ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE BEAMS

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ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE BEAMS

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c

Editorial

Committee of Appl. Math. Mech., ISSN 0253-4827

COUPLING CROSS-SECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

JIANG Wen-guang (

1,2

, John L. Henshall3

Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province, P. R. China;

2. Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, BS8 1TR, UK;

3. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing Engineering,

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG1 4BU, UK)

(Communicated by FU Ming-fu)

Abstract: Beams and plates manufactured from laminates of composite materials have

distinct advantages in a signicant number of applications. However, the anisotropy arising from these materials adds a signicant degree of complexity, and thus time, to the

stress and deformation analyses of such components, even using numerical approaches

such as nite elements. The analysis of composite laminate beams subjected to uniform

extension, bending, and/or twisting loads was performed by a novel implementation of

the usual nite element method. Due to the symmetric features of the deformations,

only a thin slice of the beam to be analysed needs to be modelled. Conventional threedimensional solid nite elements were used for the structural discretization. The accurate

deformation relationships were formulated and implemented through the coupling of nodal

translational degrees of freedom in the numerical analysis. A sample solution for a rectangular composite laminate beam is presented to show the validity and accuracy of the

proposed method.

Key words: composite material; beam; coupling equation; nite element method; extension; bending; torsion

Chinese Library Classification: O343.68

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 65Y10; 74S05; 74K10; 74G15

Digital Object Identifier(DOI): 10.1007/s 10483-006-1213-z

Introduction

Laminated composite materials have been developed over the last three decades to have

mechanical and other properties that make them attractive alternatives to the conventional

structural materials such as metallic alloys. These materials were initially used in structures

such as high-performance aircraft which exploited their high strength-to-weight ratio, but they

are increasingly being used in structural applications across all engineering industries. The

stiness mismatch between the contiguous plies, which present very steep stress gradients in

the free edge region, may cause delamination with a consequent lose in the laminate mechanical

properties and possible failure at loads that are lower than those expected according to classical

failure theories. An accurate prediction of the interlaminar stresses is therefore crucial for design

purposes. Due to the complex nature of the problem, numerical techniques have been usually

employed, such as the nite dierence method[1,2] , boundary element method[3] , nite element

Received Jul.1, 2005; Revised Aug.8, 2006

Corresponding author JIANG Wen-guang, Professor, Doctor, E-mail: W.jiang@bristol.ac.uk;

wenguang jiang@yahoo.co.uk

1710

collocation[6], or variational methods[79] .

In this paper, accurate and rapid analyses of stress and strain are achieved by using the

coupling cross-section nite element method presented herein. The coupling cross-section

method has been successfully used to model the extension-torsion coupling of helically symmetric components[1016] . In this paper, this methodology is extended to analyse the general

uniform deformation of composite laminate beams.

Consider a long prismatic beam with arbitrary

cross-section, referred to a coordinate system (x, y, z),

which is such that the z-direction is parallel to the

longitudinal direction of the beam as shown in Fig.1.

The material behaviour is only a function of x- and

y-coordinates, and not dependent on z. The applied

stress distribution on the ends of the beam is statically

equivalent to an applied extensional force Fz that acts

along the axial z-direction and a couple with components Mx , My and Mz about the x-, y-, and z-axes,

respectively. Assuming that the body forces are negligible in comparison to the applied stress distribution,

suciently far from the beam ends, end eects can

also be neglected according to the St Venant principle and only the small deformation case is considered,

therefore a uniform deformation of the beam will occur. Under such a deformation mode, the warping

and distortion of all cross-sections, and the stress distributions over all cross-sections of the beam will be

identical. In other words, the problem may be reduced

to an analysis of a typical small slice of the beam as

shown in Fig.1. Precise boundary conditions are enforced by using the constraint equations which relate

Fig.1 A model cross-sectional slice taken

from a prismatic beam subjected the degrees of freedom of the corresponding nodes on

the opposite articial beam cross-sections of the nite

to uniform deformations

element model, as will be detailed in the following sections. The advantages of the method are not only its conceptual conciseness, but also its high

accuracy and easy of implementation.

Consider the kinematic relationship between general pairs of corresponding nodes n(x, y, 0)

and n (x, y, h), and an arbitrarily pre-selected specic pair of reference corresponding nodes

n0 (x0 , y0 , 0) and n0 (x0 , y0 , h), see Fig.2.

