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HyperMesh 11.

0 Tutorials
LS-DYNA Solver Interface

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HyperMesh 11.0 Tutorials - LS-DYNA Solver Interface

LS-DYNA
.........................................................................................................................................

HM-4600:
General Introduction to HyperMesh - DYNA Interface
........................................................................................................................................
HM-4605:
Defining LS-DYNA Model and Load Data, Controls, and Output
........................................................................................................................................

HM-4610:
Using Curves, Beams, Rigid Bodies Joints, and Loads in DYNA
........................................................................................................................................
HM-4615:
Model Importing, Airbags, Exporting Displayed, and Contacts using DYNA
........................................................................................................................................

21

HM-4620:
Rigid Wall, Model Data, Constraints, and Output using DYNA
........................................................................................................................................
HM-4625:
Assemblies using DYNA
........................................................................................................................................

50

HM-4630:
Interfacing for Arbitrary - Lagrangian - Eulerian Capability using DYNA
........................................................................................................................................
HM-4635:
Checking Penetration, Creating Joints and Checking Minimum Time Step
........................................................................................................................................

85

HM-4640:
Dummy Positioning, Seatbelt Routing, and Control Volumes
........................................................................................................................................

96

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LS-DYNA
The following LS-DYNA tutorials are available:

HM-4600: General Introduction to HyperMesh - DYNA Interface


HM-4605: Defining LS-DYNA Model and Load Data, Controls, and Output
HM-4610: Using Curves, Beams, Rigid Bodies Joints, and Loads in DYNA
HM-4615: Model Importing, Airbags, Exporting Displayed, and Contacts using DYNA
HM-4620: Rigid Wall, Model Data, Constraints, and Output using DYNA
HM-4625: Assemblies using DYNA
HM-4630: Interfacing for Arbitrary - Lagrangian - Eulerian Capability using DYNA
HM-4635: Checking Penetration, Creating Joints and Checking Minimum Time Step
HM-4640: Dummy Positioning, Seatbelt Routing, and Control Volumes

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HM-4600: General Introduction to HyperMesh - DYNA Interface


In this tutorial, you will learn to understand the following components of the LS-DYNA interface:
LS-DYNA FE input reader
LS-DYNA FE output template
LS-DYNA Utility Menu
LS-DYNA user profile
Online help for the HyperMesh DYNA interface
HyperMeshs LS-DYNA FE input translator, FE output template, Utility Menu, and user profile sets the
foundation for using LS-Dyna with HyperMesh.
DYNA Utility Menu
The DYNA Utility Menu contains tools specific to using DYNA with HyperMesh. The menu has eight pages
of tools. The pages and some menu tools are described below.
Page

Page description

Geom/Mesh

Contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry,


as well as a set for working with FE mesh.

User

For user-defined macros.

Disp

HyperMesh entities in several different ways such as: turn the


display of individual entity types on and off, isolate only a specific
entity type, or turn off the display of everything except entities of
type. Contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the
graphical display of models.

QA/Model

Contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the
quality of a pre-existing mesh.

Tools in the Tools page of the DYNA Utility Menu


Error check

Checks your LS-DYNA deck for potential problems with


components, properties, materials, rigids, joints, boundary
conditions, and other entities and reports them on-screen. The
report identifies the problem entity by ID, describes the error,
and then enables you to isolate the entity in the model.

Part Info

Summarizes a parts statistics in a dialog.

Name Mapping

Provides the ability to change names for various entity types to


either the HyperMesh name or the LS-DYNA name, since both

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Page

Page description

Geom/Mesh

Contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry,


as well as a set for working with FE mesh.

User

For user-defined macros.

Disp

HyperMesh entities in several different ways such as: turn the


display of individual entity types on and off, isolate only a specific
entity type, or turn off the display of everything except entities of
type. Contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the
graphical display of models.

QA/Model

Contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the
quality of a pre-existing mesh.

Tools in the Tools page of the DYNA Utility Menu


applications maintain separate names for parts.
Clone Part

Clones a given part with the option of duplicating or reusing,


section and material properties assigned to the existing part.

Create Part

Creates a new part, with the option of either creating new or


reusing existing section and material properties through a single
panel.

Part Replacement

Allows you to replace the elements in an existing component


(*PART) with new elements; typically replacing a similar part
remeshed or slightly reshaped.

Convert To Rigid

Converts a portion or whole model to rigid; creates


*CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES

Find Free

Identifies rigids and welds that have a free end

Find Fix Free

Removes free ends of rigids and welds

Fix Incorrect

Merges *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODIES that share


common nodes

RLs With Sets

*CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODIES in HyperMesh 5.0


and older binary files updated to have a *SET_NODE_LIST
(entity set). This allows you to have control over the set IDs.

Component Table Summarize, create, and edit parts, sections in the model

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Page

Page description

Geom/Mesh

Contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry,


as well as a set for working with FE mesh.

User

For user-defined macros.

Disp

HyperMesh entities in several different ways such as: turn the


display of individual entity types on and off, isolate only a specific
entity type, or turn off the display of everything except entities of
type. Contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the
graphical display of models.

QA/Model

Contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the
quality of a pre-existing mesh.

Tools in the Tools page of the DYNA Utility Menu


Material Table

Summarize, create, and edit materials in the model

C-Interfto50

Converts display of DYNA contacts to HyperMesh 5.0 style for


DYNA models created from HyperMesh 5.1 Release (no
HyperMesh 5.1 DYNA update installed)

Online Help
HyperMesh online help describes how to create every supported DYNA card.
To access the online help do the following:
From the Help menu, click HyperMesh and BatchMesher.
DYNA FE Input Translator
The DYNA FE input translator imports DYNA input files. Three translators exist:
FE input reader

Supported DYNA input file

DYNA KEY

Version 960, 970 and 971 keyword format

DYNA SEQ

Version 936 sequential format

Select an input translator.


To import a DYNA input file click on the Import
.

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icon, select the appropriate file and click Import

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DYNA FE Output Template


A DYNA FE output template contains DYNA-specific formatting instructions that HyperMesh uses to create
a DYNA input file. Several DYNA templates exist:
FE output template

DYNA input file generated


from template

Keyword971

Version 971 keyword format

Keyword970

Version 970 keyword format

Keyword960

Version 960 keyword format

To export an LS-DYNA keyword file click on the Export


file, enter the file name and click Export.

icon, select the appropriate template

DYNA User Profile


To set the user profile, go to the Preferences menu and click User Profiles. Setting the user profile to DYNA
saves you time and does the following:
Sets the FE input reader to DYNA KEY
Loads the dyna.key FE output template
Loads the DYNA Utility Menu
Aligns the graphical user interface to focus on DYNA tools; Re-names and removes certain panels
Enables the ALE Setup panel.
Changing the DYNA user profile to another profile, such as OptiStruct, does not alter the DYNA model.

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HM-4605: Defining LS-DYNA Model and Load Data, Controls,


and Output
In this tutorial, you will learn to:
View DYNA keywords in HyperMesh as they will appear in the exported DYNA input file
Understand part, material, and section creation and element organization
Create sets
Create velocities
Understand the relation of DYNA entity type to HyperMesh element and load configurations
Create nodal single point constraints
Create contacts with set segment ID
Define output and termination
Export models to LS-DYNA formatted input files

Tools/Utilities
The following tools/utilities set the foundation for settings up an Ls-Dyna input deck with HyperMesh:
LS-Dyna FE input translator
FE output template
Ls-Dyna Utility Menu
User Profile
.

Exercises
This tutorial contains the following exercises:
Exercise 1: Define Model Data for the Head and A-Pillar Impact Analysis
Exercise 2: Define Boundary Conditions and Loads for the Head and A-Pillar Impact Analysis
Exercise 3: Define Termination and Output for the Head and A-Pillar Impact Analysis

Section 1: Define Model Data


Relation of *PART, *ELEMENT, *MAT, and *SECTION to Each Other
*ELEMENT

EID

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*PART PID

SID

*SECTION

SID

*MAT

MID

MID

A *PART shares attributes such as section properties (*SECTION) and a material model (*MAT). A group of
elements (*ELEMENT) sharing common attributes generally share a common part ID (PID). The figure below
shows how the keywords *PART, *ELEMENT, *MAT and *SECTION relate to each other. A unique PID
assigns a material ID (MID) and a section ID (SID) to an element.
The figure below shows how the keywords *ELEMENT, *PART, *SECTION, and *MAT are organized in
HyperMesh.
*ELEMENT

EID

PID

Elements are organized into a component


collector

*PART PID

SID

MID

Component collectors card image

*SECTION

SID

Property collector with a property card image.


Assign a property to a *PART by pointing to the
property collector in the component collectors
card image.

*MAT

MID

Material collector with a material card image.


Assign the material to the *PART by associating
the material collector to the component
collector.

Component, property and material collectors are created and edited from the Collectors panel.
View DYNA Keywords in HyperMesh
A HyperMesh card image allows you to view the image of keywords and data lines for defined DYNA entities
as interpreted by the loaded template. The keywords and data lines appear in the exported DYNA input file
as you see them in the card images. Additionally, for some card images, you can define and edit various
parameters and data items for the corresponding DYNA keyword.
Card images can be viewed using the Card Editor panel which can be accessed from either the Tool menu,
the Card Editor icon in the toolbar, or from the right-click context menus in the Model Browser and Solver
Browser.
Create *MAT
In HyperMesh, a *MAT is a material collector with a card image. To relate it to a *PART, the material
collector is associated to a component collector. A material collector can be created from the Model
Browser, Solver Browser or by selecting the Material drop down menu and choosing Create.
Update a Components Material
Update any component with any material from the Component Collectors panel, update subpanel.

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Material Table Utility


This utility allows you to do the following:
View a list of all existing materials in the model and attributes for them.
Create, edit, merge and check for duplicate materials.
This utility is located in the LS-DYNA Utility tab under DYNA Tools page.
Create *SECTION
In HyperMesh, *SECTION is a property collector with a card image. This is created in the Property C
ollectors panel, create subpanel.

Exercise 1: Define Model Data for the Head and A-Pillar Impact
Analysis
The purpose for this exercise is to help you become familiar with defining LS-DYNA materials, sections and
parts using HyperMesh.
This exercise comprises of setting up the model data for an LS-DYNA analysis of a hybrid III dummy head
impacting an A-pillar. The head and A-pillar model is depicted below.

Head and A-pillar model

This exercise contains the following tasks.


Define the material *MAT_ELASTIC for the A-pillar part and head part.
Define *SECTION_SHELL for the A-pillar.

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Define *SECTION_SOLID for the head.


Define *PART for the A-pillar and the head.

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

From the menu bar , click Preferences > User Profiles.

2.

Select the LsDyna profile and click OK.

Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file


1.

From the toolbar, click the Open Model icon

2.

Click Open.

and browse to the file head_start.hm.

The model loads into the graphics area.

Step 3: Define the material *MAT_ELASTIC for the A-pillar and head
1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Material.
The Create material dialog appears.

2.

For Name, enter elastic.

3.

For Card image, select MATL1.

4.

Click Card edit material upon creation to activate the option.

5.

Click Create to create the material and edit its card image.

6.

Click the [Rho] field and enter 1.2 E-6 for the density.

7.

For Youngs modulus [E], specify 210.

8.

For Poissons ratio [Nu], specify 0.26.

9.

Click return to exit the panel.

Step 4: Define property (*SECTION_SHELL) with a thickness of 3.5 mm for the Apillar
1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Property.
The Create property dialog appears.

2.

For Name, enter section3.5.

3.

In the Type field, select SURFACE.

4.

For Card image, select SectShll.

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5.

Click Card edit property upon creation to activate the option.

6.

Click Create to create the property and edit the card.

7.

For T1, enter 3.5.

8.

Click return to exit the panel.

Step 5: Define *SECTION_SOLID for the head


1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Property.

2.

For the Name field, type solid.

3.

In the Type field, select SURFACE.

4.

For Card image, select SectSld.

5.

Click Card edit property upon creation to deactivate the option.

6.

Click Create to create the property.

Step 6: Define *PART for the A-pillar


MAT_ELASTIC is the material collector named "elastic". *SECTION_SHELL is the property collector named
"section3.5".
1.

Right click on the pillar component in the Model Browser and pick Edit.

2.

For Card image, select Part.

3.

Click the Material tab.

4.

Click the Assign material option to activate it.

5.

For Name, select elastic.

6.

Click the Property tab.

7.

Click Assign property to activate the option.

8.

For Name, select section3.5.

9.

Click Update.

Step 7: Define *PART for the head


*MAT_ELASTIC is the material collector named "elastic". *SECTION_SOLID is the property collector named
"solid".
1.

Right click on the component head in the Model Browser and pick Edit.

2.

For Card image, select Part.

3.

Click the Material tab.

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4.

Click the Assign material option to activate it.

5.

For Name, select elastic.

6.

Click the Property tab.

7.

Click the Assign property option to activate it.

8.

For Name, select solid.

9.

Click Update to update the component.

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

Section 2: Define Boundary Conditions and Loads


*INITIAL_VELOCITY_(Option)
The table below describes DYNA keywords for defining initial velocity.

DYNA keyword

Velocity applied to

Setup in HyperMesh

*INITIAL_VELOCITY

set of nodes,
*SET_NODE_LIST

Entity set of nodes, load collector with


InitialVel card image

*INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENE
RATION

one *PART or set of parts,


*SET_PART_LIST

Entity set of comps, load collector


with InitialVel card image

*INITIAL_VELOCITY_NODE

individual nodes

Created from Velocity panel,


organized in load collector with no card
image

*SET
With the exception of *SET_SEGMENT, all *SET types are created from the Entity Sets panel, from clicking
Tools > Create > Sets. Graphically view a sets contents with the review function in the Entity Sets panel.
*SET_SEGMENT is created from the Contactsurfs panel and is discussed in this chapter.
HyperMesh Entity Configurations and Types
HyperMesh elements and loads have two identifiers: configuration and type. Configuration is a HyperMesh
core feature. Type is defined by the loaded FE output template. A configuration can support multiple types.
Before creating elements or loads, select the desired type from either the Elem Types panel.
Use the Load Types subpanel only when creating loads directly on nodes or elements. For all other cases,
the load is defined by creating a load collector with a card image. For example, *INITIAL_VELOCITY_NODE
(applied directly to nodes) is created from the Velocities panel while *INITIAL_VELOCITY (applied to nodes
in a set) is a load collector with the InitialVel card image.
You can see a list of element and load configurations in the Elem Types panel and the Load Types panel,
respectively. These panels are pictured below.

