many saints have told us that we
can think about all the non-poisonous reptiles with cancer sign.
So in short it is a reptile sign. Actually the word used by saints is
'Sareesripa', any thing that move with it belly, such as snake, chameleon et. (This sign could represent not only reptiles but also
bees, crabs, fish, butterflies etc as well) To represent such beings
only 2 signs are used, Sc and Cn, and so this is a reptile sign for
sure. But as you know the crab lives in water, and the sign itself
represent, a pure water (not salty water) pond, and therefore it is a
water sign as well. So cancer could be a reptile sign or a watery
sign! And so the confusion.
5) Leo : The Sanskrit word is 'Simha', meaning Lion. Yes, for
sure it is a quadruped sign.
6) Virgo : The Sanskrit word is 'Kanya', meaning virgin lady.
Yes, it is a Biped (human sign) for sure. It is symbolically depicted
that this lady is traveling in a boat through a river with plant in one
hand and fire in other. So there could arise a confusion that it is a
water sign as well. But there is not much support for this argument, as far as the main classification is concerned. Yes, the presence of water becomes important, if you are thinking about the
availability of water, with the use of prasan or the like, otherwise
we can discard it, and it is a human sign for sure.
7) Libra: The Sanskrit word is 'Tula', meaning balance. The
symbolic pictorial representation of the sign is of a man with a
balance (the measuring instrument) in his hands, sitting is a street
side market, selling something. So for sure it is a human sign.
8) Scorpio : The Sanskrit word is 'Vrischika', meaning Scorpion itself. The sign has got other names such as Snake, bee hive
etc as well. As stated earlier it is one of the 2 'Sareesripa' signs,
any thing that move with it belly, so for sure it is a Reptile sign. It

represents anything that is poisonous and deadly.


9) Sagittarius : The Sanskrit name is 'Dhanu', meaning bow. It
is symbolically represented as a kingly warrior with bows and
arrows, but the portion below hip of that person is horse like! So
here also there is little amount of confusion. It is said that, the 1st
half of Sagittarius is quadruped and the remaining half human.
10) Capricorn: The Sanskrit name is 'Makara', meaning crocodile as well as big fish (like shark). The symbolic representation of
the sign is half crocodile like and the remaining half dear like! So
here also confusion exists. But yes, the first half of Capricorn could
be considered as water sign and the remaining half Quadruped
sign.
11) Aquarius : The Sanskrit name is 'Kumbha' meaning pot.
The symbolic representation is, a man with a pot in his hand going
in search of water. So it is for sure a human sign. But the presence
of Pot in the symbolic representation of the sign makes someone
think that it is a water sign as well, which is false, since the pot is
empty.
12) Pisces : The Sanskrit name is 'Jhasha', meaning fish. Yes,
fish that lives in salt water. The sign itself represents the sea. So it
is watery sign for sure. This I think makes the subject clear. Due to
this situation, it is better to depend on the symbolic representation,
and your own clear understanding of that symbolic representation, to classify the signs, than depending on some slokas without
thinking. If you just try to depend on slokas, you will find slokas,
that seems to be contradicting each other in the first look. But
when you understand the base of this naming you will see that
there is no conflict/contradiction between the statements of Saints/
Acharyas. :) There are 2 related points that also should be explained.
Signs are Symbolic

The shape ascribed to the signs are symbolic. The saints wanted
those signs to indicate several significance for which the sign stands
for and that is why that particular symbol/shape is ascribed to that
sign. I will explain. For example take Libra. The symbol is of a
man sitting with a balance in his hand weighing something, in a
market place. So for sure, Libra represents a town, humans, measuring instruments, food that is eatable for humans, road, crowd,
logically correct arguments, interest in maths, business men,
learned, luxury, love for good life etc etc. See how clear it is! The
same is the situation with other symbols.
Significance and its classification
Significance are assigned only to - 1) Signs 2) Nakshatras 3)
Houses 4) Planets
What can they signify? Each of them can represent 'any thing'
present in the world!! Or in other words, each of them represents,
'every thing' present in the world! Try to classify them yourself.
For example a sign could represent1) Humans (classify them based on relationship/cast/job/gender
etc)
2) Plants (classify them based on water/land/creeper/tree etc)
3) Animals (classify them based on carnivores /herbivores/wild
etc)
3) Non living things (classify them based on metal/nonmetal/liquid/gas etc)
Yes, you could extend this list.;)
This same rule for classification of significance for sign applies
to Nakshatras, Houses and Plants as well. But the problem is that,
due to the vastness this list and the subject you can not find proper
lists in classics, but only simple directions. The slokas are just pointers, that directs you, the way through which you would have to
exercise on your own thinking ability. :) Don't ask me as well, I

too don't have a well classified elaborate list, which makes everything clear and lists out everything in the world.;) We are waiting
for better lists on all these from you.;)
"Ohm Sahanavavtu....Sahanou bhunaktu...Saha veeryam
karavavahai
"
Bhava Nasakaro Jeeva?
Qn:
The 'bhaavanashaaya thing' do you for one really apply in your
phalaadesha? Tell me.
I would joyously like to quote - Let's go about it baby step by
baby step.
Because, before I state anything about my own stands, I should
clarify what the classics say.
Brihat Jatakam states "Lagnal Putra kalatrabhe subhapati prapteadhavalokite
chadradwa yedi sampadasti hi tayo"
One of the meanings of this sloka bit is that, if the 5th and 7th
from Lagna is aspected (Drishti) or conjoined by Ju then children
and wife (vridhi of 5th and 7th house) results. The same can be
considered from Moon sign as well. From this sloka it is evident
that Mihira is against the "Karako bhavanasaka" concept. Ju is
significator of 5th house and Mihira says that if Ju is in 5th house
then for sure children will result. Also remember that while speaking about the placement of Ve in 7th Mihira says "priya
kalahostagethe suratepsu" meaning an increase (vridhi) in sexual
urge. My guru says that Ju in 5th or Ve in 7th is like an over voltage bulb. :) I have seen horoscope with Ju in 5th. Usually that
native would be very bright with many capabilities (Ju is
significator of intelligence) but in later stages of life (even by half
way through life) they behave almost like lunatics! Their mind

become too unstable! Presnamarga give the same combination to


judge lunatics!!! It is really over voltage causing damage to the
bulb! :) In essence every karaka amplifies the results the Bhava
can produce May be, It would be right to say "Karako Bhava
vridhikara", but may be at the end if the native can not stand it
(due to his inner strength), the fuse of the bulb bums!! Like Mihira
I would like to stand against the "Bhava nasakaro" concept at the
same time accepting the slokas like the one given in texts like
Prasanmarga in the light of the advice given by my gum.:)
Let us take a real life example and try to understand it in the
light of the above knowledge and the words of Rishis. Yap, we
are going into the details.
Problem:
Ju in 7th in its own house or exaltation should give many
wives or increase in sexual urge.
But is it seen that they are satisfied with only one wife!
Is it that "Bhava nasakaro jeeva" concept (not supported by
Mihira and Rishi horas) at work here or something else? Should
we consider and correlate "Bhava vridhikaro Sani" along with it
or not?
Study:
Ju in 7th cause an increase in sexual urge and beauty of the
native.
How can I say that?! Because "Pitro gunadhiko jeeve saptame suhrdanvita
rati geeta priyaH khalvadanaH kalahavargitaH"
Says Hora Pradeepam. Meaning, If Ju is in 7th he would have
more good talents than his father, many friends, would like sex
and music, love to travel, won't like to quarrel with any. Look at
the statement "rati geeta priyaH" (would like sex and music) in

this sloka.
Now let us see what Garga hora says about the placement of Ju
in 7th "Gauri suroopam sphuta pankajakshim sitaH subharkshe
subhadrishtiyuktaH
chirayusham Bhagyayutam naram cha kuryad gurur
darpakavasavasi"
Meaning, If Ju is in 7th placed in good sign with the benefic
aspects then, his wife would be young, beautiful, with beautiful
eyes, fair skin. If Ju is in 7th then he would have longevity, luck,
and he would be handsome like Kamadeva (the god of sex). Look
at the statement "darpakavasavasi" (handsome with good sex urge
like the god of sex) in this sloka.
From the above due to "Dwi tri samvada bhaval" (since 2 or 3
arguments indicate the same) I conclude that Ju in 7th cause an
increase in sexual urge of the native.
If 7th lord is in its own house then the native would be good
natured and handsome and will have many abilities.
The following two statements substantiate this "Saptamage saptamape paramayuH preetivatsalaH purushaH
Nirmala seela sametastejaswee jayate satatam"
Says Vridha Yavana. Meaning, If the 7th lord is in 7th house
then the native would have longevity, compaction, good nature,
smartness and brightness.
This applies to Ju in 7th in its own house as well, as said by
Kasyapa Rishi - "Ati guna Jurou jaya dunastite" Says Kasyapa
Hora. Meaning, if Ju is in its own house in 7th then, he would
have many capabilities (and would be handsome).
But alas! Even though the native have good sexual urge and

handsome, women won't show much interest in him!


Why?! But before answering that question, let understand who
says so.
Look at the following sloka from the text Chamatkara
Chintamani "Matistasya bahwee vibhootischa bahwee Rathirvai bhavad
bhaminee nama bahwee gurur garva kridyasya jamitra bhave
saprindadhikoakhanda kandarpa eva"
Meaning, if Ju is in 7th he would be intelligent, will live a good
(luxurious) life, but women will not show much interest in him.
He would be handsome (and would have good sex urge) like
Kamdeva, and would be proud of his own abilities and beuty. He
will have many relatives and friends born of his own clan and
would be powerful because of this. Just look at the words
"Rathirvai bhavad bhaminee nama bahwee" (women will not show
much interest in him, and there fore he won't have much girl friends
and much sexual life) and "akhanda kandarpa eva" (He would be
handsome and would have good sex urge like the god of sex). Is
it not interesting?! This is specially true if Ju is in its own house in
Sg or Pi.
Ok. Now I think it is time to answer the question, why ladies
are not showing much interested in such a personality with good
contacts, beauty and sexual urge. Even if the ladies are not showing much interest in him, if he is ready to execute his power and
abilities, it would be very very easy for him to get or seduce
women!
Why he is not doing it? Yap, you guessed it, due to his very
own nature! :) He is guru, he is respectable, then how can he do
that?! Women are not showing interest in him due to the very fact
that he is respectable and serene. Don't you believe me? Let us
look at the predictions given for Ju in Cn (exaltation sign of Ju),

Sg (own house of Ju) and Pi (own house of Ju). If Ju is in Cn, then


"Vidvan suroopa dehaH prajchaH priya dharma swabhavascha
sumahalbalo yesaswi prabhuta dhanyakara dhanesaH
satya Samadhi sametaH stiratmajo lokasalkritaH khayataH
nripatir jeeve sasibhe visishta karma suhrijjatanurataH"
Says Saravali. Meaning, if Ju is in Cn then, the native would
be knowledgeable, intelligent, powerful, famous, with good
wealth, will stand for truth, will be interested in meditation, stable
mind, good children, will do good for the world and would be
famous due to that, will live/behave like a king, will follow good
deeds, and will have many friends and relatives.
Dear women, he is highly respectable, and it is better not to go
near him seeking sex!! Even if he want to play with you, he won't
violate the etiquette!! It seems that he is not going to fall for you
(women really like that), then why fall for him.;) Probably not! It
is better not to go after him seeking sex, and it seems that he won't
come after you as well, though he may like to enjoy high grade
sex with his wife.;)
If Ju is in Sg then Acharyo vrata deeksha yejchadeenamsu samstitarthascha
Data suhril swapakshaH priyoparasrutadi rataH
Mandaliko mantri va dhanurdharasthe bhavet sada jeeve
Nana desa nivasee vivikta teerthayatana budhiH"
Says Saravali. Meaning, if Ju is in Sg then, the native would be
interested in doing Vrata, Yaga, Mantra worship etc. He will advice to do such thing to others (common people) as well. He will
acquire much wealth, will be kind and companionate, helping relatives and friends, will be a member of committees or social organizations. He will visit many countries, many sacred places and
sacred buildings like temples.

Hay man! He is a guru and adviser! It is better to consult him


asking for suggestions. Dear women will you dare to make him
fall in immoral sex with you?! Or will he like to do so? Probably
not! It is better not to go after him seeking sex, and it seems that he
won't come after you as well.;)
If Ju is in Pi then "Vedartha sastra vetta suhridam poojyassatam cha nripaneta
slakhyassadhano adhrisho hyaheena darpasthirambhaH
rajchassuneeti siksha vyavahara rana prayoga vetta cha
khyataH prasanta cheshata sthirasatwayutascha menage geeve"
Says Saravali. Meaing, if Ju is in Pi then, the native would be
very knowledgeable in the etymology meaning of Vedic texts (he
would be very knowledgeable and interested in grammar and linguistics), respected by friends, a person with leadership quality,
perfect (interested in perfection in every field), egotic, will stick to
his aim in all his endeavors, will have good knowledge about lawtraining- teaching etc, will have good understanding about the use
of weapons, famous, steady and quit mind, stable, he is not worried about what may come and keeps the stability of mind both in
hardships and happiness.
Dear women, he is too respectable, steady, able and seems dangerous with his contacts and abilities - it is better to keep away
from him! With that much interest in ethics do you think he will
come after you, even if there is a huge amount of sex urge in him!
Impossible, better to stay away from him and for sure he is not
going to hurt you.;)
See how the situation turns out to be! Ju is not destroying anything! Ju is not destroying the normal tendencies of the 7th house,
but only enriches it! But when the natural tendencies of Ju takes
hold, and strengthens the inner nature of the individual, then some
results like many wives becomes almost an impossibility. But we

should know that if willing for a person with such a placement of


Ju in 7th it is very easy to get 2 or more wives or many sexual
relations. That means the result is there - but it becomes yapya
(hidden/suppressed) due to the very nature of the native. Or due to
the very nature Ju in 7th (in exaltation or own house) imparts to
the native. It is very clear that the "Karaka bhavanasaya" short cut
is not at all necessary to explain or understand the situation. That
is all about Ju, "Bhava vridhikaro Sani" is another beautiful story.
I will tell about it and will explain why it is irrelevant in the context of ancient classics in another mail.
I think my answer is clear by now. I don't use the "Bhava vridhi
karo" or "Bhava nasakaro" 'thing'. It is better to go the straight
but long way, than to take shortcuts that which can not be applied
in a generalized manner. If anyone try to do so, he/she will end up
standing against the classics, in many situations.
How to predict with Navamsa
Navamsa is the 9th Varga. It is 1/9 th of a sign, and that is why
the name Navamsa.
Nava = 9 Amsa = Division. Navamsa = 1 division out of 9
divisions.
Navamsa longitude = R x 9
Navamsa prediction is also based on the 7-fold system
[I] Stana (Place)
Saravali says - "Now I will say the lagna navamsa phala for
signs starting from Aries. With lagna navamsa we should know
the color, shape and lakshana (nature of the native & significance
of the amsa). The same method could be applied to Chandra
navamsa and the navamsa of all other planets" This sloka indicates that -

1) Color (based on navamsa sign and navamsa lord)