In the undeformed conguration, the relative position vectors L and L are

T

Ln

0 n = (x x0 , y y0 , 0) = L n0 n .

(1)

and

= L + u u0

L

(2)

= L + u u0 ,

L

(3)

1711

in which,

u = (ux , uy , uz )T ,

respectively.

Owing to the symmetrical nature of the beam, the

class of innitesimal deformations, for which the stresses

are independent of the z-coordinate, is related to a displacement eld having the following general form:

= RL,

L

where

1

R = z

y

z

1

x

(5)

y

x

1

(6)

Fig.2

of corresponding nodes on

the corresponding crosssections of the slice model

the bending angles between the cross-sections about the

x- and y-axes, respectively, and z is the twisting angle

between the cross-sections about the z-axis. These can

be expressed in terms of x and y , the bending curvatures about x- and y-axes, respectively,

and z , the twisting curvature about the z-axis (i.e., twist angle in radians per unit length):

x = x h,

y = y h,

z = z h,

(7a,b,c)

To make use of the formulated kinematic deformation relationships in the nite element

analysis, only a representative small slice of the beam needs to be analysed. The nite element

mesh must be established in such a way that there are matching pairs of corresponding nodes

n(x, y, 0) and n (x, y, h) on the two corresponding articial cross-sections. With an arbitrarily

pre-selected pair of corresponding nodes n0 (x0 , y0 , 0) and n0 (x0 , y0 , h) specied as reference

corresponding nodes, the kinematic deformation relationships as discussed in the previous section can be established. Conventional three-dimensional solid brick elements are used for the

structural discretization. The nodes of the elements each have three degrees of freedom, i.e.

translations in the x-, y-, and z-directions. Due to the nature of uniform deformation, only

one element division is required in the axial direction of the beam. By substituting Eq.(6) into

Eq.(5), the deformation relationships can be explicitly expressed as

ux u0x + (x x0 )

ux u0x + (x x0 )

1

z y

uy u0y + (y y0 ) = z

1

x uy u0y + (y y0 ) .

(8)

uz u0z

y x

1

uz u0z

This equation adequately describes the required deformation eld patterns including arbitrary

rigid body movements. To avoid singularity of the system of equations, rigid body movement

must be restrained. In 3-D space, six degrees of freedom need to be constrained in order to keep

a deformed body completely xed in space. When introducing constraints, a basic requirement

1712

is that the constraints must not come into conict with the deformation eld (Eq.(8)). A

practical way of realizing this is illustrated as follows:

(a) All of the three translational degrees of freedom of the reference node n0 are completely

constrained, i.e.,

(9)

u0 = (u0x , u0y , u0z )T = (0, 0, 0)T .

With these constraints, the model can still rotate freely around this pivoting node n0 .

(b) The x and y degrees of freedom of the corresponding reference node n0 are also constrained, i.e.,

(10a,b)

u0x = 0, u0y = 0.

With Eqs.(9) and (10a,b), Eq.(8) can be further simplied to

ux

y

1

z

x x0

ux + (x x0 )

uy = z

1

x uy + (y y0 ) y y0 .

y x

1

u0z

uz

uz

(11)

Under these constraints the model can still rotate about the xed line n0 n0 .

(c) The rigid body rotation about line n0 n0 may be removed by constraining an arbitrarily

selected node n1 (x1 , y1 , 0), which diers from n0 , from rotating relative to n0 .

This can be realized by the constraint equation:

u1y = u1x tan 01 = u1x (y1 y0 )/(x1 x0 )

(12)

and the constraints on its corresponding node, n1 (x1 , y1 , h), can be derived by substituting

Eq.(12) into Eq.(11), i.e.,

u1x

1

z y

x1 x0

u1x + (x1 x0 )

u1y = z

1

x u1x tan 01 + (y1 y0 ) y1 y0 .

(13)

y x

1

u0z

u1z

u1z

With these constraints, the nite element model is completely xed in the space, and the system

of equations has a unique solution.