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elem types panel

load types panel

Some element configurations are rigid and quad4. When a dyna.key template is loaded, types of the rigid
configuration are RgdBody, ConNode and GenWeld (*CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY,
*CONSTRAINED_NODE_SET and *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT).
Similarly, some load configurations are force and pressure. Types of the pressure configuration are
ShellPres and SegmentPre (*LOAD_SHELL_ELEMENT and *LOAD_SEGMENT).
Most element and load configurations have their own panels. For example, rigids are created from the Rigids
panel and constraints are created from the Constraints panel.
*BOUNDARY_SPC_(Option)
The table below describes DYNA keywords for defining nodal single point constraints.
DYNA keyword

Constraint applied to

Setup in HyperMesh

*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE

individual nodes

These are constraints created from


the Constraints panel and
organized into a load collector with
no card image.

*BOUNDARY_SPC_SET

a set of nodes
*SET_NODE_LIST

This is an entity set of nodes


referenced in a load collectors
BoundSpcSet card image.

*CONTACT and *SET_SEGMENT


With the exception of *CONTACT_ENTITY, DYNA contacts are created from the Interfaces panel from the
BCs menu. (*CONTACT_ENTITY is created from the Rigid Walls panel from the BCs menu.)
A DYNA contact is a HyperMesh group. When you want to manipulate a *CONTACT, such as delete,
renumber, or display it off, you select groups.
DYNA Contact Master and Slave Types
DYNA has multiple contact master and slave types from which to choose. The table below lists these types.

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While HyperMesh supports all of them, this chapter focuses on contacts with slave and master type 0, set
segment ID. Chapter three focuses on the other slave and master types.
*SET_SEGMENT and Contactsurfs Panel
*SET_SEGMENT is created from the Contactsurfs panel. Additionally, from this panel, you can add and
remove elements from an existing *SET_SEGMENT and adjust the normal of segments without adjusting the
normal of elements.
The graphical representation of a contactsurf is pyramids, one pyramid for each segment. The orientation of a
pyramid represents the normal orientation of the segment. By default, the orientation of a pyramid is the
same as the normal of the element underneath.
A *SET_SEGMENT is specified in a *CONTACT from the Interfaces panel, add subpanel with master: or
slave: type set to csurfs.

Exercise 2: Define Boundary Conditions and Loads for the


Head and A-Pillar Impact Analysis
The purpose for this exercise is to help you start becoming familiar with defining LS-DYNA boundary
conditions, loads and contacts using HyperMesh.
This exercise comprises of setting up the boundary conditions and loads data for an LS-DYNA analysis of a
hybrid III dummy head impacting an A-pillar. The head and A-pillar model is depicted below.

Head and A-pillar model

This exercise contains the following three tasks.


Define velocity on all nodes of the head with *INITIAL_VELOCITY

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Constrain the pillars end nodes in all six degrees of freedom with *BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
Define a contact between the head and A-pillar with *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SUR
FACE

Step 1: Make sure the LS-DYNA user profile is still loaded


1.

From the menu bar, click Preferences > User Profiles.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file head_2.hm


1.

Retrieve the model file, head_2.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Create a node set, *SET_NODE_LIST, containing all the nodes in the head
component
1.

Click Tools > Create > Sets.

2.

For Name, enter Vel_Nodes.

3.

For Card image, select Node.

4.

With the nodes selector active, click nodes >> by collector and select the component head.

5.

Click create to create the set.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 4: Define the velocity


1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Load Collector.

2.

For Name, enter init_vel.

3.

For Card image, select InitialVel.

4.

Activate the Card edit loadcollector upon creation option if not already activated.

5.

Click Create to create the load collector and edit its card image.

6.

In the node set ID [NSID] field, select the entity set Vel_Nodes.

7.

For the initial velocity in the global x-direction, VX field, specify 5.

8.

Click return to exit the panel.

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Step 5: Create a load collector for the constraints to be created


1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Load Collector.

2.

For Name, type SPC.

3.

For Card image, select none.

4.

Optionally select a Color for the load collector.

5.

Deactivate the Card edit loadcollector upon creation option.

6.

Click Create to create the load collector.

Step 6: Create constraints on the pillars end nodes


1.

Click BCs > Create > Constraints.

2.

Leave the entity selector set to nodes.

3.

Click nodes >> by sets and select the pre-defined entity set nodes for SPC.
Notice the nodes at the pillars ends are highlighted.

4.

Leave all six degrees of freedom, dof1 thru dof6, active.

5.

Set the load type as BoundSPC.

6.

Click create to create the constraints.

7.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 7: Define a *SET_SEGMENT for the slave entities, the A-pillar elements
1.

Click BCs > Create > Contact Surfaces.

2.

For Name, type pillar_slave.

3.

For Card image, select setSegment.

4.

Optionally select a color for the contactsurf.

5.

With the elems selector active, click elems >> by collector and then select the pillar component.

6.

Click create to create the contactsurf.

7.

Review the contactsurf to make sure its pyramids are pointing out of the pillar.

8.

Stay in this panel for the next step.

Step 8: Define a *SET_SEGMENT for the master entities, the head elements
1.

15

Select the solid faces subpanel.

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2.

For Name, type headmaster.

3.

For Card image, select setSegment.

4.

Optionally select a color for the contactsurf.

5.

With the elems selector active, click elems >> by collector and then select the head component.

6.

Leave the toggle set to nodes on face.

7.

Click the yellow nodes selector to make it active.

8.

Select three nodes belonging to the same face of a solid element.

9.

For the break angle, leave it set to 30.

10. Click create to create the contactsurf.


11. Review the contactsurf to make sure its pyramids are pointing out of the head.
12. Click return to close the panel.

Step 9: Create a HyperMesh group with the SurfaceToSurface card image


1.

Click BCs > Create > Interfaces.

2.

Go to the create subpanel.

3.

For Name, type contact.

4.

For Type, select SurfaceToSurface.

5.

Click create to create the group.

6.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 10: Add the slave and master contactsurfs to the HyperMesh group
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

For the master type, select csurfs.

3.

Click the contactsurfs selector and select the headmaster contactsurf.

4.

Click update in the master: line, to the right of the yellow contactsurfs selector.

5.

For the slave type select csurfs.

6.

Click the contactsurfs selector in the slave: line and select pillar_slave.

7.

Click update in the slave: line.

8.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 11: Edit the groups card image to define the AUTOMATIC option

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1.

Select the card image subpanel.

2.

Click edit to edit the groups card image.

3.

Under Options, click the toggle to select Automatic.

4.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

5.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 12: Review the groups master and slave surfaces


1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

For name, select contact.

3.

Click review.

4.

Notice the master and slave entities are temporarily displayed blue and red, respectively.

5.

Click return to close the panel.

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

Section 3: Define Control Cards and Specify Output


*CONTROL and *DATABASE
The *CONTROL cards are optional and can be used to change defaults and activate solution options, such
as mass scaling, adaptive meshing and an implicit solution. It is advisable to define
*CONTROL_TERMINATION in a model to specify a jobs end time.
The *DATABASE cards are optional, but are necessary to obtain output files containing results.
In HyperMesh, with the exception of the cards listed in the table below, all *CONTROL and *DATABASE
cards are created from the Control Cards panel from either the Setup menu or the Analysis page.

*DATABASE cards NOT created from control cards panel


DYNA card
*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_(Option)

Panel used to create card


PLANE option, Rigid Walls panel
SET option, Interfaces panel

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*DATABASE_HISTORY_(Option)

Output Blocks panel

*DATABASE_NODAL_FORCE_GROUP

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Exercise 3: Define Termination and Output for the Head and APillar Impact Analysis
The purpose for this exercise is to help you become familiar with defining LS-DYNA control data and output
requests using HyperMesh.
This exercise comprises of defining the termination and output for an LS-DYNA analysis of a hybrid III
dummy head impacting an A-pillar. The head and A-pillar model is shown in the image below.

Head and A-pillar model

This exercise contains the following four tasks.


Specify the time at which LS-DYNA is to stop the analysis with *CONTROL_TERMINATION
Specify ASCII output with *DATABASE_(Option) cards
Specify the output of d3plot files with *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
Export the model to an LS-DYNA 970 formatted input file

Step 1: Make sure the LS-DYNA user profile is still loaded


Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file head_3.hm

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Step 3: Specify the time at which you want LS-DYNA to stop the analysis with
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
1.

Click Setup > Create > Control Cards to open the Control Cards panel.

2.

Click next to scroll through the list.

3.

Select CONTROL_TERMINATION.
A card image pops up.

4.

For the termination time of the analysis, ENDTIM, specify 2.5.

5.

Click return to go back to the Control Cards panel.

Step 4: Specify the output of d3plot files with *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT


1.

Click next to scroll through the list and go to the next page if necessary.

2.

Select DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT.

3.

For the interval between outputs in the D3PLOT file, [DT] field, specify 0.1.

4.

Click return to go back to the Control Cards panel.

Step 5: Specify ASCII output with *DATABASE_(Option) cards


1.

Click next to scroll through the list and go to the next page.

2.

Select DATABASE_OPTION.

3.

For the GLSTAT file, [GLSTAT] field, specify 0.1.


This specifies the output of global data at every 0.1 ms.

4.

For the MATSUM file, [MATSUM] field, specify 0.1.


This specifies the output of material energies every 0.1 ms.

5.

For the SPCFORC file, [SPCFORC] field, specify 0.1.


This specifies the output of SPC reaction forces every 0.1 ms.

6.

Click return to go back to the Control Cards panel.

7.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 6: Export the model as an Ls-Dyna keyword file


1.

Click File > Export > Solver Deck to open the Export tab.

2.

Make sure Ls-Dyna is selected as the File type and the appropriate template is selected.

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3.

Enter the file name as head_complete.key.

4.

Click Export.

Step 7 (Optional): Submit the LS-DYNA input file to LS-DYNA 970


1.

From the desktops Start menu, open the LS-DYNA Manager program.

2.

From the solvers menu, select Start LS-DYNA analysis.

3.

Load the file head_complete.key.

4.

Click OK to start the analysis.

Step 8 (Optional): Post-process the LS-DYNA results using HyperView


The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

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HM-4610: Using Curves, Beams, Rigid Bodies Joints, and


Loads in DYNA
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create XY curves to define non-linear materials
Define beam elements with HyperBeam
Create constrained nodal rigid bodies
Create joints
Define *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID
Define *LOAD_BODY
Define *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE
Use the HyperMesh Component Table tool to review the models data

Tools
The following tools are covered in this tutorial:
DYNA Tools
Component Table
Curve Editor
The Dyna Tools menu can be accessed from the Utility Menu.
The Component Table is part of the DYNA Tools menu. With this tool, you can view a summary of the
models parts as well as create and edit parts. Below is a list of the tool's functionality.
Create a list of displayed or all parts and view them in the graphics area
Display parts with same section or material
Rename and renumber parts, sections and materials
Update thickness
Create new parts
Assign sections and materials to parts
Export table to file with comma separated format
In the Component Table window, place the cursor over each button to see an explanation of each button.
Below is a sample image of the Component Table.

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The Curve Editor can be accessed by clicking XYPlots > Curve Editor from the menu bar.
The Curve Editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive
and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide.
Below is a list of the tools functionality.
Change curve attributes
Change graph attributes
Display curves in the graph area
Create a new curve
Delete a new curve
Rename a curve
Below is a sample image of the Curve Editor.

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Exercises
This tutorial contains the following exercises:
Exercise 1: Define Model Data for Seat Impact Analysis
Exercise 2: Define Boundary Conditions and Loads for the Seat Impact Analysis

Process
This section describes how to define model data.

*DEFINE_CURVE
The *DEFINE_CURVE card defines a curve in LS-DYNA. Curves are often used to define non-linear materials
and loads. There are a few methods for creating DYNA curves in LS-DYNA in HyperMesh. A few methods are
described below.
Method 1: Create using the Curve Editor
From the menu bar, click XYPlots > Curve Editor.

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Method 2: Input XY Data from a File


Create *DEFINE_CURVE by inputting an XY data file from the Read Curves or Edit Curves panel in the xy
plots menu. The figure below displays a sample XY data file with a format supported by these panels.

XYDATA, <curve one name>


x1 y1
x2 y2
ENDDATA
XYDATA, <curve two name>
x1 y1
x2 y2
ENDDATA
XY Data File Format
Engineers often receive test data in Excel file format. Data exported from Excel in comma or space delimited
format can be read into HyperView. Data exported from HyperView in XY data format can be read into
HyperMesh to create curves. In HyperView, from the Plot client, select Export Curves from the File menu.
Select the XY Data format from the pop-up window.
Method 3: Create with Math Expressions
Create *DEFINE_CURVE with math expressions from the Edit Curves panel. From this panel, you can also
create *DEFINE_CURVE with a math expression and an XY data file combination.
Plots
The HyperMesh naming convention for curves is curveN where N is a number. Curves are displayed in plots.
Turn a curve's display on and off by turning it's plot display on and off from the Display panel in the Model
Browser.
Export Only XY Curves
Export only curves to a LS-DYNA input file using one of the following templates. Click File > Export... and
select Custom as the File type. Choose Curves.key as the template file.

HyperMesh template DYNA input file generated from template


ls-dyna\curves.key

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ls-dyna960\curves.key Version 960 keyword format for curves only

These templates are in the folder ALTAIR_HOME\templates\feoutput. Import the exported file into
HyperMesh from the using the Import tab.

