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and

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A TEXTBOOK OF

lJ

[For the Students of B. E.; UPSC (Engg. Services


UPSC (Civil Services); Section 'B' of AMIE
(India) and Diploma Courses]

(S.I. UNITS)
R.S.KHURMI
J.K. GUPTA

EURASIA PUBLISHING HOUSE (P

ATextbook or Refrigeration A5aeed Book Bank lEW DELHI - 11 0055

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RI\I IS\

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E-mail : sal as@ saeedbookbank.com

Arbab Road , Peshawar Cantt. Pakistan.

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475 OO Indian ~sn
Web : www.saeedbookbank.com

Chapter No.

1.

Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33

.__

Definition
Fundamental Units
Derived Units
System of Units
S.l. Units (International System of Units)
Metre
Kilogram
Second
Kelvin
Presentation of Units and their Values
Rules for S.l. Units
Mass and Weight
Force
Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force
Thermodynamic Systems
Properties of a System
State of a System
Temperature
Absolute Temperature
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Equality of Temperature
Pressure
Gauge Pressure and Absolute Pressure
Normal Temperature and Pressure (N .T.P.)
Standard Temperature and Pressure (S.T.P.)
Energy
Types of Stored Energy
Heat
Sensible Heat
Latent Heat
Specific Heat
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Work

(v)

-~

--- -

1.44
1.45
1.46
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.54

Enthalpy of a Gas
Ratio of Specific Heats
Entropy
Thermodynamic Processes
Work done During a Non-flow Process
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Non-flow Process
Classification of Non-flow Processes
Thermodynamic Cycle
Reversibility and Irreversibility ofThermodynamic Processes
Flow Processes
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Steady Flow Process

2.

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

38

Cycle

Introduction
Units of Refrigeration
Coefficient of Performance of a Refrigerator
Difference Between a Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat Pump
Open Air Refrigeration Cycle
Closed or Dense Air Refrigeration Cycle
Air Refrigerator Working on Reversed Carnot Cycle
Temperature Limitations for Reversed Carnot Cycle

Air Refrigerator Working on a Bell-Coleman Cycle (or Reversed Brayton or joule Cyc

3.

n-

Systems
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

Introduction
Merits and Demerits of Air Refrigeration System
Methods of Air Refrigeration Systems
Simple Air Cooling System
Simple Air Evaporative Cooling system
Boot-strap Air Cooling System
Boot-strap Air Evaporative Cooling System
Reduced Ambient Air Cooling System
Regenerative Air Cooling System
Comparison of Various Air Cooling Systems used for Aircraft

(vi)

16
17
17
18
19
19
20
21
21
21
23
23
24

4.1
4 .2

Mechanism of a Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration S


4.3
4.4
Pressure- Enthalpy (p-h) Chart
4.5
Types of Vapour Compression Cycles
4.6
Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Dry Saturated V
4.7
Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Wet Vapour af
4 .8
Theoretical Vapour Compresston Cycle with Superheated Va
4 .9 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Superheated Va
4.10 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Under-cooling
Refrigerant

25
26
27
27
33
35
Flow Process

4 .11
4 .12
4 .13
4 .14
4 .15
4 .16
4 .17
4.18

35
36

38-76
38
39
39
40
eat Pump
41
41
41
43
Reversed Brayton or joule Cycle) 51

Introduction

Advantages and Disadvantages of Vapour Compression Refr


System over Air Refrigeration System

Actual Vapour Compression Cycle


Effect of Suction Pressure
Effect of Discharge Pressure
Improvements in Simple Saturation Cycle
Simple Saturation Cycle with Flash Chamber
Simple Saturation Cycle with Accumulator or Pre-cooler

Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigera

Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigera

5.