2) Shape (Swaroopa and geography)
3) Nature (character attributes of the native)
4) significance assigned to the navamsa
Are the basic 4 methods used to extract the stana phala. Let us
discuss the Shape (Swaroopa concept in detail). This is one of the
basic rule to be followed in prediction based on navamsa. As said
earlier, to determine the stana phala for each navamsa several methods are used. One of them is assigning Swaroopa. This has 2 variations.
i) Navamsa Swaroopa (assigning imaginary shape to the
navamsa)
Saravali says - "The person born in the first navamsa of Aries
will have a face similar to ram, small nose, short arms, rough sound,
half closed eyes, a slim body without handicaps" Saravali assumes/
assigns such imaginary shape to the individuals born in all
navamsas.
ii) Navamsa Swaroopa based on navamsa number
This is another method of assigning navamsa Swaroopa. Here
imaginary shape is assigned to individuals born in different
navamsa of each rasi based on the navamsa number with in that
sign. For example, if a person is born in the first navamsa of any
sign, then he would be - "stingy, not bold enough in taking decisions, sinner, wants to hurt others" says shadvarga phala prakash.
[II] Bhava (House)
The house (from natal lagna) in which the navamsa falls. For
example if the amsa of the 2nd lord is in 12th, assets and bank
balance etc can be predicted. Also if we want to speak about expense then in which items the money would be spend would be

indicated by the sign in which navamsa falls and the lord of it.
[III] Graha (Planet)
The combination (uti) of planet is considered in navamsa as
well. For example think that Ma is in the 5th navamsa of Aries
(which falls in Leo) and Mo is in the 8th Navamsa of Virgo (which
falls in Leo). Also think that Ju is in Leo. Then there is a Ma-Mo
combination in Leo in navamsa. Normal prediction (considering
the mixing of significance) given for Ma-Mo combination can be
given here as well. But no predictions considering Ju-Ma or JuMo should be given, since Ju is in sign and others are in navamsa.
[IV] Stana-Graha (Place-planet)
The traditional astrologers use the "Asraya rasi phala (prediction for placement of planets)" told for planets in natal chart in
navamsa as well. [No. Don't think of navamsa chart. I am speaking about navamsa super imposed on natal chart and not about
navamsa chart] But there are 2 other cute methods for place-planet
prediction using navamsa.
i) Considering the House lord (House = Sign)
Saravali says "Without considering the lordship of houses, we
can not move even a single step forward in prediction". Shadvarga
phalaprekash says - "If the navamsa of Su is in the house of Su
itself then, he would be wealthy and live a good life. But he would
like quarrelling with others, taking the wrong methods and approaches and the like. He will have many diseases as well". Similarly prediction for all the other planets are also given.
ii) Navamsaka sign based prediction
Sphujidwaja hora says - "Navamsaka in Aries sign (any planet
placed in navamsa allotted for Aries sign) indicates, land, gold etc
if Ma is strong. Navamsaka in Tarus sign indicates, quadrupeds,
women, wealthy people etc". For example, in a presena if Su

navamsaka is in Aries, then that sun could indicate gold, if the


lagna lord is Su then the presna itself could be about gold. In which
sign that sun is placed is not important here. See the difference in
use of the these words as wellNavamsa = l/9th of a sign
Navamsaka = to which sign that l/9th part is allotted, (in which
sign
that l/9th part falls).
If Su is in Aries 9 deg, then Su in Aries 3rd Navamsa and the
Navamsaka falls in Gemini. So Navamsa is Aries 3rd Navamsa
and Navamsaka is Gemini. These words are at times used almost
in a similar fashion as well. So take those words as having almost
same meaning, but don't get confused. While making Place-Planet
predictions with Navamsa, remember that the basic significance o
the planets and signs remains the same. The only extra thing being
that it is looked though a new dimension. Mihira also speaks about
the Place-planet based prediction with navamsa. For example, in
Viyoni Janma chapter of Brihat Jataka, he says - "If the lagnamsaka
is strong then the color of that sign would be the sign of the animal
born at that time" Remember that the word lagnamsaka indicates
the sign in which lagnamsa falls. Taking another example from
Varaha hora, let us think of the sloka "Ojarkshe
purushamsakeshu...". Mihira says "If Lagna, Su, Moon, Ju and
there amsakas falls in male signs then it would be a male birth".
Here Male/Female variation of sign is considered. So it is a placeplanet prediction. See to the fact that Mihira is speaking about the
Male/Female variation of 8 signs. They are The sign in which lagna is posited.
The sign in which Su is posited
The sign in which Mo is posited
The sign in which Ju is posited

The sign in which the lagna navamsa falls (Lagna navamsa


sign
= Lagnamsaka)
The sign in which the Su navamsa falls (Su navamsa sign =
Suryamsaka)
The sign in which the Mo navamsa falls (Mo navamsa sign =
Chandramsaka)
The sign in which the Ju navamsa falls (Ju navamsa sign =
Gurvamsaka)
I started with Place-Planet prediction given for navamsa and
now the path, seems to turn may be because of some discussions
happening in this forum at this time, so I stop here.;)
By the way there is a whole chapter (Chapter 17) allotted to
navamsa based place-planet prediction, in Varaha hora. Have a
look at it.
[V] Bhava-Graha (House-Planet)
Predictions are given considering the Navamsaka house (starting from natal lagna) in the horoscope. For example, Mihira says
- "Koujamsesthe Sourina vyadhi yoni", meaning if the navamsa
of Ma falls in 7th (from natal lagna) then she will have some disease related to sexual organs". Brihal prajapatyam says Aste jeevamsake tatra bhargavena nireekshite
Ya jata tarn vijaneehi yoni manojchakanwitam
Meaning, "if the navamsa of Ju falls in 7th from natal lagna
and the Drishti of Ve falls in 7th then she will have beautiful hip
and sexual organs" Spot the fact that, since 7th house and planets
are considered it is a House-Planet prediction.
[VI] Stana-Bhava (Place-House)
Since house is always counted from natal lagna this system is
not much important in navamsa based prediction. But we can locate some other cute uses of this. Remember that exaltation, de-

bilitation etc is also related to place. (Stana) Look at this sloka


from Prasnamarga Daresasya navamsese moodhe neechari bhagake
Papandare papa drishte kalatrantarabhag bhavel
Meaning, if the lord of the sign in which the navamsa of the 7 th
lord falls is combusted, debilitated, in enemy sign, between malefics
or aspected (drishti) by malefics then, the native will have more
than
one wife. For example, think that Virgo is Lagna and the
navamsa of the 7th lord Ju Leo. Then if Su (lord of leo) is in
Libra, he will have more than one wife. Here Ju = Daresa (7th lord)
2nd navamsa of Pi = Daresasya navamsa (Thus the Ju
Navamsaka is Leo)
Su = Daresasya navamsesa (navamsa lord for Ju)
Notice that, in this sloka, exaltation, debilitation etc (and thus
Place) and 7th house (and thus House) is considered and also that
the prediction is based on Navamsa. But such slokas are rare and
is mostly based on things like exaltation-debilitation (Place),
Kendra-trikona (House) etc.
[VII] Stana-Bhava-Graha (Place-House-Planet)
Look at the Varaha Hora sloka "Vridho MoorkhaH
Sooryajarkshamsake va" Meaning, "if the 7th house is Cp or Aq
and if the navamsa of Sa falls in that sign, then she will get an
aged person with not much education as husband". For example,
if Lagna is Cn and the navamsa of Sa falls in Cp then her husband
would be an aged person. Notice that here - Cn (Place), 7th house
(House) and Sa (Planet) are considered. Also notice that it is a
navamsa based prediction. I think this explanation might have
cleared the doubt - "how to predict with navamsa" at least to a
certain extend. Always remember that it is the 7-fold prediction

system that is used both in natal chart and in Vargas (amsas).


The vargas (amsas) only modify the results shown by the natal
chart.
Drishti is not considered in Vargas (amsas).
This message is becoming too long and I have already covered
the 7-fold system. So I stop here.
P.S.: Take an example chart and elaborate on the same.
Vasya Signs
As per astrological classics, for:
Aries - Leo and Scorpio
Taurus - Cancer and Libra
Gemini - Virgo
Cancer - Scorpio and Sagittarius
Leo - Libra
Virgo - Gemini and Pisces
Libra - Virgo and Capricorn
Scorpio - Cancer
Sagittarius - Pisces
Capricorn - Aquarius and Aries
Aquarius - Aries
Pisces - Capricorn
are Vasya signs.
What is the logic behind this concept? Let us try to understand.
For Aries, Leo and Scorpio are Vasya Signs. Why?
Leo - the lord of Leo gets exalted in Aries.

Scorpio - Aries and Scorpio are ruled by the same planet.


Rule : (1) If any other planet gets exalted in the sign then the
sign ruled by that planet could be a Vasya sign.
Rule : (2) If the lord of 2 signs are the same, the second sign
could be a Vasya sign for the first and vice-versa.
For Taurus, Libra and Cancer are Vasya signs. Why?
Cancer - Rule (1) applies here. Lord of Cancer Moon is exalted
in Taurus. Libra - Rule (1) applies here. Taurus and Libra are
ruled by the same planet Ve.
For Gemini, Virgo is Vasya sign. Why?
Virgo - Rule (2) applies here. Gemini and Virgo are ruled by
the
same planet.
For Cancer, Scorpio and Sagittarius are Vasya signs. Why?
Scorpio - Is there any connection? The lord of Cancer gets
debilitated in Scorpio!! Both Cancer and Scorpio are signs that
represent reptiles - i.e. Sareesripa signs. The lord of Scorpio gets
debilitated in Cancer. So there is a very strong connection between
the two signs. Rule : (3) The sign in which the lord of the first
considered sign gets debilitated could be a Vasya sign. (Here Mo
gets debilitated in Scorpio) Sagittarius - Rule (1) applies here. The
lord of Sagittarius gets exalted in Cancer.
For Leo, Libra is Vasya sign. Why?
Lira - Rule (3) applies here. Lord of Leo Sun gets debilitated in
Leo.
For Virgo, Gemini and Pisces are Vasya Signs. Why?

Gemini - Rule (2) applies. Gemini and Virgo are ruled by the
same planet Me. Pisces - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Virgo Me gets
debilitated in Piaces.
For Libra, Virgo and Capricorn are Vasya signs. Why?
Virgo - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Libra gets debilitated in Virgo.
Capricorn - Rule (1) applies. Lord of Capricorn Sa gets exalted in
Libra.
For Scorpio, Cancer is the Vasya sign. Why?
Cancer - Rule (3) applies. Lord of Scorpio Ma gets debilitated
in Cancer.
For Sagittarius, Pisces is Vasya sign. Why?
Pisces - Rule (2) applies. Sagittarius and Pisces are ruled by the
same planet Ju.
For Capricorn, Aquarius and Aries is Vasya sign. Why?
Aquarius - Rule (2) applies. Capricorn and Aquarius are ruled
by the same planet Sa. Aries - Rule (1) applies. The lord of Aries
gets exalted in Capricorn.
For Aquarius, Aries is Vasya sign. Why?
Aquarius - Rule (3) applies. The lord of Aquarius gets debilitated in Aries.
Fro Pisces, Sagittarius is the Vasya sign. Why?
Sagittarius - Rule (2) applies. Pisces and Sagittarius are ruled
by the same planet.
Lesson to remember: The sages never tell a thing without reason and Logic!! We just need to search and find it out!!
Vasya means, mutual attraction. The classics talk about signs
which have some kind of mutual attraction. Put in other words,
the people born in Vasya signs (Asc or Moon sign Jot each other

gets attracted to each other, either sexual attraction or friendship.


Because of this Vasya relation between the Lagna of the girl and
boy. Vasya between the Moon signs of girl and boy are considered. This concept is normally used while horoscope matching for
marriage. Vasya primarily indicates the attraction we feel towards a
person, just by seeing him/her, even before knowing his/her abilities and qualities. It is the inherent quality of the horoscope and
the sign in which the person is born is causing this attraction.
The concept of Vasya (Mutual attraction) can also be used:
1) In Marriage compatibility (This is the traditional use)
2) In selecting your business partner.
3) In selecting your girl friend.
4) In selecting friends etc
Of course we are not selecting friends/business_partners/
girl_friends etc after horoscope matching. But if we have some
real relations, we can check the horoscope to verify that, whether
this principle of Vasya is there at work causing the bond, and helping us to strengthen the relation. I hope, though simple, having
this sound and useful concept in our wallet of astrological knowledge, would be useful also in understanding the importance the
great seers gave to the concept of Exaltation and Debilitation.
Vasya attraction between the Lagna signs or Moon signs is one
of the criterion for determining the mutual attraction between two
individuals. It is NOT the lone criterion for determining the same!
The are other systems that are used for the same purpose such as
the one known as "Rana_Ranee Bhava" compatibility in marriage
compatibility, which also speak about the plancement of Lagna
lord, 7th lord, Lagna and Moon Navamsa etc. There is another
system called "Rasi vasyam" to have a primary understanding about
the sextual attaction (and compatibility) between people bom on

different signs. As you know there are some Nakshatra based rules
as well to do the same. It is due to the existance of these many
authentic rules, which gives prime importance to different factors
that, we consider all of them in the marriage compatibility (along
with other rules to validate the future incidents in life) and come to
a conclusion almost in a statistical manner!! Yes, I agree, it is not
the statistics but the understanding of the astrologer about the future events in store for the couple is more important. But the well
founded rules like Vasya really needs consideration, and should
be appreciated. :)
The period of influence for any YOGA in horoscope is determined by DASA and supporting GOCHARA. YOGA could be 1)
Sign based, 2) Bhava based, 3) Planet based, 4) Sign-Bhava based,
5) Sign-Planet based, 6) Bhava-Planet based, or 7)Sign-BhavaPlanet based. You can rephrace the above terminology based on
Nakshatra as well.
But the Vasya I told is not a YOGA! It is more related to the
basic nature of the sign itself. I will elaborate little further:
Point -1
The nature of a sign is determined based on divisions such as:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Kalapurusha (1 fold)
The Male-Female classification (2 fold)
Chara-Stira-Ubhaya, Srishti-Stiti-Samhara etc (3 fold)
Satya-Dwapara-Treta-Kali Yogadi etc (4 fold)
Earth-Water-Fire-Air-Sky (Pancha bhootadi)etc (5 fold) etc.

Point -2
The nature of the sign is further clarified based on the following or similar concepts which fundamentally depends on the underlying concepts noted as point -1. They are:
1) Rasyadhipatya
2) Exaltation-Debilitation
3) Human-Watery-Reptail-Quadrapad etc

Point -3
The concepts that are based on concepts noted under point 1 or
point 2 or similar ones.
1) Rasi Vasya and RasiBhava vasya
2) Preeti signs etc etc.
Actually concepts noted under points 2 and 3, which are fundamentally based on the primary concepts or in turn on the secondary concepts needs to be pondered more, logically, so as to
bringout the essential logic used by Rishis in designing them.
Point -4
All of these are not YOGAS since the YOGA concept came
into existance only in the horoscope. But here (in Vasya etc) we
are actually speaking about the nature of the sign, rather than the
horoscope itself!! I think the point is clear at least to an extend,
and expects more inputs from the leaned members.
Marriage compatibility
(A conversation with Arjun ji)
Arjunji:
Dinam, ganam, mahendram, dheergham, yoni, rasi,
rasyadhipati, vasyam, rajju, vedha or dosham, gothram,
nakshatram, pakshi, bhootam and others are all listed for measuring each parameter of compatibility required in any relation between two individuals, to add to these, manglik dosham, kaalasarpa
dosham, grahana dosham, Besides various modem man researched
or invented doshams are all there, unfortunately, the various measuring tools mentioned in various medieval classics have some
inherent contradictions.
Me:
I feel that it is unsystematic (i.e. non-classified) view of the
concepts presented, is causing us the trouble in understanding the

(actually well classified!!) ideas put forward by saints and acharyas.


I will clarify
Let us approach the first confusion encountered by any one
approaching and trying to use marriage compatibility. You stated
it nicely. I agree with your statement. It would be the prime view
that would be felt by any sincere person approching marriage compatibility. But the point to remember is thatThe Acharyas have classified compatibility considerations stated
above by you (dinam, ganam etc..) as ("Agoodha Goodha
Bhedena dwidha hi khadana gunai"):
I. Agoodha (Non-hidden) marriage compatibility considerations
Eg: Rasi, Rasyadhipa, Vasya, Gana, Mahendra, Yoni, etc
II. Goodha (Hidden) marriage compatibility considerations
Eg: Drishti (Liking), Mana (Love), Deha (Health and Body),
Vidya-Vinaya (Education), Stanabhijatya (Status&Position), Vaya
(Age) etc
Now the Non-hidden (Agoodha) marriage compatibility considerations are again classified into four.
1) Sign Based
Eg: Rasi, Rasi-vasya, Rasi-Yoni, Rasi-Bhoota, Rasi-Varna etc
2) Sign-lord Based
Eg: Rasyadhipa, Rasi-bhava vasya etc
3)Star Based
Eg: Gana, Dina, Mahendra, Strideerkha, Nakshatra-Yoni etc.
4) Star related (Not important)
Eg: Nakshatra-bhoota, Nakshatra-Pakshi, Nakshatra-Mriga,

Nakshatra-Linga, Tara-Maitri, Rina-dhana etc.


