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Heat

Exchanger
Design Handbook
SECOND

EDITION

Kuppan Thulukkanam

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
Boca Raton
CRC Press is

London

New York

an
imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Croup, an informa business

Contents
li

Preface

liii

Acknowledgments

lv

Author

Chapter

Heat

Exchangers: Introduction, Classification,

and Selection

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Construction of Heat Exchangers

1.3

Classification of Heat Exchangers


1.3.1

Classification

According

1.3.1.1

Tubular Heat

1.3.1.2

Plate Heat

1.3.1.3

Extended Surface

1.3.4

1.3.5

15

Exchangers
Exchangers

15
16

Indirect Contact Heat Exchangers

16

Contact-Type Heat Exchangers


Classification according to Surface Compactness
Classification According to Flow Arrangement

17

1.3.4.1

18

1.3.2.2

1.3.3

10

to Transfer Process

Heat

Regenerative
Classification according
1.3.2.1

Construction

Exchanger
Exchangers

1.3.1.4

1.3.2

to

Direct

Parallelflow

1.3.4.2

Exchanger
Counterflow Exchanger

1.3.4.3

Crossflow

Classification

19

to Pass

Arrangements

Multipass Exchangers
Classification According to Phase

1.3.8

21

1.3.6.2

Liquid-Liquid

21

1.3.6.3

Gas-Gas

21

Classification

According

to Heat

Transfer Mechanisms

21

1.3.7.1

Condensers

21

1.3.7.2

Evaporators

21
22

Other Classifications

22

1.3.8.1

Micro Heat Exchanger

1.3.8.2

Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

1.3.8.3

Perforated Plate Heat

1.3.8.4

Surface Heat

1.3.8.5
1.4

21

of Fluids

Gas-Liquid

1.3.6.1

1.3.7

20
20

1.3.5.1

1.3.6

18
19

Exchanger

According

17

Scraped
Graphite

Heat

Exchanger

23
as

Cryocoolers

Exchanger

Exchanger

25

25
27

Selection of Heat Exchangers

28

1.4.1

Introduction

28

1.4.2

Selection Criteria

29
30

1.4.2.1

Materials of Construction

1.4.2.2

Operating Pressure

1.4.2.3

Flow Rate

31

1.4.2.4

Flow Arrangement

31

1.4.2.5

Performance Parameters: Thermal Effectiveness and


Pressure

Drops

and

Temperature

30

31

Contents

VIII

Tendencies

1.4.2.6

Fouling

1.4.2.7

Types and Phases

1.4.2.8

Maintenance,

1.4.2.9

1.5

Chapter

32

Inspection, Cleaning, Repair,

and

Extension

32

Overall

32

Aspects
Economy

1.4.2.10 Fabrication
1.4.2.11

32

of Fluids

Techniques
Type for Intended Applications

Choice of Unit

Requirements of Heat Exchangers

33
33
34

References

34

Suggested Readings

35

Bibliography

35

Heat

39

Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals

2.1

Heat

2.2

Heat
2.2.1

Exchanger Thermal Circuit and Overall


Heat Transfer

Exchanger
Analysis
Energy Balance Equation

2.2.2

Heat Transfer

2.2.3

Basic Methods

Conductance

Equation

Methods

41
41
41

to Calculate Thermal

2.2.3.1

e-NTU Method

2.2.3.2

F-NTU, Method

2.2.3.3

Log

Mean

Effectiveness

42
42
43

Temperature

Difference Correction Factor

Method
2.2.3.4
2.2.4

v|/-F

45

Method

48

Some Fundamental Relationships


the

Exchanger

for

to Characterize

"Subdesign" Condition

2.3

Thermal Effectiveness Charts

2.4

and Flow

Symmetry Property

39

49

50

Reversibility

and Relation between

the Thermal Effectiveness of Overall Parallel and Counterflow Heat

Exchanger

Geometries

52

2.4.1

2.5
2.6

Symmetry Property
2.4.2
Flow Reversibility
Temperature Approach, Temperature Meet, and Temperature
2.5.1
Temperature Cross for Other TEMA Shells
Thermal Relation Formulas for Various Flow

Arrangements

52

52
Cross

54
56

and Pass

Arrangements

56

2.6.1

Parallelflow

57

2.6.2

Counterflow

57

2.6.3

Crossflow Arrangement

57

2.6.3.1

Unmixed-Unmixed Crossflow

57

2.6.3.2

Unmixed-Mixed Crossflow

57

2.6.3.3

Mixed-Mixed Crossflow

57

2.6.3.4

Single

57

2.6.4

2.6.5

or

Multiple

Rows in Crossflow

Thermal Relations for Various TEMA Shells and Others

72

2.6.4.1

Shell

74

2.6.4.2

TEMA F Shell

2.6.4.3

TEMA G Shell

2.6.4.4

TEMA//Shell

2.6.4.5

TEMA J Shell

2.6.4.6

TEMA X Shell

79
or

Split-Flow Exchanger

79

81
or

Divided-Flow Shell

Thermal Effectiveness of Multiple Heat

81

90

Exchangers

90

lx

Contents

2.6.6

2.6.5.1

Two-Pass

92

2.6.5.2

N-Pass

92

Exchangers
Exchangers
Multipass Crossflow Exchangers
2.6.6.1
Multipassing with Complete Mixing
2.6.6.2

Two Passes with One Fluid Unmixed


Cross-Counterflow

2.6.6.3

92
between Passes

throughout,

Thermal Effectiveness of

Tube Heat

98

Arrangement

Two Passes with Both Fluids Unmixed

Cross-Counterflow

Chapter 3

94

Two Passes with Both Fluids Unmixed-Unmixed

Cross-Counterflow

2.6.7

throughout,

Arrangement

in Each Pass and One Fluid Unmixed

2.6.6.4

93

throughout,

Arrangement

101

Multiple-Pass Shell and


108

Exchangers

Acknowledgment

113

References

113

Bibliography

115

Heat
3.1

Exchanger

3.3

117

3.1.1

117

Design Methodology
Process/Design Specifications
3.1.1.2

Exchanger Construction

118

3.1.1.3

Surface Selection

119

Specification

Thermohydraulic Design
3.1.2.1
Basic Thermohydraulic Design

119
Methods

Thermophysical Properties

119

3.1.2.3

Surface Geometrical

119

3.1.2.4

Surface Characteristics

Design
Heat Exchanger Design

Properties

119
120

120
a Compact Exchanger
Rating
Rating of a Shell and Tube Exchanger

of

Size of

122

Sensitivity Analysis

Sizing of a Compact

3.3.2.4

Sizing of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger


Heat Exchanger Optimization

Solution to the

Rating

3.3.3.1

Rating

3.3.3.2

Solution

and

Heat

Sizing

Exchanger

Problem

Sizing

Problem

3.5.1

Thermal

Design Computer Program

122

122
123
123

Program Logic

124

Structure for a Shell and Tube

125

Guidelines

on

Exchanger Pressure-Drop Analysis


3.5.1.1
Pressure-Drop Evaluation for Heat Exchangers
Heat

122

123

Design

Exchanger
Program
Pressure-Drop Analysis, Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties,
Performance Failures, Flow Maldistribution, Fouling, and Corrosion
3.4.2

122

122
to the

Overall Structure of
3.4.1.1

121

121

Exchanger

3.3.2.3

Computer-Aided Thermal
3.4.1

Heat

3.3.2.2

3.3.2.5

120

121

Sizing
3.3.2.1

3.3.3

120

Problems

Rating
3.3.1.2

3.3.2

119

3.1.2.2

3.3.1.1

3.5

117

3.1.1.1

Problem

Procedure

3.3.1

3.4

117

Design

Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger

3.1.2

3.2

Thermal

125
125

125

Contents

Pressure

3.5.1.3

Shell and Tube Heat

127

3.5.1.4

Pressure

127

Drop in the Nozzles


Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties Correction

128

3.5.2.1

Gases

128

3.5.2.2

Liquids

129

3.5.1.5
3.5.2

3.6

3.7

128

Pressure

3.5.3

Performance Failures

3.5.4

Maldistribution

131

3.5.5

Fouling

131

3.5.6

Corrosion Allowance

130

132

Cooperative Research Programs


3.6.1

HTRI

3.6.2

HTFS

on

Heat

Exchanger Design

132
of Heat

Design
Exchangers
Exchanger Design

133

Uncertainties in Heat
3.7.1.1
3.7.1.2

Uncertainty
Uncertainty

133

in Process Conditions
in the

Physical Properties of the

134
Process

Fluids

134

3.7.1.3

Flow

134

3.7.1.4

Nonuniform Flow Passages

135

3.7.1.5

Uncertainty in the

135

3.7.1.6

Nonuniformity

Uncertainty
Mixed

or

Basic

due to

Design Correlations

Thermodynamically Defined

Unmixed Flows for Crossflow Heat

Exchangers, after Digiovanni


3.7.1.7

3.7.2

132
132

Uncertainties in Thermal

3.7.1

and Webb

Nonuniform Heat Transfer Coefficient

3.7.1.8

Bypass

3.7.1.9

Exchangers
Uncertainty

3.7.1.10

Miscellaneous Effects

Path

136
136

the Air Side of Compact Tube-Fin

on

137
in

Fouling

137
137

Determination of Uncertainties

137

3.7.2.1

Computational Procedures

137

3.7.3.2

Additional Surface Area

3.7.3.3
Nomenclature

Chapter 4

126

Drop through a Heat Exchanger


Exchangers
Drop due to Flow Turning

3.5.1.2

Required due to Uncertainty.... 139


Additional Pressure Drop due to Uncertainty
139
140

References

141

Bibliography

143

Compact
4.1

Heat

Exchangers

145

Classification and Construction Details of Tube-Fin


Compact Heat

Exchangers
4.1.1
4.1.2

4.1.3

Exchangers

Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers


4.1.3.1
Specific Qualitative Considerations for Tube-Fin Surfaces
4.1.3.2
Applications
4.1.3.3

4.1.4

145

Characteristics of Compact Heat Exchangers


Construction Types of Compact Heat

Individually Finned

Continuous Fins

on a Tube

Tubes

Array

145
146
146
147

148
148

151

4.1.4.1

Tube: Primary Surface

151

4.1.4.2

Fin:

151

Secondary

Surface

152

4.1.4.3

Headers

4.1.4.4

Tube-to-Header Joints

4.1.4.5

Casings or
Circuiting

4.1.4.6

152
152

Tube Frame

152
and

4.1.4.7

Exchangers for Air Conditioning

4.1.4.8

Radiators

4.1.4.9

Effect of Fin

4.1.4.10

One-Row Radiator

4.1.4.11

Manufacture of Continuous Finned Tube Heat

Refrigeration

153

Density

on

153

Fouling

154
155

Exchangers
4.1.5

152

Surface Selection

156

4.1.5.1

Qualitative Considerations

156

4.1.5.2

Quantitative Considerations

157

Exchangers

157

4.2.1

PFHE: Essential Features

158

4.2.2

Application for

4.2.3

Size

159

4.2.4

Advantages of PFHEs

159

4.2.5

Limitations of PFHEs

159

4.2.6

Applications

159

4.2.7

Economics

160

4.2.8

Flow

Plate-Fin Heat

4.2.9

158

Fouling Service

Arrangements
Fin Geometry Selection

160

160

and Performance Factors

160

4.2.9.1

Plain Fin

4.2.9.2

Plain-Perforated Fin

4.2.9.3

Offset

4.2.9.4

Serrated Fins

4.2.9.5

Herringbone or Wavy Fin

163

4.2.9.6

Louver Fins

163

4.2.9.7

Pin Fins

164

4.2.9.8

FIN

Strip

161

162

Fin

163

165

Corrugation Code

4.2.10

Corrugation Selection

166

4.2.11

Materials of Construction

166

4.2.11.1

Aluminum

166

4.2.11.2

Other Metals

166

4.2.12

Mechanical

166

Design
and

Quality

4.2.13

Manufacture, Inspection,

4.2.14

Brazed Aluminum Plate-Fin Heat

Control

166

Exchanger (BAHX)

166

4.2.14.1

ALPEMA Standard

166

4.2.14.2

169

4.2.14.3

Applications
Heat Exchanger

4.2.14.4

Flow

169

Core

4.2.14.5

Arrangement
Rough Estimation of the Core

4.2.14.6

Provisions for Thermal

4.2.14.7

Mechanical
Heat

169

Expansion

Design of Brazed

171

Volume
and Contraction

173

Aluminum Plate-Fin

173

Exchangers

4.2.14.8

Codes

173

4.2.14.9

Materials of Construction

173

4.2.14.10

Manufacture

4.2.14.11

Quality

Assurance

Inspection

174

Program

and Third

Party
174

Contents

xii

4.2.15

174

of BAHX

4.2.14.12

Testing

4.2.14.13

Guarantees

4.2.14.14

ALEX: Brazed ALuminum

Comparison

174

of Salient Features

EXchanger
of Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

175

and Coil-Wound Heat

4.2.16
4.3

Exchanger
Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet for Plate-Fin

Heat

Exchanger

4.3.1.2

4.3.2

4.3.3

175

Surface Geometrical Parameters: General


4.3.1.1

Tubular

Hydraulic Diameter, Dh
Surface Area Density a and
Heat Exchangers

175
177

177

4.3.2.1

Tube Inside

177

4.3.2.2

Tube Outside

178
184

Compact Plate-Fin Exchangers


4.3.3.1
Heat Transfer Area

184

Components of Pressure Loss


Factors Influencing Tube-Fin Heat Exchanger Performance

186

4.4.1

187

4.3.3.2

4.4

4.4.2

Layout
Equilateral Layout

4.4.3

Number of Tube Rows

187

4.4.4

Tube Pitch

188

4.4.5

Tube-Fin Variables

188

Height

188

and Fin Pitch

Finned Tubes with Surface Modifications

188

4.4.7

Side

189

4.4.8

Leakage
Boundary-Layer

4.4.9

Contact Resistance in Finned Tube Heat


Continuous Finned Tube

4.4.9.2

Tension-Wound Fins

4.4.9.3

Finned Tube

Integral

Induced Draft

versus

on

Length

Exchangers

Induced Draft

4.4.10.2

Forced Draft

189
190

190

Exchanger

Circular Tubes

190
190

191

Forced Draft

4.4.10.1

191

191

Fundamentals of Finned Tube Heat

Exchangers

191

Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Correlations for Crossflow


over

4.5.2

Disturbances and Characteristic Flow

4.4.9.1

Thermohydraulic
4.5.1

4.7

Fin

187

Equivelocity Layout

versus

4.4.6

4.4.10

4.6

187

Tube

4.4.5.1

4.5

175
175

Surface Geometrical Relations


4.3.1

174

Staggered Finned Tube Banks


and/Factors

191

The j

192

4.5.2.1

Bare Tube Bank

4.5.2.2

Circular Tube-Fin

4.5.2.3

Continuous Fin

on

Circular Tube

196

4.5.2.4

Continuous Fin

on

Flat Tube

198

192

Arrangement

193

Array

Correlations for j and /factors of Plate-Fin Heat

Exchangers

198

4.6.1

Offset Strip Fin Heat Exchanger

4.6.2

LouveredFin

200

4.6.3

Pin Fin Heat

201

Fin

198

Exchangers

Efficiency

202

4.7.1

Fin

Length for Some


Configurations

4.7.2

Fin

Plate-Fin Heat

Exchanger

Fin

202

Efficiency

4.7.2.1

Circular Fin

4.7.2.2

Plain Continuous Fin

202

202
on

Circular Tubes

204

Contents

xiii

4.8

Rating of a Compact Exchanger


Rating of Single-Pass Counterfiow and Crossfiow Exchangers
4.8.2
Shah's Method for Rating of Multipass Counterfiow and
4.8.1