~uvur

Co

5.1

Introduction

5.2

Advantages of Compound (or Multi-stage) Vapour Compress

5.3

Types of Compound Vapour Compression with Intercooler

5.4

Two Stage Compression with Liquid Intercooler

5.5

Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler and Liquid S

5.6

Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sub-

5.7

Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sub-

FlashChamber

Intercooler

.rcraft

n-124

5.8

Three Stage Compression with Water Intercoolers

77

5.9

Three Stage Compression with Flash Chambers

78
78
78
98
102
105
109
116
120

5.10

Three Stage Compression with Flash Intercoolers

5.11

Three Stage Compression with Multiple Expansion Valves an

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Types of Multiple Evaporator and Compressor Systems

6.3

Multiple Evaporators at the Same Temperature with Single C


Expansion Valve

6.4

Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Single C


Individual Expansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
(vii)

Compression, Individual Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers

6.10

Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Compound


Compression,Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers

1.

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Sys ems


7.1

Introduction

7.2

Simple Vapour Absorption System

7.3

Practical Vapour Absorption System

7.4

Thermodynamic Requirements of Refrigerant-Absorbent Mixture

7.5

Properties of Ideal Refrigerant- Absorbent Combination

7.6

Comparision of Refrigerant-Liquid Absorbent Combination (say NH 3

7.7

Advantages of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System over Vapour

273

water)

with Refrigerant- Solid Absorbent- Combination(say NH 3 - CaCI 2)


Compression Refrigeration System

8.

7.8

Coefficient of Performance of an Ideal Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System

7.9

Domestic Electrolux (Ammonia Hydrogen) Refrigerator

7.10

Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration System

efrigerants
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14

294

Introduction
Desirable Properties of an Ideal Refrigerant
Classification of Refrigerants
Halo-carbon Refrigerants
Azeotrope Refrigerants
Inorganic Refrigerants
Hydro-carbon Refrigerants
Designation System for Refrigerants
Substitutes for Chloro-Fiuro-Carbon (CFC) Refrigerants
Comparison of Refrigerants
Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants
Chemical Properties of Refrigerants
Physical Properties of Refrigerants
Secondary Refrigerants- Brines

(viii)

Compressor,

242
247
idual

251

9.

pofr~gerant

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

256
pound

260
pound

265

213-293
L73

274
275
277

'vlixture

277
277
over Vapour
.:on Refrigeration System

278
278
285
287

294-315
294
295
295
295
299
301
302
10.3
304
305
306
309
311
313

rompressors

Introduction
Classification of Compressors
Important Terms
Reciprocating Compressors
Work Done by a Single Stage Reciprocating Compressor

Work Done by a Single Stage, Single Acting Reciprocating


Compressor without Clearance Volume

9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.21
9.22
9.23
9.24
9.25
9.26
9.27

Power Required to Drive a Single Stage Reciprocating Com

Work Done by a Reciprocati'ng Compressor with Clearanc


Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
Factors Effecting Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating C

Overall or Total Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating C


Multi-stage Compression
Advantages of Multi-stage Compression

Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor with Intercooler


Assumptions in Two Stage Compression with Intercooler
lntercooling of Refrigerant in a Two Stage Reciprocating Co
Work Done by a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor wit
Minimum Work Required for a Two Stage Reciprocating C
Performance Characteristics of Refrigerant Reciprocating C
Hermetic Sealed Compressors
Rotary Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors

Advantages and Disadvantages of Centrifugal Compressors


Reciprocating Compressors
Capacity Control of Compressors
Capacity Control for Reciprocating Compressors
Capacity Control of Centrifugal Compressors

Comparison of Performance of Reciprocating and Centrifug

10. Co ... del"~ers


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14

Introduction
Working of a Condenser
Factors Affecting the Condenser Capacity
Heat Rejection Factor
Classification of Condensers
Air Cooled Condensers
Types of Air Cooled Condensers
Water Cooled Condensers
Types of Water Cooled Condensers
Comparison of Air Cooled and Water Cooled Condensers
Fouling Factor
Heat Transfer in Condensers
Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient
Air-side Coefficient
(ix)

11.