Of the above four the first 4 are direct "application" of some
ancient concepts in marriage compatibility. (The marriage compatibility system originated later only compared to those concepts).
The compatibility considerations given as Nakshatra-related are
may of still later application of some nakshatra related concepts
into compatibility, and many acharyas have told us that they should
not be given much importance.
Now comes the considering of the Nakshatra based Doshas.
Yes, except one of them (i.e. Vedha) all of these are star based, and
therefore the
importance is to that extent only.
1) Nakshatra-Vedha : Though the word Nakshatra is there in
the name, it is actually a method for locating star combinations,
that fall in the Shashtashtama (6-8 axis) signs that cause the most
trouble. So in essence it considers Sign and Nakshatra.
2) Nakshatra varga vedha
3) Rajju Dosha etc
But still now, except the general qualities of sign and star, the
planetary placement in horoscope is not considered yet!! So let us
consider if the planetary placement supports/indicates marriage
between those 2 people, by using,
1) Rana-Ranee Bhava (Structural compatibility between horoscopes) and
Now let us compare the placement of malefic in the horoscope
in a 'general' manner, by using,
2) Papa samya (Mangala dosha is just something comes with
in this)
Actually all the systems said above is child play, and the real

ability and understanding of the astrologer in understanding the


horoscope, is used from here onwards, i.e. Now we have to check
for:
1) Chance for having children
2) Death/Divorce
3) Poverty and scope for economic success
4) Possible Health problems in future
5) Lesbian/Gay nature of male/female
Yes, All of these together it is popularly known as Jataka Poruta
(meaning 'Horoscope Matching') which indicates that this is the
most important considerations in horoscope matching and also that
these are to be looked IN HOROSCOPE rather than in the mere
name of sign or star.
Now consider the Agoodha compatibility options as well based
on your understanding of the family, education, status, health etc
of male and female and their family!! The relatives of bride and
groom will do this, even if the astrologer is not doing it. So we
don't have to worry much about it.
This is the well-classified system put forward by the Acharyas.
Can we call it un-scientific, or unsystematic?!
We follow it or not, the situations allow us to do it or not, etc
are all our trouble and the Acharyas should not be blamed for
that!!
Arjunji:
Yes, this is where a practicing astrologer if follows saatvik
lifestyle and develops divine intuition, due to the vaak suddhi and
vaak siddhi, the reading, analysis and prediction become simpler.
Me:

Yes, yes, all this is necessary, and I agree completely. But would
like to add that, we should add it up to the above (systematic understanding of the system put forward by the Acharyas)for the
best results.
Stars and Planets
(A conversation with Arjnn ji)
Arjun ji:
Stars and planets are existing in nature, rasis are mythical in
nature.
Me:
I disagree!! Why? I will explain.
1) Stars: They are also mythical (following your terminology)
since we are talking about stellar divisions and NOT Yoga taras.
Our star (i.e. Nakshatra) is 'an area in sky', a stellar division, covering 13 deg 20 min. Thus become mythological due to the same
reason you ascribed to rasi.
2) Rasis (Signs): They are also mythological (following your
terminology) since they represent 'an area in sky' covering 30
deg.
3) Planets : They are also mythological, since in astrology, we
are not talking about the planets that physical entities having no
special qualities and significance 9we ascribe to them in astrology). But instead we are talking about Sun that is Father and Atma
karaka, Moon that is mother and water, Mars that is warrior etc!!!
If not mythological how will you understand it scientifically!!
I will better agree upon using the word 'concept' or 'hypothetical construct' rather than the word 'mythological'. In astrology 1) Signs 2) Nakshatras 3) Planets 4) Bhavas(Houses) become concepts! !! Actually these are the basic 'constructs' in astrology (similar

to 'Vata-Pita-Kapha' in Ayurveda and 'Vital force' in naturopathy) and that is why significance is assigned to these 4 categories
only.:) I think you will support this view which helps us much, in
understanding the logical system called astrology, and understanding it as a system that fits into 'holistic approach'.
Arjunji:
Over and above, we have astrology derived from hindu mythology. While according to mythology we treat planets including
satellite moon as gods and worship their personalities, astronomy
and science paints them as balls of some mass, while the science
says how moon waxes and wanes, all puranas says how moon
was cursed with kshaya roga due to his neglecting of his 27 wives,
how the modem man percieves these contradictions - to see stars
as wives and planets as husbands or just balls of some light.
Me:
Here also the problem is with understanding the views of ancient Rishi's in there own light, I mean the system provided by
they themselves. I will explain:
In there holistic approach to subjects under study, the ancient
Rishis from the period of Vedas itself, uses approaches such as1) Adhi-Bhowtika
2) Adhi-Daivika etc.
Ascribing human nature or thinking that a divine god/goddess
with a particular shape/body/qualities is present within 'each and
every material' (They left nothing! It was a system of study!) is a
method utilized by the saints in study!! But, yes, I should agree
that, this lead to too many misunderstandings and confusions. But
should also understand that, this system of study is beautifully utilized in astrology which negates this disqualification ascribed to
it. Just see how beautifully we can picturise things, when we see-

Sun - as a king, with a strong and matured body


Moon - as a queen, with a motherly nature
Venus - as the beautiful lady
Gulika - as the snake etc !!
The same system is in use, when we see Aries - as Ram
Taurus - as Ox etc as well!!
It is better to have a closer look at the logical systems used by
the Rishis, such as Adhi-Bhowtika, Adhi-Daivika etc and also to
have a closer look at the holistic system of study, before jumping
into conclusions.
It is easy to ascribe/accept everything as part of mythology, but
I would add that, it does not help much in understanding the systematic approach of our ancient seers. Understanding the system
they followed, in their own terms, is what we lacked till date, and
better than late to save our ancient knowledge in good shape, let
us try to do that.
PS: It is the bigger picture, and the exact understanding of outlines of the subject under scrutiny is of importance in any study.
That makes our work simpler.
Tarus Lagna
Shape = Bull.
A good and beautiful body, almost a narcissist, care too much
for the bodily and mental well being of oneself, selfish, good high,
muscle body, healthy physique, beautiful walking style, likes vegetarian food than non-veg, strong thighs and bulky bottom, kind,
helping nature, takes too much responsibilities, feels that life is
burdened with too much responsibilities, takes life too seriously,

mostly fail to see what others think and feel since he/she is too
much immersed in his own thoughts and emotions. Ta is a quadruped sign. This indicates that the native spend his/her childhood
in a good house in a village in kingly manner. Agriculture, servants (helpers 3rd house), good amount of land property for relatives, etc will be part of memory. The native
Sign Lord = Venus.
Probably dark brown skin or clear white skin, interest in music
and other art forms, special interest in dress and cosmetics, big
beautiful eyes, clear black beautiful hair, likes luxuries and enjoys
sex. Oily skin, pimples etc and beauty problems due to that at
teenage.
Ve is lord of Lagna and 6th exalted in Pc and debilitated in Vi
There is a constant inner conflict in him. The mind is always ripped
apart between selfishness and understanding of real justice. Mostly
justice (Li) fails and Selfishness (Ta) wins. Since Ve is the 6th lord
as well, the fight in support of or against sex life rules their life.
Likes cleanliness and will try to exercise the same habit in others
as well. Likes gardening, agriculture etc. Lagna lord exalted in
11th - will have elder brothers or sisters, but will get a chance to
control even them like an elder one, as indicated by 11th lord exalted in 3rd. 6th lord exalted in 11th - will have many enemies.
Lagna lord Ve debilitated in 2nd - Will have some trouble having
children. 5th sign Vi is female, indicating that the native will probably would have one or two (probably two since Vi is
dwiswabhava sign indicating two) daughters. Lagna lord debilitated in Vi (naval portion), some trouble related to interior organs
in navel portion. Pregnancy problems, urinary excretory organs
related problems, infections etc is a possibility. 6th lord Ve is Female sign - enmity with ladies or due to ladies. Ve exalted in 11th
- more than one elder ones (brothers/sisters). Ta is a stira sign,
which indicates that the native has a steady nature, and at times

fails to change with the changing situations. Due to this memory


will be given more importance and good/bad memories would be
cherished always. In essence he/she would like to live a half real/
half imaginative life. 3rd lord Mo exalted in Lagna Some special
preference as an youngster among co-born. Nature of mind and
body of a Taurus native depends too much on the strength
(pakshabala) of Mo for this reason. If Mo is week, then the native
will have darkish skin, slim body, won't care much for beauty in
the early stages of life etc. If Mo is strong, then the native will
have a strong and bulky body, fair skin, plump body, will care too
much about beauty and cosmetics even from the early stages of
life etc. Mo (significator of Mother) exalted in Lagna indicates
that, especially if the native is a girl, she would have to full fill
many responsibilities at home like her mother. 3rd house Cn is a
water sign, and the lord of it exalted in Lagna indicates that the
native will have a special interest in Water sports like swimming,
would like to bath many times a day, will like to visit sea lakes and
the like etc.
Here analysis is shown only for Lagna house. Continue with
the same type of analysis for all the houses such as 2nd house, 3rd
house etc, which will give a better picture about the life and nature
of the Taurus Lagna native.
Some other points
Mo owns 12th house from 4th (signifies mother). The 4th lord
exalted in 12th house from Lagna. The significator of mother Mo
gets exalted in Lagna. All these together indicates that, the hard
life lead by the mother of the native will have a high impact on the
memories and nature of the native. The native won't get much
love neither from mother (4th house owned by a fire planet), nor
from father (9th house owned by another malefic). He/She would
be more affectionate towards the mother, and will think that the
suffering to the mother is mostly caused by the father, even though

there would be a some what good relation between the mother


and father. A ruling father (or a father with bad habits such as
drinking or the like) and an obedient/suffering/occasionally revolting mother is the general trend for Taurus native. This gives a hard
impression of life for him, and he/she really tries to shake off and
come out of this shade, and runs after happiness and life without
worries. But for sure these memories leave a permanent mark on
the native, making him/her improper to handle responsibilities.
Coupled with natures like selfishness, running after happiness,
tendency to avoid responsibilities, taking life too seriously etc,
makes the native fearful, an individual who normally lacks leadership qualities etc, makes him/her an improper fellow to handle
independent responsibilities, or do true innovative revolutionary
studies. But the native will never be ready to accept this fact, and
always thinks and tries to project him/her as an able person. He/
She always seeks for appreciation form all quarters and feels happy
if it is awarded and feels offended if someone criticizes him/her,
even if it is true. But inside them they know this truth, and so
respects those who do this kind of criticism but at the same time
convinces them (through love) that he/she is not against them.
Some other points Many brothers/sisters as pointed by 11th lord exalted in 3rd.
Untimely death of elder co-born as indicated by 11th lord
having 8th lordship as well.
Relatives in high power in the past as indicated by 4th lord
Su exalted in 12th.
Pregnancy problems for women.
Loss of relatives and high interest in family history as indicated by Stira sign in 4th and Su exalted in 12th.
Job away from home (native place) playing a major role in

life, even though the native will return to his native place later, and
would have strong ties there.
Unsatisfied married life, and early death of husband/wife than
the native, as indicated by the lordship of 12th for the 7th lord.
Long life (longevity) as indicated by the lordship of 8th house
for Ju, and amrita graha.
Planet that can cause either maximum damage or maximum
help to the native due to its unique ownership of house and exaltation debilitation relations - Sa (father, guru, luck) and Ma (brothers/sisters, husband, sadness).
The planet that can give maximum positive effect and happiness - Me (children and knowledge)
Remedial gem stone - Emerald in platinum ring.
Remember that all these covers only 1/12 of what can be predicted after knowing that the native is born in Taurus Lagna. I
hope others will continue with the same technique, and bring out
the total general nature and life events of the native, just by knowing the fact that he/she is bom in Taurus Lagna.
Sakunas and Nimittas
(A good string of thoughts and mails)
In a yahoo group on astrology, I saw the following message:
In
@yahoogroups.com,
<achyutagaddi@> > > wrote:

"Jyotisa

Shisya"

loml
DearJyotisas,
Nowadays, in the early morning, I go outside and sit on the
porch to enjoy the cool morning air. Today I was a little later

than usual and wondering if I had missed the milkman's knock.


A crow came up and perched on the parapet wall near to where
I was sitting. Into my mind came the following questions in '^sequence*:
(1) Will the milkman come to deliver the milk?
Crows response: three caws
(2) Will I get the expected speedpost today?
Crows response: two caws
The crow then flew away.
Actual situation: The milkman came and the speedpost didn't
arrive as of now.
Is it a coincidence that YES has three letters while NO has
two letters? Who is more intuitive? The crow or the fellow sitting
on the porch?
Jyotish lesson: Make it a habit to observe acutely what is happening around, you and try to decipher the meaning of what you
observe relative to the situation. The art of deciphering nimittas or
sakuna sastra is an invaluable tool for the jyotisa.
best regards
Hari
This story aroused my interest and so I forwarded it to
ancint_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com, with the following
note:
In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com, Sreenadh"
<sreesog @ > wrote:
Dear All,
I have seen the following message in one of the yahoo groups.
It is the description of just an incident but the story seems to hide
a lot of meaning - and is really good!! So I am forwarding it to our

forum for all of us to read.


Sreenadh
I got the following replay for the same from Pandit Arjunji.
In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com,
"panditarjun2004" <panditarjun2004@...> wrote:
dear sreenadh ji
Even though these shakuna shastras are interesting, i did not
read or learn them as i did not find any classics on them, if you
could refer any classics mentioning these shakuna shastra or any
old books on how to read from animal hints, i would like to leam
them also, if predictions can be made on the caws of a crow and
barks of a dog and the fall of a lizard, it is really an easy task for an
astrologer.
with best wishes
arjun
This prompted me to write a detailed replay for the same, as
follow s In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com, Sreenadh"
<sreesog@ > wrote:
Dear Arjunji,
It not due to the reference to sakuna shastras that i presented
that mail, but due to the hidden double meaning and anomali. ;)
Becoming serious,:) Now coming to the subject of 'Sakuna' and
'Nimitta' (If you are one a travel the Nimittas that you observe in
the start of the journey - with approx 100 m - is termed Sakuna
and all omens are generally termed 'Nimitta'), it is a subject dealt
with in Samhitas. So the available ancient classics that deal with
this subject would be samhita texts like - Brihat samhita, Harita
samhita, Samasa samhita, Maha yatra etc. Prasna texts like
Prasnamaraga, Prasnanushtana padhati etc also refer to various

omens related to Prasna in an elaborate manner. Texts like Kerala


prasna samgraha, Prasna Koutuka gives omens to be observed
related to touching of body parts by the qurent. In texts like Siva
sworodaya and Agni purana omens judged from breath pattern
are mentioned. Even Ayurvedic classic texts like Ashtanga Hridaya
also discusses omens that would help the doctor to judge the disease, situation and the possible outcome of the treatment. This
system is very old as is evident from the statement of' Vishnugupta'
(chanakya) in Chanakya sutra: "Upastita vinasa prakrityakarena
karyena drisyate" Meaning, the future possibility of destruction or
bad out comes would be indicated by the natural omens. Eg: Before rain we see the clouds - it is an omen Before earth quake the
animals react - it is an omen. The classification of omens which
depends on various basic principles itself is a big subject to deal
with. By the way we value the statement of Vishnugupta (chanakya)
because he is the reputed author of a reputed astrological classic
called 'Vishnugupta Hora'. You said: " if you could refer any classics mentioning these shakuna shastra or any old books on how to
read from animal hints, i would like to leam them also"
If we want to be systematic and authentic, to understand the
animal behavior, it is better to read modern texts on the subject
and depend on direct observation and study of animals and nature. :) Mihira in Mahayatra (also known as Brihat yogayatra) asks
us to study the animal behavior and nature from direct observation. Yes, I here you ask, where is astrology in it.:) The astrologer
is supposed to predict and for that he is collecting all the tools he
could, whether that is related to planets and rasi chakra or not.
This is specially important in Ashtamangala Prasna etc. For them
the concept while considering animal behaviour etc was, "it is
important are you able to predict future events accurately and how
you do it is not important"! But remember, this concept is JUST
PART of the big nimitta system and not a rule that depict the
WHOLE nimitta system. I hope the above references will be suf-

ficient to give you a start on the subject, of omens, "if predictions


can be made on the caws of a crow and barks of a dog > and the
fall of a lizard, it is really an easy task for an astrologer." No wrong!
Wisely and efficiently using and understanding this system is one
of the hardest tasks!
I have heard a story related to observation of a nimtta by an
Ayurvedic doctor. He visited one of the patients with his sishya
and having digestion problems. He observed the smell and presence of Jackfruit near to the bed of the patient, and from that omen
observed that eating of too much jackfruit was the cause of indigestion. Another day the in the absence of the guru the sishya had
to visit a patient with the same problem. He was unable to locate
the problem by diagnosis, so he looked around for omens, and
found some grass near to the bed of patient. So he immediately
asked "Did you ate grass yesterday?". Same is story of and the
study of the system of "Omen observation". It is in a better damaged state similar to the jataka stream of astrology at present.:)
We could find knowledge related to Nature, climate, body language, breath pattern, astrological knowledge of zodiac and planets, animal behavior, biology, psychology, hundreds of beliefs,
many superstitions all getting used WITH THE AIM OF PREDICTING THE FUTURE in this branch astrology. It is the ancient mother of several streams of knowledge.:) We should have
to look at the subject of omens in a new light. May the grace of
nature be with us, with that grace let us be with it, to understand
the world around us in a better way, so that everything will reflect
in us, and give us clues about the future possibilities which helps
us in prediction.
PS:
* The astrologer is like a mirror who reflects the nature and the
qurent himself.