Crossfiow Heat

4.9

Core Mass

4.9.2

Procedure for

4.9.3

4.10

Heat

4.9.1

210
210

Compact

Heat

211

Exchanger

of Plate-Fin Exchangers and Constraints

Optimization
Weight Minimization

Effect of
4.10.1

Sizing

Longitudinal

on

211

Heat Conduction

Longitudinal Conduction

on

Influence

Thermal Effectiveness
on

4.11

Comparison
Exchangers

213

of Thermal Performance of

Compact

Air

versus

4.11.1.1
4.11.2

213

213

Water Cooling

Air

214

Cooling

215

Construction of ACHE
4.11.2.1

216

Tube Bundle Construction

216

4.11.3

American Petroleum Institute Standard API 661/ISO 13706

4.11.4

Problems with Heat


4.11.4.1

4.11.5

4.11.6

Exchangers

Temperature

in

224

Low-Temperature Environments.. 225

Control

225

Forced Draft versus Induced Draft

225

4.11.5.1

Forced Draft

225

4.11.5.2

Induced Draft

225

Recirculation

226

4.11.7

Design Aspects
4.11.7.1 Design Variables
4.11.7.2 Design Air Temperature
4.11.8 Design Tips
4.11.8.1 Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Design

Chapter 5

Heat

Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger (ACHE)


4.11.1

212

Various Flow

Arrangements
4.10.2

207
209

Exchangers
Exchanger
Velocity Equation

Sizing of a Compact

206

226

226
227

228
Procedure

228

4.11.8.2

Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Data/Specification Sheet

229

4.11.8.3

Performance Control of ACHEs

230

Nomenclature

230

References

232

Bibliography

236

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design

237

5.1

Construction Details for Shell and Tube

5.1.1

5.2

Design

Exchangers

Standards

237

237

5.1.1.1

TEMA Standard

237

5.1.1.2

ANSI/API Standard 660

237

Tubes

238

5.2.1

Tube Diameter

5.2.2

Tube Wall Thickness

239

5.2.3

Low-Finned Tubes

240

5.2.4

Tube

240

5.2.5

Means of Fabricating Tubes

240

5.2.6

Duplex

Bimetallic Tubes

240

5.2.7

Number of Tubes

Length
or

239

241

Contents

xiv

5.2.8

Tube Count

241

5.2.9

U-Tube

241

5.2.9.1
5.3

U-Tube U-Bend

241
242

Tube Pitch

242

5.3.2

Tube Layout

242

5.3.2.1

242

Triangular and Rotated Triangular Arrangements


Square and Rotated Square Arrangements

Baffles

243

243

5.4.1

Classification of Baffles

243

5.4.2

Transverse Baffles

243

5.4.2.1

Segmental Baffles

243

5.4.3

Disk and

Doughnut Baffle

5.4.4

Orifice Baffle

248

247

5.4.5

No Tubes in Window

248

5.4.6

Longitudinal

Baffles

249

5.4.7

Rod Baffles

5.4.8

NEST Baffles and

249
Tube

Egg-Crate
Non-Segmental Baffles

5.4.9

Grimmas Baffle

5.4.10

Wavy

5.4.11

Baffles for Steam Generator Tube

Support

249
250
251

Bar Baffle

251

Support

Tubesheet and Its Connection with Shell and Channel

251
252

5.5.1

Clad and Faced Tubesheets

253

5.5.2

Tube-to-Tubesheet Attachment

253

5.5.3

Double Tubesheets

253

5.5.3.1
5.5.4
5.6

per TEMA

Arrangement

5.4.8.1

5.5

as

5.3.1

5.3.2.2
5.4

Requirements

Tube

Types

of Double Tubesheet

Designs

Demerits of Double Tubesheets

253
256

Tube Bundle

256

5.6.1

Bundle Weight

256

5.6.2

Spacers, Tie-Rods, and Sealing Devices

256

5.6.3

Outer Tube Limit

256

5.7

Shells

258

5.8

Pass Arrangement
5.8.1
Tubeside Passes

258

5.8.2

258

5.8.1.1

Number of Tube Passes

258

5.8.1.2

End Channel and Channel Cover

260

Shellside Passes

262

5.8.2.1

Expansion Joint

263

5.8.2.2

Drains and Vents

263

5.8.2.3

Nozzles and

Impingement Protection

5.9

Fluid

5.10

Classification of Shell and Tube Heat

5.11

Properties and

Allocation

Exchangers
Describing Heat Exchanger Types
5.11.1 Fixed Tubesheet Exchangers
5.11.2 U-Tube Exchangers
5.11.2.1 Shortcomings of U-Tube
Exchangers
5.11.3 Floating Head Exchangers
TEMA

System

for

263
266
266

266
269
270

270
271

5.11.3.1

Sliding Bar/Surface

5.11.3.2

271

Kettle-Type Reboiler

272

Contents

xv

5.12

Differential Thermal

5.13

TEMA Classification of Heat

5.14

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Selection


5.14.1 Shell Types

Based

Service Condition

on

272
272

274

5.14.1.2 TEMA F Shell

274

5.14.1.3

TEMA G, H Shell

275

5.14.1.4

TEMA G Shell

Split Flow Exchanger


5.14.1.5 TEMA H Shell or Double Split Flow Exchanger

275

5.14.1.6 TEMA J Shell

276

5.14.1.7

or

or

TEMA K Shell

Divided Flow

Kettle

or

Type

Exchanger

Reboiler

276
277

5.14.1.9 Comparison of Various TEMA Shells

278

Front and Rear Head

278

Designs

Designations

for Head Types

278

5.14.3

TEMA Specification Sheet


Shellside Clearances

279

5.15.1

Tube-to-Baffle-Hole Clearance

279

5.15.2

Shell-to-Baffle Clearance

279

5.15.3

Shell-to-Bundle Clearance

279

279

5.15.4

5.16

Bypass Lanes
Design Methodology
5.16.1

282
282

Shellside Flow Pattern

5.16.1.1

Shell Fluid

282
284

5.16.1.4 Flow Fractions for Each Stream

285

5.16.1.5

285

Shellside Performance

5.16.3

Guidelines for STHE

of Shell and Tube Heat

Design

Thermal

Design

Heat

286
287

Exchanger

Shell and Tube Heat

Exchanger

Procedure

Auxiliary Calculations, Step-by-Step Procedure

Step-by-Step
and

Pressure-Drop

Procedure

Pressure-Drop

to

287
288

Design Method: Bell-Delaware Method

Shellside Heat Transfer and


5.16.6.1

286

Drop

Design

Specify the Right

5.16.5.2 Detailed
5.16.5.3

285

Design

Considerations for

5.16.5.1

285

Exchangers

Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure

Guidelines for Shellside

5.16.4.1

5.16.6

282

Leakage

Shellside Flow Pattern

Sizing

5.16.5

Bypassing

5.16.1.3

5.16.2

5.16.4

282

and

5.16.1.2 Bypass Prevention and Sealing Devices

5.16.3.1

5.17

275

5.14.1.8 TEM X Shell

5.14.2.1

5.15

272

TEMA E Shell

5.14.1.1

5.14.2

272

Expansion
Exchangers

Correction Factors

291
293

297

Determine Heat Transfer

Correction Factors

298

5.16.6.2

Shellside Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure

5.16.6.3

Tubeside Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop

304

5.16.6.4

Accuracy

of the Bell-Delaware Method

308

5.16.6.5

Extension of the Delaware Method to Other Geometries

Drop

301

308

Shell and Tube Heat

310

5.17.1

Exchangers with Non-Segmental Baffles


Phillips RODbaffle Heat Exchanger

310

5.17.1.1

310

5.17.1.2

5.17.1.3

RODbaffle

Important

Exchanger Concepts
Benefit: Elimination of Shellside

Flow-Induced Vibration

311

Proven RODbaffle

311

Applications

Contents

XVI

5.17.1.4 Operational Characteristics

311

5.17.1.5 Thermal Performance

311

5.17.1.6
5.17.2

Design and Rating Program Available

312
312

EMbaffle Heat Exchanger

Application of EMbaffle Technology


5.17.2.2 Design
5.17.2.3 Benefits of EMbaffle Technology
Helixchanger Heat Exchanger
5.17.3.1 Merits of Helixchanger Heat Exchanger

312

5.17.2.1

5.17.3

5.17.3.2

5.17.3.3
5.17.4

5.17.5

Applications
Helixchanger

Exchanger: Configurations

315

317

Twisted Tube Heat


5.17.4.1

Exchanger
Applications

318
318

5.17.4.2

Advantages

318

5.17.4.3 Merits of Twisted Tube Heat Exchanger

319

End Closures

319

Breech-Lock Closure

319

Dismantling Jig

320

Taper-Lok Closure
High-Pressure End Closures
Appendix A
5.17.6

320

5.17.7

320

5.A. 1
5.A.2

5.A.3
5. A.4

5.A.5

314

315
315

Heat

5.17.5.2 Easy Installation and

Chapter

314

5.17.3.4 Performance

5.17.5.1

5.A

312

321

Reference Crossflow Velocity

Design

of Disk and

as

per Tinker

Doughnut Heat

321

Exchanger

5.A.2.1

Design

5.A.2.2

Heat Transfer

5.A.2.3

Shellside Pressure

5.A.2.4

Shortcomings of Disk and Doughnut

323

Method

323
324

Drop

326
Heat

Exchanger

326

NORAM RF Radial Flow Gas Heat Exchanger

326

5.A.3.1

327

Tube

Layout

Closed Feedwater Heaters

327

5.A.4.1

Low-Pressure Feedwater Heaters

328

5.A.4.2

High-Pressure Feedwater Heaters

328

Steam Surface Condenser

329

5.A.5.1

Mechanical

330

5.A.5.2

Parts of Condenser

5.A.5.3

Condenser Tube Material

331

5.A.5.4

Condenser Support

332

Description

330

Systems

Nomenclature

332

References

333

Suggested Readings

336

Regenerators

337

6.1

Introduction
6.1.1

6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5

Regeneration Principle
Regenerators in Thermodynamic Systems
Gas Turbine Cycle with Regeneration
Waste Heat Recovery Application
Benefits of Waste Heat Recovery
6.1.5.1
Direct Benefits

337
337
and Others

337
337

338
338

338

xvii

Contents

6.2

6.1.5.2

Indirect Benefits

6.1.5.3

Fuel

Combustion An

Preheating

339

6.2.1

339

6.2.2

Recuperator
Merits of

Recuperators

6.2.3

Regenerator
Types of Regenerators

6.2.4

Fixed-Matrix

6.2.5

339
340

340
341

Fixed-Bed-Type Regenerator

or

6.2.4.1

Fixed-Matrix Surface Geometries

6.2.4.2

Size

6.2.4.3

Merits of Fixed-Bed

342
342

342

Regenerators

Rotary Regenerators
6.2.5.1
6.2.5.2

343

Salient Features of

343

Rotary Regenerators
for Gas Turbine

6.2.5.3

Rotary Regenerators
Types of Rotary Regenerators

6.2.5.4

Drive to

Applications

6.5

Rotary Regenerators
Operating Temperature and Pressure

345

6.2.5.5

6.2.5.6

Surface Geometries for Rotary Regenerators

345

6.2.5.7

Influence of

345

6.2.5.8

Size

6.2.5.9

Desirable Characteristics for

6.2.5.10

Total Heat

346

6.2.5.11

Merits

347

Hydraulic Diameter

on

345

Performance

346
a

Regenerative

Matrix

Regenerators
of Regenerators

346

Rotary Regenerative Air Preheater


6.3.1
Design Features
6.3.2
Heating Element Profiles

347

6.3.3

Enameled Elements

349

6.3.4

Corrosion and Fouling

349

6.3.5

Heat

349

6.3.6

Seals and

Exchanger

348

349

Baskets

Sealing System Components

350

6.3.6.1

Radial Seals and Sector Plates

350

6.3.6.2

Axial Seals and

351

6.3.6.3

Circumferential Seals and Circumferential Sealing

Sealing Plates

351

6.3.7

Leakage

6.3.8

Alstom Power Trisector

351

Ljungstrom Air

Preheater

352

6.5.1

Compatibility

352

6.5.2

Economic Benefits

353

6.5.2.1

353

6.5.4

of

351

Recuperators and Regenerators


Considerations in Establishing a Heat Recovery System
Comparison

6.5.3
6.6

345
345

Ring

6.4

339

Heat Exchangers Used for Regeneration


6.2.1.1

6.3

Savings

339

due to

with the Existing Process System

Capital

Costs

Life of the

Exchanger
Maintainability

352

353

353

Regenerator Construction Material


6.6.1
Strength and Stability at the Operating Temperature

353

6.6.2

Corrosion Resistance

355

6.6.3

Ceramic Heat

355

6.6.4

Exchangers
6.6.3.1
Low Gas Permeability
Ceramic-Metallic Hybrid Recuperator

6.6.5

Regenerator Materials for Other than Waste Heat Recovery

355

354

355
355

Contents

xviii

6.7

356

Correlation for j and/

357

Thermal

Design Theory
Regenerator Solution Techniques
6.8.1.1
Open Methods: Numerical

358

6.8.1

359

6.7.2

6.8

356

Thermal Design: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals


Surface Geometrical Properties
6.7.1

Finite-Difference Method

6.8.2

Basic Thermal

Methods

359

6.8.3

Coppage and Longon Model for a Rotary Regenerator


6.8.3.1
Thermal Effectiveness

360

6.8.3.2

364

Design

Heat Transfer

6.8.4

Parameter Definitions

6.8.5

Classification of

6.8.6

Additional Formulas for

364
365

Regenerator
Effectiveness

365

6.8.7
6.8.8

Razelos Method for

Regenerator

370

6.8.9

Influence of Longitudinal Heat Conduction in the Wall

371

6.8.9.1

Bahnke and Howard Method

372

6.8.9.2

Romie's Solution

372

6.8.9.3

Shah's Solution to Account for the

Balanced and

Counterflow Regenerator

6.8.7.1

367

367

Longitudinal
373

6.8.10

Fluid

6.8.11

374

6.8.13

Regenerator Design Methodology


Primary Considerations Influencing Design
Rating of Rotary Regenerators

6.8.14

Sizing of Rotary Regenerators

374

6.8.12

Bypass

and

366

Asymmetric-Unbalanced Counterflow

Conduction Effect

Carryover

on

Thermal Effectiveness

Mechanical
6.9.1
6.9.2

6.10

362

Regenerator
Symmetric Counterflow Regenerator
Reduced Length-Reduced Period (A-TI) Method
6.8.6.1