In the present method, the loading process is realized by applying bending angles x and

y , and twisting angle z between the cross-sections. When these values are given, the

formulated constraint equations become linear relationships between nodal translational degrees

of freedom, and can be conveniently incorporated into the global system equations. The degrees

of freedom on the left-hand side in Eqs.(11), (12) and (13) can be expressed in terms of the

degrees of freedom on the right-hand side, and therefore eliminated during the solution of the

system equations. After solution, the eliminated degrees of freedom can be recovered from

these constraint equations. The resultant moments of bending and torsion can be derived by

the summation of the reaction nodal forces on one of the cross-sections of the nite element

model of the beam. The total axial force can be applied as a nodal force to the degree of

freedom u0z of the node n0 . By means of the coupling equations, the axial force will actually

be distributed to all the nodes over the cross-section.

Numerical Example

A (45 / 45 )s composite laminate beam, as shown in Fig.3, is analyzed here using the

proposed algorithm. The plies are perfectly bonded along the interfaces of the laminate. Each

layer is assumed to be a homogeneous and linear elastic medium obeying the generalized orthotropy constitutive law[17] with one of the orthotropic directions parallel to its thickness

1713

direction. The laminates consist of plies with rectangular cross-section having thickness h and

width b = 16h. The material properties of individual layer in the principal material coordinates

are taken to be E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 14.5 GPa, G12 = G31 = G23 = 5.99 GPa, and

12 = 23 = 31 = 0.21. Conventional 20-noded quadratic iso-parametric brick elements were

used. The nite element meshes used are shown in Fig.4.

Fig.3

Fig.4

laminate beam analyses

Being an elastic body, the constitutive relationship relating the axial extension strain (z ),

bending curvatures (x , y ), and twisting curvature (z ) to the resultant axial force (Fz ),

bending moments (Mx , My ), and twisting moment (Mz ) may be expressed in the general form:

k11

k21

k31

k41

k12

k22

k32

k42

k13

k23

k33

k43

k14

z

Fz

k24

x = M x ,

k34 y My

k44

z

Mz

(14)

To use the present method, the loading can be realised by explicitly specifying set of values

of (z , x , y , z ). Any four sets of linearly independent solutions, for example, pure extension

deformation (Fz = 0, x = y = z = 0), pure bending deformations (x = 0, Fz = y = z =

0) and (y = 0, Fz = x = z = 0), and pure torsion deformation (z = 0, Fz = x = y = 0)

may be performed to derive all of the stiness constants kij , i, j = 1, , 4. In practice, these

four fundamental deformation modes themselves are of primary interest. After the derivation

of all of the stiness constants, in the case that Mx , My , Mz and z are primarily known values,

the values of Fz , x , y , z can be derived from Eq.(14).

The stiness matrix predicted by the present analysis for the composite beam with dimen-

1714

1287 kN

0.000 Nm 0.000 Nm

0.000 Nm

2

2

0.000 Nm

1.701

Nm

0.000

Nm

0.723

Nm2

k=

2

2

0.000 Nm

0.000 Nm 26.49 Nm

0.000 Nm2

2

2

0.000 Nm 0.723 Nm 0.000 Nm

5.596 Nm2

(15)

It is worth noting that the relative discrepancy of the stiness coecients between the two

sets of results predicted using a ne mesh and coarse mesh is well below 0.1 percent, and the

symmetric relationship kij = kji is very precisely satised. The o-diagonal non-zero values

k24 = k42 = 0.723 Nm2 indicate that coupling exists between bending about the x axis and

torsion about the z-axis.

The stress elds over the beam cross-section predicted using the ne mesh are depicted in

Figs.58, respectively, for the pure extension, pure bending about the x- and y-axes, and the

pure twisting loading cases.

Fig.5

Fig.6

Stress eld for the (45 /45 )s laminate beam under pure extension (Fz = 0, x =

y = z = 0)

Stress eld for the (45 / 45 )s laminate beam under pure bending deformation about

the x-axis (x = 0, Fz = y = z = 0)

1715

Fig.7

Stress eld for the (45 / 45 )s laminate beam under pure bending deformation about

the y-axis (y = 0, Fz = x = z = 0)

Fig.8

Stress eld for the (45 / 45 )s laminate beam under pure torsion about the z-axis

(z = 0, z = x = y = 0)

The interlaminar stresses along the interface y = h are shown in Figs.912, and the results

are compared with the solutions of Wang and Choi[6] , Ye[4] and Dav` and Milazzo[3] . Excellent

agreement has been found with the corresponding results from the above authors. It is also

worth noting that the analysis performed using the coarse mesh yielded reasonably accurate

results. Stress singularities can be observed between the contiguous plies in the free edge region

for all of the loading modes addressed above.