* He is a person who see - which others can not see (Even in


day to day life)
* He is a person who hear - which others can not hear (Even in
day to day life)
Meaning he observes with attention and understands much more
from what others too see and hear. He is the wise man who is
there to say what he saw and heard to others, but in a differnt
mould, so that it would be beneficial to them.
Sreenadh
To this mail, I got an interesting response, as follows from
Souvik datta ji:
In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com, Sauvik
Datta" <sdutta@ > wrote:
Sreenadhji,
This reminds me of the string theory on quanum physics...
Sreenadhji, do you exist in parallel universes? :)
Thanks
Souvik
My response was asfollows In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com, Sreenadh"
<sreesog @ > wrote:
Dear Sauvik ji,
lol In a parallel universe called Kerala (with an indecipherable and cumbersome language 'Malalayalam'), where an astrologer started speaking english recently only...:)) But the wonder is
that, these people of the south India, have started copying old Sanskrit texts into their regional scripts, before hundreds of years, and
those texts become extinct in North India but still many references
and slokas are still available in these regional scripts! They felt it

difficult to write Sanskrit and have created 2 scripts - popularly


known as 'Grandha lipi' or 'Grandha script'. Grandha lipi means
a script that was created to write Sanskrit in a script that resembles
regional scripts (with less alphabets)of Kerala and Tamilnadu.
These scripts are 1) Tamil Grandha lipi (Now only available in preserved texts
in manuscript libraries) [Tamil is the language of the state
'Tamilnadu']
2) Malayalam Grandha lipi (This later become the slandered
script of Malayalam) [Malayalam is the language of the state
'Kerala'] Malayalam Grandha lipi become Malayalam and many
be because of that many ancient Sanskrit slokas and sloka references are available in in this language and texts. The astrological
knowledge in this language is already explored although the fruits
are not yet completely presented to the world. But the Tamil
Grandha lipi is an unexplored treasure!! Many spend years to translate Sanskrit texts to Tamil Grandha lipi and as you may know
Tamil is an older and anceient language than Malayalam. Now
nobody reads and uses 'Tamil Grandha lipi', but the manuscripts
libraries (all over India) have thousands of 'Grandha lipi' texts
preserved with them!! Who knows, we many find many, 'thought
to be lost texts' in this collection. It is another treasure for we children to play with - caused by language development and its history. I think, even though I am able to notice this regarding
Malayalam and Tamil, there is a possibility that this is the same
situation with all the other regional scripts as well. Somebody should
conduct a search for 'Sanskrit astrological classics in regional
scripts'. Then from Southern states and from states like Kashmir,
Orisa etc new knowledge and lost texts may sprung and rise to
their feet, becoming visible to all.:)
Love,
Sreenadh

I think, all these shows how even stories becomes Nimittasfor


good knowledge sharing.
Chaya Jyotish
In ancient_indian_astrology yahoo group, one of the members
pointed to a narration about the experience of "Vargeese Kuryan"
(as narrated in one of his books) on Chaya Jyotish. The auther
said that, even though "Vargees Kuryan" was intially relectent to
belive in the predictions given by the astrologer, he was wonder
struck by the accuracy of the system.
<SNIP>
After Medora's brother got his shadow 'read', they persuded
me to do the same. So as not to appear a spoilsport and also for
some fun I stood in the sun with the jyotishi measured my shadow.
Shuffling through the bunch of parchment-like leaves, and finding what he was looking for, he read out: "You have no faith."
</SNIP>
We were all wondering what this 'Chaya Jyotish' is! The name
was new to us. While disussing about this, another member astrologer of the group 'jagannathan ji' pointed out - "Possibly the
lagnam is arrived at by measuring the chaaya." I suggested we
will look for more slokas (apart from the 'Chaya purusha
lakshanam' mentioned by Mihira) related to this method, so as to
reach a defenit conclution about the subject and its method.
Yesterday I bought a book on "Hanuman Jyothish", a collection of some locally popular astrological systems which traditionally gets associated with the Tantric systems related to "Hanuman".
Most of them are simple predictions using charts or chakras. The
text I bought does not seemed to be authentic and didn't gave the
original sources clearly. (It is compiled by one "Pramod Sagar"
and published by "Manoj Packet Books") In one of its chapters, I
found some slokas related to omen interpretation related to crows.

The chapter started with the words, "Nagarjuna Uvacha". As some


of you may know "Nagarjuna" is a popular Tantric Guru who
wrote Tantric texts like "Kakshapuda" which contains astrology
(Kala Tantra) Medicine (Kalamantra) etc as well. He is reputed
guru of Ayurveda as well. What ever that be, Nagarjuna is a well
respected Guru of the Tantric Stream, even though his Tantri/Matric
books contain a large amount of superstitions as well. The purpose of telling it all here is that, I found some info about "Chhaya
prasna" and the end of this chapter on 'omens related to crows' in
this text of 'Hanuman Jyotish". In the last but one sloka of this
chapter is as follows:
"Dharopari Trimsavid khande 'aava aava' swaram punaH
Yeda ratati kakastada dukhavarta kathayati"
Meaning (During Prasna) if in the 3rd Khanda of a day crow
cries that would sound 'aava aava', then the astrologer should think
that some danger is going to happen for that individual.
I am not much interested in this bit of info, since I am not an
expert in animal behavior, or understanding and interpreting the
behavior and sounds of birds and animal.;) But notice the fact that
above quoted, Nagarjuna slokas is in Sanskrit. After this sloka
two versions of "Chhaya Prasna" are mentioned by the compiler
of the book Hanuman jyothis (pramod sagar).
1) Chhaya Prasna - 1st Version
As an extension to the above sloka the compiler (of the book
'Hanuman Jyotish') quotes some local Hindi slokas that are related to "Chhaya Prasna". Look at what he quotes, after saying
"Punar vaktavayam adhikokti" (Then I am going to say some extra things that can be said along with) "Kaka jo bole apana man. Chhaya napike keeje dugane.
Sapta bhag se baki joyi. Bole kak pramane hai soyi.

Ek rahai to bhojanakari. Dooja Iambi jaya savari.


Teeje mrityu yatra pavai. Choudha kalaha aag jalavai
Panch se mangal yatra kahai. Soonya aru chaH tij man ko lahai"
Notice that the language of this sloka is ancient Hindi, that
sounds similar to some doha of Kabir.;) The meaning of the sloka
is - When the crow sounds like that, measure the shadow of the
native in angulas (an ancient unit of length). Then multiply this
length with two and divide it with seven. Take the remainder and
based on that (based on the planet indicated by that number?) give
the predictions. The predictions given should be 1- gain of food,
2- birth of someone, 3-death of someone, 4-more troubles, 5-getting a good message, 6-no prediction, 7-no prediction. If six or
seven is the remainder then think that the crow is speaking it own
language and that it is not related to that Prasna.
Why it interests me? It seems that if we remove the crow from
this slokas, then a new system of Prasna emerges. The advice would
be "Measure the shadow of the native in angulas (an ancient unit
of length). Then multiply this length with two and divide it with
seven. Take the remainder and the based on the planet indicated
by that number give the elaborate predictions. Take the sign in
which the planet is placed as the Chhaya Arudha (Shadow Arudha).
The simple predictions for the remainder number would be, 1 gain of food, 2- birth of someone, 3-death of someone, 4-more
troubles, 5-getting a good message, 6-no prediction, 0-no prediction. If six or seven is the remainder then think that the crow is
speaking it own language and that it is not related to that Prasna.
And so if the remainder is 6 or 0 (7) then depend totally on the
Chhaya Arudha. Taking that sign as the starting point and considering the planetary placement at the time of Prasna related to that
Arudha, we can give the total predictions for that native".

Why such a conclusion?! Because there are already several


similar systems present as part of normal prasna system of astrology. To mention some - Tamboola Prasna, Akshara Prasna,
Dinanadika Prasna etc follow a similar scheme. If this is the case
then it becomes clear that Chhaya Jotish or Chhaya Prasna is a
sub system (or local deviation) of the normal prasna system that is
followed everywhere. And also that it is just part of the normal
system of astrology. Nothing much new info is there related to
that, except the above quoted bit of info. The length of shadow of
the native would be just used to determine the planet and thus
(from the placement of the planet in any sign) to derive "Chhaya
Arudha". Taking that sign as the starting point and considering
the planetary placement at the time of Prasna related to that Arudha,
we can give the total predictions for that native.
The above method is briefed by Nagarjuna in Sanskrit as "Saptaguli parimita chhaya cha dwiguneekrita". Meaning, Multiply the shadow length (of the native) by two and divide by seven,
(and give predictions based on that). The total system of "Chhaya
Prasna" is based on this sloka bit by Nagarguna that is part of
Tantric school of astrology.
The author of the book "Hanuman Jyotish" gives one more
interpretation to this bit, which is given below2) Chhaya Prasna - 2nd Version
Take a stick (pole) of 7 angula length and measure the length
of the shadow of this pole at the time of Prasna. Multiply it by two
and divide the result by seven. Give the prediction based on the
remainder number (as given above).
Here the difference in system followed is only that the instead
of the length of the shadow of the native, the length of shadow the
seven angula pole is measured at the time of Prasna. Here also the
above sloka bit by Nagarguna forms the supporting base and noth-

ing else. Since there is no supporting indication for "Take a stick


(pole) of 7 angula length" in the Nagarjuna sloka bit, I feel that the
first version is slightly better than this one.
I think this clarifies what "Chhaya Jyotish" is or better, what
Chhaya Prasna is.:) Thus to conclude "Chhaya Prasna" is an extension of the normal system of Prasna by some local astrologers,
based on some slight directions given by the Tantric guru
Nagarguna. May be it is also possible that this system is adopted
by astrologers who depend on "Hanuman Jyothish" of Tantric
astrology than the followers of other streams. But I can not hold
wondering how both these streams of "Nagarguna system of Tantric
astrology" and "Hanuman system of Tantric astrology" are related.
Is it that both are part of Tantric astrology, that holds the link?! I
can not also stop wondering - how and why when books and
related slokas came to me from nowhere when I just gets interested in them!
Thus, those "parchment-like leaves" (mentioned by 'Vargees
Kuryan') could be some manuscript of normal astrology (since,
once the Arudha is determined based on shadow it is easy to make
predictions based on normal prasna system of astrology) or could
be some special manuscript on "Chhaya Prasna". This points to
necessity of further search for unique texts that deals with "Chhaya
Prasna" alone or describes "Chhaya Prasna" in more detail. But
for know I think we know what it is.:)
Therefore, as far as its accuracy is concerned "It can be accurate only as much as normal system of Prasna - nothing more
nothing less".:) Or better, It is just a small side stream of normal
prasna system. This helps us to come out of wondering about the
mystery of this system - and get fascinated too much and erroneously judging by mistake that it is better than normal system of
astrology.;)

What is Drishti?
I am presenting my ideas and thoughts on Drishti. I hope that
the following will be helpful in search for the original system of
Indian Astrology.
View 1Drishti is relative angles between planets
In classics (Krishneeyam, BPHS, Varaha Hora, Yavana Hora)
it is said that the planets have partial Drishti towards some houses.
It is said that3rd House -1/4 Drishti
4th House - 3/4 Drishti
5th House -1/2 Drishti
7th House -1 Drishti
8th House - 3/4 Drishti
9th House -1/2 Drishti
10th House -1/4 Drishti
Here you can note that the Drishti is NOT increasing in a
gradual manner in the first half till 180 deg, SEEMS TO gradually
decrease after 180 deg. This lead somebody (like Sripati) to suggest that, Drishti should be calculated for ALL DEGREES in a
Shashtyamsa or Percentage bases. Thus the proposed suggestion
by him would be90 deg = 25 %
120 deg = 75 %
150 deg = 50 %
180 deg = 100%
240 deg = 75 %

270 deg = 50 %
300 deg = 25 %
But as you could understand, calculating Drishti for ALL DEGREES becomes relevant only when we accept the "unequal
house division system" (Bhava system) proposed by Sripati himself! ! Because then only the GRADUAL increment or decrement
of a planet's influence in a single house itself comes into consideration! But as we know already, the ancient Saints considered House
and Sign as the same. And therefore no "unequal house division
system" was prevalent as per ancient Indian astrology, but only
equal signs/houses of 30 deg each.
Another pitfall this view leads into is "Associating Drishti with
angles". This concept leads to the view that "Drishti is nothing but
relative angles between planets". If this was the basic concept then
the saints could have arranged the Partial Drishti in the following
way 90 deg = 25 %
120 deg = 50%
150 deg = 75 %
180 deg = 100%
240 deg = 75 %
270 deg = 50 %
300 deg = 25 %
Which makes calculation easy, because then we could use the
simple formula,
(100/180) x Angle = Drishti %
But this not possible, since NO CLASSICS by saints support
neither this view, nor the concept of "unequal house division".

View 2 Drishti is relative signs the planets influence from the


sign of their placement
As it happens in several other instances, the very good text
"Krishneeya" gives as the clue to the original system followed by
the saints. In Krishneeya it is said that Shashtam dwiteeya bhavanam Dwadasamekadesam na pasyati
Swastanadweeshyante grahastadanyani bhavanani
[The planet does not look (Drishti) towards 2,6,11,12 houses/
signs from the house/sign they are posited in]
As we know well the word Bhavana means Sign as clearly
stated by Mihira in the sloka, "Rasi Kshetra Griha Rksha Bhani
Bhavanm chikartha sampretyaye" [Rasi, Kshetra, Griha, Rksha,
Bham, Bhavanam are words with same meaning] Thus it means
that, the planets have 0% drishti towards 2,6, 11, 12 signs from
the sign they are posited in!
This also means that the concept of GRADUAL increment or
decrement of Drishti (proposed by Sripati) should be discarded! If
we follow the clear cut rule put forward by the saints, what we get
is All planets have Drishti towards 1st Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - (Full)
2nd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - Nil
3rd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in -1/2
4th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 3/4
5th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in -1/2

6th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - Nil
7th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - (Full)
8th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 3/4
9th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in -1/2
10th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in -1/4
11th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - Nil
12th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - Nil
Or in other words
All planets have Drishti towards 1 st Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in -100 %
2nd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - 0 %
3rd Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 %
4th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 75 %
5th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 %
6th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 0 %

7th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in -100 %
8th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 75 %
9th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are posited in - 50 %
10th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - 25 %
11th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - 0 %
12th Sign from the sign (completely) from the sign they are
posited in - 0 %
If you feel that this concept of Saints about partial Drishti is
primitive and incomplete, then I would boldly say that, we should
accept their concept AS IS till we understand the original astrological system proposed by them, completely. We have NO
RIGHT to pour water into the system they proposed without clearly
understanding the system proposed by them. I reject Sripati (his
corrupting of the original system) also in the same spirit. One more
point we should remember - The saints of Arsha School (Skanda,
Vasishta, Viswamitra etc), Garga School (Garga, Rishiputra etc)
NEVER proposed any "Partial Drishti" system! They have only
talked about "Full Drishti" (towards 7th House) and "Special
Drishti" (of Ma, Sa and Ju) only and NOT about "Partial Drishti"!
It is the Yavana School (Yevanewara, Meenaraja, Sphujidhwaja
etc) that proposed partial Drishti. Probably it is from Yevanewara
that Parasara borrowed this concept of Partial Drishti. Since
Parasara borrowed many concepts from Yavaneswara [An Indian
(Afghanistan?) guru of an astrological school of thought who lived
far before Alexander's invasion to India and before the period

of Parasara Hora, i.e. 1400 BC], many have even abused Parasara
as Yevana! So 1) if you want to go by the original steam of Indian astrology,
let us first discard the "gradually increasing or decreasing drishti"
concept of Sripati and the idea that "Drishti is relative angles between planets".
2) If you are strong willed and a real puritan then, discard the
concept of partial drishti itself, since the Arsha School and the
Garga School never propose such a thing!!
But I won't suggest you to do the second thing, since we also
respect the views of Yevanewara and Parasara as well. Moreover
Krishneeyam and Saravali also talk about Partial Drishti (probably following Parasara). Saravali even goes to the extend of proposing some Rajayoga based on Partial Drishti in slokas like
"Vrishe Sasi lagnagataH supoorno..." and "EkaH sweche subhaH
syachubha gaganagaH..." etc. So I won't suggest discarding the
"Partial Drishti" concept, but for sure we should discard the corrupting ideas put forward by Sripati, with the malicious intention
of giving a strong hold to his "unequal house division system".
I don'find any statement in support of considering Rasi and
Bhava as seperate entities in texts before 10th century. But I do
find statements that supports considering Rasi and Bhava as one
and the same entities, with the only difference that Rasis statrs
from Aries, and Bhavas starts from Lagna. (This subject is already
dealt in detail in one of the earlier articles)
Qn:
Do the special aspects of 4,8 for mars and 3,10 for saturn and
5,9 for jupiter have any logic behind them, if so, why venus, mercury, sun and moon do not have these special aspects.
Ans:
I don't know. May be the rational for this is present in lost part

