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STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPT. OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND

GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

_________________
Student Signature

Name

Matric No. :
Date

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

1/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

1.0 OBJECTIVE
The sieve analysis determines the grain size distribution curve of soil sample by passing them
through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh opening sizes and by measuring the weight retained
on each sieve. The sieve analysis is generally applied to the soil fraction larger than 75m.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME


At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
2.1 Understand the methods used to determine the size of soil particles in the laboratory;
2.2 Carry out the calculation processes used in particle size determination;
2.3 Understand the methods used to determine the consistency properties of fine grained soils
in the laboratory;
2.4 Carry out the calculation and plotting processes used in consistency limit methods of
classification;
2.5 Appreciate the way in which particle size and consistency properties are used to classify
and predict the probable behavior of soils and also to indicate the type of tests needed to
assess their engineering characteristics.
3.0 THEORY
(BS1377 : Part 2:1990:9.3), Sieving can be performed in either wet or dry conditions. Dry
sieving is used only for soil with a negligible amount of plastic fines such as gravels and clean
sands, where as wet sieving is applied to soils with plastic fines. According to the British
Standard, dry sieving may be carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the
same results as the wet-sieving procedure. This means that it is applicable only to clean
granular materials, which usually implies clean sandy or gravelly soils that is, soils containing
negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size. Normally the wet-sieving procedure should
be followed for all soils. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant
amounts, the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some
stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving.

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

2/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

BS 1377: 1990, allows either wet or dry sieving to be used, but the wet method is preferred. After
oven drying, the test sample mass is determine before being separated into two parts, the first
comprises that retained on a 20 mm sieve and the second that passing 20 mm. That greater than 20
mm is dry sieves, while that smaller is wet sieve prior to being re-sieved dry. The sieves used are
generally chosen from the range (in mm) of 75, 63, 50, 37.5, 28, 20, 14, 10, 63.5, 3.35, 2, 1.18, 0.6,
0.425, 0.3, 0.212, 0.15 and 0.063. The mass retained on each sieve is recorded, from which the
percentage of the sample passing each sieve can be calculated. Material passing the 63 micron
(0.063 mm) sieve is retained for a fine particle analysis, if the amount justifies the further test. The
combined results of the coarse and fine analyses are plotted on a semi-logarithmic graph of the form
show in Figure 1.0, to give the particle size distribution curve.

Figure 1 : Particle

size grading curves of some typical soil

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

3/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS


1. Series of standard sieves with opening ranging from 7.5cm to 75m including a cover plate and
bottom pan.
2. Test sieve having the following aperture size 10mm, 6mm, 1mm, 0.6mm, 0.3mm, 0.15mm,
0.063 mm.
3. Mechanical sieve shaker
4. Balances sensitive 0.5g
5. Soft wire brush

Figure 2 : Typical stack of sieve for grain size analysis

5.0 PROCEDURES
1. Oven dry the sample, allow it to cool and measure its weight.
2. Select a stack of sieves suitable to the soil being tested. A stack of six or seven sieves is
generally sufficient for most soil and applications. The top sieves soil should have and
opening slightly larger than the largest particles. Arrange the stack of sieves so that the
largest mesh opening is at the top and the smallest is at the bottom.
3. Attach a pan at the bottom of the sieve stack. Pour the sample on the top sieve. Add the
cover plate to avoid dust and loss of particles while shaking.

Figure 3: The soil sample is poured on the stack of sieves

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMEN
T DATE:

4/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

4. Place the stack of sieves in the mechanical shaker and shake for about 10 min or until
additional shaking does not produce appreciable changes in the amounts of material
retained in each sieve.
5. Remove the stack of sieves from the shaker. Beginning with the top sieve, transfer its
contents to a piece of the paper or a larger recipient. Carefully empty the sieve without losing
any material, and use a brush to remove grains stuck in its mesh opening. Measure the
weight of soil retained in each sieve and notes the corresponding sieve mesh opening and
number.

Figure 4: The soil particles stuck in the mesh opening of the sieves are removed with a brush
6. Repeat step 5 for each sieve. As a preliminary check, the weights retained on all the sieves
and the bottom pan are added, and their sum is compared to the initial sample weight. Both
weights should be within about 1% if the difference is greater than 1% too much material
was lost and weighing and or sieves should be repeated.

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMEN
T DATE:

5/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

6.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Data : Total mass of dry sample = 500 g


Sieve BS (mm)

Mass Retained (g)

Mass Passing (g)

% finer by weight

5.00

5.00

495.00

99.00

2.00

35.90

459.10

91.82

1.180

92.40

366.70

73.34

0.600

73.00

293.70

58.74

0.425

17.50

276.20

55.24

0.300

11.40

264.80

52.96

0.212

8.40

256.40

51.28

0.150

7.70

248.70

49.74

0.63

14.40

234.30

46.86

Pan

234.30

0.00

0.00

Total mass

500 g

Lost

From the data, plot a graph partical size versus percentage passing.

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION


120

% PASSING

100
80
60
40
20
0
0.01

0.1

1
GRAIN SIZE

10

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

6/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

7.0 DATA SHEET:

Location :
Soil description:
Sample type :
Operator :

Loc. No. :
Sample No.
Depth of Sample :
Date Started :

Sieve no.

Mass

Mass

Cummulative

size (mm)

Retained (g)

Passing (g)

Percentage passing (%)

5.00
2.00
1.180
0.600
0.425
0.300
0.212
0.150
0.63
Pan
Total

% Passing

= 100 - % Retained.

Mass of dry sample =


Plot particles size distribution chart.
d 60
Cu
= ____________ .
d 10
2

Cc

d30
=___________.
d 60d10

gram

Taburan Saiz Zarah


100
90

Penjumlahan Kumulatif (%)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.001

0.01

0.1

1
Saiz Zarah (mm)

10

100

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

7/7

1/01/14
1/01/15

8.0 QUESTIONS :
1. What is the purpose of grain size analysis?
2. Under what conditions should you use wet sieving instead of dry sieving?
3. What is the smallest and largest mesh openings used in practice for determining grain size
distribution?
4. Is it possible to carry out a sieve analysis on a sample of clay?
5. Classify the type of soil that you use in the laboratory according to BS 5930.

9.0 SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BS 5930)

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