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Australia,

the ANZUS Alliance and


U.S. Rebalancing Strategy to the
Asia-Pacic
Emeritus Professor Carlyle A. Thayer
PresentaBon to InternaBonal Conference on
Australia-Asia RelaBons under Prime Minister Tony AbboE
NaBonal Cheng Chi University
Taipei, Taiwan, March 31-April 1, 2015

Outline
IntroducBon
1. U.S.-Australia Alliance (ANZUS)
2. The U.S. Alliance Under the
Government of Prime Minster Tony
AbboE
Conclusion

Central Argument
Australia gave its immediate support to the
Obama AdministraBons strategy of rebalancing
because it is in Australias naBonal interest to
keep the United States engaged in the Asia-
Pacic and because U.S. engagement contributes
to Australias security.
The U.S.-Australia alliance has evolved over sixty
years. In other words, the U.S. strategy of
rebalancing represented conBnuity and
reassurance from an Australian perspecBve.

U.S.-Australia Alliance (ANZUS)


Security Treaty Between Australia, New
Zealand and the United States of America
September 1, 1951

ArBcle IV
Armed aEack in Pacic Areaact to meet the
common danger

ArBcle V
Metropolitan or island territories or armed forces,
public vessels or aircraY in the Pacic

Benets of the ANZUS Alliance


1. Security guarantee that the U.S. would come
to Australias aid in the event of a major
strategic threat;
2. ExcepBonal access to high-level U.S. policy-
makers on poliBcal, diplomaBc and military
aairs;
3. Privileged access to the ndings, assessments
and evaluaBons of the U.S. intelligence
agencies.

Benets of the ANZUS Alliance


4. Privileged access to advanced defence-
related science and technology, and
5. Economic benets of special access to the
American market .

A Global Alliance
Australia invoked ANZUS in response to 9/11
aEacks on the United States (14 Sept 2001)
Australia parBcipates in U.S.-led Global War
on Terrorism
Afghanistan and Iraq
defence of Australia to the defence of Australian
interests and values

Prime Minister Gillard Addresses Joint


Sibng of the U.S. Congress

An ally for war and peace. .. An ally


for the sixty years past and Australia
is an ally for all the years to come.

March 9, 2011 Photo: The Sydney Morning Herald,

U.S.-Australia Defence CooperaBon


Under the Rebalancing Strategy

the Asia Pacic a top priority


President Obama addresses the Australian Parliament, November 17, 2011

New Strategic Defense Guidance


while the U.S.
military will conBnue
to contribute to
security globally, we
will of necessity
rebalance toward
the Asia-Pacic
region.

Australia-United States Ministerial


ConsultaBons (AUSMIN)

November 14, 2012

U.S.-Australia Defence CooperaBon


Force Posture IniBaBves
RotaBon of U.S. Marines
Joint Statement of Principles (2012)
Involvement of other countries

Force Posture Agreement (2014)


U.S. Marine Air Ground Task Force of 2,500
Special Forces cooperaBon (2014)

Increased rotaBon of U.S. Air Force in northern


Australia and potenBal naval cooperaBon
HMAS S;rling in Western Australia

U.S.-Australia Defence CooperaBon


MOU on Space Surveillance
C-Band Radar, Space Telescope, InternaBonal
Code of Conduct for Outer Space AcBviBes
Combined CommunicaBons Gateway

Defence Trade CooperaBon


BallisBc Missile Defence
Expanded Exercise TALISMAN SABRE
Defence science and technology, cyber

U.S.-Australia Defence CooperaBon


Trilateral Defence CooperaBon and Defence
CooperaBon Forum
U.S., Australia and Japan

Regional Dialogue mulBlateral mechanisms


ASEAN
ASEAN Regional Forum
ASEAN Defence Ministers MeeBng Plus
Expanded ASEAN MariBme Forum
East Asia Summit

Special role of Indonesia

U.S.-Australia Defence CooperaBon


Non-military Aspects of Rebalancing
Economic Development and IntegraBon
APEC
Trans-Pacic Partnership
Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacic

Bilateral trade and investment leading to


deepened economic integraBon.
People-to-people Bes such as the Australian-
American Fulbright Commission.
InnovaBon cooperaBon in energy, science,
technology and health.

The U.S. Alliance Under the


Government of PM Tony AbboE

AUSMIN, Washington, D.C., November 20, 2013

High Level Visits


Foreign Minister Julie
Bishop visited
Washington in January
2014
Prime Minister Tony
AbboE visited
Washington in June
2014

29th AUSMIN, Sydney

August 12, 2014

Four Major Developments


Australia-U.S. to assist the Iraqi government
to meet the threat of ISIS in Iraq
President Obamas criBcal remarks on
Australias climate change policy
U.S. pressure on Australia not to join Chinas
Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank
NegoBaBon on Trans-Pacic Partnership

Conclusion
ANZUS alliance modernised and raised in
importance extended geographic scope
Centrepiece rotaBonal deployment of Marines
ContribuBon to regional HA/DR
Involvement of Indonesia, China

Finance is an issue for Australia


Trilateral defence cooperaBon with Japan
Support for Abes collecBve self-defence policy

Conclusion
U.S. engagement in Asia-Pacic/Southeast Asia
contributes directly to regional stability and
Australias security
Supports Australias broad regional objecBves
Inuence on U.S. policies of direct interest to Australia
CoordinaBon in regions mulBlateral security
architecture
Engages both the U.S. and China
Leverage for relaBons with Indonesia and China

Capability of Australian Defence Force raised


Conclusion
Benets for Australian defence science and
technology and naBonal defence industry
Defence Trade CooperaBon Treaty

Benets to U.S.
Demonstrates the value of closer cooperaBon
with the U.S. military
Possibility of Australian diplomacy contribuBng to
U.S.-China relaBons

Conclusion

Strategic Uncertainty in Australia


Ability of U.S. to nance its rebalance
Rebalancing will provoke strategic rivalry and
regional instability
Strategic intent behind Chinas military
modernisaBon
China will become more powerful and
displace the United States as hegemon

Conclusion
The China Choice?
The Government does not believe that
Australia must choose between its
longstanding Alliance with the United States
and its expanding relaBonship with China; nor
do the United States and China believe that
we must make such a choice.
Defence White Paper 2013

Australia, the ANZUS Alliance and


U.S. Rebalancing Strategy to the
Asia-Pacic
Emeritus Professor Carlyle A. Thayer
PresentaBon to InternaBonal Conference on
Australia-Asia RelaBons under Prime Minister Tony AbboE
NaBonal Cheng Chi University
Taipei, Taiwan, March 31-April 1, 2015