of the Rishi horas. The only thing I know is that all the different
schools of astrological thought such as Arsha school, Jain school,
Yavana School support the concept of special drishti. I will supply
the available quotes below:
Triteeye dasame souriH jeevastad trikonage
Chaturasram dharasoonuH kalatre nikhila grahaH
Poornam pasyanti sarvatra prayaschanti phalam tatha
(Surya hora)
This is a text of the Arsha school. Although similar sloka is not
available from the other slokas we can see that Skanda Hora, Brihay
prajapatya, Vasishta hora, Kousika hora and Sounaka hora also
supports the concept of "Special Drishti" (Ma to 4th and 8th, Ju to
5 th and 9th, Sa to 3rd and 10th) These are all texts of the Arsha
school. Now considering the Jain school of thought Duschitkagan souristrikonastan brihaspatiH
Chaturthashtamagan bhoumaH seshaH saptama samstitan
Bhavanti veekshane nityam uktadhika phala grahaH
(Gargi hora)
This is a text of Jain school of thought. Including Garga and
Rishiputra all the Rishis of this school as well support the concept
of special drishti as evident from the above sloka. Now coming to
Yavana school of thought Phalam visesham pravadamyathato
Bhoumasay poornam chaturasrabhe syat
Phalam cha jeevasya tatha trikonam
Poornam saneH syad dasame triteeye
(Yevaneswara Hora)
The scholars like Yevanacharya, Meenaraja, Sphujidhwaja etc
of this stream of thought also fully support the concept of special
drishti.
Being the students of ancient Indian astrological system, we
are trying to understand this ancient system without violating the

basic rules put forward by them. Therefore even though we don't


know the exact logic behind the concept of special drishti we have
to accept it. Yes, of course we can continue our search for the
logic behind this concept. When the time and effort is ripe the
truth will be revealed to us. Except Spujudwaja Hora and
Meenaraja Hora all the texts mentioned above are lost and only
some slokas are available. The available slokas does not discuss
the logic behind this concept, so we presume that it would be there
in the lost part of these texts. But yes, the concept of special drishti
for Ma, Ju and Sa is one of the age old, fundamental concept in
astrology.
PS: I forgot to add, all those slokas mean, "all planets have
drishti towards the 7th house from the house it is placed. Sa has
special drishti towards 3rd and 10th house. Ju has special drishti
towards 5th and 9th house. Ma has special drishti towards 4th and
8th house"
Qn (Arjun ji):
Till date i did not get the answer to "why" these special aspects
for three planets? "why" the other planets do not have special aspects?
Ans (Me):
Me too is searching for the answer to that question. But the fact
remains that even when we find some logically correct answer
[that ofcourse we can find;) ] that may not be the true one!!! I will
try to provide (inventions!!) some possible EXPLANATIONS later
(let me think about it), but be sure to remember that they may not
be the true ones.:)
Let us try some EXPLANATIONS:
Logic -1
The special drishti is - "Charanabhi vridhita", starts from legs!
:) Now consider kala purusha, let us alote leg to Sa, 10 th house

indicates middle portion of legs, let us make it short Sa = 3rd and 10th = Throat (Sound - Air) and Legs.
Ma = 4th and 8th = Chest and Sexual organs (Courage and
Kama)
Ju = 5th and 9th = Belly and Thigh
So it is the Kalapurusha concept and the significance of body
parts is there behind.
Logic -2 (Notperfect)
The special drishti is - "Charanabhi vridhita", one by fourth!
12/4 = 3. Meaning it increase by 3 signs in the order "Ravija
Amaredhya Rudira pare cha" (Varaha hora), i.e Sa, Ju, Ma, others.
Count 3 from Lagna = 3rd hous = Sa.
Count 3 from 3rd house = 5th house = ju
Count 3 from 5th house = 7th house = Ma and others.
Count 3 from 7th house = 9th house = Ju
Count 3 from 9th house = 11th house(!) = Sa ?
[Here the logic fails and I stopped.:)) ]
Logic -3 (Notperfect)
Let us do some maths 3+10 = 13 ; 13-12 = 1 ; Lagna
4+8 = 12 ; 12th house
5+9 = 14 ; 14-12 = 2 ; 2nd house
Ju is the karaka for 2nd house. Any connection? ;)
Logic -4

Sa is karaka for 10th, Ju for 9th etc. So the Drishti may have
something to do with (fixed) Bhava karakatwa assigned to planets
as well. But yes, it could be one of the reasons.
"Special Complete Drishti" is supported by "NO Rishi horas"
of the Arsha Kula! They have approved only that, ALL PLANETS have l/4th Drishti in 3rd and 10 house
1/2 Drishti in 5th and 9th
3/4th Drishti in 4th and 8th
The concept of Special complete Drishti is a concept by Jain
school of astrology, and is first given in Gargi hora. Even Varaha
mihira indicates that it is not his concept but of others!! In the
sloka "Tri dasa trikona
kila veekshanedhika", He says that it
is an openion of "kila", some others (not mihira)! But yes, as you
know Laghu parasari supports this concept of Special complete
drishti. (But now the question comes Laghu parasari is by Parasara
or some body else?) Ok, what ever that be, we can accept that
Gargi and Parasara approves the concept of special Drishtis, and
it is extensively in use now a days as well.:)
In ancient_indian_astrology@yahoogroups.com,
"panditarjun2004" <panditarjun2004@... wrote:
dear sreenadh ji
Thanks for listing various logics which give new dimensions. I
personally believe the following logic: as per NASA, the order of
the planets is as follows:
SUN
MERCURY
VENUS
EARTH (MOON)

MARS
JUPITER
SATURN
We find Mars, Jupiter and Saturn which are on the other side of
earth are assigned special aspects either due to their farthest from
sun or some technical scientific reason, i am not a scientist but
believe there is some deeper meaning in this structure which correlates to the special aspects of these three planets.
Please throw more light from this angle or correct me if i am
wrong.
with best wishes
pandit arjun
(Ju) - Rudhira (Ma)- Pare cha (Others). So the order is:
Sa-Ju-Ma-ll(Earth)ll-Others (Mo,Ve,Me,Su)
Listen to the word "Para". The opposits could be "Apara". Is it
that Sa, Ju, Ma are - Para grahas and (Mo),Ve,Me,Su - are para
grahas. Does it that Para and Apara indicates the two sides of earth
as well?! ;) Don't get confuced - the real meaning of the word
Para is "Others". I was just excersising logic.:) Want some more?
Apara = A+Pa+ra. As per kapadayadi notation it would be 0-1 2. Writing in revese order (the slandered method for kapadayadi),
it becomes 210. 210/30 = 7. All the planets have full drishti in 7th
house. Any connection? :) Yes, All this concepts about "Special
full Drishti" of Sa, Ju and Ma are openions of somebody (Garga
and Parasara) and not of the tradition followed by Mihira! Look
at the word 'Kila'=somebody says!
It means that except the Gargi hora reference, Mihira couldn't
find this concept in Skanda hora, Brihal prajapatya, Vasishta Hora,
Sounaka Hora, Kousika hora etc.

Kunda - Birth time Rectificaion


Introduction
Kunda Multiplication method can be used for Birth time rectification. The word 'Kunda' originated from Paralper system (Assigning numbers to Alphabets) of Kerala. In which Ka= 1 and Nda
=8. When alphabets are used to write numbers, digits should be
written in reverse order. (Sankhayanam Vamatho gathi). Therefore, Kunda = 81. What is the importance of this number? 81 = 9
x 9. It shows the Navamsa-Navamsa. (It is better to use the word
Navamsa-Navamsa/Nava-Navamsa to refer to Kunda. As the word
Kunda has got a Kerala regional origin, and as it just notates a
number, I am not supportive to Chandrahari's idea of relating
Kunda to Kundalini) The questions to be answered are:
1) Where this method originated? (What is the authentic sloka
connected with this method?)
2) How it should be used? (How it should be applied?)
3) How much rectification can be attained with this method?
4) What are the demerits of this method?
Let us try to answer these questions.
Method
One of the authentic references we see about this method is on
Presnamarga. It says,
"Kundanikhne pridhak legne prashtre thara na chethbhaveth
Kshipthva kaschith kalasthekthva(aa)neyam prashtre
jenmabham"
'If the resultant longitude, of Asc x 81 falls on the birth-star of
the qurent, then the Asc is correct. If it doesn't, increase or decrease some minutes to the Asc and again multiply with 81, and

see whether it falls on the birth-star of the qurent'.


According to the statement 'Trikonagananam sarvathra yojyam'
(You should consider trine stars always) in Desadhyani (a famous
vyakhya of Varaha-hora) and Hridyapadha (another famous
vyakhya of Vraha-hora), the astrologers consider the trine stars of
Navamsa-Navamsa as well. Asc shows the body, and Moon (birthstar) shows the mind. A combined effort of these two is necessary
for a birth to take place. That is why the acharya says that both of
them should be related to each other. (Another factor to be considered is the rhythm of the day. That is where the Pancha-tatva comes
into play)
The Presnamarga acharya is asking us to apply this method in
Presna. Can it be applied for birth-time rectification in Horoscope?
From where Presnamarga acharya got this method? The root of
this method lies in Varaha-hora. In the words of Mihira"Tathkalamindu sahitho dwirasamsako yasthathulya rasi sahitho purathassasanke
yavanudethi dina-rathri samanabhagasthavathgathe dinaniso prevadanthi jenma"
This sloka has many meanings. Kunda calculation is one of the
interpreted meanings from this sloka. 'Rasas' are 9 in number.
(Nava rasa) Therefore 'Dwiramsaka' means 9 x 9 =81. Therefore
one of the meanings would be Tf Asc x 81 is equal to the birth-star
then it is the birth-time'. Therefore, now we can say that this method
can also be applied in horoscopes. But from where Mihira got this
method? The root text is Sounaka hora. In the words of the great
saint Sounaka "Yedrasi samjcha aadhane seethamso syannavamsaka
navamsaka navamso va soothi sthathsdhepi va vidhou"

This sloka has the same meaning as included by Mihira in his


sloka. Now we are sure that it is an authentic method, put forward
by the great saints, for the rectification of birth-time.
What are the propositions of this method?
The Navamsa-Navamsa (Kunda) takes 18 min to make a complete revolution of the zodiac. As we are considering the trinestars, to cover 9 stars it takes 18/3 = 6 min. Therefore, the maximum correction we can attain by using this method is half of 6
min. i.e. (plus or minus) 3 min.
If we stick to the preposition that birth-star should come in the
trine-star of Kunda-sputa (Longitude of Navamsa-Navamsa), one
or two ideas comes to our notice. They are1) No two birth can take place within an interval of 6 min. In
other words, in the case of twins, there would be 6 min. difference
between the birth times. (Only in the case of Siamese twins this
law should be violated)
2) As the methods for sex determination from horoscopes are
given in authentic texts (we can determine whether the child is
boy or girl from birth-time/horoscope itself), it means that, Siamese
twins should be either both boys or both girls. No Siamese twins
with one of them boy and other girl would occur. (As it is a fact
we know, it could be taken as a fact for the worth fullness of
Navamsa-Navamsa theory)
Such strong assertions pointed to by this method should be tested
scientifically. If found false, we should drop this method, and search
for more reliable/authentic/rational methods.
In Hari's words, 'It all points to a rhythmic correlation between
the revolution of earth (Asc) and the movement of Moon (birthstar)'. As the whole astrology is concerned with 'the inter-connectedness of the rhythm of the universe with human/mundane

destiny', it is not only a possibility, but also a plausible research


field.
What are the limitations of this method?
Some of the limitations of this method are 1) It only helps for (plus or minus) 3 min. correction in birthtime. So if there is an error of more than 3 minutes, Kunda multiplication method won't be of any use.
2) Authentic texts such as Skanda hora (by god Subrahmanya),
Brihath prajapathyam (by Deksha prajapathi), Sounaka hora,
Presna-rethnam, Presnamarga etc postulates the 'Varga
chathushtaya' theory for birth-time rectification. The Vargachathushtaya (4 Vargas) include a) Navamsa (Asc x 9)
b) Navamsa-Navamsa (Asc x 81)
c) Dwadesamsa (Asc x 12)
d) Navamsa-Dwadesamsa (Asc x 108)
According to this theory, of the above 4 vargas, the trine-star of
two or more should coincide with birth-star. The Skanda-hora statement"Dridam dwi bahu samvadath sarvam vidhi dwijothama"
'If two or more methods point to the fact that the birth-time is
correct, then accept that as the correct time', is supportive of this.
Navamsa-Navamsa (Kunda) is just one of these methods.
Conclusion
If you are using JHora software, you will see that separate options for Nava(msa)-Navamsa and Kunda are given. The longitudes arrived at by both are different, and both of them does not
seem to be correct. It seems that PVR's understanding of Kunda

(Navamsa-Navamsa) is clumsy. Otherwise, why should there be


two separate options for Kunda and Navamsa-Navamsa in JHora
software? Hope that PVR ji will come out with some sufficient
explanation.
We should always take the side of truth. This statement is especially true in the case of astrological research. At times we might
be on the side of wrong arguments, and when it reveals to us that
our arguments are wrong, we should be ready to revise our views.
'Saving face shouldn't be by sacrificing facts'. That should be the
spirit of the true astrologer, who is true to goddess Saraswathy.
Kunda is not an ultimate method for birth-time rectification. I
have done some special research on the different methods available for birth-time rectification available in ancient texts. Totally I
could find 12 methods (as per ancient texts) for birth-time rectification, and for verifying whether the Asc is correct. Of these
' Varga-chathushtaya' and 'Pancha-tatva methods' are the best ones
I feel. Varga-chathushtaya method gives importance to the combined effort of Body (Asc) and Mind (Moon), while Pancha-tatva
method gives importance to the rhythm of day.
NB :- True doubts and criticisms are encouraged. I am
always ready to accept new methods if they are found effective
and authentic. I humbly submit this article before the scholars.
"Ano bhadra krethvoyenthu viswatha" (Rig Veda)
[Let knowledge come to me from all directions]
PART - III
True Ayanamsa
(A review of the views of chandra-hari as depicted in his book
Rasichakram published in Malyalam)

Introduction
Chandra-Hari has written 3 books on Ayanamsa. 1) A small
book in English with the name "True Ayanamsa" published around
1994 when the idea originated. 2) A Book named "Rasiehakram"
in Malayalam published in 1996. 3) A very big book named
"Hindu Zodiac and Ancient Astronomy" in English published
around 2003 (Sri Sabarigiri Publications, Kadapra PO,
Kumbanadu, Kerala, India, Pin-689547 Price: Rs.600/-)
In book named Rasiehakram he postulates: Zero Ayanamsa year
- AD.238; Ayanamsa - 46' more than Lahari. But in his book "Hindu
Zodiac and Ancient Astronomy" he modifies his arguments and
postulates: Zero Ayanamsa year - AD.231; Ayanamsa - 44' more
than Lahari.
I have tried my level best to compile his ideas in a systematic manner, keeping the continuity of the mathematical concept
and the thought process involved. The mathematical portion of
the ideas introduced by Chandra-Hari about the ayanamsa inherent in Surya-sidhantha and his ideas about the Rasi-chakra division is depicted.
Rasi-Chakram (Book by Chandra-Hari)
In this book Hari proposes that Zero Ayanamsa Year is AD.238
and that his ayanamsa is more than that of Lahari by 461.
Basic Rationale 1: The zodiac originated mathematically, considering the revolution of the nodal points Rahu and Sikhi. Thus
Ra-Si chakra is an abbreviation for Rahu-Sikhi Chakra. The rotation of these nodes is in rhythm with the movement of equinox, if
we consider the duration required for precession of 3600.
[i.e. 25758 years means 1385 nirayana revolutions of RahuSikhi. i.e. Nirayana revolution period of Rahu = 6792.977 days]
Theoretically, or by intuition, he gives the following maths:

Rate of precession (of equinox) per year = 3600/25758 =


1200/8556=50". 31446541
He says that, this (the importance of these numbers) can
also be proved, considering the modern values of Nirayana and
Sayana years. For example:
Nirayana Year = 365.2563625 (Modern value)
Sayana Year = 365.24219 (Modern value)
The difference between 8586 sayana days and 8586
nirayana days = -121.684 days
i.e. precession of equinox in 8586 years = 1190.56l = 120
[This also indicates that the year length used in oldsuryasidhantha is little different. The year-length considered in oldsuryasidhantha is 365.25875 days. The "why" of it would be explained in Rationale 4]
Using the above method we can also prove that 25758 nirayana
years is equal to 25759 sayana years.
Basic Rationale 2: The importance of yuga numbers is that
they are precession seconds (in precession circle).
Kali-yuga = 432,00011 = 120 x 360011 = 1200 = 8586 Years
This holds good if and only if, this period contains the
complete revolutions of the 7 planets and the nodes (Rahu-Sikhi).
To prove it he gives the following table. The importance of the
number 8586 is emphasized.
Complete-revolution & Nirayana-revolution Period
Planet
In Quarter Yuga
Nirayana rev. period

InMahaYuga Kalpa

(8586 years)
(Modern Value)
Sun 8586

(85860 years) (86546880 years)

85860 86546880

365.2563624 365.2563624 365.2563624


365.2563624
Moon

114784

1147840

1157023263

27.32167486 27.32167486 27.32166204


27.3216615
(27d07h43ml 1.6s)
(27d07h43m 11.55 s)
Mars

4565

45650 46015614

686.9860082 686.9860082 686.9798274 686.97982


Mercury

35649 356498

87.97136
Jupiter

724

4331.675
Satem

291

359350528

87.969389
7238

4332.5888

4332.589

2938110

10776.94546 10758.46013
Venus

87.969256

7296284

4332.8144
2915

87.9692559

10759.22908

10759.23

13957 13567 140683961

224.6966488 224.7914787 224.7007998 224.70080


Rahu

461.5 4616

6795.430

6793.9582

Vernal

1200

Equinox

(0.333...)

