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220V DC System at Thermal Power Station

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/220v-dc-system-at-thermal-pow er-station

March 23, 2012

UPS Battery & Critical Reserve Power (photo by Infinity Power Solutions)

The 220V DC system supplies direct current as source of operating power for control, signaling,
relays, tripping and closing of switchgears, emergency motors of most important auxiliary systems.
Under normal conditions of station generation, the storage battery units are kept floating in DC
bus bars by means of the trickle chargers (also known as float chargers). The trickle chargers of
each battery unit, which is a rectifier with AC input, is normally made to take all DC requirements of
the power station without allowing the battery to discharge. This is achieved by maintaining the DC
output voltage of trickle charger a few volts higher than the voltage of the battery.
With this, the trickle charger besides meeting all the DC requirements of the power station, supplies
a few hundred milliamps of direct current to the battery to compensate the loss in the capacity of the
battery due to action between the plates of the cell. With this arrangement, the battery remains
connected to the DC bus bars as a standby supply source and immediately supplies the DC load in
the vent of temporary failure of complete AC system.
The complete AC power system failure in a power station is known as emergency situation. DC
battery units are designed to supply station DC loads for an emergency period of one hour. The
tickle charger normally supplies the station DC load and the momentary loads will also be catered
for by the trickle charger and if such a load is more than its capacity, the battery being in parallel
with the trickle charger will supply the excessive load. The trickle charger will normally be kept
operating at around 1152.15 V ie 247 volts. In case of AC mains failure the full battery of 115 cells
will supply the load ie 230 volts. If the emergency lasts for one hour with an appropriate load of 450
Amps, then battery will supply the load for one hour when its end voltage will drop down to 1.75 volts
per cell ie 201 volts.
After the emergency when the quick charger is closed the full battery will receive a boost charge and
at the same time only the voltage of 98 cells will appear across the load.
If a second emergency occurs during quick charging, then immediately all the 115 cells are
connected to the bus by closing the switch meant for the purpose. During routine daily testing of
emergency DC motors connected to main distribution board middle section, supply has to be taken
from the quick charger and the middle section has to be kept isolated from the left and right
sections of main distribution board. This is to test the quick charger.

Procedure followed in commissioning a battery

1. The battery is charged initially to its capacity. The lead acid Battery has a capacity of 1000AH
ie it may be charged for 10 hrs with charging current of 100 A or 5 hrs with charging current of
200 A. in case of Ni-Cd battery with a capacity of 2500 AH is charged for 12.5 hrs. with a
charging current of 200A.
2. Now the battery is discharged at the rate of 10% of its capacity in case of lead-acid battery
and 20% or 40% of its capacity in case of Ni-Cd battery.
3. Now the battery is recharged to its capacity.
4. Constant voltage charging of battery is called float charging. A lead acid battery of cell voltage
2.2V is float charged upto 2.42 V. A Ni-Cd battery of cell voltage 1.2V is float charged upto
1.41 V.
5. Constant current charging of a battery is called boost charging. A lead acid battery with bank
voltage 237 may be boost charged to 279V. A Ni-Cd battery with bank voltage 242 may be
boost charged to 283V.

Equipment used in 220V DC supply system

Sources of AC power
Two sources of AC power have been provided for both quick charger and trickle charger, one is the
normal source and other is standby. AC power supply to the chargers is through transformers
having off-load tap changing arrangement. An AC voltage-signaling relay communicates; AC
voltage low when the supply voltage becomes low.

Voltage level indicating device

A voltage level indicating device in MDB gives audio and visual annunciation when the DC bus
voltage changes beyond set low (180-210) and high limits (240-270).

The DC voltage is maintained at desired value automatically by means of AVR unit provided at
panel board.

Insulation monitoring device

This device annunciates when the insulation resistance of either positive bus to earth or negative
bus to earth falls below 20 kilo ohms and also when the ratio of insulation resistance of positive bus
to earth to negative bus to earth is 1.5 or above.