6.9

359

359

Closed Methods

6.8.1.2

Design
Single-Bed

374
374
374
375

and Dual-Bed Fixed

Regenerators

375

Rotary Regenerators
6.9.2.1
Leakages

375

6.9.2.2

Seal

376

6.9.2.3

Drive for the Rotor

376

6.9.2.4

Thermal Distortion and Transients

377

6.9.2.5

Pressure Forces

377

Industrial

375

Design

Regenerators and Heat

Recovery
Exchangers
Heat Recovery

Devices

6.10.1

Fluid-Bed Regenerative Heat

6.10.2

Fluidized-Bed Waste

6.10.3

Vortex-Flow Direct-Contact Heat

6.10.4

Ceramic Bayonet Tube Heat

6.10.5

Regenerative

6.10.6

Porcelain-Enameled Flat-Plate Heat

6.10.7

Radiation Recuperators

6.10.8

Heat-Pipe

Exchangers

Exchangers

Burners

Heat

Merits of Heat-Pipe Heat

6.10.8.2

Application

377

378
379

379
379

Exchangers

380

380

Exchangers

6.10.8.1

377

381

Exchanger

382
382

6.10.9

Economizer

382

6.10.10

Thermocompressor

382

6.10.11 Mueller

Temp-Plate Energy Recovery Banks

383

xix

Contents

6.11

Exchangers for Space Heating


Working Principle

384

6.11.2

Construction

385

6.11.3

Rotor Materials

385

6.11.3.1

Construction

385

6.11.3.2

Carryover

385

6.11.3.3

Seals

385

6.11.4
6.11.5

Chapter

383

6.11.1

Rotary

Heat

Drive

386

and Control Unit

System
Cleaning Devices

386

Nomenclature

386

References

388

Bibliography

391

Plate Heat
7.1

Exchangers

Spiral

Plate Heat

393

Exchangers

Plate Heat

393

7.1.1

Exchanger Construction: General


Flow Patterns and Pass Arrangement

7.1.2

Useful Data

396

7.1.3

Standard Performance Limits

7.2

Benefits Offered

7.3

Comparison

7.4

and

394

PHE

on

397

by Plate Heat Exchangers

between

Plate Heat

Exchanger

397
and

Shell and Tube Heat

Exchanger

399

Plate Heat Exchanger: Detailed Construction Features

399

7.4.1

399

Plate

7.4.1.1

Plate Pattern

7.4.1.2

Types of Plate

7.4.1.3

399

400

Corrugation

400

Pattern

Intermating Troughs
or Herringbone Trough

7.4.1.4

Chevron

7.4.1.5

Plate Materials

Pattern

400

400

7.4.2

Gasket Selection

7.4.3

Bleed Port

400

7.4.4

Frames

402

400

Design

7.4.5

Nozzles

402

7.4.6

Tie Bolts

402

7.4.7

Connector Plates

403

7.4.8

Connections

403

7.4.9

Installation

403

7.5

Brazed Plate Heat

7.6

Other Forms of Plate Heat

403

Exchanger
Exchangers

7.6.1

All-Welded Plate

7.6.2

Supermax

7.6.3

Wide-Gap

7.6.4

GEABloc

7.6.5

Free-Flow Plate Heat

and

403

Exchangers
Maxchanger Plate Heat Exchangers

Plate Heat

403

404
406

Exchanger

Fully Welded Plate Heat Exchanger

407

407

7.6.6

Exchanger
Flow-Flex Tubular Plate Heat Exchanger

7.6.7

Semiwelded

7.6.8

Double-Wall Plate Heat

Diabon F

411

7.6.10

Exchanger
Exchanger
Graphite
Glue-Free Gaskets (Clip-On Snap-On Gaskets)

411

7.6.9
7.6.11

AlfaNova 100% Stainless Steel Plate Heat

412

7.6.12

or

Twin-Plate Heat

407

409

Exchanger

Plate Heat

Plate Heat Exchanger

with Electrode Plate

Exchanger

411

412

Contents
XX

412

7.6.14

Plate Heat Exchanger with Flow Rings


AlfaRex Gasket-Free Plate Heat Exchanger

7.6.15

Alfa Laval Plate

413

7.6.13

7.7

Heat

Evaporator
Exchangers

413

7.6.16

Sanitary

7.6.17

EKasic Silicon Carbide Plate Heat

7.6.18

Gasket Grooves

Deep-Set

Where to Use Plate Heat

Applications

7.7.1

412

413

Exchangers

413
413

Exchangers

for Which Plate Heat

Exchangers

Are Not
413

Recommended
7.8

414

Fundamentals of Plate Heat

Exchangers
Thermohydraulic
7.8.1
High- and Low-Theta Plates
Thermal Mixing
7.8.2
Thermal Mixing Using High- and Low-Theta
7.8.2.1
Thermal Mixing Using Horizontal and
7.8.2.2

415
416
Plates

416

Vertical Plates

417

7.8.3

Flow Area

7.8.4

Heat Transfer and

Heat Transfer Correlations

419

7.8.4.2

Pressure

420

Pressure

Drop
Drop or Jensen

Specific
PHE Thermal Design Methods
7.9.1

LMTD Method due

7.9.2

e-NTU

Approach
Specification Sheet

7.9.3

419

Pressure-Drop Correlations

7.8.4.1

7.8.5
7.9

to

421

Number

421

Buonopane

422

et al

422
423

for PHE

423

7.9.3.1

7.10

Design Pressure
Plate Hanger
7.9.3.2
Corrosion of Plate Heat Exchangers

7.11

Fouling

425

7.12

Limitations of Plate Heat Exchangers

425

7.13

Spiral

Plate Heat

7.14

424
.424

425

Exchangers

Arrangements and

7.13.1

Flow

7.13.2

Construction Material

426
Plate Heat

Thermal

7.13.4
7.13.5

Applications

7.13.6

Advantages of Spiral Plate

7.13.7

Limitations

for

Spiral

426

Applications

Design of Spiral
Mechanical Design of Spiral

7.13.3

Chapter

416

Exchangers
Exchangers

Plate Heat

427
427

Plate Heat

Exchangers
Exchangers

Platecoil Prime Surface Plate Heat

426

428
428
428

Exchangers

Nomenclature

429

References

430

Bibliography

431

Heat Transfer Augmentation

433

8.1

Introduction

433

Benefits of Heat Transfer Augmentation


Application of Augmented Surfaces
Principle of Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement

433

8.1.1
8.2
8.3

8.3.1

Increase in Convection Coefficient without


Area Increase

an

433

434

Appreciable
434

xxi

Contents

8.3.2

Enhancement in Turbulent Flow

434

8.3.3

Enhancement in Laminar Flow

435

Techniques

for Heat Transfer Enhancement

435

8.4

Approaches

8.5

Heat Transfer Mode

437

8.6

Passive

Techniques

437

8.6.1

Extended Surfaces

437

and

8.6.1.1

Extended Surfaces for Gases

437

8.6.1.2

Extended Surfaces for

438

8.6.2

Treated Surfaces

441

8.6.3

Rough Surfaces

442

8.6.4

Tube Inserts and

8.6.5

Displaced

444

Enhancement Mechanism

444

8.6.4.2

Forms of Insert Device

444

Displaced

Flow Enhancement Devices

444

Swirl Flow Devices


8.6.5.1

450

Twisted Tape Insert

450
450

8.6.5.3

Corrugated
Doubly Enhanced Surfaces

8.6.5.4

Turbulators

453

8.6.5.2

Surfaces

452

8.6.6

Surface Tension Devices

453

8.6.7

Additives for

453

8.6.8

Additives for Gases

8.7

Active

8.8

Friction Factor

8.9

Pertinent Problems

Liquids

453
454

Techniques

8.9.1

454
454

454

Methods

Testing

.'

8.9.2

Fouling

8.9.3

Performance Evaluation Criteria


8.9.3.1

8.9.3.2

Shah's Recommendation for Surface Selection of


Heat

with Gas

Exchanger

on

One Side

Alternate Means of

8.9.4.2

Adoptability

8.9.4.3

Proven Field/Performance Trials

Design

to

Existing

Heat

Exchanger

and Construction Considerations

Condensation Enhancement
8.10.1.1

Horizontal Orientation

8.10.1.2

Shellside Condensation

Areas of

457
457

458
458

459
on

Vertical Tubes

Evaporation Enhancement
Heat Transfer Augmentation Devices for the Air-Conditioning
and Refrigeration Industry
8.10.3.1 Shellside Evaporation of Refrigerants
8.10.3.2 Shellside Condensation of Refrigerants
8.10.3.3 In-Tube Evaporation of Refrigerants

8.10.3

457

458

Change

8.10.2

456
457

Energy Savings

8.9.4.1

Mechanical

8.10.1

Major

456

Market Factors

8.9.5
Phase

Comparison

with

Reference

Compact
8.9.4

455

455

Webb's PECs: Performance


a

8.11

Flow Enhancement Devices

8.6.4.1

8.6.4.3

8.10

Liquids

Applications

459
459

459
459

460
460

460

Nomenclature

461

References

461

Bibliography

463

Contents

xxii

Chapter 9

Fouling

HOJ

the

Thermohydraulic Performance of Heat Exchangers

465

9.1

Effect of Fouling

9.2

Costs of Heat Exchanger Fouling

467

9.2.1

Oversizing

467

9.2.2

Additional Energy Costs

467

9.2.3

Treatment Cost to Lessen Corrosion and

9.2.4

Lost Production due to Maintenance Schedules and Down

on

Fouling

Time for Maintenance


9.3

Fouling Curves/Modes

9.4

Stages of Fouling
Fouling Model

9.5
9.6

of

467

Fouling

467
468
468

Parameters That Influence

Fouling

Resistances

of Fluids and Usual

Properties

9.6.2
9.6.3

Temperature
Velocity and Hydrodynamic

9.6.4

Tube Material

470

9.6.5

Impurities
Surface Roughness

470

9.6.6
9.6.7

Suspended Solids

9.6.8

More

Placing

9.6.9

Shellside Flow

9.6.10

Type

of Heat

Propensity for Fouling

469
Effects

470

471

Fluid on the Tubeside

471

Exchanger

472

Low-Finned Tube Heat Exchanger

472

9.6.10.2 Heat Transfer Augmentation Devices

472

9.6.10.3

Gasketed Plate Heat

472

9.6.10.4

Spiral Plate Exchangers

Exchangers

472

Seasonal Temperature Changes

472

9.6.12

Equipment Design

472

9.6.13

Heat Exchanger

9.6.14

Heat Transfer Processes like Sensible

Geometry

and

and Orientation

Exchanger

473
with

Improved Shellside

Performance
EMbaffle Heat

472

Heating, Cooling,

Vaporization

Shell and Tube Heat

9.6.15.1

9.10

471

9.6.11

9.6.15

9.9

469

471

Fouling

Condensation,

9.8

469

9.6.1

9.6.10.1

9.7

467

Exchanger
9.6.15.2 Twisted Tube Heat
Exchanger
9.6.15.3 Helixchanger Heat Exchanger
Mechanisms of Fouling
9.7.1
Particulate Fouling
9.7.2
Chemical Reaction Fouling (Polymerization)
9.7.3
Corrosion Fouling
9.7.4
Crystallization or Precipitation Fouling
9.7.4.1
Modeling for Scaling
9.7.5
Biological Fouling
9.7.6
Solidification Fouling or Freezing Fouling
Fouling Data
How Fouling Is Dealt while Designing Heat
Exchangers
9.9.1
Specifying the Fouling Resistances
9.9.2
Oversizing
TEMA Fouling Resistance Values
9.10.1 Research in Fouling

473
473

473
473
474

474
475

475
476
476
476
477

477
477
477
477
478

478

xxiii

Contents

9.11

9.12
9.13

Fouling Monitoring
9.11.1
Fouling Inline Analysis

478

9.11.2

Tube

481

9.11.3

Fouling

Monitors

Monitor

482

Operation

9.11.3.1

Instruments for Monitoring of Fouling

9.11.3.2

Gas-Side

Fouling Measuring Devices

Measures to Be Taken

483

during

Design Stages

the

484

Cleaning Techniques

484

9.14.2

Deposit Analysis

9.14.3

Selection of

9.14.4

485

Appropriate Cleaning

485

Methods

Precautions to Be Taken while Undertaking


485

Cleaning Operation
Off-Line Mechanical Cleaning
9.14.4.1 Manual Cleaning

486
486

Jet

9.14.4.3

Drilling

9.14.4.4

Turbining
Hydro Drilling Action

9.14.4.6

485

Cleaning

9.14.4.2

9.14.4.5

Passing

and

Roding

Brushes

487

of Tubes

487
487

through Exchanger

Tubes

487

Scraper-Type
Blast Cleaning

487

9.14.4.8

9.14.4.9

Soot

488

9.14.4.7

Tube Cleaners

488

Blowing

488

9.14.4.10 Thermal

Cleaning
of Mechanical Cleaning

'.