*DEFINE_TABLE
*DEFINE_TABLE defines a table. It consists of a *DEFINE_TABLE card followed by n lines of input. Each of
the n additional lines define a numerical value in ascending order corresponding to a *DEFINE_CURVE input
which follows the *DEFINE_TABLE command and the related input.
In HyperMesh, *DEFINE_TABLE is created from a dummy *DEFINE_CURVE. Create a dummy curve using
the method explained above. Edit the dummy curve from the Card Edit panel. In the pop-up card image
activate the DEFINE_TABLE option to create *DEFINE_TABLE and specify values and load curves. The
figure below shows the *DEFINE_TABLE card image.

If, for example, ten stress-strain curves for ten different strain rates are given, HyperMesh will write ten cards
to the DYNA input file after the first card for *DEFINE_TABLE. The ten corresponding *DEFINE_CURVE
specifications will immediately follow in the exported input file.
Beam Elements
*ELEMENT_BEAM is created from the Bars panel. In this panel, you need to always specify node 3, which
determines the initial configuration of the cross section. However, not every beam type requires node 3. You
can suppress node 3 by card editing the beam elements from the Card Editor panel.
Beam elements are organized into a component collector with the Part card image. Specify the THICKNESS
and PID options by card editing the beam elements from the Card Editor panel.

*SECTION_BEAM
*SECTION_BEAM is a property collector.
HyperBeam

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HyperBeam supports *SECTION_BEAM when ELFORM is 2 or 3. The HyperBeam panel is located in the
1D page. HyperBeam allows you to create a beam cross-section entity and this is saved to the HyperMesh
database as a beamsec. Select a beamsec from the *SECTION_BEAM card image to populate its fields A,
Iss, Itt, and Irr. The cross-section can also be seen graphically using the tool bar options

and

Nodal Rigid Bodies


*CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY can be created by clicking Tools > Create Cards from the menu
bar, or by clicking Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Rigids. Below is an image of the Rigids panel. When
the panel option attach nodes as set is active, a *SET_NODE_LIST (entity set) containing all of the selected
nodes is created. You can renumber the entity set from the Renumbers panel. In the exported DYNA input
file, the *SET_NODE_LIST immediately follows the *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY card.

Rigids panel

Joints
All DYNA joints are created by clicking Tools > Create Cards, or by clicking Mesh > Create > 1D Elements
> Joints. They are organized into a component collector with no card image.
Unlike other 1D elements, you do not specify the DYNA joint type from the Elem Types panel. Rather,
specify it in the panel used to create it, the FE Joints panel.
The FE Joints panel has the property= selector. As a DYNA user, you can disregard this selector. If the
HyperMesh user profile is loaded, the panel also has the orientation option. As a DYNA user, you can
disregard this option also.
Coincident Node Picking
For DYNA joints, the nodal points in the nodal pairs should coincide in the initial configuration. The
coincident picking option can be turned on by clicking Preferences > Graphics. It allows you to graphically
select a desired node from a stack of coincident nodes. This option also supports coincident picking for
elements, loads, and systems.
Create Coincident Nodes
Create a node "like" an existing node from the Nodes panel in the Geom page. Select the type in sub-panel.
Click as node, select a node in the graphics area and then click create.

*CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS
*CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS_OPTION is a HyperMesh property collector with the JointStff card

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image.

*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID
The table below lists the DYNA *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID keywords.
DYNA keyword

Purpose

*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID

Switch parts to rigid at the start of the calculation

*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_AUTOMATIC

Switch parts to rigid or to deformable at some state in


the calculation

*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_INERTIA

Define inertial properties for the new rigid bodies


created when the deformable parts are switched

Below is the card format for specifying parts for these keywords:
1

PID

MRB

PID

is the ID of the slave part to be switched

MRB

is the part ID of the master rigid body to which the part is merged. This field exists only for
*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID and for *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_AUTOMATIC when the part
is to be switched to rigid.

In HyperMesh, rather than specify one part at a time, you specify an entity set containing all of the desired
slave parts. On export, the entity sets part IDs are written to the DYNA input file according to the above card
format.

Exercise 1: Define Model Data for the Seat Impact Analysis


This exercise will help you continue to become familiar with defining LS-DYNA model data using
HyperMesh.
This exercise is comprised of defining and reviewing model data for an LS-DYNA analysis of a vehicle seat
impacting a rigid block. The seat and block model is shown in the image below.

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Seat and block model

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

Click Preferences > User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file


1.

Browse to the file seat_start.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Create an xy plot


1.

Click XY Plots > Create > Plots to open the Plots panel.

2.

For plot=, enter seat_mat.

3.

Verify the plot type is set to standard.

4.

Leave the like = field empty.


When an existing plot is selected, the new plot adopts its attributes.

5.

Click create plot.

6.

Click return.

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Step 4: Input data from a file to create two stress-strain curves


1.

Click XYPlots > Create > Curves > Read Curves to access the Read Curves panel.

2.

For plot =, leave it set to seat_mat.

3.

Click browse... and locate the file named seat_mat_data.txt.

4.

Click input to input the file.

5.

Notice two curves are created and are named 0.001 strain rate for steel (curve1) and 0.004 strain rate
for steel (curve2).

6.

Click return.

Step 5: Create a dummy xy curve to be used to create *DEFINE_TABLE


1.

Click XYPlots > Edit > Curves to access the Edit Curves panel.

2.

Go to the create subpanel.

3.

For plot =, select seat_mat.

4.

Activate the math option.

5.

In the x = field enter {0.0, 0.2}.

6.

In the y = field enter {0.4, 0.4}.

7.

Click create to create the curve.

8.

Notice the curve is displayed in the seat_mat plot and has the name curve3.

9.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 6: Create *DEFINE_TABLE from the dummy curve


1.

Right click on curve3 in the Model Browser and pick Card Edit.

2.

Activate the option DEFINE_TABLE.

3.

In the card image, in the [ArrayCount] field, specify 2.


This is the number of strain rate values to be specified.

4.

For the strain rate VALUE(1) field, specify 0.001.

5.

For the strain rate VALUE(2) field, specify 0.004.

6.

Click on CurveId(1) and select curve1.

7.

Click on CurveId(2) and select curve2.

8.

Click return to exit the panel.

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Step 7: Create the non-linear material (*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY)


1.

Click View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Solver to open the Solver Browser.

2.

Right-click anywhere in the Solver Browser and click Create > *MAT > MAT (1-50) > 24*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.

3.

For Name: type steel and click OK.


Notice *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY card is created.

4.

For density [Rho] field, specify 7.8 E-6.

5.

For Youngs Modulus [E] field, specify 200.

6.

For Poissons ratio [NU] field, specify 0.3.

7.

For yield stress [SIGY] field, specify 0.25.

8.

For the *DEFINE_TABLE id [LCSS] field, select curve3 (id=5).

9.

Click return to close the card image.

Step 8: Update the base_frame and back_frame components with the new nonlinear material
1.

Click Tools > Component Table.

2.

From the Table menu, click Editable.

3.

Select the components base_frame by clicking on its row to highlight it.

4.

For Assign Values:, select Material name.

5.

For HM-Mats:, select steel.

6.

Click Set and click Yes to confirm.

7.

Repeat steps 3 - 6 for the component back_frame.

8.

Close the Component Table.

Steps 9-11: Create a beam element, *ELEMENT_BEAM, to complete


the seats back_frame connection to the side_frame on the left side
Step 9: Restore a pre-defined view
1.

In the Model Browser open the Views folder.

2.

Click

next to Beam_view to see the beam view.

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Step 10: Set the current component to beams


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the beams component and select Make Current to set the beam
component as the current collector.

Step 11: Create the beam


1.

Click Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Bars to open the panel.

2.

Click the leftmost switch and select node.


A direction node is selected later to define the beams section orientation.

3.

Click the Node A selector to make it active.

4.

Select the center node of the left nodal rigid body for Node A.
Node B is active now.

5.

Select the center node of the right nodal rigid body for Node B.

6.

Select any non-center node of one of the nodal rigid bodies for the direction node.

7.

Notice the beam is created.

8.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 12: Display node IDs for ease of following the next steps
1.

Click on the numbers icon

2.

Change the entity selector set to nodes.

3.

Click nodes and select by id. Enter 425-427, 431 and press Enter.

4.

Activate the display checkbox, and click on to display the IDs.

5.

Click return.

to open the Numbers panel.

Step 13: Set the current component to welding


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the welding component and select Make Current to set the
welding component as the current collector.

Step 14: Select the RgdBody type for the HyperMesh rigid configuration
1.

Click Mesh > Assign > Element Type.

2.

Click on rigid = select RgdBody.

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3.

Click return.

Step 15: Create the nodal rigid body (*CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY)


1.

Click Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Rigids.

2.

Set nodes 2-n to multiple nodes.

3.

Select the beams free end for node1.

4.

Select nodes 425, 426, 427 and 431 for nodes 2-n.

5.

Leave the attach nodes as set option active.

6.

Click create to create the nodal rigid body.

7.

Click return.
A *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS is not created; it is not needed for this joint to work.

Step 16: Display node IDs for ease of following the next steps
1.

Click on the numbers icon

2.

Leave the entity selector set to nodes.

3.

Click nodes and select by id. Type 1635, 1636 and press Enter.

4.

Activate the display checkbox, and click on to display the IDs.

5.

Click return.

6.

From the toolbar, click the Wireframe Elements (Skin Only) icon
mode.

to open the Numbers panel.

to change to standard graphics

Step 17: Activate coincident picking


1.

Click Preferences > Graphics.

2.

Activate coincident picking.

3.

Click return.

Step 18: Set the current component to joint


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the joint component and select Make Current to set it as the
current collector.

Step 19: Create a revolute joint between two nodal rigid bodies

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(*CONSTRAINED_JOINT_REVOLUTE)
The rigid bodies must share a common edge along which to define the joint. This edge, however, must not
have the nodes merged together. The two rigid bodies will rotate relative to each other along the axis defined
by the common edge.
1.

Right-click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *CONSTRAINED >
*CONSTRAINED_JOINT_REVOLUTE.

2.

Set the joint type to revolute.


node1 is active.

3.

Click on node 1635.


Notice the coincident picking mechanism displays two nodes 1635 and 1633.

4.

Move the mouse to node 1635 in the coincident picking display and click on it to select it for node 1 in
rigid body A.
node2 is now active.

5.

Click on node 1635 again to see the coincident picking mechanism and select node 1633 for node 2 in
rigid body B.
node3 is now active.

6.

Click on node 1636.


Two coincident nodes are displayed 1636 and 1634

7.

Select node 1636 for node 3 in rigid body A.


node4 is now active.

8.

Select node 1634 for node 4 in rigid body B.

9.

Click create to create the joint.

10. Click return.

Steps 20-22: Define *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID to set up the moving


seat as rigid until the time of impact with the block, to reduce
computation time
Step 20: Create an entity set that contains the components base_frame,
back_frame, and cover
1.

Click Tools > Create > Sets.

2.

For name =, enter set_part_seat.

3.

For card image, select Part

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Notice the entity selector is set to comps.


4.

Click the yellow comps button and select the base_frame, back_frame and cover components.

5.

Click create to create the set.

6.

Click return.

Step 21: Define *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID to switch the deformable seat to rigid at


the beginning of the analysis
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID >
*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID.

2.

For Name:, enter dtor and click OK to create the card.

3.

Click the part set ID, [PSID] button twice and select set_part_seat.

4.

Click the master rigid body, [MRB], button twice and select back_frame.

5.

Click return.

Step 22: Create *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_AUTOMATIC to switch the rigid seat to


deformable when contact between the seat and block is detected
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID >
*DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_AUTOMATIC.

2.

For Name:, type dtor_automatic and click OK to create the card.

3.

For the unique set number for this automatic switch set, [SWSET], enter 1.

4.

For the activation switch code [CODE] select 0.


The switch will take place at [TIME1].

5.

For [TIME1] enter 175.


The switch will not take place before this time.

6.

Activate R2D_Flag in the menu area.


On export, the number of rigid parts to be switched to deformable is written to the R2D field (card 2, field
6). This number is based on the number of parts in the entity set you select next.

7.

Move the scroll bar on the left side of the card image down to see [PSIDR2D].

8.

Click the [PSIDR2D] button twice and select set_part_seat.

9.

Click return.

Steps 23-27: Review the models component data using the Model
Browser, Solver Browser or Component Table tool

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Using the Model Browser approach:

Step 23: Display only parts with a particular material (Ex: steel)
1.

In the Model Browser, click on the Material View icon

2.

Highlight the material steel, then right click on it and choose isolate to see only components that have
the selected material assigned.

3.

To review several materials, click on the isolate icon


then select a material and scroll through the
material using the arrow keys in the model browser. The corresponding parts are automatically isolated
in the view.

4.

Follow the above steps to select components using the By Properties option.

Step 24: Display all components


1.

In the Model Browser, click on the Material View icon

Step 25: Rename a part


1.

In the Model Browser, click on the Component View icon

2.

Select the part to rename and right click on it. Choose rename from the extended menu options and the
becomes editable to enter a new name.

Notice the part's new name in the Solver and Model Browser.

Step 26: Renumber a part ID


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the Part ID field.

2.

Enter a number that does not conflict with the existing part IDs.

3.

Click Yes to confirm.

Using the Solver Browser approach:

Step 23: Display only parts with a particular material (Ex: steel)
1.

Expand the Materials folder to see all available materials in the model.

2.

Right-click on the material Steel and select Isolate from the menu.

3.

Complete steps 1 and 2 to select components based on properties using the *section folder.

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Step 24: Display all components


1.

In the Solver Browser, click on the Material View icon

Step 25: Rename a part


1.

In the Solver Browser, click on the Component View icon

2.

Select the part to rename and right click on it. Choose rename from the extended menu options and the
becomes editable to enter a new name.

Notice the part's new name in the Solver and Model Browser.

Step 26: Renumber a part ID


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the Part ID field.

2.

Enter a number that does not conflict with the existing part IDs.

3.

Click Yes to confirm.

Using the Component Table approach:

Step 23: Display only parts with a particular material (Ex: steel)
1.

Click Tools > Component Table.

2.

From the Display menu, click By Material.