432,00011

4653263
6793.46934

6793.469

12000
(3.333...)

432,000,011

(3360)

432,000,011 x 1008

revolutions

revolutions

revolutions

Thus we see that, yuga numbers could actually mean precession seconds. Therefore, now we could say,
Kali-yuga = 432,00011 = 120 x 360011 = 1200 = 8586 Years
Dwapara-yuga = 864,00011

= 2400 precession = 17172

Tretha-yuga

= 1,296,00011

=3600 precession = 25758

Kritha-yuga

=1,728,00011

= 4800 precession = 34344

years
years
years
Maha-yuga = 4,320,00011 = 12000 precession = 85860
nirayana years
Manuvanthara = 864000 precession
Kalpa = 33600 precession
Theoretically all this means that, each yuga-pada (8586
years) starts and ends in a new-moon day, and that at the start and
end of each yuga-pada a solar eclipse occurs. (But it actually does
not happen. The "why" of it would become clear when we see
rational 4)

Basic Rationale 3: Kali-yugadi Ayanamsa is 460 401


[He depends on the story that the birth of Brahma was in Rohini
Nakshathra. Rohini was also praised as Prajapathi, i.e. Brahma, in
Vedas]
i.e. Vernal equinox at the beginning of Kali-yugadi = 460
401
Therefore, Zero Ayanamsa years (elapsed) = 460 401 x

(8586/1200) = 3339
Here a striking similarity attracts our attention. 3339 is an
Rig-vedic number. Rig-veda (3.9.9) says of "3339 devas who worship Agni". If Agni really means vernal equinox, then this could
mean, "the vernal equinox is 3339 years away from zero point".
i.e. After 3339 kali years the sayana and nirayana zodiacs
super conjuncts. Whether depend on the above maths or on the
Rig-vedic statement, we arrive at the same conclusion.
Kali Yuga (Beginning) + 3339 = Zero Ayanamsa Year
3102 BC = - 3101 AD
i.e. - 3101 AD + 3339 = AD. 238
i.e. Zero Ayanamsa Year = AD.238.
Thus the definite formula for determining the ayanamsa of any
year would be: Ayanamsa for the year (Y)
Degrees.

= (Y-238) x (1200/8586)
= (Y-238)/71.55

Degrees.
Here another striking similarity attracts our attention. The
Number of human heartbeat per minute is 71 or 72. It might
be possible that 71.55 is the actual value of the heartbeat for a
person. If so, we could also prove that the rhythm of the universe and the biological clock in humans are mutually related.
The biological clock, circadian rhythm etc comes into consideration. Thus the author points out.
Example for calculating ayanamsa for any year: Had Ayanamsa (1995) = (1995 - 238)/71.55 =
24.55625437

= 240 3312211.52
Lahari (Chithra-paksha) Ayanamsa of 1995 = 230471 3011
Difference = Hari Ayanamsa - Lahari Ayanamsa = 461
i.e. Hari Ayanamsa is 461 more than that of Lahari. In other
words if we subtract 461 from the sputa arrived at by using Lahari
ephemeris, we would get sputa based on Hari Ayanamsa.
Hari does not stops here - he goes on to prove how the
zodiac was divided into Rasis (Signs) and Nakshathras (Stars),
based on the fiducial star Moola (2400), 108 divisions of
Nakshathras (30 201 each), and the above said actual position of
vernal equinox at Kali-yugadi (460 401). For this, two new ideas
are introduced, and he dives deep into old-suryasidhantha to prove
them.

Basic Rationale 4:
(i) Zodiac is considered and presented as a mathematical
model in old-suryasidhantha, trying to comprehend the perfect
rhythm of the universe.
(ii) Even though the creator of Surya-sidhantha (i.e.
Mayan), knew about the actual vernal equinox at Kali-yugadi (i.e.
460 4011), Kali-yugadi-Ayanamsa was considered as 600 (in Suryasidhantha), for the perfection of this mathematical model.
According to the precession considered in old-suryasidhantha:
Precessional Cycle = 21600 years (instead of 25758 years)
If we relate this to yuga years 432000 (Kali-yuga) = 21600 x 20
4,320,000 (Maha-yuga) = 21600 x 200

Maha-yuga = 200 x 3600 = 72000 years


1200 precession = 4320000/600 = 7200 years (instead of
8586 Years)
If we divide the number of revolution of planets in a
mahayuga with 600, we could get the number of revolutions of
planets per 7200 years. Thus we get Sun = 4,320,000/ 600 = 7200.00
Mars = 296824/600 = 3828.04
Jupiter = 364200/600 = 607.033
Venus = 7022388/600 = 11703.98
Mercury = 17937000/600 = 29895.00
Rahu = 232226/600 = 387.0433
Here the results are very near to whole numbers. That means
in 7200 years the mean values for planets complete, whole number of revolutions. If we consider little bigger period, for example
take, 7200 x 25 = 4320000/24 = 180000 years, we could prove
that it contain whole number of revolutions.
[The above mentioned proof, is not given in Hari's book named
Rasi-chakram. But I think anybody could verify it, as the logic is
straightforward. About not giving the number of complete revolution for Moon and Satem in mahayuga also Hari gives some reasons, which I could not grasp]
As according to old-suryasidhantha, all the revolution numbers of planets are whole numbers and multiples of 24, this means
that, in 180000 years, the mean positions of planets conjuncts at
zero-point. This is a concept fundamental of vedic astronomy.
Surya-sidhantha relates the imaginary mean positions of planets at
the start of yuga with the actual planetary positions that will occur
after 3600 years.

As Surya-sidhantha takes 4320000 as Maha-yuga the Precessional Cycle (i.e. for 3600) becomes 21600 years. Thus it necessitates vernal equinox to be at 60 in the beginning of KaliYuga (instead of 46 40'). If you compare with the actual data, you
may feel that it is an error. But in reality it is precious mathematical
model. The Precessional Cycle is a Mathematical model put forward by the creator of Surya-sidhantha. What was the need of
such a model? It was to relate the yugadi mesha-sankranthi with
the new moon day that all these mathematical exercise was done.
For this, the mesha-sankranthi at the beginning of yuga, was considered to happen, 9 days and 37 nadis before (90 371). For that
only nirayana year with length 365.25875 was chosen. It was not
because that he doesn't know the actual nirayana year length. The
actual precession according to Surya sidhantha was 5011.
How can we know that the year length used in Suryasidhantha is 365.25875 days? According to Old-Suryasidhantha
The Average Number of days in a Maha-Yuga =
1577917800 days
One Maha-yuga means = 4,320,000 years
Therefore Year-Length = 1577917800/4320000 =
365.25875 days
This calculation is approved by almost everybody, including the calendar reform committee headed by Saha.
[Really I couldn't figure out how he got that "the actual precession considered by Surya-sidhantha is 5011". There might be a sufficient reason. But I don't know what it is]
All this means that first stellar division (first star) is Jyeshta
that falls between the line joining the hypothetical Equinox line of
old-Suryasidhantha (the line joining 600 Vernal equinox and 2400

fiducial starMoola) and the line joining the actual Equinox line at
Yugadi (line joining 460 401 and 2260 401). The first rasi division
is (sign - Cancer) falls between the line joining the hypothetical
Sayana Rahu-Sikhi (line joining 3000 Sayana-Sikhi/planetary
conjunction point and 1200 Sayana Rahu) and the hypothetical
Ecliptic (line joining 3300 and 1500) of Old-Suryasidhantha. Thus
forms the Zodiac with stars 130 201 each and Signs with 300 each.
Why Hari Jumped to Thanthra and Proposes that Zodiac is
Thanthric?
When the thoughts of Chandra-Hari traveled up to this,
and bombarded with these concepts such as Mooladhara RahuSikhi Chakram and Rhythm of the universe (music of the stars or
biological clock - what ever you name it), some other striking similarities came to his mind. Some examples would be: (i) Moola is the base of zodiac division - Mooladhara is the
base point from where yoga starts.
(ii) Horoscope is also called Kundalini - In yoga also Kundalini
(serpent power) is important.
(in) Rahu-Sikhi (Serpents - Kalasarpa) is the underlying factor
of Rasichakra - Kundalini in yoga is also symbolized as serpent.
(iv) Kalapurusha is a concept in astrology - Sankhya and Yoga
also speak about purusha.
(v) The universe is Rhythmic - The human body is also in
rhythm with universe. [This needs further clarification. Prana means
4 seconds. According to yoga and upanishads one day of a human
body means 21600 prana. 3600 x 60 = 216001. Also consider the
above said importance of the number 71.55]
All these similarities prompt him to dive deep into concepts such as Tanlhra/Yoga and Circadian-rhythm/Biological-clock
etc.

Let Hari's concepts be right or wrong - shouldn't we appreciate his efforts?


Conclusion:
In the view of Chandra-Hari: (i) The yuga concept is nothing but a deep-seated theory on
ayanamsa. That is why it was given this much importance by OldSurya-sidhantha (By Mayan, Included in Pancha-sidhantika by
Varaha-Mihira), New-Surya-sidhantha (By Aryabhatta I), the Epics and Puranas.
(ii) Rasi-chakram (Zodiac) is a mathematical model, put forward by Rishis, which postulates the existence of a Sidereal
(Nirayana) Zero-point (Meshadi or Aswinyadi), as well as the
conjunction of 8 planets at this zero-point in the beginning of every yuga.
(iii) The Sayana-Nirayana division is deep seated in Hindu mythology and the Vedas gives ample proof of this. (This point is
clarified at the end of this article) Both the Sayana and Nirayana
systems existed in Vedic period. (Mayan the creator of Suryasidhantha was only a genius compiler of the then prevailing knowledge)
Let me mention one more point as well (taken form the
book Rasichakram). In the first hymn of purusha-suktha, i.e.,
"sahasra seersha purusha sahasraksha sahasra path.....", a man
with 1000 heads and 1000 eyes and 1000 legs is mentioned. But
really, as everybody knows, 1000 heads needs 2000 eyes and 2000
legs, i.e., the meaning of the word Sahasra = 1000, does not fit
well. (We may escape the confusion by saying that Sahasra means
'many') Based on sathapatha brahmana some scholars (I will send
the name of the scholar in the next mail), say that Sahasra means
'circle'. This is note worthy. Then suddenly we become aware
that many astronomical terms are used in the hymn. The follow-

ing picture clarifies this point. (This picture is taken from ChandraHari's book Rasi-chakram). Now we could see that:Seersha Circle (Sahasra seersha purusha) = Prime meridian
Aksha Circle (Sahasraksha) = Celestrial Equator
Patha Circle (Sahasrapath) = Nodal Circle
Bhoomi Circle (Sa-Bhoomim) = Horizon
Viswa Circle (Viswatho vrithva) = Ecliptic
Now, if this interpretation by Hari is right, we gets ample
proof for the fact that, Vedic Knowledge is really amazing.
Note: - Hari is a genuine genius, who argues vigorously about
the concepts he believes in. We should admit his true dedication
towards astrological research. We are all searching for the truth of
astrology, and are trying to be sincere as much as possible. I am
not trying to become an advocate of Chandra-Hari. But, I feel
passionate towards his mathematical concepts.
Some passing thought that occur in my mind: Based on any point on the zodiac circle, a truly dedicated
person (to astrology) can create a system that gives accurate results for a short period (KP system, Different ayanamsas all comes
to my mind). But if that should hold true for a long time (i.e., even
generation after generation - up to thousands of years), it should
be based on some point in the zodiac circle that has some unique
importance. Only Zero-point proposed by the Nirayana (Sidereal)
Zodiac and Vernal/Autumnal Equinox of the Say ana Zodiac holds
true in this situation. That is why only these two systems i.e.,
(i) Nirayana (Sidereal) predictive astrology and
(ii) Say ana predictive astrology

Prevailed in the Vedic period. We should also go-back and


re-invent the same. Both of them are valid (with a vedic foundation) and useful in predicting human destiny.
(Hari is not supportive of this idea and all his arguments
are in favor of just the sidereal zodiac)
Ayanamsa -Zero Ayanamsa Year
(Views of Chandrahari as per the book 'Hindu
Zodiac')
Introduction
This article is an effort to compile the mathematical concepts of
Chandrahari, related to Zero ayanamsa year as presented in his
book 'Hindu Zodiac'. I have tried my level best to keep the continuity of the mathematical concepts and thought process involved.
The following are some of the constants used in the derivation.
Y = 365.258756 days (Solar year of Suryasidhantha)
Ys = 365.256450 days (Modern sidereal year - AD.500)
Y1 = 365.24219 days (Modern tropical year) // It changes always
[The tropical year-length undergoes constant change. What is
the formula to find Tropical year length?]
Words used
Zodiac = The fixed stellar background. The substratum over
which the Calendar phenomena occurs. The fixed reference against
which movements are validated.
Calendar phenomena = Many movements such as movement
of equinoxes, moon phases, movements of Sun and Planets etc.
All this helps to assess time (calandaram), and that is why the

word Calendar. (People used to mix-up the above two. Zodiac


and Calendar phenomena are entirely different things)
Meshadi/Aswinyadi = Starting point of Aris/Starting point of
the stellar division Aswathi (Both of them coincide)
Ahargana = Number of days counted from Kali-yugadi.
Moola = The fiducial star located at 2400(Z-Scorpi)
Ayanamsa = Distance from Vernal-equinox to Meshadi
Kaliyugadi = Beginning of Kaliyuga. (K0= 17/18 February 3102
BC)
Precession = Movement of Vernal-equinox
Sexagesimal system = The division of a circle in to multiples of
60.
Tropical (Sayana) months = Madhu, Madhva,... etc.
Sidereal (Nirayana) months = Chaitra, Visakha,... etc
Basic concepts
In his book 'Rasichakram' itself Hari has given sufficient evidence for the following two concepts. Therefore in the book 'Hindu
Zodiac', he jumps to the next issue to be solved, i.e. Fixing of the
Zero ayanamsa year, in which anomalies pops up. The Basic concepts are 1) Moola is the fiducial star used for zodiac division, and stellar
division. The starting point of Aris is 120 away from the fiducial
star Moola.
2) The position of vernal equinox at the beginning of Kaliyuga = 46 40'
[This means that we can calculate the Ayanamsa of any year
by taking the point 120 away from Moola star (k-Scorpi) as the
starting point of Aris (Meshadi/Aswinyadi). So the question "What

is the ayanamsa to be used?" is already answered]


If these basic concepts are taken for granted, the remaining question to be answered is "Which is the Zero ayanamsa year?". Let
us try to answer this question.
The 3 Entities
While considering the rhythm of Equinox and sun, considered
by the saints and inherent in Yuga system 3 entities comes in to
consideration. They are 1) Kali-year beginning - The technical term used to refer to this
is Chaitradi. That is the year begins in Chaitra-sukla-prethipada (It
means that not only Sun but Moon also should be there in Meshadi)
2) Meshadi (starting point of Aris)
3) Vernal Equinox
Only a year in which all these 3 entities coincided can be taken
as the Zero-Ayanamsa year.
Concepts inherent in Suryasidhantha
The mean-equinox since the beginning of Kaliyuga as per
Suryasidhantha can be expressed as,
Ahargana (Nth equinox) = NY+60 - N (Y-Y1) = 60+NY1
(1)
1

Where Y is the modem tropical year = 365.242371


days (in AD.500)
Mean tropical-sun (Nth Kali year) = 360 -60 + N (Y-Y1) =
300 + N (Y-Y1)
(2)
Hari says that, both these equations can be shown to be true by
computation. At the expiry of 3623 Kali years (1323332.5 days),
N (N-Yt) = 60 days and hence the mean-sun of Kali year 3623
(elapsed) coincided with the vernal equinox of K3623 or AD.522.

Taking the ayanamsa of K0 to be 46 40' for the sidereal zodiac


implicit in Suryasidhantha: Sidereal mean-sun = 346 40' (Y1 / 360) + N (Y-Y1) = 347d 21gh
+ N (Y - Ys)
(3)
Where Y'/SOO converts 46 40' into days.
Coincidence of the sidereal and tropical zodiac requires to be
equal at some year after Kali yugadi. Therefore equating (2) and
(3), we get (Y-Y1)

300+N

347d

21gh

(4)
i.e.