488

9.14.5

Merits

9.14.6

Chemical Cleaning

489

9.14.6.1

Clean-in-Place Systems

489

9.14.6.2

Choosing

Chemical Cleaning Method

489

9.14.6.3 Chemical Cleaning Solutions

489

9.14.7

General Procedure for Chemical

489

9.14.8

Off-line Chemical

9.14.8.1
9.14.9

9.14.11 Online

Integrated

Cleaning Apparatus

Cleaning

Methods

Cleaning Methods

492
492

492

9.14.12.2 Flow Excursion

492

Bumping

9.14.12.4 Reversing Flow in Heat

491

491

Upstream Filtration (Debris Filter)

9.14.12.3 Air

491
491

Cleaning

Methods

9.14.12 Online Mechanical


9.14.12.1

490

Chemical

of Chemical

Cleaning

Cleaning

Cleaning

Merits of Chemical

9.14.10 Disadvantages

Exchangers

492

9.14.12.5 Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems

493

Technology

494

9.14.12.6 Insert

9.14.12.7 Grit Cleaning

9.17

483

Exchangers

9.16

482

9.14.1

Cleaning

of Heat

9.14.3.1

9.15

482
482

Expert System
Fouling Prevention and Control
9.13.1

9.14

Fouling

478

496

9.14.12.8 Self-Cleaning Heat Exchangers

497

9.14.13 Merits of Online

Cleaning
by Chemical Additives
Control of Fouling from Suspended Solids
Cooling-Water Management for Reduced Fouling

499

Foulant Control

499

9.17.1

Forms of Water-Side

Fouling

501
501

501

Contents

xxiv

9.17.2

9.17.3

Influence of Surface Temperature


Foulant Control

versus

Type

of

Fouling

on

Cooling-Water System

Once-Through System
9.17.3.2 Open Recirculating System
9.17.3.3 Closed Recirculating Systems
9.17.3.4 Online Chemical Control of Cooling-Water Foulants
9.17.3.1

9.17.4

Control of Scale Formation and

Cooling

Chapter

10

502
502

502
502

503

Chemical Means to Control

Scaling

503

9.17.4.2 Electrostatic Scale Controller and Preventer

504

Cleaning of Scales

504

Chemical

9.17.5.1
9.17.6

502

Resistances for Treated

Water

9.17.4.1
9.17.5

Fouling

502

504

Cleaning

504

Iron Oxide Removal

Nomenclature

504

References

505

Bibliography

507

Flow-Induced Vibration of Shell and Tube Heat

10.1

Exchangers

Principles of Flow-Induced Vibration

509

10.1.1

Principles of Flow-Induced Vibration

10.1.2

Possible

10.1.3

Most Probable Regions of Tube Failure

510

10.1.4

Failure Mechanisms

510

10.1.5

Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms

511

10.1.6

Tube

511

Effects of FIV

Damaging

509

on

Response Curve
10.1.7 Dynamical Behavior of Tube Arrays

Heat

in Crossflow

10.1.8

Hydrodynamic

10.1.9

FIV Mechanisms versus Flow Mediums

10.1.10

Approaches

to

Exchangers

Forces

FIV

Analysis

512

Analysis

512

Discussion of Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms

513

10.2.1

513

Vortex

Shedding

10.2.1.1

Single

10.2.1.2

Strouhal Number

10.2.1.3

Vortex

Tube

Shedding

513

513
for Tube Bundles

514

10.2.1.4 Avoiding Resonance

515

10.2.1.5

515

10.2.1.7

due to Vortex

Response
Prediction

10.4

511

512

Calculation of Strouhal Number for Tube Arrays


10.2.1.6 Criteria to Avoid Vortex
Shedding

10.3

510

512

10.1.11 Empirical Nature of Flow-Induced Vibration


10.2

509

Shedding
by Dynamic Analysis

Turbulence-Induced Excitation Mechanism


10.3.1

Turbulence

10.3.2

Turbulent

10.3.3

Owen's

10.3.4

Turbulent Buffeting Excitation

Fluid Elastic

516

Vibration
517
518

518

Buffeting

518

Expression

for Turbulent

Buffeting Frequency

as a

Random Phenomenon

518
519

Instability

519

10.4.1

Fluid Elastic Forces

520

10.4.2

General Characteristics of

10.4.3

Connors' Fluid Elastic Instability


Analytical Model

10.4.4

Instability
Analysis

520

520
521

Contents

xxv

10.4.5

Unsteady Model
10.4.5.1

Displacement

10.4.5.2

10.4.7

10.4.8
10.5

Velocity
Unsteady Model

521

Design Recommendations

522

10.4.6.1

Chen's Criterion

522

10.4.6.2

Au-Yang

10.4.6.2

Guidelines of Pettigrew and Taylor

522

et al. Criteria

523

Acceptance Criteria
Stability Diagrams
of

Principle
10.5.1.1

10.5.2

524

10.5.2.1

10.5.3

Standing

524
on

Sound

for Acoustic Resonance

Blevins

Velocity

Frequency

Expression

527

528
528

Vortex

Shedding Mechanism.
Turbulent Buffeting Mechanism

Acceptance

Criteria for Occurrence of Acoustic Resonance

10.5.4.1

Vortex

10.5.4.2

Turbulent

529
529

Shedding

Buffeting

530

530

10.6.1

Steps of Vibration Evaluation

530

10.6.1.1

531

Caution in

Step

6 for Liquid Flow

Step

6 for Gas Flow

531

Applying Experimentally

Derived Values

for Vibration Evaluation

531

Design

Guidelines for Vibration Prevention

531

10.7.1

Methods to Increase Tube Natural

531

10.7.1.1

Frequency

FIV of Retubed Units

533

10.7.2

Methods

Velocity

534

10.7.3

Suppression of Standing Wave Vibration

535

10.7.3.1

Antivibration Baffles

535

10.7.3.2

Helmholtz

537

to Decrease Crossflow

10.7.3.3

Cavity

Resonator

of Fin Barrier

Concept
Concept of Helical Spacers

537

10.7.3.4
10.7.3.5

Detuning

538

10.7.3.6

Removal of Tubes

538

10.7.3.7

Surface Modification

10.7.3.8

Irregular Spacing

10.7.3.9

Change the Mass Flow Rate

Empirical

Checks for Vibration

Impact and Fretting

Tube Wear Prediction

10.9.2

Theoretical Model

or

539

539
539

by Experimental Techniques

540

539

540

10.10 Determination of Hydrodynamic Mass, Natural Frequency,


and Damping
10.10.1 Added Mass

539

Severity

Wear

10.9.1

538

539

of Tubes

Baffle Damage and Collision Damage


10.8.1

10.9

528

Vibration Evaluation Procedure

10.6.2

10.8

526

10.5.3.1

10.6.1.2

10.7

525

Excitation Mechanisms
10.5.3.2

10.5.4

524
Waves

Effect of Tube Solidity

Expressions

523
523

Acoustic Resonance
10.5.1

10.6

521

Mechanism

10.4.5.3
10.4.6

521
Mechanism

Hydrodynamic

Mass

541
541

10.10.2 Determination of Added Mass Coefficient, Cm, for Single-Phase


Flow

541

Contents

xxvi

Data of Moretti et al

10.10.4

542

Experimental
Frequencies of Tube Bundles

10.10.2.2

10.10.3 Natural

541

Blevins Correlation

10.10.2.1

542

10.10.3.1

Estimation of Natural Frequencies

10.10.3.2

U-Tube Natural

of

Straight

Tubes.... 543

544

Frequency

544

Damping
Determination of Damping

10.10.4.1

545

546

10.10.5 Other Values


10.11

New

Technologies

546

of Antivibration Tools

10.11.1 Antivibration Tube Stakes


10.11.2 ExxonMobil Research and

546

548

Engineering

548

10.12 Software Programs for Analysis of FIV


10. A

Chapter

11

Appendix

A: Calculation Procedure for Shellside

549

Liquids

Nomenclature

556

References

558

Suggested Readings

562

Mechanical

11.1

Design

of Shell and Tube Heat

Exchangers

563

Standards and Codes


11.1.1

563
563

Standards
11.1.1.1

Company

11.1.1.2 Trade

or

Standards

563

Manufacturer's Association Standards

564

11.1.1.3 National Standards


11.1.2

Design
Exchangers
11.1.2.1

11.1.2.2

Design

of Heat

564

TEMA Standards Scope and General Requirements


(Section B-1,RCB-1.1)

564

Scope of TEMA Standards

564

11.1.2.3 Differences among TEMA Classes R, C, and B

565

11.1.2.4

TEMA

565

11.1.2.5

When Do the TEMA Standards


or

11.1.2.6
11.1.3

564

Standards Used for the Mechanical

Engineering

Software

Override the ASME Code

Heat

Exchange

Supplement
Specification?

565

Institute Standards

566

Codes
11.1.3.1

566

ASME Codes

567

11.1.3.2 CODAP
11.1.3.3

572

AD Merkblatter 2000-German Pressure Vessel Code

11.1.3.4

11.2

572
573

11.2.1

574

Fundamentals of Mechanical

Design

11.2.1.1

Information for Mechanical Design


11.2.1.2 Content of Mechanical Design of Shell and Tube Heat

Exchangers
11.2.1.3

Stress

Design Loadings
11.2.1.5 Topics Covered in the Next Sections
Analysis, Classes, and Categories of Stress

11.3.1

Stress Analysis

11.3.2

Classes and
11.3.2.1

Categories

573
574

575

Mechanical Design Procedure

11.2.1.4

11.3

....

UPV: The European Standards EN 13445


Basics of Mechanical Design

577
577
577
577
577

of Stresses

Stress Categories

577
578

xxvii

Contents

11.3.3

11.3.2.2

Stress Classification

578

11.3.2.3

Membrane Stress

578

11.3.2.4

Primary

578

Stress

578

Stress Classification
11.3.3.1

Primary

Membrane Stress,

578

Pm

Primary Bending Stress, Pb


11.3.3.3 Local Membrane Stress, PL

579

11.3.3.4

Stress

579

11.3.3.5 Thermal Stresses

580

11.3.3.6

580

11.3.3.2

11.3.3.7

Secondary
Peak

Stress,

Fatigue Analysis

11.3.5

Design Methods
11.3.5.1

11.3.8

Welded Joints

Plates

582
582

Categories

583

Weld Joint

Types
Exchanger Design

583
583

Pressure

11.3.9.2

Design
Design Temperature

11.3.9.3

Maximum Allowable

584
Pressure

Working
11.3.9.4 Operating Temperature or Working Temperature
11.3.9.5
11.4

Tubesheet
11.4.1

Operating

Pressure

or

Working Pressure

584
584
584

585

Design

585

Fundamentals
11.4.1.1

581
582

Terms in Heat

11.3.9.1

Approach for Clad

Welded Joint Efficiencies

11.3.8.2 Joint

581

581

Combined-Thickness

Key

Design Criteria

ASME Code Section VIII

Allowable Stress

11.3.9

581

Design Criteria

and

11.3.7

11.3.8.3

580

Stresses

580

11.3.6

11.3.8.1

Discontinuity

11.3.4

579

Tubesheet Connection with the Shell and Channel


Tubesheet and

11.4.1.2

Supported

11.4.1.3

Tubesheet Thickness

Unsupported Tubesheet

585

585
585

11.4.1.4 Tubesheet Design Procedure: Historical


11.4.1.5

11.4.2

11.4.3

Background

586

Assumptions in Tubesheet Analysis

587

590

Basis of Tubesheet Design


11.4.2.1

Analytical

11.4.2.2

Design Analysis

Tubesheet

Design

as

590

Treatment of Tubesheets

591

595

per TEMA Standards

11.4.3.1

Tubesheet Formula for

11.4.3.2

Parameter F

595

Bending

596
597

11.4.3.3 Shear Formula RCB-7.133


11.4.3.4

Stress

Category Concept

in TEMA Formula

11.4.3.5 Determination of Effective

Design

598

(RCB-7.16)
11.4.3.6

Equivalent

Differential

Expansion

Pressure, pd
598

(RCB7.161)
11.4.3.7

Differential Pressure

11.4.3.8

Longitudinal Stress Induced

Design,

after Yokell

600

in the Shell and Tube

Bundle
11.4.3.9

598

Pressure, P

601

TEMA Fixed Tubesheet Design with Different


Thickness

603

Contents

xxviii

11.4.4 Tubesheet Design Method

as

per

CODAP and UPV.EN 13443 and

ASME,

Comparison
603

with TEMA Rules


11.4.4.1

Effect of

Ligament Efficiency

and Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint

in Tubesheet Thickness

Strength Calculation

11.4.5
11.4.6

11.4.7

Methodology
Flanged
11.4.6.1

Fixed Tubesheet

11.4.6.2

U-Tube Tubesheet

11.5

or

Floating Tubesheet

Methods of Tubesheet

610
610

Analysis

of Curved Tubesheets

Conventional Double Tubesheet

611
611

Design

End Closures, and Formed Heads under Internal

Pressure

612

Cylindrical
11.5.1.1

Shell under Internal Pressure

Thin Thick

Cylindrical

612

Shells

612

11.5.1.2 Design for External Pressure and/or Internal Vacuum


11.5.2

11.5.3

613

11.5.2.1

Flat Cover

614

11.5.2.2

Hemispherical

614

11.5.2.3

Ellipsoidal

614

11.5.2.4

Torispherical

615

11.5.2.5

Conical

615

Minimum Thickness of Heads and Closures

616

11.5.3.1

617

Flat Cover

11.5.3.3

Heads

Ellipsoidal
Torispherical Heads

617

617

11.5.3.4 Hemispherical Heads


11.5.3.5

Conical Heads and Sections

617

(without

Transition

Knuckle)
11.6

Bolted
11.6.1

Comparison
Flanged

619

11.6.1.3

Constructional Details of Bolted Flange Joints


Design of Bolted Flange Joints

11.6.1.4

Gasket

11.6.1.6

Design
Bolting Design
Flange Design

Step-by-Step
Design
11.6.2.1

Procedure for

619
619
619
620

623
626

629

Integral/Loose/Optional Flanges
633

Data

Required
Step-by-Step Design Procedure

633

11.6.2.3

Taper-Lok Heat Exchanger Closure

637

11.6.2.4

Zero-Gap Flange
Long Weld Neck Assembly

638

11.6.2.2

11.6.2.5

Expansion Joints
11.7.1

619

Design

Construction and Design


11.6.1.1 Flanged Joint Types

11.6.1.5

11.7

618

of Various Heads

Joint

11.6.1.2

11.6.2

613

End Closures and Formed Heads

11.5.3.2

11.5.4

609

611

Advantages

Cylindrical Shell,
11.5.1

609
610

Curved Tubesheets

11.4.8.1
11.4.9

Design

608
Procedure

Rectangular Tubesheet Design


11.4.7.1

11.4.8

to Use ASME Rules

Tubesheets: TEMA

604
605

11.4.4.2 Tubesheet Design Rules

Flexibility

633

639
640

of

Expansion Joints

640

xxix

Contents

11.7.2

Classification of

640

Expansion Joints
or Flanged-and-Flued Head

640

Formed Head

11.7.2.1

11.7.2.2 Bellows
11.7.2.3

or

Deciding

642

Formed Membrane

between Thick- and Thin-Walled

Expansion
644

Joints
11.7.3

Design

of

Expansion

644

Joints

644

Joints

11.7.3.1

Formed Head

11.7.3.2

Finite Element

Expansion
Analysis
11.7.3.3 FEA by Design Consultants
11.7.3.4 Singh and Soler Model
11.7.3.5