3.

Select material steel and click proceed.


Notice that the GUI and the Component Table show only those components with material steel
assigned. All other components get turned off.

5.

Follow the above steps to select components using the By Properties and By thickness option.

Step 24: Display all components


1.

From the Display menu, click All.

2.

Notice now that the GUI shows all components of the model.

Step 25: Rename a part


1.

From the Table menu, click Editable to make the table editable. (All columns with a white background

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can be edited. Ex: Part name, Part id, Thickness etc.)


2.

Click on any part name field to edit it.

3.

Click Yes to confirm.


Notice the part's new name in the Solver and Model Browser.

Step 26: Renumber a part ID


1.

Click on the Part Id field.

2.

Type a number that does not conflict with the existing part IDs.

3.

Click Yes to confirm.

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

Step 27: Review the models data using the Solver Browser
The created solver entities are listed in the corresponding folder in Solver Browser. Each entity has the
following options Show, Hide, Isolate, and Review to help user navigate through the model
1.

Select dtor in the *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID folder

2.

Right-click and choose Isolate to show only the entities that are referred in this keyword.

3.

Right click and choose Review to highlight the entities.

4.

Select the folder *BOUNDARY, right-click and select Show. The entities on which the loads in the folder
are defined are displayed, as well as the load handles.

Exercise 2: Define Boundary Conditions and Loads for the


Seat Impact Analysis
This exercise will help you continue to become familiar with defining LS-DYNA boundary conditions and
loads using HyperMesh.
In this exercise, you will define boundary conditions and load data for an LS-DYNA analysis of a vehicle seat
impacting a rigid block. The seat and block model is shown in the image below.

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Seat and block model

This exercise contains the following three tasks.


Define gravity acting in the negative z-direction with *LOAD_BODY_Z
Define the seats acceleration with *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE
Export the model to an LS-DYNA 970 formatted input file and submit it to LS-DYNA

Step 1: Make sure the LS-DYNA user profile is still loaded


1.

Click Preferences > User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file


1.

Retrieve the model file, seat_2.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Define gravity acting in the negative z-direction with *LOAD_BODY_Z


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > LOAD> *LOAD_BODY_Z.

2.

For Name:, enter gravity.

3.

Click OK to create the card.

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4.

Click on the load curve LCID field twice and select the curve named gravity curve.

5.

For the load curve scale factor [SF], specify 0.001.

6.

Click return.

Steps 4-6: Define the seats acceleration with


*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE
Step 4: Create a load collector for the acceleration loads to be created
1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Load Collector.

2.

For Name:, type accel.

3.

For Card image:, select none.

4.

Optionally, select a Color for the load collector.

5.

Click create to create the load collector.

6.

Click return.

Step 5: Create acceleration loads on nodes


1.

Click BCs > Create > Accelerations.

2.

Set the load types = field to PrcrbAcc.

3.

With the nodes selector active, select nodes and select by sets.

4.

Select the pre-defined entity set accel_nodes.

5.

Change the method to curve, vectors.

6.

For magnitude, specify 0.001.


This is the scale factor for the pre-defined curve to be specified in the next step for the acceleration
loads. It will define the seats acceleration as a function of time.

7.

For the direction selector, select x-axis.


This is the x-translational degree of freedom.

8.

Click the yellow curve button and select acceleration curve.

9.

For the magnitude% =, specify 1.0E+7.


This is the scale factor for the graphical representation of the acceleration loads. It does not affect the
actual acceleration value.

10. Click create to create the acceleration loads.


11. Click return.

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Step 6: Export the model to an LS-DYNA 971 formatted input file


1.

Click File > Export > Solver Deck.

2.

Make sure the template field shows Ls-Dyna.

3.

Enter the File name: as seat_complete.key.

4.

Click Export.

Step 7 (Optional): Submit the LS-DYNA input file to LS-DYNA 971


1.

From the Start menu on your desktop, open the LS-DYNA Manager program.

2.

From the solvers menu, select Start LS-DYNA analysis.

3.

Load the file seat_complete.key.

4.

Click OK to start the analysis.

Step 8 (Optional): View the results in HyperView


The exercise is complete. Save your work as a HyperMesh file.

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HM-4615: Model Importing, Airbags, Exporting Displayed, and


Contacts using DYNA
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Define *AIRBAG_WANG_NEFSKE for the airbag mesh geometry
Define an initial velocity of 3 mm/ms in the negative x-direction for the head with
*INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION
Define a contact between the airbag and head with
*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
Define *CONTACT_AIRBAG_SINGLE_SURFACE for the airbag
Define a contact between the plate and the airbag with *CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE

Import a DYNA model


Warning and Error Messages
On import of a DYNA model, any HyperMesh warning and error messages are written to a file named
dynakey.msg or dynaseq.msg, depending on the FE input translator used. This file is created in the
same folder from which HyperMesh is started.
Unsupported Cards
On import, the few DYNA cards not supported by HyperMesh are written to the unsupp_cards panel. This
panel can be accessed from the menu bar by clicking Setup > Create > Control Cards. The unsupported
cards are exported with the remaining model.
Care should be taken if an unsupported card points to an entity in HyperMesh. An example of this is an
unsupported material referenced by a *PART. HyperMesh stores unsupported cards as text and does not
consider pointers.
LSTC Dummy Files
You can read LSTC Hybrid III dummy files into HyperMesh by first converting the tree file to FTSS/ARUP tree
file format.
Include Files
HyperMesh supports *INCLUDE. From the menu bar, click File > Import. Use the options to merge,
preserve or skip include files. When include files are read, HyperMesh maintains the IDs of non-existing
entities and does not use these IDs for new entities.

Export Displayed
From the Export tab, you can select the Displayed option to export only displayed nodes and elements.
Only model data associated to the displayed nodes and elements are exported. This model data includes
materials and their associated curves, properties, portions of contacts, and output requests.

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Create and Review Contacts


The table below describes how all slave and master set types are created and specified in contacts.
Slave and master set
type

DYNA card

Panel used to create card

Equivalent type in
Interfaces panel, add
subpanel

EQ. 0: set segment id

*SET_SEGMENT

set_segment (contactsurfs)
or

csurfs

Interfaces, add subpanel

entity

EQ. 1: shell element set id *SET_SHELL_Option Entity Sets or

EQ. 2: part set id

*SET_PART_LIST

sets

Interfaces, add subpanel

entity

Entity Sets or

sets

Interfaces, add subpanel

comps

EQ. 3: part id

*PART

Collectors

comps

* EQ. 4: node set id

*SET_NODE_Option

Entity Sets or

sets

Interfaces, add subpanel

entity

Interfaces, add subpanel

all

* EQ. 5: include all


* EQ. 6: part set id for
exempted parts

*SET_PART_LIST

Interfaces, add subpanel and sets


then card image sub-panel

* For slave surface only

Add subpanel
While the Interfaces panel, add subpanel has several master and slave types - comps, sets, entity, etc. to choose from in order to specify the DYNA master or slave set for a *CONTACT, only the valid master and
slave types are selectable for the particular contact you are creating.
When the master or slave type is set to comps and only one component is selected, the DYNA type is 3,
part ID, and *PART is created. When multiple components are selected, the DYNA type is 2, part set ID, and
*SET_PART_LIST is created.
When the master or slave type is set to sets, only those sets valid for the particular contact you are
creating are selectable. For example, for *CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE, only a list of node sets is
available for slave; you will not see a list of other set types, like element or part sets.

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Review Contacts
You can review contacts with the review button in the Interfaces, add subpanel.

Exercise: Define Airbag, Velocity, and Contacts for the Airbag


Analysis
This exercise will help you become familiar with defining LS-DYNA airbags using HyperMesh. It will also help
you continue to learn how to define LS-DYNA loads and contacts using HyperMesh.
In this exercise, you will define an airbag, velocity, and contacts for an LS-DYNA analysis of a head
impacting an inflating airbag. The head and airbag model is shown in the image below.

Head and airbag model

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

Click Preferences > User Profiles.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Import the LS-DYNA model


1.

From the menu bar, File > Import > Solver Deck.

2.

In the File: field, browse to the file airbag_start.key.

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3.

Click Import.

Steps 3-5: Define *AIRBAG_WANG_NEFSKE for the airbag mesh


geometry
Step 3: Create a set of parts, *SET_PART_LIST, containing the AirbagFront and
AirbagRear components
1.

Click Tools > Create > Sets.

2.

For name =, type airbag_set.

3.

For card image, select Part.

4.

Click on comps and select the components AirbagFront and AirbagRear.

5.

Click create to create the set.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 4: Define the airbag (*AIRBAG_WANG_NEFSKE)


1.

Click View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Solver to open the Solver Browser.

2.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create >.*AIRBAG > *AIRBAG_WANG_NEFSKE.

3.

For Name:, type airbag and click OK to create the card.

4.

Click return to open the Control Volumes panel.

5.

Click the set selector button and select the entity set airbag_set. The parts in this set define the
airbags geometry.

6.

Click update.

7.

Click edit to edit card image of the control volume.

8.

Enter the following data in the card image.


Field

Value

Parameter description

CV

1023. 0

Heat capacity at constant volume

CP

1320. 0

Heat capacity at constant pressure

780. 0

Temperature of input gas

LCMT

c ur v e i d 1

Load curve specifying input mass flow rate

C23

1. 0

Vent orifice coefficient

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9.

LCA23

c ur v e i d 2

Load curve defining vent orifice area as a function of


pressure

CP23

1. 0

Orifice coefficient for leakage

PE

1. 0E- 4

Ambient pressure

RO

1. 0E- 9

Ambient density

GC

1. 0

Gravitational conversion constant

Click return twice to close the card image and then close the panel.

Step 5: Define an initial velocity of 3 mm/ms in the negative x-direction for the head
with *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *INITIAL > *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION.

2.

For Name:, type velocity and click OK to close the dialog.

3.

In the card image, under STYP, switch the toggle to select Part ID for the set type.

4.

Click the PID button twice to select the Head component.

5.

For velocity in the X direction VX field, specify 3.

6.

Click return to go back to the main menu.

Steps 6-12: Define a contact between the airbag and head with
*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
Step 6: Create a HyperMesh group with the card image SurfaceToSurface
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *CONTACT > CONTACT (A-O) >
*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE.

2.

For Name: type Airbag_Head and click OK to create the card.

3.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

Step 7: Specify the head to be the master surface with surface type 3, part ID
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Set the master surface type to comps.

3.

Click comps and select the Head component.

4.

Click update for the master selection.

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5.

Stay in the add subpanel for the next step.

Step 8: Specify all of the airbag to be the slave surface with surface type 2, part set
ID
1.

Set the slave surface type to sets.

2.

Click sets and select the pre-defined entity set airbag_set (*SET_PART_LIST).
This set contains the AirbagFront and AirbagRear components.

3.

Click update in the slave line to update the slave selection.

4.

Stay in the add subpanel for the next step.

Step 9: View the master and slave entities


1.

Click review.

2.

Notice the master and slave entities are temporarily displayed blue and red, respectively. All other
entities are temporarily displayed grey.

3.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 10: Define *CONTACT_AIRBAG_SINGLE_SURFACE for the airbag


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *CONTACT > CONTACT (A-O) >
*CONTACT_AIRBAG_SINGLE_SURFACE.

2.

For Name, type airbag and click OK to create the card.

3.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

4.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 11: Define all of the airbag to be the slave surface with slave set type 2, part
set ID
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Set the slave: surface type to sets.

3.

Click sets and select the pre-defined entity set airbag_set (*SET_PART_LIST).

4.

Click update to update the slave selection.

5.

Stay in the add subpanel for the next step.

Step 12: View the slave entities

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1.

Click review.

2.

Notice the slave entities are temporarily displayed red. All other entities are temporarily displayed grey.

3.

Click return to close the panel.

Steps 13- 18: Define a contact between the plate and the airbag with
*CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE
Step 13: Due to the dynamics of the contact, define the AirbagRear component to
be the master surface with master type 0, set segment ID
1.

Click BCs > Create > Contact Surfaces.

2.

Select the elems subpanel.

3.

For name=, enter AirbagRear_master.

4.

For card image =, select setSegment.

5.

Optionally select a color for the contactsurf.

6.

With the elems selector active, select elems and select by collector.

7.

Select the AirbagRear component.

8.

Click create to create the contactsurf.

9.

Notice the contactsurfs pyramids point into the airbag. They should point out. In the next step you will
reverse their direction.

10. Stay in this panel for the next step.

Step 14: Reverse the contactsurfs pyramids so they point out of the airbag
1.

Select the adjust normals subpanel.

2.

With the contactsurf button active, select AirbagRear_master.

3.

Toggle from by elems to all elems.

4.

Click reverse normals.

5.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 15: Create *CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE card


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create >.*CONTACT > CONTACT(A-O) >
*CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE.

2.

For Name:, type Airbag_Plate and click OK.

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3.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

4.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 16: Specify the AirbagRear_master contactsurf for the contacts master
surface
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Set the master surface type to csurfs.

3.

Click the contactsurfs button and select AirbagRear_master.

4.

Click update to update the master selection.

5.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 17: Define the plate to be the contacts slave surface with slave type 4, node
set ID
1.

Set the slave surface type to entity.

2.

Click nodes and select by collector.

3.

Select the RigidPlate component.

4.

Click add to add the slave selection.

5.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 18: View the master and slave entities


1.

Click review.

2.

Notice the master and slave entities are temporarily displayed blue and red, respectively. All other
entities are temporarily displayed grey.

3.

Click return to go back to the main menu.

Step 19: Review the created solver entities using the Solver Browser
1.

Click on the plus sign next to the *contact folder in the Solver Browser to expand it. Expand the subfolders as well.

2.

Under *CONTACT_AIRBAG_SINGLE_SURFACE, right-click on Airbag and select Review. The slave


entities become highlighted in red and the master entities become highlighted in blue. Right-click again
and select Reset Review to return to regular display.

3.

Right-click on Airbag_Plate and select Isolate. Only the entities that are part of this contact are
displayed.

4.

Right-click on Airbag again and select Show. The entire airbag is displayed in the screen, as this entity

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contains the entire airbag.