47

21

gh

(Y

Y)

3339

(5)
That means, the sidereal and tropical longitudes of sun coincided at the expiry of Kali 3339.
AD,238
This is the year in which sidereal and tropical longitudes of sun
coincided. This is the importance of the year AD.238 (K3339). It is
the zero ayanamsa year, derived by a computation across 3339
years from the epoch of Kaliyugadi.
But the Ahargana of 3339 Kali (elapsed) = [3339 x 365.258756
= 1219598.986284] = 1219599 days do not correspond to the
mean equinox, as 3339 (Y-Y1) = 55d 17gh only from Aswinyadi.
i.e., The sun reaches the zero point after 60d - 55d 17gh = 4 days
43 ghaties, corresponding to the Ahargana for the mean equinox
of AD.23 8 (23rd March, Friday) that marked the coincidence of
sidereal and tropical zodiacs.
i.e. The Ayanamsa is roughly 46' more than that of Lahri
Ayanamsa (Chitrapaksha ayanamsa).

[It means that of the 3 entities considered 2 and 3 coincides, but


not the one mentioned as 1. Why? There is some miner error. Any
one may stop here and say - "why bother? The calculations
matches well for the year...an error of some days only...may be
caused by the calculation mistake of ancient saints". But Hari does
not stop here. He searches for the root cause of that error.]
But why is it so? Why this exact coincidence of the 3 entities
[1) Kali-year beginning (Chaitradi) 2) Meshadi (starting point of
Aris) 3) Vernal Equinox] does not occur? We should find out how
and why this error crept into their calculations. A similar problem
can be observed if we look at the years AD.499/AD.522.
AD,499/AD,522
[It is the period of Aryabhata, the author of new Suryasidhantha.
Some say that he compiled the work in AD.499, and some say
that it was in AD.522. Some are of the opinion that these numbers
have nothing to do with the year of birth or year of Aryabhateeya
compilation, but that it is the zero ayanamsa year]
The expiry of Kali year 3623 (Ahargana = 365.25875 x 3623
= 1323332.451) coincided with the respective equinox of AD.522.
[It can be proved by considering the equation (2).
Mean tropical-sun of AD.522 (K3623)
- Y1) where N=3623

= 360 - 60+ N (Y
= 300 + 3623

(365.258756 - 365.24219)
300

60.018618 = 3600.018618 - 360


i.e. In AD.522 vernal equinox and Kali-year beginning coincided]
i.e. Of the above said 3 entities 1 and 3 coincided. As such this

epoch could have represented coincidence of sidereal and tropical


zodiacs (If the 3rd entity also coincides). But it does not happen.
We already know that for AD.23 8 (K3339) the precession accounts
to 46 40'. Therefore in view of the 3 58' precession between
K3339 (AD.238) and K3623 (AD.522) the total precession amounts
to 50 38'. To put it mathematically Total precession on AD.238 (K3339) = 46 40'.
Precession for 284 years (AD.522 - AD.522) = 3 58'.
Total precession on AD.522 (K3623) = 46 40' + 3 58' = 50 38'
As no such coincidence of points occur in AD.499, that year,
even though represents the whole number K3600 is not that relevant.
[Then why the year AD.499 is given this article? It is only due
to some historical reason. According to popular belief it was K3600
(AD.499) rather than K3623 (AD.522) that represented the epoch
of Aryabhata and led to the genesis of the solar year 365.25875
days. But Kerala tradition as well as modem astronomical computation supports K3623(AD.522). The year AD.499 has another importance. The almost zero longitude of Ravathi (Zeta Piscium)
got incorporated in the Sidhantic tradition after the advent of
Brahmagupta in the 7th century AD. According to CRC report,
the expiry of K3600 (AD.499) very nearly coincided with vernal
equinox of that year. These are all just historical importance of the
year AD.499]
AD,285
What is the importance of this year? If we stick to the basic
prepositions such as,
1) Moola is the base of Rasi and Nakshathra division.
2) Kaliyugadi position of vernal equinox = 46 40'.

Does any coincidence of earlier mentions 3 entities occur at


that time? No. According to CRC, the only thing of importance is
that in AD.285 vernal equinox was opposite Chithra star. [There
is another point to be considered which will be revealed later]
AD,231
Even though the treatises like Aryabhateeya (Kalakriyapadaverse 11) declares Chaitra-sukla-prethipada (Chaitradi) as the beginning of the year and the greater divisions of time such as Yuga,
Kalpa etc., neither of the Sidhantic epochs, say of Suryasidhantha
or Aryabhateeya satisfied this stipulation. It must be remembered
here that even Vedanga-Jyotisa had a computational epoch beginning from Sukla-pratipada that coincided with the winter solstice.
Obviously when the year beginning had a shift to the vernal equinox it must have taken place at a coincidence of the vernal equinox with the Chaitra-sukla-prethipada. In the absence of such a
tradition there was no reason for the Sidhantic astronomers to ascribe a beginning for the year and Yugadi with the Chaitra-suklaprethipada. It is apparent that the intricacy may be because of the
redactions undergone by the Sidhantic treatises around AD.500 in
which the original epoch of Sidhantic astronomy might have got
obliterated.
On examining the luni-solar configuration of the vernal equinoxes around AD.233, the following astronomical data strikes our
attention. The vernal equinox of AD. 231 precisely satisfied all the
aforementioned astronomical factors that would have truly characterized the original Sidhantic epoch and year beginning with
Chaitra-sukla-prethipada.
Epoch: 21 March 23 IAD, Monday 15 30 UT (2033 Ujjain
LMT), Vernal Equinox coincided with Chaitra-sukla-prethipada.
JD [TDT]: 1805510.22908. Moola (k-Scorpi) precisely had a longitude of 239 58' = 240 from the vernal equinox. New moon

took place on Monday at 1035UT or Ujjaini LMT for JD [TDT]


= 1805510.0238655. Tuesday coinciding with the Sukla-pratipada
marked the beginning of Chaitra at Ujjain. The epochs K0 and
K3332 corresponded to JD [TDT] of 588466.34939 and
1805510.372718 respectively. In terms of UT the epochs were
separated by 1217045 days = 1217045 days = 3332 x
365.2596038 i.e. 3332 anomalistic years.
Notice the fact that this year satisfies the above said condition
of the coincidence of 3 entities.
[Still the reasons for the calculation deviation from AD.231 to
AD.238 remain to be identified. We should also find out the anomalies that caused this deviation from AD.231 to AD.238]
AD,233 (Considering Moola's fiducial role)
Moola has a fixed longitude of 240 over the sidereal zodiac.
As can be seen in Indian Astronomical Ephemeris the proper motion of Moola can be taken as zero and accordingly Moola had it's
sidereal and tropical longitude equal to 240 at the vernal equinox
of AD.233. (UT: 21 March 233, 03:23; JD [TDT] =
1806240.72368). Ayanamsa as such may be computed either from
the vernal equinox of AD.233 or by subtracting 240 from the
modem tropical longitude of k-Scorpi. On 2nd July 2000 the tropical longitude of k-Scorpi is 24 35' 33.76". Alternatively, if we
take the vernal equinox of AD.231 coincident with Chaitra-suklaprethipada as marking the zero point the ayanamsa will be 24 37'.
i.e. The Ayanamsa is roughly 44' more than that of Lahri
Ayanamsa (Chitrapaksha ayanamsa).
[The Chaitra-sukla-prethipada condition (entity 1) is not satisfied when AD.233 is accepted] AD.231 is better than AD.233 as
all the 3 entities coincide. If we consider Moola's fiducial role as
well, Ayanamsa should be roughly 44' more than that of Lahari
ayanamsa.

Now let us go back to the original question. Why this exact


coincidence of the 3 entities does not occur in AD.238 (K3339)?
Movement of Nirayana Zero-point
It is apparent from equation (2) that the mean tropical sun coincided with vernal equinox of K3623 for the solar year-length of
365.25875 days. As a result of the continued use of this extra-long
sidereal year the zero point had a progressive movement towards
east by 0.00239 days per year. Could it be the cause of error in
calculation?
[The precession of equinox is approximately 50" per year. But
there is continuous change in precession speed. According to
modern science precession speed of AD.285 is 49.9049 and of
AD.2100 is 50.3132. It means that there is a change of 0.0222226"
in 100 years. Could it be cause?]
Earlier it was said that - 'There is another point to be considered which will be revealed later'. It will be discussed here. The
eastward progress of the Sidhantic zero point touched the point
opposite Chithra (or vernal equinox of AD.285), only towards the
end of 19th century i.e., near about AD.1885. The Sidhantic
panchangas (ephemeris) of this period (for e.g. Vakya-panchanga
that prevailed over South India) therefore had their zero point falling opposite Chithra by accident and consequently the modern
astronomical tropical longitude of sun and the corresponding
Sidhantic sidereal value had the difference equal to an ayanamsa
based on Chithra's opposite point.
At this point I think it won't be irrelevant to present a statement
Hari made in a letter to me. "When you don't know about the
secular variation rate of precession, accept what others say? For
ayanamsa how you are concerned about the year AD.231 or
AD.238. Do you know that Chithra-paksha is no longer based on
AD.285? AD.285 is the value of zero year based on the astro-

nomical knowledge of AD. 1956 or so. Till the advent of the new
theories, when ever precession was accounted a few years difference for zero value (of year) was normal. AD.238 is the value
derived by a computation across 3339 years from the epoch of
Kaliyugadi. But there the Chaitradi (Kali-year beginning) does
not coincide with zero. Zero coincidence of Chaitradi is in AD.231.
These are all intricacies related to ancient Calendar. Unless you
read thoroughly about ancient Indian astronomy and its computations, you may not grasp the intricacies. Continue the study; keep
the doubts in mind and as you progress in your studies you will
understand. Everything cannot be made simple by correspondence."
I truly agree with those statements. An unending search for the
truth of astrology, and its true foundations is necessary, for the
acceptance of astrology as a science. Chadrahari's search for correct zero ayanamsa year also continues. We will wait for worthy
knowledge that would be revealed by this scholar in his search for
truth of astrology.
[What ever be the zero ayanamsa year, one should also remember that - "The zero ayanamsa year is not the year in which astrology originated". Fixed zodiac with Moola as fiducial star,
Ayanamsa, Zero ayanamsa year etc are all mathematical concepts
and therefore the origin of astrology could be either before or after
the zero ayanamsa year such as AD.231. But the stellar divisions
are mentioned in Vedas, and as every historian agrees that Vedas
are written before BC.1500, we can be sure that the Zodiac was in
use far before the zero ayanamsa year. This was possible only
because of the fact that Zodiac is a mathematical concept (A fixed
reference frame based on which movements could be evaluated).
Chandrahari's idea is that the formation of Sidereal zodiac originated in BC.4137 among the Tantric cults of Pre-Aryan (Pre-Vedic)
origin (Sarawathy River Valley Civilization/Sidhu Civilization).

This idea of Hari is not discussed here; at it is not relevant for


understanding Ayanamsa and Zero-Ayanamsa year].
Is there any empirical testable method to ascertain the
accuracy of Hari's Ayanamsa?
In the words of Einstein - "In order to be able to consider a
theory a physical theory, it is only necessary that it implies empirically testable assertion in general". Is the Ayanamsa of Chandrahari
such a one? Yes, it is. In the astrological context 1) In Mrithyubhaga research ayanamsa is very important.
2) Sputa (Nirayana planetary longitudes) of all planets, Birth
time rectification, Desa systems, Varga Systems etc all depend on
the accuracy of Ayanamsa, and is affected by any change in it.
3) But the best possible assertion could be the testing of the
hypothesis "Rhythm of the Universe is in tune with the rhythm of
breath pattern". (The equivalence of Microcosm and Macrocosm)
Although this Ayanamsa hypothesis has very good mathematical and theoretical foundation, to verify the trustworthiness of this
Ayanamsa, we need to concentrate our studies in the above-mentioned 3 areas.
[That is why Chandrahari jumped into studies such as 1) Mrithyubhaga Research
2) Microcosm - Macrocosm equivalence concept in Tanthra.
3) Biological - Circadian rhythm etc]
Conclusion
Hari is calling for the support of every learned astrologer, who
is searching for the truth of astrology. Why he needs help? In his
own words - "To strikeout a new path in this labyrinth is a difficult
task and no single author however resourceful he may be unable

to adequately support each and every one of his sentences or arguments by quoting appropriate authorities".
It is said that once you catch the tail of a tiger you cannot leave
it!! I would elaborate. It revealed to Chandrahari that there are
some fundamental mathematical concepts behind the Nirayana
zodiac. (He started studying the subject). Then there came the
necessity of refining those mathematical concepts (Again through
study of the connected subjects became a necessity). Now comes
the stage of giving empirical proof for the trustworthiness of his
mathematical theory on Ayanamsa. (The study continues - and he
always comes out with some fruitful results!)
This man is a true learner. A truth seeker!... Let this man continue his studies... This is the research path by which astrology
may get accepted as a science one day. So encourage this person
and say - "Go on...thousands are behind you..."
PART - IV
About the Gospel of Eve
I happen to read something about the 'Gospel of Eve' (form
GnosticGospels Yahoo group). The Gospel of Eve is known only
from one or two short quotations from the words of Epiphanius
(310/20 - 402), bishop of Salamis*. He tells us that certain Gnostic sects used it. As per Epiphanius, these are the words of 'Jesus'
as collected by 'Mary' (probably Magdalene). As per this sect,
Jesus himself was the first teacher of the ritualistic practices and
techniques they followed. The quotations are as follows"I stood upon a high mountain and saw a tall man, and another of short stature, and heard something like the sound of thunder and went nearer in order to hear. Then he spoke to me and
said: I am thou and thou art I, and wherever thou art, there am I,
and I am sown in all things; and whence thou wilt, thou gatherest

me, but when thou gatherest me, then gatherest thou thyself.
[Epiphanius, Panarion,26.3.1]"
This is beautiful! Jesus standing at the hill, and Mary listening
to his words. It is a conversation between a guru and his disciples.
The guru is reflecting his revelation, and is not speaking to anybody in particular. See the beauty of these words- "I am thou and
thou art I, and wherever thou art, there am I, and I am sown in all
things; and whence thou wilt, thou gatherest me, but when thou
gatherest me, then gatherest thou thyself."
Jesus is just reflecting his revelation - "I am god and I am the
creation of god, where ever is the creation of god there I am, I am
present in all things, and when god takes them back, he is collecting me, but when he is collecting me, he is collecting him himself
(because I am one with god)"
Jesus is expressing his consciousness. The experience of the
reality where the Creation, Creature, The action of creation becomes one; Where the Law, Law giver, and those that are governed by the law becomes one. All enlightened men speak on similar
terms - let it be Krishna, Buddha, Christ, Mahaveera, Osho or
Jiddu.
The soul (Microcosm) and the Brahma(Macrocosm) are one
and the same. Whether in this subtle spiritual sense or in the materialistic sense. It cannot be the other way round! The soul is scattered and is present everywhere - it is the feeling of Union - one
with the universe! "They say that the same soul is scattered about
in animals, beasts, fish, snakes, humans, trees, and products of
nature. [Epiphanius, Panarion, 26.9.1.]"
This is Tantra, This is Veda, This is Upanishad, and This is
Zen. 'Prenja' (Consciousness) and the total experience of consciousness - always being in consciousness - (enlightenment) was
the same for the whole humanity from staring of human evolution

to till date. The experience is the same. But the description, expressing it in words may differ as per the articulation capabilities
of the individuals.' Vistaram Vastu saktita' - elaboration depends
on the capabilities and knowledge of the individuals.
I loved and was greatly impressed by the above quote, and
therefore thought to share it with you all. One more observation of
Epiphanius attracted my attention. He says that details of theology
(which depends on the knowledge of non-experienced people) of
these Gnostic sects varied from one sub-sect to another. As per the
sect that used the 'Gospel of Eve' - "In outline the material world
was ruled by an evil "archon" or intermediate deity. The bodily
flesh belonged to this archon, and would not be raised up." The
info that attracted my attention is the word 'archon' which is still
used in south Indian Dravidian languages which means 'King'. It
is spelled archon or arachan and finds its root in the Sanskrit word
'Rajan' (King). This suddenly makes sense, and helps us in deciphering the observation of Epiphanius. So the translated meaning
of the above words would be - "The material world was and is,
ruled by an Evil** King or Government. Our body and worldly
actions belonged to, controlled by, ruled by, them. We are forced
to obey them. The Government or any other moralistic law giver
(e.g. religious authorities) is the immediate ruler. But worshipping
or obeying such materialistic rules and laws and the ethics framed
by them or the rituals will not help us in spiritual upliftment. The
laws of spiritual upliftment are entirely different and comes from
within. The law of the divine is entirely different and is beyond
the classifications such as good or evil".
[Seek not the law in your scriptures, for the law is life, whereas
the scripture is dead. I tell you truly, Moses received not his laws
from God in writing, but through the living word. The law is living word of living God to living prophets for living men. In everything that is life is the law written. You find it in the grass, in the