Procedure for

Design

645
645
646

of Formed Head

Expansion
647

Joints

Design Procedure

11.7.3.6

11.7.4

Design

of Bellows

or

648

per ASME Code

as

649

Formed Membranes

649

and Cross Section

11.7.4.1

Shapes

11.7.4.2

Bellows Materials

11.7.4.3

Bellows

649

Design: Circular

Expansion

Joints

11.7.4.4 Limitations and Means to Improve the

Operational
649

Capability of Bellows
11.7.4.5
11.8

Fatigue

652

Life

Opening and Nozzles

653

11.8.1

653

Openings

653

Reinforcement Pad

11.8.1.1

11.8.1.2 Reinforced Pad and

11.9

649

Air-Soap Solution Testing

654

11.8.2

Nozzles

11.8.3

Stacked Units

Supports
11.9.1 Design Loads
11.9.2

655
'.

656
656

Saddle Supports

Ring Supports
11.9.2.2 Leg Supports

656

Vertical Vessels

657

11.9.3.1

Supports
11.9.3.2 Lug Supports

657

Ring Support
Procedure for Support Design
11.9.4.1 TEMA Rules for Supports Design (G-7.1)

658

11.9.4.2

11.9.5

655

11.9.2.1

Skirt

11.8.3.3

11.9.4

655

Horizontal Vessel Supports


11.9.2.2

11.9.3

653

Lifting

ASME Code

Devices and Attachments

657

657

658
658
659

659

References

659

Bibliography

663

665

Chapter 12 Corrosion
12.1

Basics of Corrosion

665

12.1.1

Reasons for Corrosion Studies

665

12.1.2

Corrosion Mechanism

666

12.1.2.1

Basic Corrosion Mechanism of Iron in Aerated

Aqueous System

667

Contents

XXX

12.1.3

12.1.3.1

Bimetallic Cell

12.1.3.2

Concentration Cell

668

12.1.3.3

Differential

668
Cells

669

12.1.4

Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Current

669

12.1.5

Corrosion Kinetics

669

12.1.6

Temperature

12.1.5.1

Polarization Effects

12.1.5.2

Passivation

Affecting

Factors

669
670

Corrosion of a Material in

an

Environment

Environmental Factors

12.1.6.1
12.2

668

Forms of Electrochemical Corrosion

672
672

Forms of Corrosion

673

12.2.1

Uniform Corrosion

12.2.2

Factors That Favor Localized Attack

674

12.2.3

Forms of Corrosion

674

versus

Localized Corrosion

General Corrosion

12.2.3.1

Uniform

12.2.3.2

Galvanic Corrosion

12.2.3.3

Pitting

12.2.3.4

Crevice Corrosion

12.2.3.5

or

673

675
680

Corrosion

684

689

Corrosion

Intergranular
Dealloying or Selective Leaching

692

12.2.3.7

Erosion-Corrosion

694

12.2.3.8

Stress Corrosion

701

12.2.3.6

691

Cracking

12.2.3.9

Hydrogen Damage

705

12.2.3.10

706

12.2.3.11

Fretting Corrosion
Corrosion Fatigue

12.2.3.12

Microbiologically

706
Influenced Corrosion

707

12.3

Corrosion of Weldments

711

12.4

Corrosion Prevention and Control

712

12.4.1

Principles

712

12.4.2

Corrosion Control

by Proper Engineering Design


Design Details

713

12.4.2.1

713

12.4.2.2

Preservation of Inbuilt Corrosion Resistance

713

12.4.2.3
12.4.2.4

Design
Weldments,

12.4.2.5

Plant Location

12.4.2.6

Startup and Shutdown


Overdesign

12.4.2.7
12.4.3

of Corrosion Control

to

of

12.4.3.1

713
713
714

Problems

714
714

Inhibitors)

714

Inhibitors

12.4.4

Corrosion-Resistant

12.4.5

Bimetal Concept

12.4.7

Brazed and Soldered Joints

Corrosion Control by Modification of the Environment

(Use

12.4.6

Avoid Various Forms of Corrosion

715

Alloys

717
717

12.4.5.1

Cladding

12.4.5.2

Bimetallic

718
or

Duplex Tubing

718

Protective Coatings

719

12.4.6.1

Plastic

720

12.4.6.2

Effectiveness of Coatings

720

12.4.6.3

Surface Treatment

720

Coatings

Electrochemical Protection (Cathodic and Anodic


12.4.7.1
Principle of Cathodic Protection
12.4.7.2

Anodic Protection

Protection)

720

720
721

Contents

XXXI

12.4.8
12.5

Passivation

722

Corrosion Monitoring
12.5.1

Benefits

12.5.2

Approaches

12.5.3

Corrosion

722
722
722

Corrosion

Monitoring
Monitoring Techniques
to

12.5.3.1

Online

12.5.3.2

Corrosion

723
723

Monitoring Techniques

Monitoring

of Condensers

by Systematic

Examination of the State of the Tubes


12.5.4
12.5.5

12.6

724

Limitations of Corrosion Monitoring

724

Requirements
Cooling-Water Corrosion

for Success of Corrosion

Monitoring Systems

724

725

12.6.1

Corrosion Processes in Water Systems

725

12.6.2

Causes of Corrosion in

Cooling-Water Systems

725

Dissolved Solids and Water Hardness

726

12.6.2.1

12.6.2.2 Chloride

728

12.6.2.3 Sulfates

728

12.6.2.4

728

12.6.2.5 Oil

728

12.6.2.6

728

12.6.2.7

12.6.3

12.6.4

Silica
Iron and

Manganese
Suspended Matter

729

12.6.2.8 Dry Residue

729

12.6.2.9

729

Dissolved Gases

Cooling Systems
12.6.3.1 Once-Through System

732

12.6.3.2 Open Recirculating Systems

733

12.6.3.3 Closed Recirculating

733

Corrosion Control Methods for


12.6.4.1

732

Systems
Cooling-Water Systems

733

Material Selection

734

12.6.4.2 Water Treatment

735

12.6.4.3 Corrosion Inhibitors

735

12.6.4.4

Ferrous Sulfate

735

Dosing

12.6.4.5 Passivation
12.6.5

Influence of

735

Cooling-Water Types

on

Corrosion

12.6.5.1

736

12.6.5.2

Seawater Corrosion

736

12.6.5.3

Brackish Waters

736

12.6.5.4

Boiler Feedwaters

736

12.6.6

Corrosion of Individual Metals in

12.6.7

Forms of Corrosion in

Cooling-Water Systems

Cooling Water

737

Uniform Corrosion

737

12.6.7.2

Galvanic Corrosion

737

Pitting

Corrosion

737

12.6.7.4 Crevice Corrosion

738

12.6.7.5

Stress Corrosion

12.6.7.6

Corrosion

12.6.7.7

Erosion of Tube Inlet

738

12.6.7.8

Dezincification

738

12.6.7.9

Microbiologically

Cracking
Fatigue and Fretting

738
Wear

Induced Corrosion

Material Selection for Condenser Tubes

Operational Maintenance of Condensers and Feedwater


12.6.10 Preventing Corrosion in Automotive Cooling Systems
12.6.9

736

12.6.7.1

12.6.7.3

12.6.8

736

FreshWater

738

738
738
Heaters... 739

739

Contents

xxxii

12.7

Hydrogen Sulfide Environments


Effects of Hydrogen in Steel (ASTM/ASME A/SA

739

Material Selection for


12.7.1

516 Grades
739

60/65/70)

740

in Steel

12.7.2

Sources of

12.7.3

Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
12.7.3.1 Stress-Oriented Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
12.7.3.2 Susceptibility of Steels to HIC

740

12.7.3.3 Prevention of HIC

741

Hydrogen Embrittlement
12.7.4.1 Mechanism of Hydrogen Embrittlement

741

12.7.4.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement of Steel Weldments

742

Hydrogen-Assisted Cracking

742

12.7.4

12.7.5

12.7.5.1

12.7.6

Hydrogen

740
741

741

742

Prevention of HSCC

743

Hydrogen Blistering
12.7.6.1 Susceptible Materials
12.7.6.2 Prevention of Blistering

743
743
743

12.7.6.3

Detection of Blisters in Service

12.7.6.4

Correction of Blistered Condition in Steel

12.7.7

Pressure Vessel Steels for Sour Environments

12.7.8

HIC

Equipment

743
743
743

Testing Specification

References

744

Bibliography

748

Chapter 13 Material
13.1

Material Selection

Material Selection

13.1.2

Review of

13.1.3

Operating
Review of Design

13.1.4

Selection of Material

13.1.5

750
750

Process

750
750

ASME Code Material

750

Requirements

13.1.4.2 Functional Requirements of Materials

751

Evaluation of Materials

760

13.1.5.1

Material Tests

761

13.1.5.2

Materials Evaluation and Selection to Resist Corrosion

761
761

13.1.6

Cost

13.1.7

Possible Failure Modes and

13.1.6.1

Cost-Effective Material Selection

Equipment Design

Damage

761

in Service

Features

762
762

13.2.1

Maintenance

762

13.2.2

Failsafe Features

762

13.2.3

Access for

762

13.2.4

Safety

13.2.5

Equipment
13.1.5.1

13.2.6

13.3

749

Principles

13.1.1

13.1.4.1

13.2

749

Selection and Fabrication

Inspection

763
Life

Component

763
Life

763

Field Trials

763

Raw Material Forms Used in the Construction of Heat


13.3.1
13.3.2

Castings
Forgings

13.3.3

Rods and Bars


13.3.3.1

Exchangers

763
764

764

Pipe Fittings

764
and

Flanges

764

xxxiii

Contents
Bolts and Studs

764

13.3.4.1

Materials for Corrosion-Resistant Fasteners

764

13.3.5

Handling

of Materials

765

13.3.6

Material Selection for Pressure

13.3.4

Boundary Components

765

13.3.6.1

Shell, Channel, Covers,

13.3.6.2

Tubes

765

13.3.6.3

Tubesheet

765

and Bonnets

766

13.3.6.4 Baffles
13.4

Materials for Heat

13.5

Plate Steels

13.5.1

766

Construction

Exchanger

767

Classifications and

Alloy

Designations

of Plate Steels: Carbon and


767

Steels
How Do Plate Steels Gain Their

13.5.1.1
13.5.1.2

Changes

13.5.1.3

ASTM

in Steel

Properties

Specifications

on

due

Properties?
to

Heat Treatment

13.6

Pipes

13.6.2

Selection of Tubes for Heat

13.6.3

Specifications

13.6.4

Defect Detection

13.6.5

Standard

771
772

Exchangers

772

for Tubes

Testing

772

for Tubular Products

772

Testing

772

Hydrostatic

Pressure

13.6.5.2 Pneumatic Test

773

13.6.5.3 Corrosion Tests

773

Mill Scale

13.6.7

ASTM

Weldability

773

Dimensional Tolerance Tests

13.6.6

Hot

773

Specifications for Ferrous Alloys Tubings

774

Cracking
13.7.1.1 Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
13.7.1.2

Underbead

13.7.1.3

Lamellar

13.7.1.4

Fish-Eye Cracking

Factors
13.8.1.1

13.8.2
13.8.3

775

780

Cracking

780

Tearing

783
783

for Hot

Responsible
Segregation

of

Cracking
Low-Melting-Point Elements

784
784

13.8.1.2

Stress States That Induce Restraint

784

13.8.1.3

Mode of Solidification

784

784

Susceptible Alloys
Types of Hot Cracking
13.8.3.1

Solidification

784
784

Cracking

13.8.3.2 Heat-Affected Zone Liquation


13.8.3.3

Cracking

Reheat Cracking or Stress-Relief

13.8.3.4 Ductility Dip

Cracking

13.8.3.6

786

788
788

Crater Cracks

Laboratory Tests to Determining Susceptibility


13.9.1 Weldability Tests
13.9.2 Varestraint (Variable Restraint) Test

786
788

Cracking

13.8.3.5 Chevron Cracking


13.9

773

774

Problems

Cold

Cracking

13.8.1

768

771

Tubing Requirements

13.7.1

767

770

and Tubes

13.6.1

13.6.5.4

13.8

Exchangers

Processing of Plate Steels

13.6.5.1

13.7

767

Plate Steels Used for

Pressure Vessel Fabrications and Heat

13.5.2

765

to

Cracking

788
788

789

Contents

xxxiv

13.9.3

MultiTask Varestraint

13.10 Service-Oriented

Wettability Testing System

Temper Embrittlement
13.11 Welding-Related Failures
13.10.1

Creep

or

Embrittlement

Cast Iron

13.12.2

Steels

791
791
791

13.12.2.1

Process

792

13.12.2.2

Carbon Steels

792

13.12.2.3

Types

of Steel

792

13.12.2.4

Product Forms

792

13.12.2.5

Use of Carbon Steels

793

13.12.2.6

Fabrication

794

Improvements

13.13 Low-Alloy Steels

795

13.13.1

Selection of Steels for Pressure Vessel Construction

795

13.13.2

Low-Alloy

Steels for Pressure Vessel Constructions

796

13.13.2.1

13.13.2.2

Applications of Low-Alloy Steel


Carbon-Molybdenum Steels

13.13.2.3

Carbon-Manganese Steels

Plates

13.13.2.4
13.14

Quenched
13.14.1

and

Carbon-Manganese-Molybdenum Steels
Tempered Steels
and

Properties

796
796
796

797
797

13.14.3

Compositions
Wettability
Joint Design

13.14.4

Preheat

13.14.5

Welding

13.14.6

Postweld Heat Treatment

799

13.14.7

Stress-Relief

800

13.15.1

Composition and Properties


Applications
Creep Strength

800

Welding Metallurgy
13.15.4.1
Joint Design

802

13.15.4.2

Joint Preparation

802

13.15.4.3

Preheating
Welding Processes

802

13.15.4.4

802

13.15.4.5

Filler Metal

802

13.14.2

13.15

790

790

13.12 Selection of Cast Iron and Carbon Steels


13.12.1

790
790

Cracking

798
799
799
799

Processes

799

Cracking
Chromium-Molybdenum Steels
13.15.2

13.15.3
13.15.4

800
801
801
802

13.15.5

Temper

13.15.6

Step-Cooling Heat Treatment


CVN Impact Properties
Temper Embrittlement of Weld Metal

803

13.15.8.1

804

13.15.7
13.15.8

13.15.9

Embrittlement

Control of

Susceptibility

Temper

Larson-Miller

804
804

Embrittlement of Weld Metal

Postweld Heat Treatment (Stress


13.15.9.1

802

Relief)