5.

Expand the *INITIAL folders, right-click on velocity and choose Show from the menu. The entities on
which the load has been defined will appear (in this case it is head).

Step 20: Export the model to an LS-DYNA 971 formatted input file
1.

Click on Export

2.

Notice File type is set to LsDyna. It is automatically selected since you are in LsDyna user profile.

3.

Set Template to Keyword971.

4.

Click the Select file

5.

Under Export options, set Export: to All.

6.

Click Export.

and select the icon Export Solver Deck

icon to select the path and enter the file name as airbag_complete.key.

Step 21 (Optional): Submit the LS-DYNA input file to LS-DYNA 970


1.

From the Start menu, open the LS-DYNA Manager program.

2.

From the solvers menu, select Start LS-DYNA analysis.

3.

Load the file airbag_complete.key.

4.

Click OK to start the analysis.

Step 22 (Optional): View the results in HyperView


The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

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HM-4620: Rigid Wall, Model Data, Constraints, and Output


using DYNA
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create *PART_INERTIA for the component vehicle mass to partially take into account the inertia
properties and mass of the missing parts.
Create velocity on all nodes but the barrier nodes with *DEFINE_BOX and *INITIAL_VELOCITY.
Make the closest row of nodes of the crash boxes a part of the vehicle mass rigid body with
*CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES.
Create a contact between the crash boxes, the bumper and the barrier with
*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL.
Specify the output of resultant forces for a plane on the left interior and exterior crash boxes with
*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_PLANE.
Create a stationary rigid wall to constrain further movement of the barrier after impact with
*RIGIDWALL_PLANAR_FINITE.
Specify some nodes to be output to the ASCII NODOUT file with *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE.

*PART_INERTIA
The INERTIA option allows inertial properties and initial conditions to be defined rather than calculated from
the finite element mesh. This applies to rigid bodies only.
When importing a DYNA model into HyperMesh, the *PART_INERTIA IRCS parameter value is changed from
0 to 1. (The inertia components are changed from global to local axis.) This allows inertia components to be
automatically updated when *PART_INERTIA elements are translated or rotated. When selecting
*PART_INERTIA elements to translate or rotate, select elements by comp. This selection method ensures
the inertia properties are automatically updated.

*CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES
This card defines extra nodes to be part of a rigid body. In HyperMesh, it is created from the Solver
Browser.

*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_(Option)
*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_(Option) defines a cross section for resultant forces written to the ASCII
SECFORC file. The options are PLANE and SET.
For the PLANE option, a cutting plane must be defined. For best results, the plane should cleanly pass
through the middle of the elements, distributing them equally on either side.
The SET option requires the equivalent of the automatically generated input via the cutting plane to be
identified manually and defined in sets. All nodes in the cross-section and their related elements contributing
to the cross-sectional force resultants should be defined in sets.
*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_SET and *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_PLANE are created from the

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Solver Browser. Like the Interfaces panel, anything created from the Rigid Walls panel is a HyperMesh
group. Thus, to rename, renumber or delete a *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION card, select groups from the
Rename, Renumber or Delete panel.

*RIGIDWALL
A *RIGIDWALL provides a method for treating contact between a rigid surface and nodal points of a
deformable body.
In HyperMesh, *RIGIDWALL keyword cards are created from the Solver Browser.

Exercise: Set Up the Bumper Model for Impact Analysis


This exercise will help you become familiar with defining LS-DYNA rigid walls using HyperMesh. It will also
help you continue to learn how to define LS-DYNA model data, constraints, and output using HyperMesh.
In this exercise, you will define model data, loads, constraints, a rigid wall, and output for an LS-DYNA
analysis of a bumper in a 40% frontal offset crash. The bumper model is shown in the image below.

Bumper model

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

On the Preferences menu, click User Profiles or click the User Profile

2.

Select LsDyna.

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Step 2: Import the LS-DYNA model bumper_start.key


1.

Click File > Import > Solver Deck.

2.

In the File: field, browse to the file bumper_start.key.

3.

Click Import.

Step 3: Define *PART_INERTIA for the vehicle mass component to partially take
into account the inertia properties and mass of the missing parts
1.

Right click on vehicle mass in the Model Browser and click Card Edit.

2.

Click the switch under Options and select Inertia.

3.

For the center of mass coordinates XC enter 700.

4.

In the YC field, enter 0.

5.

In the ZC field, enter 170.

6.

For translational mass TM, specify 800.

7.

For the components of the inertia tensor, specify the following:


IXX

IXY

IXZ

IYY

IYZ

IZZ

1.5E+07

-5.0E+03

-8.0E+06

5.0E+07

-900

6.0E+07

8.

For the initial translational velocity along the X-axis, VTX, specify -10.

9.

Click return to exit the panel.

Step 4: Create a *DEFINE_BOX that contains all nodes but the barrier nodes
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *DEFINE > *DEFINE_BOX.

2.

In the name= field, type box velocity.

3.

Make sure card image= is set to DefineBox.

4.

Optionally select a color.

5.

Toggle lower bound from corner node to x=, y=, z=.

6.

Specify the lower and upper bounds as follows:

X=

lower bound

upper bound

-530

200

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Y=

-800

800

Z=

300

7.

Click create to create the box.

8.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 5: Create initial velocity on all nodes but the barrier nodes
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create >*INITIAL > *INITIAL_VELOCITY.

2.

For Name, type velocity and click OK to create the card.

3.

For the initial velocity in the global X direction, VX, specify 10.

4.

Click on the BOXID field and select the box velocity option.

5.

Click return to close the panel.

Note:

You can also create velocity boundary condition on a set of nodes by clicking the load collector
icon

in the tool bar and picking Initialvel as the card image.

Step 6: View the closest nodes which are in the pre-defined node entity set
(*SET_NODES_LIST) named Constrain Vehicle
1.

Click Tools > Edit > Sets.

2.

Click review.

3.

Toggle from display RLs to hide RLs.


This filters all nodal rigid body sets from the list.

4.

Select the Constrain Vehicle set.


Notice the sets nodes are highlighted.

5.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 7: Create *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *CONSTRAINED >
*CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET.

2.

In the Name field, type ExtraNodes and click OK to create the card.

3.

Click the part ID (PID) field to activate it, and then select it again. Select the vehicle mass component.
This is the rigid body to which the nodes will be added. The ID is automatically entered into the card.

4.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

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5.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Step 8: Define the nodes in the Constrain Vehicle set to be a part of the vehicle
mass rigid body
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Make sure name=, is set to ExtraNodes.

3.

Set the slave type to sets.

4.

Click on sets and select the Constrain Vehicle set.

5.

Click select.

6.

Click update to update the slave selection.

7.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Note:

You can also create extra node set on a set of nodes by clicking BCs > Create > Interfaces with
the Type field set to Xtranode.

Step 9: View the extra nodes that are a part of the vehicle mass rigid body
1.

Click review.
Notice the extra nodes are temporarily displayed red while the PID (vehicle mass) is temporarily
displayed blue. All other entities are temporarily displayed grey.

2.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 10: Create an entity set, *SET_PART_LIST, for just the vehicle mass
component
All other components not in this set will be included in the contact.
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *SET > *SET_PART_LIST.

2.

For name=, type Exempt Parts.

3.

Make sure the card image field is set to Part.

4.

With the comps selector active, select the vehicle mass component.

5.

Click create to create the set.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Note:

You can also create *SET_PART_LIST by clicking Tools > Create >Sets.

Step 11: Create *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL contact


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *CONTACT > CONTACT (A-O) >

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*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL.
2.

For name, type impact and click OK.

3.

Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.

4.

Stay in the Interfaces panel for the next step.

Note:

You can also create *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL by clicking BCs > Create > Interface,
type = AutomaticGeneral.

Step 12: Define the slave surface with slave set type 6, part set ID for exempted
parts
1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Make sure name= is set to impact.

3.

Set the slave type to sets.

4.

Click the yellow sets button and select the Exempt Parts set.

5.

Click update to update the slave selection.

6.

Select the card image subpanel.

7.

Click edit to edit the group.

8.

Activate the option ExemptSlvPartSet.

9.

Notice the slave surface type SSTYPE value changes from 2 (part set ID) to 6 (part set ID for exempted
parts).

10. For the static coefficient, FS, specify 0.15.


11. Click return to go back to the Interfaces panel.
12. Click return to close the panel.

Step 13: Create an entity set, *SET_PART_LIST, to specify the elements that will
contribute to the cross-sectional force results
1.

Click Tools > Create > Sets.

2.

In the name= field, type XsectionPlane-Parts.

3.

For card image, select Part.

4.

With the comps selector active, select the components interior crashbox and exterior crashbox.

5.

Click create to create the set.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

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Step 14: Define a section by creating *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_PLANE


1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *DATABASE >
*DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_PLANE.

2.

In the Name field, type Xsection_Plane and click OK.

3.

Click return in the card editor to go back the Rigid Walls panel.

4.

Stay in the Rigid Walls panel for the next step.

Note:

You can also create *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_PLANE by clicking BCs > Create > Rigid
walls, type = XSection Plane.

Step 15: Define the location and size of the sections plane
In this sub-panel, the planes origin (the tail of the normal vector) is defined by a base node. Create a node
from the create nodes panel by following steps 1 - 4 below and then select it for the base node.
1.

Make sure name= is set to XSection-Plane.

2.

Press the F8 key to enter the Create Nodes panel.

3.

Select the XYZ

4.

For x=, y= and z=, enter the values 320, -500 and 100, respectively.

5.

Click create to create the node.

subpanel.

Notice the node is created and is displayed.


6.

Click return to go back to the geom subpanel of the Rigid Walls panel.

7.

With the base node selector active, graphically select the node just created.

8.

Switch normal vector to x-axis.


This defines the walls normal vector.

9.

Leave shape set to plane.

10. Toggle from infinite to finite.


11. Toggle from corners to dist/axis.
12. Switch local x axis: to y-axis.
This defines the edge vector L.
13. For len x= and len y=, specify 100 and 200, respectively.
Doing this defines the extent of the section. The values are the length of the edges a and b in the L and
M directions, respectively.
14. Click update to update the group.

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15. Stay in the Rigid Walls panel for the next step.

Step 16: Specify the parts slave to the rigid wall


1.

Select the add subpanel.

2.

Set the slave type to sets.

3.

Click the yellow sets button and select the set XsectionPlane-Parts.

4.

Click update to update the slave selection.

5.

Stay in the Rigid Walls panel for the next step.

Step 17: View the entities slave to the rigid wall


1.

Click review. Notice the slave entities are displayed red while the rigid wall is displayed blue. All other
entities are temporarily displayed grey.

2.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 18: Create a *DEFINE_BOX containing the nodes making up the barrier and
bumpers left side.
These nodes will be slave to the rigid wall.
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *DEFINE > *DEFINE_BOX.

2.

In the name= field, type half model.

3.

Leave the card image = field set to DefineBox.

4.

Optionally select a color.

5.

Specify the lower and upper bounds as follows:


lower bound

upper bound

X=

-600

-460

Y=

-800

Z=

400

6.

Click create to create the box.

7.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 19: Define a HyperMesh group by creating *RIGIDWALL_PLANAR_FINITE

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1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create >*RIGIDWALL > *RIGIDWALL_PLANAR_FINITE.

2.

In the Name field, type wall.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Stay in the Rigid Walls panel for the next step.

Note:

You can also create *RIGIDWALL_PLANAR_FINITE by clicking BCs > Create > Rigid walls and
setting the type to RWPlanar.

Step 20: Define the location and size of the rigid wall
In this sub-panel, the rigid walls origin (the tail of the normal vector) is defined by a base node. Create a node
from the create nodes panel by following steps 1-4 below and then select it for the base node.
1.

Make sure name=, is set to wall.

2.

Press the F8 key to enter the Create Nodes panel.

3.

Select the XYZ

4.

For x=, y= and z=, enter the values 600, -750 and 90, respectively.

5.

Click create. Notice the node is created and is displayed.

6.

Click return to go back to the Rigid Walls panel, geom subpanel.

7.

With the base node selector active, select the node that was created in step 4.

8.

Switch normal vector: set to x-axis.

9.

Leave shape: set to plane.

subpanel.

10. Toggle from infinite to finite.


11. Toggle from corners to dist/axis.
12. Select y-axis for local x axis.
13. For len x= and len y=, specify 615 and 250, respectively.
These values define the extent of the wall. They are the length of the edges l and m, respectively.
14. Click update to update the group.
15. Stay in the Rigid Walls panel for the next step.

Step 21: Edit the card image for the rigid wall to specify the nodes in the
*DEFINE_BOX half model as slave to the rigid wall
1.

Select the card subpanel.

2.

Click edit to edit the group.

3.

Click the BOXID field twice and select the box half model.

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4.

In the field FRIC, specify 1.0 for the friction coefficient.

5.

Click return to go back to the Rigid Walls panel.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 22: Specify some nodes to be output to the ASCII NODOUT file with
*DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE
1.

Click Setup > Create > Output Blocks.

2.

In the name field, type nodeth.

3.

Set the entity selector to nodes.

4.

Select a few nodes of interest from the graphics area.

5.

Click create to create the output block.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 23: Export the model to an LS-DYNA 970 formatted input file
1.

Click File > Export > Solver Deck to open the Export tab.

2.

Make sure the File Type: field is set to LsDyna.

3.

Save the file as Bumper_complete.key.

4.

Click Export.

Step 24 (Optional): Submit the LS-DYNA input file to LS-DYNA 970


1.

From the Start menu, open the LS-DYNA Manager program.

2.

From the solvers menu, select Start LS-DYNA analysis.

3.

Load the file bumper_complete.key.

4.

Click OK to start the analysis.