tree, in the river, in the mountain, in the birds of heaven, in the


fishes of the sea; but seek it chiefly in yourselves. For I tell you
truly, all living things are nearer to God than the scripture which is
without life. God so made life and all living things that they might
by the everlasting word teach the laws of the true God to man.
God wrote not the laws in the pages of books, but in your heart
and in your spirit. They are in your breath, your blood, your bone;
in your flesh, your bowels, your eyes, your ears, and in every little
part of your body. They are present in the air, in the water, in the
earth, in the plants, in the sun beams, in the depths and in the
heights. They all speak to you that you may understand the tongue
and the will of the living God. - Jesus says in 'Gospel of Peace']
Isn't that beautiful? He was a real rebel! [he taught quite otherwise than the priests and scribes - 'Gospel of Peace'] By the
way the study of Gnostic Gospels (Gospels of Philip, Thomas
(Brother of Jesus), Eve, Judas, the Gospel of Peace etc) will reveal that the path followed by Jesus is more related to the 'Tantric'
system followed by many people in ancient and modern India.
Know that in 'Gospel of Judas' Jesus speaks about the Calendar
system related to Yugas (72 Manuwantaras) and the division of
Zodiac (12 Signs). The understanding of the mutual correspondence of external Wheel of Time (Kala-chakra = Zodiac) as reflected in sky (21600 min) and internal Wheel of Time as reflected
in human body (21600 breaths per day) is arrived at and reveled
by the 'Tantric Yoga' path, which stresses on meditation & Yoga
to have the experience of union with the universe (enlightenment).
Note:
* Note that Epiphanius was the bishop of Salamis (A person
after power), who wanted to spread Christianity. Therefore except the (original looking) quotes he provides, don't believe in
any other info he provides, because the intention of de-grading
the worship methods followed by any other sects other than his

own, would be there fore sure. As per his own description, when
the people of this sect, in which man and women were free, and
equally participated in the worship of the divine, invited Epiphanius
to participate in their rituals "Epiphanius prayed to God, resisted
the women, and freed himself from the sect. He then reported them
to the bishops, who drove eighty of them from the city." So he
was the destroyer of this sect, (into which Jesus himself belonged)
rather than a supporter of it.
** Let it be King, Government, religious authorities; people
after power is without exception, evil.
The accounts and texts related to 'Gospel of Eve' are from:
Wilhelm Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha, James
Clarke & Co-Westminster/John Knox Press, Cambridge and Louisville, 1990, and Philip Amidon, The Panarion of St Epiphanius,
Oxford University Press, 1990.
The accounts and texts related to 'Gospel of Pease' are from:
The Original Hebrew and Aramaic Texts. Translated and edited
by EDMOND BORDEAUX SZEKELY MCMLXXXI. INTERNATIONAL BIOGENIC SOCIETY, 1981.
Rama calls Buddha a 'Thief!
In Valmiki Ramayana there is a sloka in which Rama calls the
great-enlightened one 'Buddha' a 'Thief! The sloka helps us very
much in locating the period of Ramayana and also in understanding how and when who undertook 'the task of manipulating ancient scripts' available at that time. The sloka is given below. Rama
threatens Jabali -

fE

um fE Q&tcistEnci
577 Vlt'Ud'H:
57 ^liidch

fcrf&i
f77

?znui I
zumzm, STzctmi&iusi,

109, vwfa 33-34,)

[How could my father do the big mistake of appointing you as the


Minister -1 have great disregard for his intelligence. Your intelligence is not in the right direction (You are mad!) - You have adopted
the path that is against the Vedas. You are a non-believer and miles
away from the path of Dharma. (I hate you and doubt the intelligence of the King, my father, who appointed you as Minister)
Like a thief should be punished, in the same way, Buddha, who
does not believe in gods, should be punished. (He is also a Thief
and Nonbeliever). To those non-believers, to whom the king is
able to give punishment, the same (cruel) punishment like the one
given to a thief should be given. But if that non-believer is outside
the reach (country, control and ability to punish) of that king then
the learned ones should never talk to him]
Thieves were usually Jailed, Chained, Amputated or Killed
using various cruel methods - Manusmriti, Chapter 8, Sloka 310.
Rama is mentioning that the same treatment should be given to
Buddha! Or in other words is he is threatening Jabali (a Buddhist
monk) that the same treatment would be given to him (similar to
the treatment that should be given to all Buddhist monks)! Look at
the fanatic nature reflected in that statement! Rama says that if that
Buddha or Buddhist is outside the reach of the King, the learned
one (the king) should never even talk to him! He does not have
any logical answers to their questions, but wants to silence them
by killing! Why Rama becomes this much violent? What did Jabali
told him? Jabali was simply trying to advice Rama for his own
good zmc[ *n agctd
^Rlcll

U^t fE imzict cFt<n$.ct> TM fc&tvzrful I


clt<Hl<*Hlcll fcUT rtfcl
Ucmld 5^ ^TZll
3rRr Ud

Wt?ft ^ifid
cpwtddl I
Jlriixd 5777
dfhJAdJ
Edq^J rl d'HldM ufcl^,dn^(3l)Efk 11
Ud-flcl 'H<%bUluU fcm mm VE CRJ/
suduimt rnicjpcm Ti^d^c) m^r mmmiiI
(dieAllm d<Hidui,
mrf 108, ?cftm 3-6)
[Dear Rama why do you talk meaningless things? How came you
think in the wrong direction? You are a well-educated person and
therefore you shouldn't think like the uneducated, uncultured villagers. The sages with enlightened intelligence shouldn't talk like
this! In this world who is the relative? What anyone has to gain?
Everybody takes birth alone and dies alone. If someone become
attached to others thinking that 'it is my father', 'it is my mother',
'these are my relatives' etc, he is like a mad person with an unbalanced intelligence. Because here in this world nobody belongs to
none; none is the relative of anybody else (everybody is alone,
and spirituality is the path one should travel alone). Like an individual going from one village to other spends a night in a lodge,
and the next day leaving that place resumes his journey, all these
belongings such as mother, father, house, property etc are all temporary. Dear Rama, the knowledgeable ones do not become attached to all these things, (you too shouldn't get attached to all
these worldly things)]
After advising Rama in the words of a truly intelligent and enlightened one, Jabali says77 mfm

^77

mwcll

UdZZi dd dmfdm dZtZT


ddJl 11
(mmfffm rnmrnn, sidtmrmrm, mrf 108, ?er)m 11)
[Oh! Intelligent one! Think with your own intelligence, which

other world is there except this world we see and live? (No hell or
heaven exists). In the current situation what ever you find apt for
the moment do it (Live in the moment; Here and Now!)] Then he
proceeds to advice Rama that as Bharata requests accept the
rulership of Ayodhya - there is nothing wrong in it.
But Alas! Those words were falling on deaf ears! It was the
retort of Rama to these words we were reading in the beginning of
this article! Jabali must have felt that there is no use talking to this
fool; there is no use talking to one who can't see the reflection of
divine in his on inner self, and who is just after bookish ethics and
after gaining public respect. Rama was trying to make a deposit
(bank balance of Puny a) in heaven through Yenjas and obeying
and worshiping the words of caste brahmins! He believed heaven
exists and following the rituals and books help him reach there,
and gain public respect! Jabali was practical and keen enough to
save his own head from being cut down with the following words
and end the conversationfcptfct /
31 )afct afcfo
(c[Te*ftfkt

crllRxi^?:
109, Veffa 38)

[I am not an atheistic, nor did I told the words of atheists. It is not


my opinion that the other worlds do not exist. Seeing the (current)
situation, I have became a Theist, and in future when the situation
arises I can again become an Atheist]
See how tactfully he jokes at the ignorance and lack of understanding of Rama!
The same attitude of Rama is evident when he kills Vali with
an arrow hiding some where, when discards Seeta in forest just to
keep his own public respect etc. The same attitude get reflected
when he kills 'Sambhuka', the sudra sage, after asking him 'Are

you a caste brahmin, khetriya, or Vaisya?'. When Sambhuka says


that he is Sudra by caste Rama draws his sword and cuts down his
head! It is evident that Ramayana was written in a period when
the Brahmanic priest hood was in its full power.
Here what we are interested in is the reference to Buddha and
calling him 'Thief. This could happen only after the downfall of
the great Buddhist religion after the reign of Asoka and when the
Brahmanic religion started the onslaught of Buddhist monks. This
sloka is ample evidence for that fact that Ramayana was written
after the period of Buddha (BC 500) and also after the downfall of
Buddha religion (After the period of Asoka the Great AD 200).
Note that Arthasastra by Vishnugupta (BC 3rd Century), atheistic
religion called Lokayata (proposed by Sage Charvaka), Chaityas
(Buddha Temples) etc are all mentioned in Ramayana. By that
time Buddha religion has reached even Srilanka derivable from
the fact that Chaityas in Lanka gets mentioned.
This text must have been created when some fanatic brahmin
or supporter of brahmin cast was in power and the Brahmanic
scriptures got revived, projecting their upper hand, above all the
others. Is there such a period? Yes! After Asoka (Maurya dynasty)
the north came under the 'Sungas' a Brahmin coming to power by
killing the king and taking up the task of 'reviving' (read 'creating', 'manipulating', 'interpolating') the scriptures! This tread is
followed to a certain extend in the 'Gupta period' as well. Buddhists and others where slaughtered and people were forced converted to Hindu religion - the Vishnava Brahmanic cult became
popular. It is the political scenario in which the text Ramayana
originated and revised. Naturally the text calls all the south Indians 'Monkeys' and Buddhists 'Thief - the two major forces that
stood against Sunga caste Brahmin kings and their beliefs. One
cute thing to note is that the Eastern countries such as Anga, Vanga
etc (Bengal, Orissa region) consider themselves as the descen-

dants of Vali, and the same Vali is depicted too as a 'Monkey' in


Ramayana! So in short all the Eastern and Southern people outside the 'Sunga Kingdom' is 'Monkeys' (read uncultured ones)
and all the people who does not believe in 'Vishnava cult' of
brahmins are 'Thieves' who should be killed or amputated! Thus
it turns out that "Ramayana is a Political text", originated with a
political purpose in 3rd Century AD in Sunga Kingdom with caste
brahmin king! Trying to trace its origins to BC 5000 or so or depending on the slokas provided by it forgetting this scenario and
reality would be futile efforts!
Anybody who wants to know more about the clear and correct
advices the Buddhist Monk Jabali gives to Rama and his retort
can refer to Vatmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda. Jabali, the Buddhist Monk, was a Minister of Rama. It would be worthy to note
the list of Ministers of Ayodhya Vasishta - A caste brahmin bom in Vasishta Kula (Vedic Brahmin)
Vamadeva - A Tantric born in Vamadeva Kula who followed
the Varna Tantic cult (Tantric)
Jabali - An Buddist monk (Buddhist)
Bharadwaja - A caste brahmin born in Bharadwaja Kula totally involved in 'reviving' ancient texts projecting their 'advanced
scientific foundation' (Vedic Brahmin)
Yes, we doubt whether it is Ayodhya or Sunga Ministers that
gets reflected in Ramayana. In another angle let us have a look at
the lineage of Rama Vishnu -Brahma - Kasyap - Vivaswan - Manu - Ishvaku Kukshik - Vikukshik- Ban - Aranyak - Pridhu - Trisanku Dudhumar - Yuvanasv - Mandhata - Susandhi - Druvasandhi Bharat - Asita - Sagar - Asamanj - Amsuman - Dilip - Bhageerath

- Kakusth - Kanmashapad - Sankhan - Sudarsan - Agnivarn Seekhrag - Maru - Prasusruv - Ambareesh - Nabhag - Aj - Dasaradh
- Rama.
A bit description of some people in this lineage is given below:
Vishnu - God Vishnu (indicating Vishnava Cult)
Manu - The author of Manusmriti
Trisanku - Lost the kingdom and became a Chandala (Swapacha
= Dog eater)
Asita - The author of Asita Hora, an astrological treteise mentioned in plenty by many including Mihira. Asita does not have
any children.
Sagar - Son of the wife of of Asita born to Sage Chyevana
(Ref. Ramayana)
Kanmasha pada - Lost the kingdom and became a Chandala, it
is said. (Swapacha = Dog eater)
Rama - The son of Kausalya born to Rishyasringa (Rishyasriga
was a fanatic brahmanic priest. Ref. Ramayana)
Ramayana is an admixture of politics and imagination. It is futile to search real history in it - due to the prime fact that it is a text
revised or created on 3rd century AD, with an intent to project
Brahmanic Vishnava cult, and to spread the belief that the
Ramayana story took place as far back as Tretayuga (thousands of
years earlier)! If you search history in such texts, search like a
detective, as if you are searching for a proof left by the criminal by
mistake; otherwise for sure the criminal will cheat you and will
escape after misguiding you in wrong direction.
Siva Sankalpa Sukta
[The hymn for knowing Siva]

This hymn is found both in Rig and Yajur Veda. Recite this
hymn and feel the eternal bliss within and outside.
STfdatdJ crrfV fknii
ffffar/
3T^ct wwPnn
mspl xwft fkcni mwt ^ti
^rfki STBJUpti 3T^ci wwPnn
fkcni
wwfinii
w^tt sf 3757% fknii Jisft ^$1
?rfaf/
ar^d wwfkn
fk?f[ sf wff t^fm/ sdd ^ti ^4 ?ffar/ arg^d/ aa^d wwPnn
3Tuf[ d ddd f^ccni icn g^d/
?ffd/ aae^^d/ aa^d wwfkn
yUmt d ?add fdaaa/ ?a#e7 g^d/ g^d ?ffd/ aa^T^d/ aa^d wwfwii
aahaftTderOTaaaat d ed?aej fdaaa/ cffrufk g^d/ g^d ?ffd/ aag^j^d/
aa^d smPnn
?5dd srd fdaaa/ srd g^d/ g^d ?afd7 aag^a^d/ aa^d wwfkn
tadsad d ^idfkfkcni ^eif g^d/ g^d ?afd/
aa^d wwfkn
(sisrc&^i, sropfe?,)
For those who can't read Sanskrit, the same is given below in
english alphababtes Agnir me vachi sritaH. Vag hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Vayur me prano sritaH. Prano hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Suryor me chakshushi sritaH. Chakshur hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Chadrama me manasi sritaH. Mano hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Diso me srotre sritaH. Srotam hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Apo me retasi sritaH. RetaH hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Prithvi me sareere sritaH. Sareera hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Oshadhir vanaspatayo me lomasu sritaH. Lomani hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Indror me bale sritaH. Balam hridaye.
Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.
Pa rj any or me murdhani sritaH. Murdha hridaye.

Hridayam mayi. Ahamamrite. Amritam brahmani.


(Adharva Veda, Yajur Veda)
The meaning of this beautiful hymn, as I could translate, is
given below Fire is in my words. Words in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Air is in my breath. Breath in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Sun is in my eyes. Eyes in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Moon is in my mind. Mind in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Directions in my ear. Ear in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Primordial water in my sperms. Sperms in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Earth is in my body. Body in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
The plants are trees in my hair. Hair in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Lightning is in my power. Power in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
The rain in my head. Head in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
How blissful the thoughts are! A bliss that can't be found in
today's prayers! They - the vedic sages - must have been higher
than us, blissful than us - feeling the divine! Feeling the sky, ocean
and universe as one, feeling the head and heart as one, feeling the
body and universe as one! To them, they are the eternal and the
eternal wine that would be consumed, at the same time; to them,
they are the Yajna (Creation), Yajnikas (Creators; doers) and
Balimriga (the stuff; the sufferer; the one which would be destroyed,
slaughtered and consumed) at the same time!! The law, lawgiver,

and the living/non-living universe obeying the law all becomes


one!!! What a mind that is, which could visualize it all and feel it
so strongly within!!!
This is a prayer beyond all prayers! Like a prayer the sage alive
- Feeling the rhythm; being the rhythm; being one with the dynamic eternal!!! Enjoy the eternal life!!!
Let us go through those blissful thoughts again - Fire in my
words, Air in breath, Sun in eyes, Moon in mind, Directions in
ears, Primordial ocean in sperms, Earth in body, plants and trees
in hair, Lightning in power, Rain in head; All in heart (I am blissful!); heart is mine; I am the eternal wine (drink me!), eternity is in
knowing the ultimate, being in the ultimate!!! (You are eternal! Be
it!)
This is Siva Sankalpa! Knowing Siva the bliss! Siva the ultimate! Siva, the bliss within, and the universe are one and the same!
Fire, Air, Moon, Directions, Primordial Ocean, Earth, Plants, Lightning, Rain all are Sakti (Power, Stuff - the female counterpart of
Siva the bliss within and without). But both are one - the ultimate
(call it Brahma/Brahman)! Siva Sankalpa means knowing me and
the universe as ONE!!! Me the drop eternal and universe the ocean
eternal. Siva, the bliss within, manifest for those who could feel
it!! Descriptions of the ultimate fail to reach there, but the poetic
expression of ones own feeling can better express the inner truth and so instead of resorting to descriptions let us feel Fire is in my words. Words in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Sun is in my eyes. Eyes in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Moon is in my mind. Mind in heart. Heart is mine.
I am the eternal wine. Eternity in Brahma.
Earth is in my body. Body in heart. Heart is mine.