Tempering

Parameter

804
805

13.15.10

Reheat

13.15.11

Modified 9Cr-lMo Steel

805

13.15.12

Advanced 3Cr-Mo-Ni Steels

805

Cracking

in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V Steels

13.16 Stainless Steels


13.16.1

805

Classification and
13.16.1.1

805

Designation
Designations

of Stainless Steels

806

806

Contents

xxxv

13.16.1.2

ASTM

13.16.1.3

Guidance for Stainless Steel Selection

Specification for Stainless Steels

13.16.2

Martensitic Stainless Steel

13.16.3

Austenitic Stainless Steel

13.16.3.1

13.16.4

13.16.5

13.16.6

806
806

Properties and Metallurgy

13.16.3.2

Types of Austenitic
Alloy Development

13.16.3.3

Stainless Steel for Heat

Stainless Steel

807

Exchanger Applications

Properties

13.16.3.5

Alloying Elements and Microstructure


Alloy Types and Their Applications

of Austenitic Stainless Steels

808
808
809

809

Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance

810

13.16.4.1

Sigma

811

13.16.4.2

Passive

13.16.4.3

Resistance

13.16.4.4

Stainless Steel in Seawater

811

13.16.4.5

Resistance to Various Forms of Corrosion

811

13.16.4.6

Galvanic Corrosion

811

13.16.4.7

Localized Forms of Corrosion

812

13.16.4.8

Pitting Corrosion

812

13.16.4.9

Crevice Corrosion

813

Phase
versus

to

Active Behavior

811

Chemicals

811

13.16.4.10 Stress Corrosion Cracking

814

13.16.4.11

817

Intergranular

Corrosion

13.16.4.12 Knifeline Attack

818

Austenitic Stainless Steel Fabrication

819

13.16.5.1

Pickling

819

13.16.5.2

Passivation

13.16.5.3

Mechanical

13.16.5.4

Gas

819

Cutting

Methods

819

Cutting Method

Austenitic Stainless Steel


13.16.6.1

819

Welding

13.16.6.2

Welding Processes
Welding Methods

13.16.6.3

Filler Metal Selection

820
820

820
821

13.16.6.4

Shielding

13.16.6.5

Weld

Preparation

822

13.16.6.6

Joint

Design
Cleaning

822

13.16.6.7

Preweld

13.16.6.8

Welding Considerations

13.16.6.9

TIG

13.16.6.11

Gases

822

822

823

Welding Techniques
Precipitation

13.16.6.10 Gas

Welding
and

to Overcome Carbide

830

830

Coverage
Practices to

Improve

13.16.6.12 Protection of Weld Metal

Fluxing

to Remove

the Weld Performance

Chromium Oxide

13.16.6.13

Protecting

13.16.6.14

Welding Processes Generate Different

13.16.6.16 Welding
13.16.6.17 Postweld

831

against Oxidation

the Roots of the Welds

against

Weld Defects

Stainless Steels to Dissimilar Metals

Cleaning

13.16.6.18 Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Welds


13.17 Ferritic Stainless Steels
Conventional Ferritic Stainless Steels

831

Oxidation.... 831

13.16.6.15 Postweld Heat Treatment

13.17.1

807
807

13.16.3.4
13.16.3.6

806

832
832

833
833
834

834
834

Contents

xxxvi

13.17.2

Stainless Steels,

Superferritic

13.17.2.1

Superferritic

Duplex

13.17.3.1

835

13.17.3.2

Alloy Composition

835

13.17.3.3

837

13.17.3.4

Applications
Physical Properties

13.17.3.5

Corrosion Resistance

838

13.17.3.6

Fabricability
Welding

839
839

840

Duplex Stainless

13.18.3

Corrosion Resistance of

13.18.4

Process Applications

13.18.6
13.19

of

Composition
Comparison with

13.18.5

837

Stainless Steels

13.18.2

13.18.1

Welding

841

Steels

Austenitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels


Stainless Steels

Duplex

843

Weldability

13.18.5.2

Postweld Stress Relief

Nondestructive Testing

of

845
845

SS

Duplex

Stainless Steels with Mo + N

845

Superaustenitic Steels

846

4.5% Mo

13.19.2

6% Mo Superaustenitic Stainless Steel

846

13.19.2.1

Corrosion Resistance

847

13.19.2.2

Applications

847

13.19.2.3

Welding

848

Corrosion Resistance of Superaustenitic Stainless Steel Welds.... 849


850

13.20 Aluminum

Alloys: Metallurgy
Properties of Aluminum
Aluminum for Heat

13.20.1.2

Wrought Alloy Designations

13.20.1.4

13.20.3

850

13.20.1.1

13.20.1.3

13.20.2

843

843

13.19.1

13.20.1

842

843

Methods

13.18.5.1

Superaustenitic

13.19.3

835
835

Stainless Steel

Characteristics

13.17.3.7
13.18

Superaustenitic

Duplex Stainless Steels

Stainless Steels, and


13.17.3

835

"New" and "Old" Ferritic Stainless Steels

Exchanger Applications

Temper Designation System


Aluminum Alloys
Product Forms and

850
851

of Aluminum and
853

853

Shapes

Corrosion Resistance

853

13.20.2.1

Surface Oxide Film

13.20.2.2

Chemical Nature of Aluminum:

13.20.2.3

Resistance to Waters

854

13.20.2.4

Forms of Corrosion

855

13.20.2.5

Corrosion Prevention and Control Measures

858

on

Aluminum

Passivity

Fabrication

853
854

859

13.20.3.1

Parameters

13.20.3.2

Surface

13.20.3.3

Plate

13.20.3.4

Joint Design

861

13.20.3.5

Joint Geometry

861

13.20.3.6

Preheating

861

13.20.3.7

Wire

862

13.20.3.8

Push

13.20.3.9
13.20.3.10

Aluminum Welding

Affecting
Preparation and Surface
Cutting and Forming

Feeding

Technique
Travel Speed

Shielding

Gas

Cleanliness

859
861

861

862
862

862

xxxvii

Contents

13.20.3.11

Welding Wire

862

13.20.3.12

Convex-Shaped

13.20.3.13

Corrosion Resistance:

862

Welds

Welded, Brazed, and

Soldered Joints
13.20.3.14
13.20.3.15

Welding
Welding

862

Filler Metals

862

Methods

863

13.21 Copper
13.21.1

864

Copper Alloy Designation

864

13.21.1.1

Wrought Alloys

864

13.21.1.2

Heat

864

13.21.1.3

Copper in Steam Generation


Wrought Copper Alloys: Properties

13.21.1.4
13.21.1.5

13.21.2

Copper

865
and

Applications.... 865

Product Forms

868

Corrosion

868

13.21.2.1

Corrosion Resistance

868

13.21.2.2

Galvanic Corrosion

868

13.21.2.3

Pitting

Corrosion

870
870

13.21.2.5

Intergranular
Dealloying (Dezincification)

13.21.2.6

Erosion-Corrosion

872

13.21.2.7

Stress Corrosion

872

13.21.2.8

Condensate Corrosion

873

13.21.2.9

873

13.21.2.10

Deposit Attack
Hot-Spot Corrosion

13.21.2.11

Snake Skin Formation

874

13.21.2.12

Corrosion

13.21.2.13

Biofouling

13.21.2.14

Cooling-Water Applications

874

13.21.2.15

Resistance to Seawater Corrosion

874

13.21.2.16

Sulfide Attack

874

13.21.2.17

Exfoliation

13.21.2.18

Copper and Aquatic

13.21.2.4

13.21.3

Exchanger Applications

Corrosion

871

Cracking

874

874

Fatigue

874

875

Copper Welding
13.21.3.1
Weldability
13.21.3.2
Alloy Classification

875

Life

875

875
from

Weldability

Considerations... 877
879

13.21.3.3

PWHT

13.21.3.4

Dissimilar Metal

879

Welding

13.22 Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys Metallurgy and Properties


13.22.1

Classification of Nickel
13.22.1.1

881

Alloys

Commercially

881

Pure Nickel

13.22.1.2

Nickel-Copper Alloys and Copper-Nickel Alloys

882

13.22.1.3

Inconel and Inco

882

13.22.1.4

Nickel-Iron-Chromium
Inco

13.22.1.5
13.22.2

880

Alloys and
Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloys

for

High-Temperature Applications
Magnetic Properties and Differentiation

Nickel and Nickel-Base


13.22.2.1

Alloy

Alloys:

884
of Nickels

Corrosion Resistance

Galvanic Corrosion
Resistance

885
885

885
886

13.22.2.2

Pitting

13.22.2.3

Intergranular Corrosion

886

13.22.2.4

Stress Corrosion Cracking

887

Contents

xxxviii

13.22.3

13.22.4

Welding
Welding

Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys:

888
Nickel

13.22.3.2

Welding Methods

891

13.22.3.3

Postweld Heat Treatment

892
892

Hastelloy

13.23 Titanium:

Properties

and

892

Metallurgy

Properties That Favor Heat Exchanger Applications


13.23.2 Alloy Specification
13.23.3 Titanium Grades and Alloys

892

Unalloyed Grades
Alloy Grades

893

13.23.3.2
13.23.3.3

ASTM and ASME

13.23.1

13.23.3.1

13.23.4

13.23.5

13.24.2

for Mill Product

Forms

894

895

13.23.4.1

Surface Oxide Film

895

13.23.4.2

General Corrosion

895

13.23.4.3

Resistance to Chemicals and Solutions

896

to Waters

896

13.23.4.4

Resistance

13.23.4.5

Forms of Corrosion

896

13.23.4.6

Thermal Performance

897

13.23.4.7

Fouling

898

13.23.4.8

Applications

898
899

Titanium Fabrication

899

Titanium

13.23.5.1

Welding

13.23.5.2

In-Process

13.23.5.3

Heat Treatment

Forming

Quality

Control and Weld Tests

of Titanium-Clad Steel Plate

903
904

904
904
904

13.24.1.1

Metallurgy
Alloy Classification

13.24.1.2

Limitations of Zirconium

905

Properties

and

904
905

Corrosion Resistance

13.24.3

to Chemicals

13.24.2.1

Resistance

13.24.2.2

Forms of Corrosion

906
906

906

Fabrication
Method

906

13.24.3.1

Welding

13.24.3.2

Weld Metal

13.24.3.3

Weld

Preparation

907

13.24.3.4

Surface Cleaning

907

13.24.3.5

Filler Metals

907

13.24.3.6

Weld

907

13.24.3.7

Shielding

Inspection
Welding of Dissimilar Metals

13.25 Tantalum
13.25.1

893

894

Specifications

13.24 Zirconium
13.24.1

893

Titanium Corrosion Resistance

13.23.5.4

907

907
907

Corrosion Resistance

909

13.25.1.1

Hydrogen Embrittlement

909

13.25.1.2

Resistance

909

to Chemicals

13.25.2

Product Forms and Cost

909

13.25.3

Performance

909

13.25.4

Heat Transfer

versus

Other Materials

909

13.25.5

13.26

888

13.22.3.1

Considerations while

Welding
Graphite, Glass, Teflon,

910
and Ceramics

910

xxxix

Contents

910

13.27 Graphite
13.27.1

Applications

13.27.2

Drawbacks Associated with

13.27.3

Forms of

13.27.4

Shell-and-Tube Heat

13.27.5

Graphite

of

Impervious Graphite

Exchangers

911

Exchangers
Exchanger

911

912

Exchanger

912

13.28 Glass

912

13.28.1

Applications

13.28.2

Mechanical

13.28.3

Construction

Properties

and Resistance to Chemicals

912
912

Types

13.28.3.1

Shell-and-Tube Heat

13.28.3.2

Coil Heat

913

Exchangers

913

13.28.3.3

Exchangers
Hybrid Heat Exchangers

13.28.3.4

Glass-Lined Steel

913

13.28.3.5

Drawbacks of Glass Material

913

913

913

13.29 Teflon

913

13.29.2

Exchanger Material
Heat Exchangers of Teflon in the Chemical Processing Industry

13.29.3

Design Considerations

914

13.29.4

Size/Construction

914

13.29.5

Heat Exchanger Fabrication

13.29.1

13.29.6

Teflon

as

Heat

Fluoropolymer

Resin

915

Development

915
of Ceramics for Heat

13.30.1

Suitability

13.30.2

Classification of

13.30.3

Types

Exchanger

Construction

916

Exchanger Construction
Exchanger Tube

of Ceramic Heat

Hexoloy Silicon Carbide

Heat

916
917

13.32.1

Ductile-Brittle Transition

13.32.2

Structure

13.32.4
13.32.5
13.32.6

915
915

Engineering Ceramics

13.32 Alloys for Subzero Temperatures

13.32.3

914

914

Technology

13.30 Ceramics

13.31

910
911

Heat

Graphite
Plate

Heat

Graphite

Temperature
Determines Low-Temperature

917

Crystal
Requirements of Materials for Low-Temperature Applications
Notch Toughness
Notch Toughness: ASME Code Requirements
13.32.4.1
Selection of Material for Low-Temperature Applications

