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LAB3: AIR PARTICLE

Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................... 2
Objectives.................................................................................................................... 3
Apparatus..................................................................................................................... 3
Procedure..................................................................................................................... 4
Result.......................................................................................................................... 5
Discussion.................................................................................................................... 6
Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 6
Recommendation.......................................................................................................... 6
References................................................................................................................... 7
Appendix...................................................................................................................... 8

Introduction

Airbone particles are referred to as Particulate matters. Normally it represents a broad


class of chemically and physically diverse substance. Particles can be described by size,
formation mechanism, organism, origin, chemical composition, atmospheric behavior and
method of measurement. The concentration of particles in the air varies across space and time,
and is related to the source of the particles and the transformation that occur in the atmosphere.

Airborne particles are very fine particles made up of either solid or liquid matter that can
stay suspended in the air and spread with the wind. Airborne particle size varies greatly, and
they are often measured in microns, meaning it is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked
eye. Sources of airborne particles can be natural, such as the dust and smoke created by
volcanic eruptions and forest fires, or man-made, such as the soot from the burning of coal in a
power plant or the residual oil particles in vehicle exhaust fumes. Scientific studies show that
these particle pollution can cause health problems in humans and affect the Earth's climate.

A common measurement used for an airborne particle is micron, also called a


micrometer. One micron is one-millionth of a meter (39.37 inches). Airborne dust particles are
often at least 1 micron in diameter. The particles that make up fumes can be as small as 0.1
micrometers, while the water droplets in mist can vary from 2-50 micrometers in size. Very small
airborne particles can stay suspended in the air for years and spread over great distances, while
large particles usually settle on the ground after a short time. General size fraction of particulate
matters:

PM 10

defined as well all particles equal and less than 10 micron in aerodynamic

diameter, particles larger than this are not generally deposited in lung.

PM 25

PM 1025

known as fine fraction particles with an aerodynamics diameter of 2.5 or less.


is a coarse fraction particles with an aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 but

equal to or less than a nominal of 10 microns.

Ultrafine particles generally define as those less than 0.1 microns.

Fine and coarse particles are distinct in term of the emission sources, formation processes,
chemical composition atmospheric residence times transport distance and other parameter.

Fine particles are directly emitted from combustion source and are also form secondarily from
gaseous from precursor such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide or organic compound. Fine
particles are generally composed of sulphate, nitrate, chloride and ammonium compound,
organic and elemental carbon and metal.
Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By reducing air pollution levels,
countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both
chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. The Air Pollution Index (API) is a
simple and generalized way to describe the air quality, which is used in Malaysia.
Table 1 Air Pollution Index (API) as Health classifications used by the Malaysian
government.
API
0-50
51-100
101-200
201-300
301-500
500+

Air pollution level


Good
Moderate
Unhealthy
Very unhealthy
Hazardous
Emergency

Objectives
To make students understand and implement suitable method to prove the existing of
particles in surrounding area.
To test the quality of air by measuring the number of air particles from different locations.

Apparatus
1. Double Sided Tape
2. Rope
3. Cardboard
4. Scissor
5. Stapler
6. Weight Balance

Procedure

1
.

The trap box with double side tape was prepared


with dimension 18 cm width and 17 cm length. There
are 4 trap boxes and each box was mark as A ,B,C
and D.

2
.

Each trap box was weight to get an initial weight.


(W1)

3
.

The trap boxes different mark then was put at


different placed. 2 indoor and 2 outdoor. Sample A at
living room, sample B at lab computer 2, sample C at
apartment stairs and sample D at corridor.

4
.

The 4 trap boxes were placed and leave for 5 days.

5
.

The weight was taken after 5 days for each box trap
to get W2. Data was recorded.

Result
SAMPLE
LOCATION A
(LIVING ROOM)
LOCATION B
(COMPUTER
LAB)
LOCATION C
(APARTMENT
STAIRS)
LOCATION D
(CORRIDOR)

INITIAL
WEIGHT (g)
15.353
15.354
15.353
15.352
15.352
15.351
14.451
14.452
14.452
15.350
15.351
15.350

AVERAGE (g)

15.353
15.352

14.452

15.350

CALCULATION :
Weight of solid particle = final weight initial weight

LOCATION A (LIVING ROOM)


15.873g 15.353g = 0.52 g

LOCATION B (COMPUTER LAB)


15.851g 15.352g = 0.49 g

LOCATION C (APARTMENT STAIRS)


15.361g 14.452g = 0.91 g

LOCATION D (CORRIDOR)
15.961g 15.350 = 0.61 g

FINAL WEIGHT
(g)
15.873
15.873
15.872
15.851
15.851
15.852
15.361
15.362
15.361
15.960
15.961
15.961

AVERAGE (g)

15.873
15.851

15.361

15.961

Discussion
There are many composition of air particle that we breathe every day. They include dust,
dirt, smoke and liquid droplets. Some of them are large enough or dark enough to be seen while
other are so small that they can only be seen by the microscope. There are several of sources
that emitted particles either natural or related to human activity. Naturals sources could come
from bushfires, dust storms, pollens, and sea spray, while sources related to human activity
include motor vehicle emission, industrial processes, unpaved roads and wood heaters.
From this experiment we obtained the result of air particles at 4 different locations, which
are at the living room, computer lab, apartment stair and corridor. Apartment stair contain more
air particles rather than location which is 0.91 g compared to other location. From the result we
could say that the air in is more dusty than which due to people who walking upstairs and
downstairs and could bring in more dust when they accessing the stair.
Human who are exposed to the particles pollution may be affected by the number of
health problems. Some of the example is respiratory illness. (Asthma and bronchitis) and also
cardiovascular diseases. While some chemical components, particularly combustion products
may lead to cancer. Furthermore, a serious particles pollution may reduce visibility which affect
the safety of traffics and natural landscape.
Conclusion
From the experiment conducted, the value of solid particle at apartment stair has more air
particle than other location. This result show that has more air particle in the air and more dusty.
It create an uncomfortable environment area. There are certain way to reduce particular matter
in the air by installing a new filter in the air conditioner, buying an ionizer, a more effective
vacuum or a carpet.
Recommendation
1.
2.
3.
4.

Use the suitable material to prove the existing of particles in surrounding area.
Place the traps more than 5 days to get a good result.
Place the traps at suitable place to get a good result.
Place at suitable place to prevent from weather such as rain.

References

Fathi zereini, Clare S., Wisemen (2010) urban airbone particulate matter Germany
C.C. Lee (2006) Environmental Engineering Discovery (4th ed) United Kingdom
Air info now: What is Particulate Matter? retrieved on April 5, 2015 from
http://www.airinfonow.org/html/ed_particulate.html

Appendix

SAMPLE A

LIVING ROOM

SAMPLE B

COMPUTER LAB

SAMPLE C

APARTMENT STAIRS

SAMPLE D

CORRIDOR

Double sided tape was used to trap the air


particles in the air.

Blue cardboard was used as a frame to be


stick with the double sided tape.

String or rope was used to tight and hold the


cardboard to be place on certain location
such as at the apartment stairs and living
rooms.

A picture of a complete model to use in the


air particle laboratory.