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Carmela Marie C. Beloso1, Joshua A. Javier2 *, Ivan Jerome C. Panis2, Patricia Nicole Quierrez3, Thea

Monique S. Rambayon2, and Mary Christine N. Tan2

,

1

Department of Industrial Engineering - CEAT, UP Los Baos

Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics - CAS, UP Los Baos

3

Institute of Chemistry - CAS, UP Los Baos

The electrical resistance of a conductor and verification of Ohms Law was investigated. The

relationship between the current passing through the resistor and the voltage was determined using

the first part by holding the resistance constant. It was found out that the current and the voltage

are directly proportional. The measurement of the current passing through a resistor with different

values of resistance and constant voltage was also verified using the second part of the

experiment. It was resolved that the resistivity and the current passing through a resistor are

inversely proportional and therefore, verifying the Ohms Law.

Keywords: Ohms Law, resistivity, voltage, conductor

It is known that conductors have free electrons that can travel to different potentials when a source of

electromotive force (emf) is introduced. The relationship of the emf (voltage, V), rate of motion of the electrons

through a material (current, I), and the degree of the opposition of the motion of electrons (resistance, R) is

illustrated by Ohms Law. This law is named after Georg Simon Ohm after he found in 1827 that electrical resistance

is found to be in conjunction with varying length and diameter of the conductor. It states that the potential difference

or emf (

) between two points of a material is directly proportional to the rate of flow of the charges (I) through

=IR

In this experiment ammeter, connectors, circuit board, resistors (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80,

90, 100), and voltmeter were used for the set-up. There are two parts of the experiment: (1) variation of voltage

and current with constant resistance and (2) variation of resistance and current with constant voltage.

In the variation of voltage and current with constant resistance, the 10 resistor is used. The actual resistance of

the 10 resistor was measured using an ohmmeter.

The circuit in Figure 4.1 is implemented using the same 10 resistor. The voltage of the power supply was set

to 0.5V. The corresponding ammeter reading was then recorded. The voltage was varied by 0.1V increment. Three

trials were performed for each voltage value.

In the variation of resistance and current with constant voltage, the 10 resistors (10, 20, 30, 40, 50,

60, 70, 80, 90, 100) were used. Their actual resistance were measured using an ohmmeter and were

recorded. Using the same set-up in Figure 4.1, the voltage was set to 1.0V. For each resistor value, the corresponding

ammeter reading was recorded. When the resistor was being replaced, the voltage was adjusted such that the voltage

reading in the voltmeter was 1.0V. Three trials were also performed for each resistor.

V =IR

For the interpretation of data, linear regression was used to determine the relationship between current passing

through the resistor and the voltage across it. To verify Ohms Law in the circuit, the equation given above was

used[3].

III. Results and Discussion (by Ivan Jerome C. Panis and Joshua A. Javier)

The first part of the experiment that was performed involved a resistor with a resistance of 9 ohms measured

using an ohmmeter, and a constant voltage supply set to 0.5 volts.

Table 1. Variation of Voltage and Current

Current (A)

Voltage (V)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

0.50

0.27

0.26

0.25

0.60

0.30

0.31

0.31

0.70

0.35

0.34

0.34

0.80

0.33

0.32

0.33

0.90

0.47

0.47

0.46

1.00

0.79

0.80

0.79

1.10

0.82

0.81

0.83

1.20

0.90

0.89

0.89

1.30

0.94

0.95

0.91

1.40

0.98

0.97

0.98

The voltage was set to be increasing from 0.50V to 1.40V with 0.10V increment by moving the knobs and table

2. showed that as the voltage increases, the current also increases. The data gathered in this part of the experiment

when graphed (see figure1) showed a direct proportionality between the voltage and the current obtained in three

trials.

This proportionality proves the equation of the Ohm's Law which states that potential difference (voltage) is

directly proportional to current. However, due to some errors specifically the fluctuation of the multimeter used

which flashed different values and the defective voltage supply so that the plotted points from the data in table 2.1

did not make a perfectly linear increasing graph. The slope of the best fit line is 0.9339393939 from the equations of

the regression in trial 1,2, and 3 which are y =0.9339393939x - 0.2722424242, y = 0.94x - 0.28, y = 0.93x - 0.27,

respectively. When compared to the actual value of the resistor which is 9 ohms, the resistance computed was 1.071

ohms, far from the actual value, expecting a high percent error. The data the group gathered are precise but not

accurate due to poor equipment used[1,4].

Resistance ()

Trial 1

Current (A)

Trial 2

Trial 3

20.00

27.00

0.53

0.39

0.48

0.39

0.53

0.40

39.00

0.46

0.47

0.46

46.00

67.00

0.38

0.36

0.37

0.35

0.39

0.33

91.00

0.28

0.24

0.28

Figure 3.2. Graph of resistance versus the current obtained in the experiment

In the second part of the experiment, the group measured the resistances of the six resistors given, using the

Resistor Color Code (see figure 3) and recorded it (see table 2.3). The group embedded the resistors in the circuit

board one by one to measure the current passing through the conductor in three trials. The data gathered by the

group (see table 2.3) showed an inverse proportionality between the resistance and the current[2,4].

The data proved Ohm's Law which states that resistance is inversely proportional to current, which is

tantamount in saying that current is directly proportional to 1/resistance[4,5]. The graph of current and resistance

(see figure 2.4) showed an inverse decreasing proportionality which gave the group a negative value of slope. Table

2.3 shows that as the resistance increases, the current decreases. When compared to the actual value of the voltage

which is constant which 10V, the voltage computed was -3.4 x 10^2V, far from the actual value, expecting a high

percent error. The data the group gathered were precise but not accurate due to poor equipment used.

In this experiment, Ohms law was confirmed by comparing the values of the voltage(V) and current(I) obtained

and by comparing the values of the resistance(R) and current obtained. Ohms law states that when R is kept

constant, V is directly proportional to I. It was concluded that the voltage and current acquired in the experiment

were directly proportional and the resistance and current were inversely proportional which also equated that the

current was also directly proportional to 1/R , by this we showed that I is directly proportional to I and R, veryfing

Ohms law (V=IxR)[3].

The group would like to recommend a more updated device and materials (resistors, multimeter, probes, circuit

board) in measuring the current to minimize the percent errors in the results.

References

1. n.a, Ohms Law retrieved from http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/ohm/Q.ohm.intro.html

2. Kuphaldt,T. Lessons In Electric Circuits, retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electriccircuits/DC/

DC_2.html

3. n.a, Ohms Law retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/ohmlaw.html

4. n.a, Expt.2: DC Circuits, retrieved from http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~scphys/courses/E1b/E1b_2.pdf

5. n.a, Current Flow and Ohms Law https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/

EddyCurrents/Physics/currentflow.htm

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