The selection of parameters used in the models such as slice thickness h (varying from 0.1%

to 10% of the maximum dimension of the cross-section), arbitrary locations of the reference

node and rotational constraint node n1 , were all extensively tested. The inuences on the

induced torque and stress eld were found to be negligible. This indicates that, as desired, the

model is not sensitive to these parameters.

1716

Fig.9

Interlaminar stress distributions along the y = h interface of the laminate under pure extension

(Fz = 0, x = y = z = 0)

Fig.10

Interlaminar stress distributions along the y = h interface of the laminate under pure bending

deformation about the x-axis (x = 0, Fz = y = z = 0)

Fig.11

Interlaminar stress distributions along the y = h interface of the laminate under pure bending

deformation about the y-axis (y = 0, Fz = x = z = 0)

Fig.12

1717

Interlaminar stress distributions along the y = h interface of the laminate under pure torsion

about the z-axis (z = 0, Fz = x = y = 0)

Concluding Remarks

The analysis of composite beams subjected to uniform extension, bending and torsion can

be solved by the analysis of only a representative slice sector of the beam. Precise boundary

conditions have been formulated and implemented. The proposed method is conceptually simple

and mathematically rigorous. No extraneous assumptions have been introduced. The method

is straightforwardly applicable to prismatic beams with arbitrary cross-sectional shapes and

material stacking sequences.

References

[1] Pipes R B, Pagano N J. Interlaminar stresses in composite laminates under uniform axial extension[J]. Journal of Composite Materials, 1970, 4:538548.

[2] Altus E, Rotem A, Shmueli M. Free edge eect in angle ply laminatesa new three dimensional

nite dierence solution[J]. Journal of Composite Materials, 1980, 14(1):2130.

[3] Dav G, Milazzo A. Boundary integral formulation for composite laminates in torsion[J]. AIAA

Journal, 1997, 35(10):16601666.

[4] Ye L. Some characteristics of distributions of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates[J]. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1990, 26(3):331351.

[5] Mitchell J A, Reddy J N. Study of interlaminar stresses in composite laminates subjected to

torsional loading [J]. AIAA Journal, 2001, 39(7):13741382.

[6] Wang S S, Choi I. Boundary-layer eects in composite laminates: Part 2, free-edge stress solutions

and basic characteristics[J]. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1982, 49(3):549560.

[7] Pagano N J. Stress elds in composite laminates[J]. International Journal of Solids and Structures,

1978, 14(5):385400.

[8] Pagano N J. Free edge stress elds in composite laminates[J]. International Journal of Solids and

Structures, 1978, 14(5):401406.

[9] Yin W L. Free-edge eects in anisotropic laminates under extension, bending and twisting, Part

I: a stress-function-based variational approach[J]. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1994,

61(2):410415.

[10] Jiang W G. The Development of the Helically Symmetric Boundary Condition in Finite Element

Analysis and Its Applications to Spiral Strands[D]. PhD Dissertation, Brunel University, Uxbridge,

1999.

1718

[11] Jiang W G, Henshall J L. The development and applications of the helically symmetric boundary

conditions in nite element analysis[J]. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering,

1999, 15(6):435443.

[12] Jiang W G, Henshall J L. A novel nite element model for helical springs[J]. Finite Elements in

Analysis and Design, 2000, 35(4):363377.

[13] Jiang W G, Henshall J L. Torsion-extension coupling in initially twisted beams by nite elements[J]. European Journal of Mechanics A-Solids, 2001, 20(3):501508.

[14] Jiang W G, Henshall J L, Walton J M. A concise nite element model for 3-layered straight wire

rope strand[J]. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2000, 42(1):6386.

[15] Jiang W G, Yao M S, Walton J M. A concise nite element model for simple wire rope strand[J].

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 1999, 41(2):143161.

[16] Jiang W G, Henshall J L. A coupling cross-section nite element model for torsion analysis of

prismatic bars[J]. European Journal of Mechanics A-Solids, 2002, 21(3):513522.

[17] Lekhnitskii S G. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body[M]. Holden-Day, Inc,

Uxbridge, 1963.

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