Step 25 (Optional): View the results in HyperView

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

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HM-4625: Assemblies using DYNA


In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Weld between geometry surfaces and shell elements
Weld using a master connectors file and duplicating and reflecting connectors
Create connectors from existing welds to create new welds of a different type
Swap welded part
Understand why connectors may fail to realize and how to correct the problems

Tools
The Connectors module can be accessed by:
The Connectors menu
The Connector Browser which can be opened using View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Connector

Exercises
This tutorial contains the following exercises:
Exercise 1: Weld Between Geometry Surfaces and Shell Elements
Exercise 2: Weld Using a Master Connectors File and Duplicating and Reflecting Connectors
Exercise 3: Create Connectors from Existing Welds to Create New Welds of a Different Type
Exercise 4: Swap Welded Part
Exercise 5: Troubleshoot Failure of Connectors to Realize
The first four exercises will help you become familiar with connecting (welding) an assembly of parts, using
various methods, and replacing parts with newer, similar parts and updating their affected connections.
The fifth exercise will help you become familiar with troubleshooting failure of connectors to realize.
The part assembly used in the first four exercises is depicted in the image below. A very brief description of
the corresponding exercises follows. (The exercises are independent of each other.)

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Exercise 1: Weld Between Geometry Surfaces and Shell Elements


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with creating welds at pre-defined weld points between
geometry surfaces and shell elements.
In this exercise, first weld the two front trusses depicted in the image below. Do this as follows: 1) create
connectors between their geometry surfaces at pre-defined weld points, and 2) realize the connectors into
two node weld elements.

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Second, weld the two front trusses to the reinforcement plate depicted in the image below. Do this as
follows: 1) create connectors between their shell elements at pre-defined weld points and, 2) realize the
connectors into two node weld elements.

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Step 1: Retrieve and view the model file


1.

Browse to the model file frame_assembly_1.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

3.

From the Preferences menu, click User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

4.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Create welds between the geometry for the two front trusses at the predefined weld points
1.

Click Connectors > Create > Spots.

2.

In the Model Browser, verify that the current component is Con_Frt_Truss.

3.

Switch the location: entity selector to points.

4.

Select the six pre-defined weld points by clicking on points >> by collector.

5.

Select the component Con_Frt_Truss.

6.

Click select.

7.

For connect what:, click the yellow comps button and select the components Front_Truss_1 and F
ront_Truss_2.

8.

For the second connect what: line, toggle elems to geom.

9.

In the tolerance= field, specify 5.

10. Click type= and select weld.


11. Click create.

The six connectors are automatically created and realized. The green connectors indicate that the creation of
the weld entity was successful. The connectors are organized as geometry (not elements) in the current
component collector, Con_Frt_Truss.

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There are three states of connectors: realized (green ), unrealized (yellow ), and failed (red ).The color
of the connectors change from yellow to green (if created manually), indicating they are realized into weld
elements. As mentioned above, if created automatically they will be green immediately as there is no interim
unrealized (yellow) state.
Fixed points were added to the surfaces at the ends of the weld elements to guarantee connectivity between
the weld elements and the shell mesh that will be created on the surfaces.

Step 3: Create a shell mesh on the two front truss components


1.

Press F12 to go to the Automesh panel, or click Mesh > Create > Automesh.

2.

Go to the size and bias subpanel.

3.

Click on surfs >> by collector. Place a check next to Front_Truss_1 and Front_Truss_2 and click
select.

4.

In the elem size= field, specify 10.

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5.

Set the mesh type field to mixed.

6.

Ensure the toggle is set to elems to surf comp. (It currently may be elems to current comp.)

7.

Set the mesh mode to automatic. (It currently may be interactive.)

8.

Click mesh to mesh the surfaces.

9.

Click the Zoom icon to zoom into the area with a connector and see how the fixed point created from
the weld has ensured the mesh seeding passes through the weld.

10. Click return to close the panel.

Step 4: Create connectors between the shell mesh for the front trusses and the
reinforcement plate at pre-defined points
Perform the following steps to create and realize the connectors manually.
1.

Set the current component collector to Con_Truss_Plate by right-clicking on it in the Model Browser
and selecting Make Current.

2.

Click Connectors > Create > Spots.

3.

Verify that you are in the create subpanel.

4.

For location:, select points.

5.

Click points >> by collector. Place a check next to Con_Truss_Plate and click select.

6.

Verify connect when: is set to now.

7.

In the top connect what: field, click comps and select the following components:
Front_Truss_1
Front_Truss_2
Reinf_Plate

8.

In the lower connect what: field, toggle geom to elems.

9.

Click create to create connectors at the selected weld points.

The connectors are organized into the current component collector Con_Truss_Plate.

Step 5: Realize the connectors in the component Con_Truss_Plate into weld

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elements
1.

Go to the realize subpanel.

2.

Click connectors >> by collector. Place a check next to Con_Truss_Plate and click select.

3.

For type=, select weld.

4.

In the tolerance= field, type 5.

5.

Ensure the toggle is set to mesh dependent.


When the option mesh dependent is active, if the realized finite element of the connector is coincident
to a node of the shell mesh it is being connected to, the nodes are equivalenced. If there are no suitable
nodes present, this option will partition the mesh accordingly to ensure the mesh seeding passes
through the weld point.

6.

Click realize to realize the selected connectors into weld elements.

7.

Click return to close the panel.

Exercise 1 is complete. If desired, save your work as a HyperMesh file.

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Exercise 2: Weld Using a Master Connectors File and Duplicating


and Reflecting Connectors
The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with defining weld locations in HyperMesh by importing a
master connectors file. Also, become familiar with duplicating, reflecting, and updating connectors to create
welds.
In this exercise, you will first weld the two right rails to each other and to the two front trusses depicted in the
image below. Do this as follows: 1) import weld point data from a master connectors file, 2) create
connectors, and 3) realize the connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

Second, you will weld the two left rails to each other and to the two front trusses depicted in the image
below. Do this as follows: 1) duplicate and reflect the connectors that were created by importing the master
connectors file, 2) update the link information for the reflected connectors, and 3) realize the connectors into
LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

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Third, you will combine adjacent 2T connectors into 3T connectors in order to update adjacent 2T welds to 3T
welds.

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

From the Preferences menu, click User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve and view the model file


1.

Retrieve the model file, frame_assembly_2.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Create connectors to connect the right rails to each other and to the front
trusses by importing a master connectors file
1.

Click File > Import > Connectors.

2.

In the File Type: field, select Connectors

3.

In the File: field, browse to find the file rails_frt_truss.mwf in the tutorial directory.

4.

Click Import to import the file.


Notice the connectors are automatically created and are organized into the new component
CE_Locations.

5.

Click Close.

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Step 4: Realize the connectors in the component, CE_Locations, into LS-DYNA 100
Mat100 (beam) welds
1.

Set the current component collector to CE_Locations by right-clicking on it in the Model Browser and
selecting Make Current.

2.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

3.

Click connectors >> by collector. Select the component CE_Locations.

4.

In the tolerance = field, verify 5 is specified.

5.

Click the toggle to mesh independent.

6.

Click type = and select mat100 from the list.

7.

Click realize to realize the selected connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

8.

Click return to close the panel.

9.

Notice the welds are organized into the following new component collectors in the Model Browser:
C_^_1_7_BEAM_100
C_^_6_7_BEAM_100
C_^_2_7_BEAM_100
C_^_1_6_BEAM_100
where the naming convention for these components is C_^_[id of comp 1]_[id of comp 2].

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Step 5: Verify materials were automatically created when the LS-DYNA 100 Mat100
(beam) welds were created
1.

In the Model Browser, open the Material folder and notice several materials (IDs 8 through 11) were
automatically created when the LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds were created. The naming
convention for them is M_^_[id of comp 1]_[id of comp 2]. One material is created for every
two components that are connected.

2.

Right-click on one of these materials.

3.

Select Card Edit. Notice the card image is set to *MAT_SPOTWELD.


Notice values are automatically specified for the parameters density, Youngs Modulus, and Poissons
Ratio.

4.

Click return to close the panel.

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Step 6: Verify that properties were automatically created when the LS-DYNA 100
Mat100 (beam) welds were created
1.

In the Model Browser, open the Property folder and notice several properties (IDs 6 through 9) were
automatically created when the LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds were created. The naming
convention for them is P_^_[id of comp 1]_[id of comp 2]. One property is created for every
two components that are connected.

2.

Right-click on one of these properties.

3.

Select Card Edit. Notice the card image is set to SectBeam (*SECTION_BEAM) and that only default
values are specified for the propertys parameters.

4.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 7: Verify that a contact was automatically created when the LS-DYNA 100
Mat100 (beam) welds were created
1.

In the Model Browser, open the Group folder.

2.

Right-click on C_Spotweld_1.

3.

Click Card Edit. Notice the card image is set to ContactSpotweld (*CONTACT_SPOTWELD_ID).

4.

Click return to exit the card image.

5.

Click BCs > Assign > Interface Entities.

6.

Click on the name= field and select C_Spotweld_1.

7.

Click review to review the contact.


Notice the contacts master elements are temporarily colored blue while its slave elements are
temporarily colored red.

8.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 8: Display the components Left_Rail_1 and Left_Rail_2 for elements


1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the components Left_Rail_1 and Left_Rail_2.

2.

Select Show.

Step 9: Duplicate the connectors created from the master connectors file and
reflect them
1.

Right click in the Model Browser and pick Create > Component.

2.

In the Name field, type CE_Locations_Dup.


No materials or properties are assigned.

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3.

Click Create to create the component.

4.

Click Connectors > Reflect > Components.

5.

Click connectors >> by collector. Select the component ^SPOTWELD_plots.

6.

Click on connectors again, select duplicate and select current comp.


The displayed connectors are duplicated and the duplicates are organized into the current component,
CE_Locations_Dup.

7.

Set the plane selector to x-axis.


This is the axis normal to the plane of interest.

8.

Click on base node

9.

Click x =.

to reflect about.

The fields for x =, y =, and z = are activated. By default their value is 0.000, which is the base point you
want to reflect about.
10. Click return to go back to the Reflect panel.
11. Click reflect to reflect the connectors.
12. Click return to close the panel.

Step 10: Update the connectors for the left rails to link them to the left rail
components
1.

Click on View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Connector.

2.

Open the mat 100 folder that contains the connectors in the model with material mat100.
You will see the reflected connectors which are unrealized and are shown as yellow in the Connector
Browser.

3.

To realize the connectors, update the links as:


Right_Rail_1

Left_Rail_1

Right_Rail_2

Left_Rail_2

4.

Right click on the Connector Browser to display the context menu and pick Update Links.

5.

Select all the unrealized connectors in the Connector Browser.

6.

In the table, in the Search column, for the Link Type field, select comps.

7.

In the table, in the Search column, click on the Link Select field.

8.

In the panel area, click the yellow component button and select the component Right_Rail_1.

9.

Click proceed.

10. In the table, in the Replace column, for the Link Type field, select comps.

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11. In the table, in the Replace column, click on the Link Select field.
12. In the panel area, click the yellow component button and select the component Left_Rail_1.
13. Click proceed.
14. Click Update in the Connector Browser.
15. Repeat steps 6 through 14, finding the component Right_Rail_2 and replacing it with the Left_Rail_2
component.
16. Scroll through the list of unrealized connectors in the table to make sure none are linked to the
Right_Rail components.
17. To realize the connectors, right click on the selected components in the Connector Browser and click
Rerealize.

Step 11: Verify that all connectors are realized and identify the pairs of adjacent
connectors
All the connectors listed in the Connector Browser are realized and the color of the connector icon is
switched from yellow to green.
Notice that the State column indicates that all of the connectors are realized.
1.

Zoom into one of the two areas where the front trusses are connected to the rail components.

2.

Notice that at these two areas, pairs of adjacent connectors exist.

3.

From the toolbar, click on the Visualization icon

4.

Under Color by, activate the option Layer. Notice that 2t (two thickness) is purple.

, and select the Connectors icon.

Notice the connectors in the graphics area are now colored purple. This means each of these connectors
links two components.
Because the pairs of adjacent connectors create a series of two weld elements, you can combine each
pair into a single connector, which links the three components together.
5.

Click Close to close the Visualization tab.

Step 12: Isolate the pairs of adjacent, 2t connectors identified in the previous step
1.

Using the Model Browser, turn off the display of geometry for all components.

2.

In the Connector Browser select Front_Truss_1, Front_Truss_2, Right_Rail_1, and Left_Rail_1.

3.

Right click on the selected components and click Find Between.


The connectors and components are displayed.

Step 13: Unrealize the selected connectors

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The connectors should be selected from the previous step.


1.

Right click on the selected connectors in the Connector Browser and click Unrealize.

Step 14: Combine the pairs of adjacent, 2t connectors into 3t connectors


1.

Click Connectors > Check > Connector Quality.

2.

Select connectors >> displayed.

3.

For tolerance = specify 5.

4.

Click preview combine.


The header bar displays the message, "12 connector(s) found that need to be combined".

5.

Click combine to combine the connectors.


The header bar displays the message, "6 connectors deleted".
The connectors are now blue as this color is specified for 3t (three thickness) connectors in the
Visualization tab.

6.

Click return.

Step 15: Realize the 3t connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds and
organize them into the component Con_Frt_Truss
1.

Right-click on Con_Frt_Truss in the Model Browser and select Make Current.

2.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

3.

Select connectors >> displayed.

4.

For type =, select mat 100.

5.

For tolerance = verify 5 is specified.

6.

Click realize to realize the connectors.

7.

Click return.

Step 16 (Optional):
The exercise is complete. Save your work as a HyperMesh file.

Exercise 3: Create Connectors from Existing Welds to Create New


Welds of a Different Type
The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with absorbing existing finite element welds into
connectors in order to create new finite element welds of a different type.

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In this exercise, LS-DYNA 101 Mat100 (hexa) welds already connect the rear trusses to each other. You will
update the weld type to LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds. Do this as follows: 1) create connectors from
the existing LS-DYNA 101 Mat100 (hexa) welds, and 2) realize the connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100
(beam) welds.

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

From the Preferences menu, click User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve and view the model file


1.

Retrieve the model file, frame_assembly_3.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Create connectors from existing LS-DYNA 101 Mat100 (hexa) welds
1.

Click Connectors > Fe Absorb.


The Automated Connector Creation and FE Absorption dialog opens.

2.

Set FE Configs: to custom.