917

Cryogenic Applications
Aluminum for Cryogenic Applications

918

Materials for Low-Temperature


13.32.6.1

Behavior

and

918
918

918
918

919
920

Copper Alloys
Alloys
High-Nickel Alloys

13.32.6.2

Copper

13.32.6.3

Titanium and Titanium

and

13.32.6.4

Nickel and

13.32.6.5

Carbon Steels and

13.32.6.6

Products Other than Plate

922

13.32.6.7

Austenitic Stainless Steel

922

Alloy

Fabrication of Cryogenic Vessels and Heat

13.32.8

9% Nickel Steel

13.32.8.2

920

Plate Steels

13.32.7

13.32.8.1

920

Exchangers

920

922

923

Merits of 9% Nickel Steel

Forming

of 9% Nickel Steel

923

923

and Scale Removal for

13.32.8.3

Surface

923

13.32.8.4

Welding
Edge Preparation

13.32.8.5

Welding Procedures

923

13.32.8.6

Electrodes

924

Preparation

923

Contents

13.32.10

924

of 9% Ni Steel

Guidelines for

13.32.8.8

Welding Problems with 9% Ni Steel

925

13.32.8.9

Postweld Heat Treatment

925

Charpy

13.32.9.2

Problems in

in

926
926

Cryogenics

926

Checklist

13.32.10.1

927

13.33 Cladding

927

13.33.1

Clad Plate

13.33.2

Cladding

13.33.3

Methods of

927

13.33.3.1

928

13.33.3.3

Cladding
Loose Lining
Resistance Cladding
Lining Using Plug Welding

13.33.3.4

Thermal

928

13.33.3.5

Weld

928

13.33.3.6

Roll Cladding

13.33.3.7

Explosive Cladding

933

Processing

of Clad Plates

936

13.33.4.1

Forming

13.33.4

13.33.5

927

Thickness

13.33.3.2

928
928

Spraying
Overlaying or Weld Surfacing

932

936

of Clad Steel Plates

938

Failure of Clad Material

ASME Code Requirements in Using Clad Material


13.33.6
13.34 Postweld Heat Treatment of Welded Joints in Steel Pressure Vessels and
Heat

Objectives

939

of Heat Treatment

939

of Heat Treatment

13.34.2

Types

13.34.3

Effects of

13.34.4

ASME Code

in Steel

940

and PWHT

Quality
Changes
Requirements for PWHT
Charts for Heat Treatment

13.34.4.1

14

938
938

Exchangers

13.34.1

Chapter

925

925

Impact Properties
Welding

V-Notch

13.32.9.1

Safety

Cryogenic Application

of Austenitic Stainless Steels for

Welding

13.32.9

Welding

13.32.8.7

as

940
per ASME Code

940
940

13.34.5

PWHT

13.34.6

Quality

13.34.7

Methods of PWHT

941

13.34.8

Effectiveness of Heat Treatment

942

13.34.9

Defects due to Heat Treatment

942

13.34.10

Possible

13.34.11

NDT after PWHT

Cycle
Control

during

941

Heat Treatment

Welding-Related

Failures

942
942

References

942

Bibliography

953

Quality Control
14.1

and

Quality Assurance, Inspection,

14.1.1

Quality Assurance
Quality Management in Industry

14.1.2

Quality

Quality

14.1.3

and Nondestructive

Testing

Control and

and

Quality

Aim of

Quality

Assurance

14.1.3.1

Need for

14.1.3.2

Essential Elements of

14.1.3.3

955
955

Control

14.1.2.1

Quality

955

955

Control

956
956

956

QA

Requirements

Quality

Assurance

Program

of QA Programs for Success

956
956

Contents

14.1.3.4

Quality Assurance in Fabrication

of Heat

Exchangers

and Pressure Vessels


14.1.3.5

Contents of

Heat
14.1.4

957

Exchangers

957

ASME Code:

Quality

Quality

Control

959

Details of QA Manuals

960

Main Documents of the Quality System

960

14.1.6.1

Quality Assurance Program

960

14.1.6.2

Operation Process

960

14.1.6.3

Checklist

Sheet

961

14.1.7

Economics of

14.1.8

Review and Evaluation Procedures


14.1.8.1

14.1.9

959

System

Manual

14.1.5.1
14.1.6

956

for Pressure Vessels and

Quality System
14.1.4.1

14.1.5

QAP

Quality

Assurance

961
962
962

14.1.8.2

Auditing
Auditing Procedure

962

14.1.8.3

Contents of an Audit Plan

962

Documentation

962

14.1.10 ISO 9000

963

14.1.10.1

What Is the ISO 9000 Series?

14.1.10.2

14.2

Principles

14.1.10.3

Why

14.1.10.4

Benefits of ISO 9000

14.1.10.5

Listing

14.1.10.6

Total Quality Management

963

ISO 9000?

963

of Selected ISO 9000

963

Quality

Standards

14.2.1

Definitions

14.2.2

Objectives

14.2.4
14.2.5

Design

963
964

of

and

of

964

Inspection

Inspection

964

Guidelines

964

Inspection

Scope

963

964

Inspection

14.2.3

Inspection

of Heat

964

Exchangers

14.2.5.1

Material Control and Raw Material

14.2.5.2

Positive Material Identification

Inspection

965

965

14.2.6

Detailed Checklist for

14.2.7

TEMA Standard for

14.2.8

Master Traveler

966

14.2.9

Scope of Third-Party Inspection

967

14.2.9.1

967

14.2.6.1

14.3

963

of ISO 9000

Components

Checklist for Tubesheet

Inspection

Hold Points and Witness Points

Welding Design
14.3.1

14.3.2

966
966

966

968

Parameters

Affecting Welding Quality


Welding Quality Design

968

14.3.2.1

969

Variables

14.3.3

Scheme of

14.3.4

Standard for
14.3.4.1

Symbols

Affecting Welding Quality


for

Welding

Welding and Welding Design

ASME Code Section IX

968
970
970
970

14.3.5

Selection of Consumables

970

14.3.6

P Numbers

970

14.3.7

Filler Metals

970

14.3.7.1

F Numbers

971

14.3.7.2

A Numbers

971

Contents

...

Xlll

14.3.8

Welding Procedure Qualification: Welding Procedure


Specification and Procedure Qualification Record
14.3.8.1
Welding Procedure Specification
Procedure Qualification Record
14.3.8.2
Welder's Performance Qualification
14.3.8.3

971

971
972
972

972

Requalification
Welding Positions and Qualifications
Defects and Inspection of Weld Quality

14.3.8.4

Welder

972

14.3.8.5
14.3.9

Weld

Weld Defects

14.3.9.2

Causes of Discontinuities

14.3.9.3

General

Nondestructive
14.4.1

973

973

of Defects and Their

Significance
Types
Levels
Weld
Defect
to
Acceptance
Approach

14.3.9.4
14.4

973

(Discontinuities)

14.3.9.1

Testing

976

Capabilities and Limitations


Testing

975

976

Methods

Selection of NDT Methods


14.4.1.1

973

of Nondestructive

976

Methods
Criteria

976

14.4.1.2

Acceptance

14.4.1.3

Cost

976

14.4.1.4

Personnel

979

14.4.2

Inspection Equipment

980

14.4.3

Reference Codes and Standards

980

14.4.3.1

ASME Code Section V: Nondestructive


980

Examination
14.4.4

NDT

Symbols

980

14.4.5

Written Procedures

980

14.4.5.1

Content of NDT Procedures

14.4.5.2

General Details of

14.4.5.3
14.4.6

Requirements

981

in the NDT

Procedure Document

981

Deficiencies in NDT Procedures

982

Visual Examination

982

14.4.6.1

Principle

of VT

14.4.6.2

Merits of Visual Examination

982

983

14.4.6.3

VT Written Procedure

983

14.4.6.4

Reference Document

983

14.4.6.5

Visual Examination:

14.4.6.6

Visual Examination

14.4.6.7

NDT of Raw Materials

14.4.6.8

Visual Examination

Prerequisites

983

983

Equipment

during

983
Various

Stages

of

Fabrication by Welding
14.4.6.9

Developments

in Visual Examination

Instruments
14.4.7

984

Optical
984

Liquid Penetrant Inspection

986

14.4.7.1

Principle

986

14.4.7.2

Applications

987

14.4.7.3

Merits of PT

987

14.4.7.4

Limitations

987

14.4.7.5

Written Procedure

987

14.4.7.6

Standards

988

14.4.7.7

Test Procedure

988

14.4.7.8

Penetrants

988

14.4.7.9

Method

989

Contents

14.4.8

14.4.7.10

Selection of Developer

989

14.4.7.11

Penetrant Application

989

14.4.7.12

Surface

989

14.4.7.13

Excess Penetrant Removal

14.4.7.14

Standardization of Light Levels for Penetrant and

989

Magnetic Inspection

990

14.4.7.15

Evaluation of Indications

990

14.4.7.16

Acceptance Standards

990

14.4.7.17

Postcleaning

14.4.7.18

Recent

Magnetic
14.4.8.1

Particle

990

Developments in
Inspection

PT

990
990

991

14.4.8.2

Principle
Applications

14.4.8.3

Reference Documents

991

14.4.8.4

Test Procedure

991

14.4.8.5

Factors
of the

14.4.9

Preparation

991

Affecting

the Formation and

Magnetic Particles

Appearance

Pattern

991

14.4.8.6

Merits of Magnetic Particle Inspection

992

14.4.8.7

Limitations of the Method

992

14.4.8.8

Written Procedure

992

14.4.8.9

Magnetizing

992

14.4.8.10

Equipment for Magnetic Particle Inspection

993

14.4.8.11

Magnetizing Technique

993

14.4.8.12

994

14.4.8.13

Inspection Medium (Magnetic Particles)


Inspection Method

14.4.8.14

Surface Preparation

995

14.4.8.15

Evaluation of Indications

996

14.4.8.16

Demagnetization

996

14.4.8.17

Record of Test Data

996

14.4.8.18

Interpretation

996

14.4.8.19

Acceptance Standards

996

14.4.8.20

MT Accessories

996

Current

995

Radiographic Testing
14.4.9.1
Principle of Radiography
14.4.9.2
Application

997

14.4.9.3

Radiation Sources

997

14.4.9.4

Merits and Limitations

14.4.9.5

996
997

(X-Rays and Gamma Rays)

998

Test Written Procedure

998

14.4.9.6

Radiographic
Requirements

14.4.9.7

General Procedure in

14.4.9.8

Reference Documents

999

14.4.9.9

Safety

999

14.4.9.10

Identification Marks

999

14.4.9.11

Location Markers

14.4.9.12

Processing

14.4.9.13

Surface

14.4.9.14

14.4.9.15
14.4.9.16
14.4.9.17

of

of

Radiography

Radiography

999

999

X-Ray Films

Preparation
Radiographic Techniques

999

999

999
for Weldments

of Pressure Vessels

1000

Radiography
Radiographic Quality
Recent Developments in Radiography

1002

Full

1001

1004

Contents

xliv

1UU/

14.4.10 Ultrasonic Testing


Test Method
14.4.10.1
14.4.10.2

108

Application of Ultrasonic Technique in Pressure


Vessel Industry

1008

Written Procedure

1009

14.4.10.4

Code Coverage

1009

14.4.10.5

Advantages of Ultrasonic Inspection

1009

14.4.10.6

Limitations of Ultrasonic

Inspection

1010

14.4.10.7

Examination Procedure

14.4.10.8

Surface

14.4.10.9

Probes

1012

14.4.10.10

Couplant

1012

14.4.10.11

Ultrasonic Testing of Welds

14.4.10.12

Examination

14.4.10.13

UT Calculators

14.4.10.3

1010

1012

Preparation

1012
1014

Coverage

1014

1014

Criteria

14.4.10.14

Acceptance

14.4.10.15

Reference Blocks

1014

14.4.10.16

Calibration

1015
Ultrasonic

1015

Testing

14.4.10.17

Phased

14.4.10.18

Fracture Mechanics

1019

What Is New in UT?