376-39
11 .1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.14
11.15
11 .16
11.1 7
11.18
11.19
11.20
11.21
11 .22
11 .23
11 .24
11.25
11.26
11.27
11.28
11.29
11.30
11.31
11.32

Introduction
Working of an Evaporator
Capacity of an Evaporator
Factors Affecting the Heat Transfer Capacity of an Evaporator
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Heat Transfer During Boiling
Heat Transfer Coefficient for Nucleate Pool Boiling
Fluid Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
Types of Evaporators
Bare Tube Coil Evaporators
Finned Evaporators
Plate Evaporators
Shell and Tube Evaporators
Shell and Coil Evaporators
Tube-in-Tube or Double Tube Evaporators
Flooded Evaporators
Dry Expansion Evaporators
Natural Convection Evaporators
Forced Convection Evaporators
Frosting Evaporators
Non-frosting Evaporators
Defrosting Evaporators
Methods of Defrosting an Evaporator
Manual Defrosting Method
Pressure Control Defrosting Method
Temperature Control Defrosting Method
Water Defrosting Method
Reverse Cycle Defrosting Method
Simple Hot Gas Defrosting Method
Automatic Hot Gas Defrosting Method
Thermobank Defrosting Method
Electric Defrosting Method

(x)

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
3

370
370
370
371
371
371
372
373
374
374

376-397

rator

376
377
379
379
380
381
381
382
382
383
383
384
384
385
385
386
387
388
389
389
389
390
390
391
391
391
392
393
393
394
395
396

12.

EY.p~f\Slon o~vices
~---~--'---

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8

14.

--~-

..

---~--

---

Introduction
Types of Expansion Devices
Capillary Tube
Hand-operated Expansion Valve
Automatic (or Constant Pressure) Expansion Valve
Thermostatic Expansion Valve
Low-side Float Valve
High-side Float Valve

13. -=ooo Pr:eservofton


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10

--

- - - - --

~-

....

--

Introduction
Advantages of Food Preservation
Causes of Food Spoi Iage
Methods of Food Preservation
Food Preservation by Refrigeration
Domestic Refrigerators for Food Preservation
Commercial Refrigerators for Food Preservation
Cold Storages for Food Preservation
Frozen Storages for Food Preservation
Methods of Food Freezing

low "femO@rature- Refngerotion


(C~ogenics)
- ..
-...- ... ------~-

14.1
14.2

__

.,._

--~

Introduction
Limitations of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems for
Production of Low Temperature

14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13

Cascade Refrigeration System


Coefficient of Performance of a Two Stage Cascade System
Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice
Manufacture of Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice
Liquefaction of Gases
Linde System for Liquefaction of Air
Claude System for Liquefaction of Air
Advantages of Claude System over Linde System
Liquefaction of Hydrogen
Liquefaction of Helium

Production of Low Temperature by Adiabatic Demagnetisation o

15. ~eam .Jet Pefrlgerotion System


15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5

Introduction
Principle of Steam jet Refrigeration System
Water as a Refrigerant
Working of Steam jet Refrigeration System
Steam Ejector
(xi)

16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
16.13
16.14
16.15
16.16
16.17
16.18
16.19
16.20
16.21
16.22

Enthalpy (Total heat) of Moist Air


Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature or Adiabatic Saturation Temperature
Psychrometric Chart
Psychrometric Processes
Sensible Heating
Sensible Cooling
By-pass Factor of Heating and Cooling Coil
Efficiency of Heating and Cooling Coils
Humidification and Dehumidification
Methods of Obtaining Humidification and Dehumidification
Sensible Heat Factor
Cooling and Dehumidification
Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification
Cooling and Humidification by Water Injection (Evaporative Cooling)
Heating and Humidification
Heating and Humidification by Steam Injection
Heating and Dehumidification -Adiabatic Chemical Dehumidification
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams

n. Comfort Conditions
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
17.11
17.12
17.13
17.14
17.15
17.16