3.

Set FE Type: to dyna 101 mat 100 (hexa).

4.

Toggle Elem filter: from all to select.

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5.

Click the Elem filter: Elements selector twice.


A HyperMesh panel menu with an elems selector appears.

6.

Select elems >> by collector and select the following components:


C_^_6_11_HEX
C_^_7_11_HEX
C_^_8_11_HEX
C_^_9_11_HEX
C_^_10_11_HEX

7.

Click proceed to return to the dialog.

8.

Set the FE connectivity option to Mesh independent (projs).

9.

Activate the Move connectors to FE component option.

10. Click Absorb to absorb the elements into connectors.


Connectors are generated at the locations of the LS-DYNA 101Mat100 (hexa) welds. They are organized
into the respective components to which the LS-DYNA 101 Mat100 (hexa) welds belong.
11. Click Close to close the dialog.

Step 4: Isolate the 2t connectors between the Rear_Truss_2 component and the
Right_Rail_2 and Left_Rail_2 components
1.

In the Connector Browser select Rear_Truss_2, Right_Rail_2, Left_Rail_2.

2.

Right click on the selected components and click Find Between.


The components and connectors are displayed.

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Step 5: Add Rear_Truss_1 as a third link to four of the ten displayed 2t connectors
1.

In the Model Browser, right-click on the Rear_Truss_2, Left_Rail_2 and Right_Rail_2 components
and select Show.

2.

Turn on the geometry for C^9_11_HEX.

3.

Click Connectors > Assign > Links.

4.

With the connectors selector active, select the four connectors indicated in the image below.

5.

For connect what: click comps and select the component Rear_Truss_1.

6.

Verify that the connect what: toggle is set to elems.

7.

Activate the search tol = option and specify 5 for it.

8.

Switch # of layers: to total 3.

9.

Click add links to update the connectors definitions.


The connectors now appear blue as they are 3t connections.

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10. Click return.

Step 6: Unrealize the connectors for the LS-DYNA 101 Mat100 (hexa) welds
1.

Using the Model Browser, turn on the display of the geometry for only the following components:
C_^_6_11_HEX
C_^_7_11_HEX
C_^_8_11_HEX
C_^_9_11_HEX
C_^_10_11_HEX

2.

Click Connectors > Unrealize.

3.

Click on connectors >> displayed.

4.

Click unrealize to unrealize the connectors.


The weld elements associated to these connectors are deleted.

5.

From the toolbar, click the Visualization icon

6.

Under Color by, activate State.

and select the Connectors icon.

Notice the displayed connectors are now colored yellow to indicate that they are not realized into FE
elements.
7.

Click Close.

Step 7: Realize the unrealized connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds
1.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

2.

Click connectors >> displayed.

3.

In the type= field, select mat 100.

4.

For tolerance = verify that 5 is specified.

5.

Click realize to realize the connectors.

6.

Click return.

The exercise is complete. Save your work as a HyperMesh file.

Exercise 4: Swap Welded Part


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with swapping welded parts and updating their affected
connections (welds).
In this exercise, you will replace the component Rear_Truss_1 with a new, similar part and update its

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affected connections (welds). Do this as follows: 1) update the connectors to use the "use name" rule, 2)
delete the old part, 3) import the new part, and 4) realize the corresponding connectors into LS-DYNA 100
Mat100 (beam) welds.

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA user profile


1.

From the Preferences menu, click User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Open the model file


1.

Retrieve the model file, frame_assembly_4.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.).

Step 3: Import the new model and update the connectors to use the rule "use
name" when reconnecting parts
1.

From the View menu, select Connector Browser.

2.

Right click on the connector table to activate the context menu. Click on Configure Browser and
activate Extended information on the Options tab to edit connector attributes.

3.

Click OK in the Browser Configuration dialog.

4.

Click File > Import > Model.

5.

Browse to and select the file rear_truss_1_new.hm.

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6.

Click Import to import the new model.

7.

Right-click on the component Rear_Truss_1 and select Find from the context menu. In the display you
will only see the component Rear_Truss_1 and the connector attached to it. Also, the corresponding
connectors are highlighted in Connector Browser.

8.

Right click in the Connector Browser to display the context menu and select Update Link. The
Update table appears in the Connector Browser.

9.

Click the Link Select field for the Search column.

10. Click the component selector and select Rear_Truss_1.


11. Click proceed to complete the selection.
12. In the Link rule row, in the Search column, select none.
13. Click the Link Select field for the Replace column.
14. Click component and select Rear_Truss_1.1.
15. Click proceed to complete the selection.
16. In the Link rule row, in the Replace column, select use-name.
17. Click on Update to update the rule from none to use-name.

Step 4: Delete the component Rear_Truss_1


1.

Press F2 to go to the Delete panel.

2.

Click the switch and select comps.

3.

Click the yellow comps button and select the component Rear_Truss_1.

4.

Click delete entity.

5.

Click return.

6.

Press P on the keyboard to refresh the graphics area.


Notice that the color of the displayed connectors changes from green (realized state) to yellow
(unrealized state) for those connectors associated to the deleted component. This is because the
deleted component was one of the connectors links.
Notice the existing finite element welds are deleted.

Step 5: Realize the unrealized connectors


1.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

2.

Select connectors >> displayed.

3.

In the type= field, select mat100.

4.

For tolerance = verify that 5 is specified.

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5.

Click realize to realize the connectors.

6.

Click return.

The exercise is complete. Save your work as a HyperMesh file.

Exercise 5: Troubleshoot Failure of Connectors to Realize


The purpose for this exercise is to become familiar with troubleshooting the failure of connectors to realize.
Specifically, this exercise will help you identify two common issues: 1) small projection tolerance and 2)
missing link definitions.
In this exercise, you will realize connectors to weld parts of a vehicle door frame. The model is depicted
below.

Step 1: Load the LsDyna user profile


1.

From the Preferences menu, click User Profiles, or click the User Profiles icon.

2.

Select LsDyna.

Step 2: Retrieve the HyperMesh file


1.

Retrieve the model file body_side_assembly.hm.

2.

Take a few moments to observe the model using various visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation,
zooming, etc.)

Step 3: Realize all the connectors using a projection tolerance of 1.0

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1.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

2.

Click connectors >> all.

3.

For type =, select mat 100

4.

For tolerance =, specify 1.0

5.

Click realize to realize the selected connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

6.

Notice in the status bar the message "257 connectors realized (9 failed)".

Step 4: Review the information table listing the connectors that failed to realize and
determine the reasons for failure
1.

From the toolbar, click the Visualization icon

2.

Under State: deactivate Realized.

and select the Connectors icon.

The realized (green) connectors are turned off.


3.

Click View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Connector.

4.

Notice the following in the table for the five connectors with IDs 96, 155, 223, 261 and 262 are in red.
In the Layer column, 2 layers are specified.
In the Link1 and Link2 columns, a link is defined.
Because the number of layers and links that were defined match, a possible cause for the connectors
not realizing is a small projection tolerance.

5.

Notice the following in the table for the four connectors with IDs 152, 153, 154 and 156.
In the Layer column, 3 layers are specified.
In the Link1 column, a link is defined.
In the Link2 column, no link is defined.
There is no Link3 column with the third link definitions.
Because the numbers of layers and links do not match, the likely cause for the connectors not realizing
is undefined link definitions.

Step 5: Realize the failed connectors using a larger projection tolerance


1.

Right-click in the Connector Browser and select Create > Spot.

2.

Click connectors >> displayed.

3.

Verify that type = is mat 100.

4.

For tolerance =, specify 2.0.

5.

Click realize to realize the selected connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

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6.

Notice in the message bar the message "5 connectors realized (4 failed)".

7.

Stay in the Spot panel, realize subpanel for the next step.

Step 6: Define the missing second link for the failed connectors
1.

Select the unrealized connectors that are in the red in the Connector Browser.

2.

Right-click and pick Add Link from context menu. The Add link table appears in the bottom of the
browser.

3.

Deactivate the option Increment T.

4.

Click in the field under Link Type and set it to comps.

5.

Click on the Link Select cell. Use the panel to select the component Comp2.

6.

Click Add.

Step 7: Define the missing third link for the failed connectors
1.

Repeat Step 6 above, but select Comp10 in step 5.

Step 8: Realize the failed connectors


1.

Click Connectors > Realize > Spots.

2.

Click on connectors >> displayed.

3.

Verify that type = is mat 100.

4.

For tolerance =, specify 4.0.

5.

Click realize to realize the selected connectors into LS-DYNA 100 Mat100 (beam) welds.

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6.

From toolbar, click on Visualization

7.

Under Color by, select State and activate Realized.

8.

Notice all the connectors appear and are colored green. All of them are realized into FE elements.

and select the Connectors icon.

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

Go to HyperMesh Tutorials

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HM-4630: Interfacing for Arbitrary - Lagrangian - Eulerian


Capability using DYNA
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Use the ALE setup panel
Define *ALE cards and other cards related to the LS-DYNA Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)
capability
Update the *SECTION card used by the ALE components INK and AIR to *SECTION_SOLID_ALE.
Define *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL for the ALE components.
Define *INITIAL_VOID_PART to define the AIR component as the void in the fluid interaction.
Define *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_NODE to control the motion of the ALE mesh.
Define *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_GROUP to specify the reference system type for the fluid
interaction of the ALE components.

Tools
The ALE setup panel can be accessed from the Analysis page.
The ALE setup panel allows you to create and modify input data pertaining to the Arbitrary-LagrangianEulerian LS-DYNA capability.

The Card Edit feature can be accessed by clicking the card edit icon
The Card Edit panel allows you to select the entities that are viewed in the card image subpanel. The card
images are defined in the template file.
The control cards feature can be accessed by:
On the Setup menu, click Create and select Control Cards
On the Analysis page, click control cards
The Control Cards panel allows you to set job-level, solver specific data. The available control cards are
defined in the template file.

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Exercise: Define Model Data for the Ink Cartridge Drop Analysis
The purpose for this exercise is to help you become familiar with defining LS-DYNA cards for related to the
ALE capability.
This exercise comprises of setting up the model data for an LS-DYNA analysis of an ink cartridge falling
through air and onto ground. The ink and ground model is shown in the image below.

Ink cartridge model

Loads and contacts are already defined in the model as follows.


A velocity along the negative Y-axis is applied to every node of the ink cartridge using the card
*INITIAL_VELOCITY.
The interaction between the cartridge and the platform is defined using the card
*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_NODES_TO_SURFACE. All the nodes of the CARTRIDGE are slave to
the master PLATFORM component.
Single point constraints are applied throughout the model. The PLATFORM component has all its
DOF fully locked, while the parts in the ink cartridge have the Z translation (DOF 3) constrained. This

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last constraint is necessary for symmetry reasons since the model has been simplified.
Gravity load along the negative Y direction is applied to the entire model. A curve defining the force versus
time function is defined to fully create a gravity load.

Step 1: Load the LS-DYNA profile


1.

On the Preferences menu, select User Profiles.

2.

Select LsDyna, and click OK.

Step 2: Retrieve the model file and review its contents


1.

Click File > Open > Model and browse to the file cartridge.hm.

2.

In the Model Browser, expand the Component folder. Notice the model is broken up into 4 collectors:
AIR, CARTRIDGE, INK, and PLATFORM.

3.

Use the Model Browser or the Solver Browser to review the defined materials and properties.

Step 3: Update the *SECTION_SOLID card used by the ALE components INK and
AIR to *SECTION_SOLID_ALE
1.

Right click in the Model Browser on the property SOLID PROP FOR ALE and pick Card Edit.

2.

In the card image, verify that [ELMFORM] is set to 12.

3.

For Options, click the toggle to select ALE.

4.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 4: Define *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL for the ALE components


1.

Click View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Solver to open the Solver Browser, if not already open.

2.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *EOS > *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL.

3.

For Name, enter EOS_LINEAR and click OK.

4.

In the card image, in the field [c1], enter 1.5E+9.

5.

In the field [V0] enter 1.

6.

Click return to close the panel.

Step 5: Assign *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL for the ALE components


1.

In the Model Browser, right click on the INK component and click Card Edit.

2.

Double click EOSID and select the EOS_LINEAR property.

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3.

Click return to exit the Card Image panel.

4.

Repeat steps 1-3 for the AIR component.

Step 6: Define *INITIAL_VOID_PART to define the AIR component as the void in the
fluid interaction
1.

Right click in the Solver Browser and pick Create > *INITIAL_VOID.

2.

For Name, enter VOID and click OK.

3.

Click return to go back to the ALE setup panel.

4.

Select the add/update subpanel.

5.

For name=, select VOID.

6.

For options:, switch to comps.

7.

With the comps selector active, select the AIR component.

8.

Click update to update the card.

9.

Click edit to view the *INITIAL_VOID_PART card image.

10. Click return to go back to the ALE setup panel.


11. Stay in the ALE setup panel for the next step.

Step 7: Define *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_NODE to control the motion of the


ALE mesh
1.

Select the create subpanel.

2.

For name =, enter ALE_NODE.

3.

For type =, select RefSysNode.

4.

Click create/edit to edit the card.

5.

For [NodeCount], type 3 and press Enter.

6.

Double click on NID(1), type 5 and press Enter.

7.

Double click on NID(2), type 6 and press Enter.

8.

Double click on NID(3), type 7 and press Enter.

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9.

Click return to go back to the create subpanel.

10. Stay in the ALE setup panel for the next step.

Step 8: Define *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_GROUP to specify the reference


system type for the fluid interaction of the ALE components
1.

Verify that you are in the create subpanel.

2.

For name =, enter SYSTEM_GROUP.

3.

For type =, select RefSysGrp.

4.

Click create to create the card.

5.

Select the add/update subpanel.

6.

For options:, switch to comps.

7.

With the comps selector active, select the components INK and AIR.

8.

Click update to update the card.

9.

Click edit to view the card image for this group.

10. Click on [PRTYPE] and select 5.


11. Click on [PRID] and select the predefined group ALE_NODE.
12. Click return to go back to the ALE setup panel.
13. Click return to close the panel.