1020

14.4.10.19
14.4.11 Acoustical
14.4.11.1

Array

1021

Holography
Comparison

Merits and

of Acoustical

Holography
1021

with Radiography and Ultrasonic Testing


14.4.11.2

Holographic

14.4.12 Acoustic Emission

1021

and Speckle Interferometry

1021

Testing

1021

of Acoustic Emission

14.4.12.1

Principle

14.4.12.2

Emission

14.4.12.3

Kaiser Effect

1022

14.4.12.4

Reference Code

1023

14.4.12.5

Written Procedure

1023

14.4.12.6

AE

1023

14.4.12.7

Signal Analysis
Factors Influencing AE Data
Applications: Role of AE in Inspection

14.4.12.8

14.4.12.9

Types

Testing

1022

and Characteristics

Instrument

1023

1023
and

Quality

Control of Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers.... 1023


14.4.12.10

Merits of Acoustic Emission

1024

Testing

1024

14.4.13 Eddy Current Testing

1025

of Eddy Current Testing

14.4.13.1

Principles

14.4.13.2

Written Procedure

1026

14.4.13.3

ASTM

1026

14.4.13.4

Probes

1026

14.4.13.5

Eddy Current Test Equipment


Signal Processing

1027

14.4.13.6
14.4.13.7

14.4.13.8

Specifications

Inspection or Test Frequency


Flaw Detectability

1027

and Its Effect

on

1028

Variables

14.4.13.9

Operating
Inspection

14.4.13.10

Tube

14.4.13.11

Remote Field

14.4.13.12

Tube

1028
1029

Method for Tube Interior

Inspection

with

Eddy

Inspection

Magnetic

Flux

Leakage

Current Testing

with Near Field Testing

1030

1030
1030

Contents

xlv

14.4.13.13

Tube

Inspection with Internal Rotating Inspection


System for Ferrous and Nonferrous Materials

1033

14.4.13.14

Instrumentation

1033

14.4.13.15

Testing

14.4.13.16

Calibration

14.4.13.17

Merits of ET and Comparison with Other Methods

1034

14.4.13.18

Limitations of Eddy Current

1034

14.4.13.19

Recent Advances in

1034

14.4.13.20

Tubesheet

1035

14.4.14 Leak

Chapter

15

of Weldments

1033
1033

Testing

Eddy Current Testing


Diagram for Windows

Testing

1035

14.4.14.1

Written Procedure

1036

14.4.14.2

Methods of Leak Testing

1036

References

1041

Bibliography

1044

Heat

1045

Exchanger Fabrication

15.1

Introduction to Fabrication of the Shell and Tube Heat

15.2

Details of

15.2.1
15.3

Stages

Exchanger

Manufacturing Drawing

1045

Additional Necessary Entries

1046

of Heat

Exchanger Fabrication

1046

15.3.1

Identification of Materials

15.3.2

Edge Preparation and Rolling of Shell Sections, Tack Welding,


and Alignment for Welding of Longitudinal Seams

15.3.3

1046

15.3.2.1

General Discussion

15.3.2.2

Fabrication of Shell

Plate

Forming of Plates

on

Bending Machines, PWHT,

and

Manipulative

Roll

15.3.3.2

Vertical Plate

15.3.3.3

PWHT of Shells

Bending Machine

Bending

1051
Machine

1051

1051

15.3.3.4

Manipulative Equipment
15.3.4 Welding of Shells, Checking the Dimensions,

15.3.6

1051
and

Subjecting
1051

Radiography

Checking the Circularity of the Shell and the Assembly


Fit, Including Nozzles and Expansion Joints
15.3.5.1 Welding of Nozzles
15.3.5.2 Supports

1053
1053

1053

Tubesheet and Baffle

1054

Tubesheet

Drilling

Drilling

1054

15.3.6.2 Tube Hole Finish


15.3.6.3

1054

of Baffles

1055

Assembly
Assembly of Tube

1056

Drilling

Tube Bundle
15.3.7.1

the

Bundle outside

Exchanger Shell

1056

15.3.7.2

Assembly

of Tube Bundle inside the Shell

15.3.7.3

Tube Nest

Assembly

15.3.7.4 Cautions
15.3.7.5
15.3.8

1052

15.3.5.3 Attachment of Expansion Joints


15.3.6.1

15.3.7

1047

1051

15.3.3.1

Pieces to

1047

1049

Equipment

15.3.5

1045

to

Assembly

Tubesheet to Shell

of

Large Steam Condensers

Exercise while

Inserting Tubes

of U-Tube Bundle

Welding

1058

1059
1059

1059
1060

Contents

xlvi

15.3.9

Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint Fabrication

15.3.9.1

1061

Quality Assurance Program

for Tube-to-Tubesheet

Joint

1062

1062

15.3.9.3

Mock-Up Test
Tube Expansion

15.3.9.4

Requirements

for

Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints.... 1063

15.3.9.5

Tube-to-Tubesheet

15.3.9.2

1063

15.3.9.6

Expanded
Expansion Methods
Rolling Equipment

1064

15.3.9.7

Basic Rolling Process

1064

15.3.9.8

1065

15.3.9.9

Optimum Degree of Expansion


Methods to Check the Degree of Expansion

15.3.9.10

Criterion for

1066

15.3.9.11

Length of Tube Expansion


Full-Depth Rolling

1074

15.3.9.12
15.3.9.13

Size of Tube Holes

1076

Factors

1079

15.3.9.17

Affecting Rolling Process


and Leak Tightness of Rolled Joints
Expanding in Double Tubesheets
Leak Testing

1079

Strength

15.3.9.18

Residual Stresses in Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints

1081

15.3.9.14

15.3.9.15
15.3.9.16

1063

Rolling-in Adequacy

1075

15.3.10 Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint Welding

1081
1082

Various Methods of Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint Welding.... 1083

15.3.10.2

Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
of Sections of

1083

Configuration
Thickness

15.3.10.3

Welding

15.3.10.4

Seal-Welded and Strength-Welded Joints

1093

15.3.10.5

Considerations in Tube-to-Tubesheet

1094

15.3.10.6

Welding

15.3.10.7

Merits of Sequence of Completion of Expanded

Unequal

Welding

of Titanium Tubes to Tubesheet

1096

Full-Depth, Full-Strength Expanding after Welding

15.3.10.9

Ductility

15.3.10.10

Welded

of Welded Joint in Feedwater Heaters

1099

1099
1100

15.3.10.11

Mock-Ups
Inspection of Tube-to-Tubesheet

15.3.10.12

Leak Testing of Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint

15.3.10.13

Brazing

Joint Weld

1100

1102

Method for Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints

15.3.11 Heat Treatment


15.3.11.1

1092

1096

and Welded Joints

1102
1103

With Tubes Welded in One Tubesheet and Left


Free in the Other Tubesheet

1103

15.3.11.2

Both Ends of the Tubes Welded with Tubesheets

1103

15.3.11.3

Heat Treatment: General

1103

Assembly
15.3.12.1

15.3.13

1081

15.3.10.1

15.3.10.8

15.3.12

1066

Requirements

of Channels/End Closures
Bolt

1104

Tightening

1104

Hydrostatic Testing

1104

15.3.13.1

ASME CODE

15.3.13.2

TEMA Standard

15.3.13.3

Hydrostatic Testing: Prerequisites


Improved Method for Hydrostatic Testing

15.3.13.4

Welded

Requirement

Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint

Heaters
15.3.13.5

1104

Requirement

HydroProoFM
15.3.13.6 Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger

1105

1105
of

of Feedwater
1106
1106
1107

xlvii

Contents

15.3.14

Preparation of Heat Exchangers


15.3.14.1

for

1108

Shipment

1108

Painting

15.3.14.2

15.3.15

Nitrogen Filling
Making Up Certificates
15.3.15.1 Foundation Loading Diagrams/Drawings
15.3.15.2 Schematics or Flow Diagrams

1108

1108
1109
1109

15.3.15.3 Installation^ Maintenance, and Operating


15.4

15.5

Forming

Instructions

1109

of Heads and Closures

1109

15.4.1

Forming Methods

1109

15.4.2

Spinning

1109

15.4.3

Pressing

1110

15.4.4

Crown-and-Segment (C and S) Technique

1112

15.4.5

PWHT of Dished Ends

1112

15.4.6

Dimensional Check of Heads

1114

15.4.7

Purchased End Closures

1114

Brazing
15.5.1

1114

Definition and General

Description

of

1114

Brazing

15.5.2

15.6

Brazing Advantages
15.5.3 Disadvantages of Brazing
Elements of Brazing

1114

15.6.1

1115

Joint

15.6.3

15.6.4

15.6.5
15.6.6

15.6.7

Joint Types

1116

15.6.2.1

Composition of Filler Metals

15.6.2.2

Aluminum Filler Metals

15.6.2.3

Copper Fillers

15.6.2.4

Nickel-Based Filler Metals

1117

15.6.2.5

Silver-Based Filler Metals

1117

15.6.2.6

Gold-Based Fillers

1117

15.6.2.7

Forms of Filler Metal

1118

15.6.2.8

Placement of Filler Metal

15.6.2.9

ASME Code

Precleaning

1116
:

Specification

and Surface

1116

1117

1118
for Filler Metals

1118
1118

Preparation

15.6.3.1

Precleaning

1118

15.6.3.2

Scale and Oxide Removal

1118

15.6.3.3

Protection of Precleaned Parts

1119
1119

Fluxing
15.6.4.1

Selection of a Flux

15.6.4.2

Composition

15.6.4.3

Demerits of

Brazing

1119

of the Flux

Brazing Using

Fixturing

1119
Corrosive Fluxes

1119
1U9

Methods

1120

15.6.6.1

Torch Brazing

1120

15.6.6.2

Dip Brazing

1120

15.6.6.3

Furnace

Brazing

1122

15.6.6.4

Vacuum

Brazing

1124

Postbraze

Heating

Cleaning
Braze

Fundamentals of
15.7.1

1116

Filler Metals

Brazing

15.6.7.1
15.7

1115

Design

15.6.1.1
15.6.2

1115

Brazing

Rate

Stopoffs
Process Control

1125
1125
1125

1125

Contents

xlviii

15.7.2

Brazing Temperature

1125

15.7.3

U25

15.7.5

Brazing Time
Temperature Uniformity
Control of Distortion during

Brazing

of Aluminum

15.7.4

15.8

1126

Cycle

1126

1126

15.8.2

Need for Closer Temperature Control


Aluminum Alloys That Can Be Brazed

15.8.3

Elements of Aluminum Brazing

1127

15.8.3.1

Joint Clearance

1127

15.8.3.2

Precleaning

1127

15.8.3.3

Surface Oxide Removal

1127

15.8.3.4

Aluminum Filler Metals

1127

15.8.3.5

Fluxing

1127

15.8.1

15.8.4

15.9

1126
the Furnace

Brazing

Methods

1128

15.8.4.1

Aluminum

15.8.4.2

Furnace

Brazing

15.8.4.3

Brazing

Process

15.8.4.4

Vacuum

Brazing

Brazi ng of Heat-Resistant

15.9.1

Brazing

1127

Dip Brazing

Alloys

of Nickel-Based

15.9.1.1

Brazing

1128

1128
1130
of Aluminum

1132

and Stainless Steel

1135

Alloys

1135

Filler Metals

1135

15.9.2

15.10

Brazing of Cobalt-Based Alloys


15.9.3 Brazing of Stainless Steel
15.9.3.1
Brazeability of Stainless Steel
Quality Control, Inspection, and NDT of Brazed Heat Exchangers
15.10.1 Quality of the Brazed Joints
15.10.1.1
15.10.2

Discontinuities

1138
1139

Visual Examination

1139

15.10.2.2

Leak

1139

Testing

1139
1139

15.11.1 Elements of Soldering

1139

15.11.1.1

Joint Design

1140

15.11.1.2

Tube Joints

1140

15.11.1.3

Tube-to-Header Solder Joints

1140

15.11.1.4

Solders

1140

15.11.1.5

Cleaning

15.11.1.6

Soldering

Fluxes

1141

15.11.1.7

Soldering

Processes

1141

15.11.1.8

Flux Residue Removal

15.11.2 Ultrasonic

15.11.4

1137

15.10.2.1

Brazing Codes and Standards


Soldering of Heat Exchangers

15.11.3

1136

1138

Inspection

15.10.3

15.11

1136
1136

Soldering

and

Descaling

1142

of Aluminum Heat

15.11.2.1

Material That Can Be

15.11.2.2

Basic Processes for

Quality Control, Inspection,


Nondestructive Testing

1141

Exchangers

Ultrasonically

Soldered

Soldering All-Aluminum Coils


Testing

and

1142
1143
1143
1146

1146

15.11.4.1

Visual Inspection

1146

15.11.4.2

Discontinuities

15.11.4.3

1146

Removal of Residual Flux


Pressure and Leak Testing

15.11.4.4
15.11.4.5

Destructive

Testing

1146

1147
1147

xlix

Contents

15.12 Corrosion of Brazed and Soldered Joints

15.12.1 Factors

Affecting Corrosion

1147

of Brazed Joints

1147

15.12.2 Corrosion of the Aluminum Brazed Joint

1147

15.12.2.1

Galvanic Corrosion Resistance

1147

15.12.2.2

Influence of Brazing Process

1148

15.12.3 Corrosion of Soldered Joints

1149

15.12.3.1

Solder Bloom Corrosion

15.12.3.2

Manufacturing

1149

Procedures to Control Solder

Bloom Corrosion

1149

15.13 Evaluation of Design and Materials of Automotive Radiators


15.13.1 Mechanical

Durability Tests

1150

15.13.2 Tests for Corrosion Resistance

15.14

15.A

1149
1150

15.13.2.1

External Corrosion Tests

1150

15.13.2.2

Internal Corrosion Tests

1150

CuproBraze Heat Exchanger

1151

15.14.1 Round Tube

1151

versus

Flat Tube

15.14.1.1

Tube Fabrication

1151

15.14.1.2

High-Performance Coatings

1151

Appendix

1151

References

1162

Suggested Reading

1165

Chapter 16 Heat Exchanger Installation, Operation,

and Maintenance

1167

16.1

Storage

16.2

Installation

16.3

Operation

1168

16.4

Maintenance

1169

16.5

Periodical Inspection of Unit

1169

16.6

Indications of

16.7

Deterioration of Heat
16.7.1

1168
1168

.'

1169

Fouling

Exchanger

Air-Cooled Heat
16.7.1.1

Performance

1170

Exchangers
Original Design Performance Data of

1170

Determine the

the ACHE

1170

16.7.1.2 Inspect the Heat Exchanger Unit

1170

16.7.1.3 Determine the Current ACHE Performance and Set


Baseline
16.7.1.4

Install

1170

1170

Upgrades

16.7.1.5 Tube Bundle


16.7.2

Shell and Tube Heat


16.7.2.1

Exchanger

Quality Auditing

16.7.2.2 Leak Detection:


16.7.2.3
16.7.3

16.8

1171

of

Weep-Hole Inspection

Tube Bundle Removal and

Brazed Aluminum Plate-Fin Heat


16.7.3.1

Leak Detection

16.7.3.2

Repair of Leaks

NDT Methods to

and Pressure

1171

Existing Heat Exchanger

Inspect and Assess


Vessel Components

16.8.1

Ultrasonic Internal

16.8.2

Remote Field

1171
1171
1172

Handling

1181

Exchanger

1181
1181
the Condition of Heat

Rotary Inspection System

Eddy Current Testing

Exchanger
1182

1182
1182

Contents

16.9

16.8.3

Eddy

16.8.4

Tubes

Current

1183

Residual Life Assessment of Heat

Exchangers by

Techniques

Creep

Ultrasonic Method Based

on

Backscatter and

Velocity

Ratio

Measurement

1184

Pulsed

1184

Currents

Eddy
16.9.4 Flash Radiography
16.9.5 Low-Frequency Electromagnetic

1184
Test

1184

Photon-Induced Positron Annihilation and Distributed Source


Positron Annihilation

1185
1185

16.9.6.1

Replication Techniques
16.9.6.2 Creep Determinations by

Nondestructive

Method

1185

16.10.1 Failure Modes


16.11 Professional Service Providers for Heat

Testing
1185

16.10 Pressure Vessel Failure

References

1183
1184

16.9.2

16.9.6

NDT

Waves

16.9.1

16.9.3

1182

Testing

1185

Exchangers

1185

1186
1187