534-5

Introduction
Thermal Exchanges of Body with Environment
Physiological Hazards Resulting from Heat
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
Effective Temperature
Modified Comfort Chart
Heat Production and Regulation in Human Body
Heat and Moisture Losses from the Human Body
Moisture Content of Air
Quality and Quantity of Air
Air Motion
Cold and Hot Surfaces
Air Stratification
Factors Affecting Optimum Effective Temperature
Inside Summer Design Conditions
Outside Summer Design Conditions
(xii)

451
454

18. Air CO"'d!tior"iog Systems


18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8
18.9
18.10
18.11
18.12
18.13
18.14
18.15

455
stem

457

461-533
467
468
470
470
474
ation Temperature

481
484
488
488
489
490
492

19. Coo,ing ioad Esrammaon


19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
19.9
19.10
19.11
19.12
19.13
19.14
19.15

498
499
500
500
506
ve Cooling)

507
512

5H
midification

520
524

534-548
534
535
5.17
538
538

540
540
542
542

543
543
543
544

544
54'i
546

Introduction
Factors Affecting Comfort Air Conditioning
Air Conditioning System
Equipments Used in an Air Conditioning System
Classification of Air Conditioning Systems
Comfort Air Conditioning System
Industrial Air Conditioning System
Winter Air Conditioning System
Summer Air Conditioning System
Year-Round Air Conditioning System
Unitary Air Conditioning System
Central Air Conditioning System
Room Sensible Heat Factor
Grand Sensible Heat Factor
Effective Room Sensible Heat Factor

20.

Introduction
Components of a Cooling Load
Sensible Heat Gain through Building Structu re by Conductio
Heat Gain from Solar Radiation
Solar Heat Gain (Sensible) through Outside Walls and Roofs
Sol Air Temperature
Solar Heat Gain through Glass Areas
Heat Gain due to Infiltration
Heat Gain due to Ventilation
Heat Gain from Occupants
Heat Gain from Appliances
Heat Gain from Products
Heat Gain from Lighting Equipments
Heat Gain from Power Equipments
Heat Gain through Ducts

c
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
20.10
20.11
20.12

Introduction
Classification of Ducts
Duct Material
Duct Construction
Duct Shape
Pressure in Ducts
Continuity Equation for Ducts
Bernoulli's Equation for Ducts
Pressure Losses in Ducts
Pressure Loss due to Friction in Ducts
Friction Factor for Ducts
Equivalent Diameter of a Circular Duct for a Rectangular Du
(xiii)

21.

699-72
Introduction
21 .1
21.2
Types of Fans
21 .3
Centrifugal Fans
Axial Flow Fans
21.4
21.5
Total Pressure Developed by a Fan
Fan Air Power
21.6
Fan Efficiencies
21.7
Fan Performance Curves
21.8
21.9
Velocity Triangles for Moving Blades of a Centrifugal Fan
21 .10 Work Done and Theoretical Total Head Developed by a Centrifugal Fan for
Radial Entry of Air
21.11 Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Fan
21 .12 Fan Similarly Laws
21.13 Fan and System Characteristic
21.14 FansinSeries
21.15 Fans in Parallel

22.

efr"ge

22.1
Introduction
22.2
Domestic Refrigerator and Freezer
22.3
Defrosting in Refrigerators
Controls in Refrigerator
22.4
22.5
Room Air Conditioner
22.6
Water Coolers
22.7
Capacity of Water Coolers
22.8
Applications of Air Conditioning in Industry
22.9
Refrigerated Trucks
22 .10 Marine Air-conditioning
22.11 Ice Manufacture
22.12 Cooling of Milk(Milk Processing)
22.13 Cold Storages
22.14 Quick Freezing
22 .15 Cooling and Heating of Foods
22.16 Freeze Drying
22.17 Heat and Mass Transfer through the Dried Material

6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7

726-74

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

747 - 75
(xiv)