Step 9: Review the pre-defined *CONTROL_ALE card and export the model to an
LS-DYNA 971 formatted input file
1.

Click Setup > Create > Control Cards.

2.

Click CONTROL_ALE.

3.

Review the *CONTROL_ALE parameters.

4.

Click return to go back to the Control Cards panel.

5.

Click return to go back to the main menu.

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6.

From the toolbar, click the Export icon

7.

Set the Template: field to Keyword971.

8.

In the File: field, enter the file name as cartridge_complete.key

9.

Click Export.

Step 10 (Optional): Submit the LS-DYNA input file to LS-DYNA 971


1.

From the desktops Start menu, open the LS-DYNA Manager program.

2.

From the solvers menu, select Start LS-DYNA analysis.

3.

Load the file cartridge_complete.key.

4.

Click OK to start the analysis.

Step 11 (Optional): View the results in HyperView


The results for ALE data are stored as Extra Solid History Variable in HyperView.

The exercise is complete. Save your work to a HyperMesh file.

Go to HyperMesh Tutorials

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HM-4635: Checking Penetration, Creating Joints and Checking


Minimum Time Step
Before starting this tutorial it is recommended that you complete the introductory tutorial, Getting Started
with HyperMesh - HM-1000.
This tutorial explains techniques commonly used in different crash analysis codes.
The following exercises are included:
Creating joints
Checking the minimum time step
To fix and check penetration, refer to the Penetration - HM-3320 tutorial.

Exercise 1: Creating Joints


Joint definitions are created in the FE joints panel on the 1D page. HyperMesh supports the following
standard joint types: spherical, revolute, cylindrical, planar, universal, translational, and locking. HyperMesh
also supports LS-DYNAs *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS_OPTION property to define friction,
damping, stop angles, etc. The LS-DYNA solver interface supports the creation of joints in the FE joints
panel. The PAM-CRASH solver interface currently supports the creation of joints as rod elements (see Using
the PAM-CRASH Interface in HyperMesh - HM-4700).
Note:

A spherical joint consists of two coincident nodes. During analysis, the two coincident nodes are
forced to remain coincident but the bodies attached to each coincident node are allowed to rotate
freely about the joint location.

Step 1: Select the LS-DYNA profile and load the Keyword 971 template
1.

Upon opening, HyperMesh prompts you to select a user profile. Select the LS-DYNA profile.

2.

Once the LS-DYNA profile is selected, the template drop down menu becomes activated. Select the
Keyword 971 template.

3.

Click OK.

Step 2: Retrieve the file


1.

Click File > Open > Model.

2.

Browse to the file <installation_directory>\tutorials\hm\interfaces\lsdyna\


joints.hm.

3.

Click Open.

4.

To view the model in its entirety, click F on the keyboard to fit the model to the screen.

Step 3: Activate coincident node picking

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According to the LS-DYNA specification, a joint needs to reference a pair of coincident nodes. The creation
of this element requires the selection of coincident nodes. Do this by activating the coincident node picking
option in HyperMesh. When activated, any attempt to select a coincident node will present you with a
selection circle identifying the coincident node ID.
1.

From the Preferences menu, select Graphics.

2.

Activate the coincident picking check box.

3.

Click return.

Step 4: Change the display


1.

In the Model Browser, expand the Component folder to display it's contents.

2.

Click on the elements and geometry


icons to turn off the display of all components, except the
blue torus, orange torus, and New Joint component.

Step 5: Create a spherical joint


1.

Click Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Joints.

2.

Click the switch under joint type and select spherical.

3.

Left click once on a node in the center of both tori to bring up the coincident node picking window (see
figure below).
There are two nodes in the window, node 598 and node 1.

4.

While holding down the left mouse button, drag the cursor over the node labeled 598.

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The blue rigid body attached to this node is highlighted.


5.

Release the left mouse button to select node 598.

6.

Repeat the last three steps, but select node 1 from the coincident node picking window instead of node
598.

7.

Click create to generate the spherical joint element.

8.

Click return.

Note:

A revolute joint consists of four nodes, two sets of two coincident nodes. During analysis, all four
of the revolute joints nodes remain at the same location with respect to each other. The bodies
attached to the nodes are free to rotate about the axis that lies along the length of the revolute
joint.

Step 6: Change the display


1.

In the Model Browser, click the Component View icon.

2.

Click on the elements and geometry


icons to turn off the display of all components, except the
Bearing, Shaft, Bearing Rigids, Shaft Rigids, and New Joint collectors.

3.

Click F to fit the model to the graphics area.

Step 7: Create a revolute joint


1.

Zoom in on one end of the shaft assembly (see figure below).

2.

Click Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Joints.

3.

Click the switch under joint type and select revolute.

4.

Left click once on a node at the center of one of the rigid link elements to bring up the coincident node
picking window (see figure below).

5.

Select a node attached to a blue rigid link element.


If you depress the left mouse button while your cursor is over a node in the coincident node picking

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window, the element attached to that node is highlighted.


6.

Click at the same node location again and select the node attached to the orange rigid link element.

7.

Repeat the previous three steps on the opposing pair of blue and orange rigid link elements (see figure
below).

8.

Click create.

9.

Click return.

See also:
FE Joints panel in the HyperMesh Panels online help.

Exercise 2: Checking the Minimum Time Step


The Time subpanel in the check elems panel calculates element time steps, based on the FEA solver, and
allows you to check for time steps that fall below a specified value. In explicit codes such as LS-DYNA it is
sufficient that a single element would have a small time step to drastically reduce the total CPU time of the
entire job. For this reason the check is used to identify those elements.

Step 1: Retrieve the file


1.

Click File > Open > Model.

2.

Select the pene_dyna.hm file.

3.

Click Open.

Step 2: Specify the template


1.

Click File > Load > Solver Template.

2.

Navigate to the LS-DYNA folder and select the dyna.key file.

3.

Click Open.

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The time step associated to an element is related to its geometric characteristic and to its material
properties such as density and young modulus. For this reason a material and a valid template need to be
associated to the elements. The time step is dependent upon the user profile, so you may want to load a
different profile to see how results may change.

Step 3: Check the time steps


1.

Click Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements.

2.

Select the time subpanel.

3.

Click check elems.


HyperMesh lists the total number of elements failing the check.

4.

Click return.

See HyperMesh Tutorials for a complete list of tutorials.

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HM-4640: Dummy Positioning, Seatbelt Routing, and Control


Volumes
Before starting this tutorial it is recommended that you complete the introductory tutorial, HM-1000: Getting
Started with HyperMesh.
This tutorial continues with several exercises demonstrating general interfacing with crash analysis codes.
Dummy positioning
Seatbelt routing
Reviewing airbag design state

Dummy positioning
The Dummy Positioning panel can be found on the Analysis page and choosing the Safety panel. The
Dummy Positioning panel is used to position any dummy model that contains a component hierarchy (a.k.
a. tree structure) defined in HyperMesh. The dynakey and pamcrash import translators can build the tree
structure automatically when importing supported dummy model files.

H-Point sub-panel

Step 1: Locate and open the HyperMesh file


1.

Click File > Open > Model.

2.

Browse to the file dummy_position.hm.

3.

Click Open.

Step 2: Load the template


1.

Click File > Load > Solver Template.

2.

Navigate to the LS-DYNA folder and select the dyna.key file.

3.

Click Open.

Step 3: Turn off all entities except components and set the component display to
shaded only

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1.

In the Model Browser, click the Component View icon.

2.

Click on the Shaded Elements and Mesh Lines

3.

From the Analysis page, click the Safety panel and then select the Dummy panel.

4.

Activate the H-point radio button to enter the H-point subpanel.

5.

Select any element on the dummy to select the entire dummy.

6.

Under position: enter the following:

icon to turn on performance graphics.

x = -1.280
y = 0.350
z = 0.284
The tab key can be used to cycle through the number fields.
7.

Click position to move the H-point to the specified coordinates.

8.

Under rotate: set the N1, N2, N3 vector selection to y-axis and set increment = 24.00.

9.

Click rotate+ to see the rotation angle about the y-axis.

10. Click rotate- to see the negative rotation about the y-axis.

Step 4: Adjust the limb positions


Adjusting limbs utilizes the incremental subpanel in the Dummy Positioning panel. Internally, incremental
rotations are based on successive rotations about X, Y, then Z. These successive rotation values are
reflected in the current number fields. It is not required to rotate joints in order about their local X, then Y,
and then Z axis when using the interface in the Dummy Positioning panel. There is no limitation on the
number of rotations or the order of rotations. However, rotating out of sequence will modify all rotation values
reported in the X, Y, and Z current number fields to reflect successive rotations.

Incremental sub-panel

To adjust the limb positions:


1.

Activate the incremental radio button to enter the incremental subpanel.

2.

Enter 5.00 in the increment number field.

3.

Select any element in the lower left leg. HyperMesh follows the model hierarchy up to the previous joint
in the knee and down to the end of the hierarchy through the foot.

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4.

In the y rot row, click the <, decrement five times to change the rotation of the left knee to -25.0 degrees.

5.

Select any element in the lower right leg and click the <, decrement, next to y rot row five times to
change the rotation of the right knee to -25.0 degrees.

6.

Repeat this exercise to set the shoulders y rot to -40.0, elbows y rot to -65.0, and wrists x rot to +/10.0.

7.

Click return.

Steps 5-7: Seatbelt Routing


From the Analysis page, select the Safety panel and click belt routing to access the Belt Routing panel.
The Belt Routing panel can be used to create straight seatbelt segments as well as seatbelt segments that
wrap around a dummys torso or lap.

Belt routing panel

Step 5: Create straight belt segments

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Seatbelt 1

1.

Click File > Open > Model.

2.

Select the seatbelt.hm file and click Open.

3.

In the Model Browser, click the Component View icon.

4.

Click on the Shaded Elements and Mesh Lines

5.

From the Analysis page, select the Safety panel, then the belt routing subpanel.

6.

Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the yellow retractor element (see figure,
Seatbelt 1, below).

7.

Select the upper, red slipring for the to node selection box (see figure).

8.

Click mesh. When components for the wrap around: selection have not been specified, HyperMesh
creates straight belt segments between the from node and to node.

9.

Click return.

icon to turn on performance graphics.

Step 6: Create shoulder belt segments that wrap around the torso

Seatbelt 2

1.

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Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the upper, red slipring element (see
figure).

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2.

Select the lower, red slipring element for the to node selection box (see figure).

3.

Activate the comps selection box and select the components that compose the torso area.

4.

Click the comps entity selection box twice to bring up the Component List panel.

5.

Click the comps entity selection box in the Component List panel to bring up the extended selection
window.

6.

Select by assems to bring up the Assembly List panel.

7.

Select the upper torso and lower torso assembly.

8.

Click select in the Assembly List panel.

9.

Click return.

10. Click the toggle next to 1D to set it to 2D/1D to create a combination of linear and plate belt elements.
11. Enter the following values:
belt width = 0.03
from side endlength = 0.10
to side endlength = 0.01
gap = 0.005
12. Click place 1D elements in twice and select the seatbelts_linear collector containing linear element
properties.
13. Click place 2D elements in twice and select the seatbelts_shell collector containing shell element
properties.

Belt routing panel settings

14. Click orient to create the belt line and enter belt orientation mode. Two red and one green belt segments
are displayed. The red segments represent the belt line between the connection points and the first
point of contact on the dummy. The green segment is in contact with the dummy.
15. Adjust the segments by clicking on a segment to activate it, then while holding in the left mouse button,
drag the mouse up and down to adjust the segments orientation about its endpoints. The easiest way
to adjust the belt line is to adjust the two end segments rather than the center green segment.
16. When the belt is properly oriented, click mesh to enter the mesh model.
17. Adjust the belt densities in the mesh module as needed then click return to leave the mesh module.
Note

Click the toggle in the panel area of the mesh module to switch between a tria and rigid element
transition between the shell and linear elements.

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Step 7: Create belt segments that wrap around the lap


The steps for creating belt segments that wrap around the lap are the same as the steps for wrapping belts
around the torso. The only difference is to select new end points as well as the lap components instead of
torso components.

1.

Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the top of the constraint on the floor (see
figure).

2.

Keep the lower, red element at the buckle as the to node (see figure).

3.

Click reset

4.

Next you will select the components that compose the lap. Click the comps entity selection box to bring
up the Component List panel.

5.

Click the comps entity selection box in the Component List panel to bring up the entity selection
window.

6.

Select by assems to bring up the Assembly List panel.

7.

Activate the checkboxes next to the lower torso, upper left leg, and upper right leg assemblies.

8.

Click select to leave the Assembly List panel.

9.

Click return to leave the Component List panel.

under the comps selection box.

10. Click orient to create the belt line and enter belt orientation mode. Two red and one green belt
segments are displayed. The red segments represent the belt line between the connection points and

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the first point of contact on the dummy. The green segment is in contact with the dummy.
11. Adjust the segments by clicking on a segment to activate it, then while holding in the left mouse button,
drag the mouse up and down to adjust the segments orientation about its endpoints. The easiest way
to adjust the belt line is to adjust the two end segments rather than the center green segment.
12. When the belt is properly oriented, click mesh to enter the mesh model.
13. Adjust the belt densities in the mesh module as needed, and then click return to leave the Seatbelt
Mesh panel.

Seatbelt 3

Step 8: Review the airbag design state


The Control Volumes panel is located under the Safety panel module. The Control Volumes panel can be
used to create control volumes as well as review their design state.
1.

Click File > Open > Model.

2.

Select the seatbelt.hm file and click Open.

3.

In the Model Browser, click the Component View icon.

4.

Click on the Shaded Elements and Mesh Lines

5.

From the Analysis page, select the Safety panel, then the control vol subpanel.

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icon to turn on performance graphics.

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6.

In the Model Browser open the Views folder and click

7.

Select reference geometry subpanel.

8.

Click review.

9.

Select cv1 from the control volume list to display this control volumes design state in the HyperMesh
GUI window.

next to view2.

10. Click return to leave the control vol panel. The display of the control volume will be set back to its
initial state.

See HyperMesh Tutorials for a complete list of tutorials.

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