Flickering light device

This has been installed in the MDB, for flicker supply to control and check whether device is in order
or not. Control and signaling panels have two sets of bus bars, one fed by main distribution board
left section and the other by MDB right section. The loads of the first panel should be kept switched
to the set of bus bars fed by MDB. Left section and the loads of the second panel should be kept
connected to the set of bus bars fed by MDB right section.

Electrostatic Precipitator
Dust extraction from industrial gases has become necessity for environmental reasons or for
improving production. Most of the plants in India use coal as fuel for generating steam. The exhaust
gases contain large amount of smoke and dust, which are being emitted into the atmosphere. This
has posed a real threat to the mankind as a devastating health hazard. Hence it becomes
necessary to free the exhaust from smoke and dust.
There are various ways of extracting dust. Electrostatic dust precipitation method is most widely
used as its efficiency is excellent and it is easier to maintain. Its other advantages are:
Ability to treat large volumes of gases at high temperature
Ability to cope up corrosive atmosphere
Offer low resistance path for gas flow.
An electrostatic precipitator is equipment, which utilizes an intense electric force to separate
suspended particles from the flue gases. The process involves:
Electrical charging of suspended particles
Collection of charged particles from collecting electrode.
Removal of particles from collecting electrode.
The flue gases pass between electrodes and are subjected to an intense electric field. The
emissive electrodes are connected to the negative polarity of HV power supply while collecting
electrodes are connected to positive polarity and grounded.
The EC-HVR equipment provides high voltage DC across the precipitator electrodes. The EC
provides controlled AC voltage through thyristors (SCR) and associated controls to the primary of
step up transformer. The EC has been designed to supply 0 to 415V to the primary of step up
transformer through AC reactor. The equipment operates as constant current controller.

Heaters are provided to raise the temperature of flue gases, as they become conductive when
heated. 24 heaters are provided for stage I electrostatic precipitators. Rating: 550W heaters

The flue gases from the boiler section reach electrostatic precipitator section through ducts. The flue
gases are allowed to pass through various zones each having its own heaters, collecting and
emissive electrodes and DC supply. These zones are provided to lessen the burden on a single
zone and to take the load of other zone in case of maintenance or damage of a particular zone.
Stage I have 16 zones eight belonging to PASS A and rest to PASS B. Stage II has 20 Zones five
belonging to each PASS A, PASS B, PASS C and PASS D.

These are provided to rectify the AC voltage to the required DC voltage for electrostatic
precipitators to work. The required DC voltage is 70 kV, 1000 mA. Type: BY 127

Rapping motors are provided along with each zone. A hammer is coupled to each of the motors
shaft. Due to rotary motion of motor these hammers hit the collecting electrodes after a certain time
delay and the ash is allowed to flow down through outlet in form of slurry. Rating: .5A motors
A GD screen (gas diverting) motor is also provided in electrostatic precipitator to provide a zigzag
motion of flue gas so as to allow the heavy dust particles to settle down and removed.

Spark regulation
Flashovers of extremely low intensity are difficult to detect using the comparator technique. Non
detection results in sustained arcing which may damage the collecting electrode. For such digital
detection system is adopted.

Fast ramp control

In case of fast changes in operating conditions of precipitator many sparks may occur within a short
time reducing current to a low value, when the disturbance disappears, it may take a relatively long
time before the current can assume its normal value. This is the case particularly if selected rate of
rise is low.

Modes of operation
Back corona mode
In this mode the precipitator voltage decreases with increase in precipitator current. This reduces
the efficiency of precipitator and consumes unnecessary power.

Charge ratio mode

In a high resistive dust a potential gradient is created within the dust layers which causes
occurrence of local sparks in dust layer. This spurious discharges or BACK CORONA occurs as
soon as potential gradient is high. This has negative impact on efficiency.

Charge ratio
This mode supplies current in pulses and provides a dense corona for a short circuit time and at
same time gives a low current to avoid back corona.
Sources: Internet and several books of Electrical Engineering