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Charactertistics & Overview of Plants:

All plants are multicellular & contain chlorophyll.

Plants are autotrophs that can manufacture their own food.
Plants also release oxygen needed by consumers
Many medicines are produced by plants
Plants are very diverse & may be terrestrial or aquatic
Vary in size from 1 mm in width to more than 328 feet
May live a few weeks or some over 5000 years

Forms of Plants


1. Texture & Habit



Tall, woody plants with a single main stem called trunk and
usually the height exceeds 5 meters.
Woody plants without a single main stem & usually less than
5 meters in height.
Soft stemmed plants or non-woody plants
Those that grow upward
Those that creep along the surface


2. Position of Growth

3. Longevity

4. Habitat

5. Water Requirement
6. Shading of Leaves


Those that climb larger objects by means of twiner or thorns.

Live for a single growing season usually less than a year
Live through two seasons usually more than a year but not
more than 2 years
Continue to grow for many years.
Lives in land or soil
Lives in air usually attached to other objects or plants
Lives in water either marine or freshwater
Lives on bodies of other organisms
Requires abundant water
Thrive under moderate supply of water
Thrive under dry environment
Those in which leaves fall off in branches at the end of
growing season
Those in which leaves persists for several seasons, often 4
years or longer.


Classification of Plants
Division Bryophyta

Division Tracheophyta

Do not have conducting vessels (xylem &

phloem) to carry materials throughout the
plant tissues

Have conducting vessels (xylem & phloem) to

carry materials throughout the plant tissues

Subdivision Pteridophyta
Plants reproduce by spores. Ex. Ferns (Nonseed bearing plants)

Plants reproduce by seeds. (Seed-bearing

Do not bear flowers with most
seeds found in cones

Bear flowers with most seeds
enclosed in a fruit

Class Monocotyledonae

Class Dicotyledonae







Plant Structure & Function

Vascular Tissues - are composed of specialized cells that create tubes through which materials can flow
throughout the plant body. These vessels are continuous throughout the plant, allowing for the efficient and
controlled distribution of water and nutrients.

Xylem - consists of a pipeline of dead cells arranged end to end for water and mineral transport.
When the cells that form xylem die at maturity, the nucleus and cytoplasm disintegrate, leaving a hollow
tunnel through which fluids can move. The xylem carries water and dissolved minerals upward from the
roots through the stem and leaves of the plant.
Phloem - are composed of living cells at maturity and can carry materials such as sugars both up and
down the plant body.

Anchor and support plants
Absorb and conduct water and minerals
Store products of photosynthesis (sugars, carbohydrates & proteins)
Zones of Root
Zone of maturation Pipeline section of the roots, conducting
water and nutrients from the root hairs up to the stems.
Zone of elongation Area where new cells are enlarging
Meristematic zone
Root tip meristem Region of cell division that supports root elongation, found at the
root tips just behind the root cap.
Root cap A thimble-shaped group of thick-walled cells at the root tip serves as a hard
hat to push though soil. The root cap protects the tender meristem tissues.
Modification of Roots
Specialized Function
Nature of Specialization
1. Support
Brace Roots Aerial roots arising from the main stem & penetrate in the
Prop Roots Aerial roots arising from branches & penetrate in the ground.
Clinging Roots Aerial roots that attach to some kind of support.
Buttresses Plant-like extensions from lower part of the stem.
2. Food Storage
Enlarge, fleshy & succulent roots like in radish
3. Photosynthesis
Green aerial roots like in the orchids
4. Reproduction
Development of adventitious buds
5. Protection
Presence of spines

6. Aeration

Development of pneumatophores (roots with spongy tissues protruding

above the ground or water.

Framework for leaves, flowers and seeds
Continuation of vascular system carrying water and minerals from the soil, and sugars manufactured in
leaves throughout the plant.
Green stems also manufacture food (photosynthesis).
Food storage
Features of Stem
Apical meristem Tissues at the tip of a stem capable of cell division, gives rise to stem
Epidermis Outer layer of wax-coated cells that provides protection and covering
Bud A stem's primary growing point. Buds can be either leaf buds
(vegetative) or flower buds (reproductive).
Terminal bud Bud at the tip of a stem.
Lateral buds grow from the leaf axils on the side of a stem.
Bud scales A modified leaf protecting and covering a bud.
Naked bud Bud without a protective bud scale;
Leaf Scar - Mark left on stem where leaf was attached.
Lenticel Openings of stem that allow for gas exchange
Node Segment of stem where leaves and lateral buds are attached.

Note: Roots do not have nodes.

Internode Section of a stem between two nodes

Bark Protective outer tissue that develops with age.

Modification of Stems
Specialized Function
1. Unusual Support

2. Storage

3. Photosynthesis
4. Reproduction

5. Protection

Nature of Specialization
Bulbs-are rosette stems surrounded by fleshy leaves that store nutrients. Ex.
Onion bulb
Rhizomes - are underground stems that grow near the soil surface. They
store food for renewing growth of the shoot after periods of stress. Ex.
Tubers-are swollen regions of stems that store food for subsequent
growth. Ex. Potato
Green stems
Phylloclades green, flattened & thin leaf-like structures. Ex. Cactus stem
Buds & plantlets that develop from stolons (like in grasses) & corms (like in
Presence of thorns. Ex. Bougainvilla stem

Major site for photosynthesis

Transpiration (Evaporation of water) from the leaves moves water and nutrients up from the roots.

Small openings on the leaf, known as stomata regulate moisture and gas exchange (water and carbon
dioxide) and temperature (cooling effect as water vapor escapes through stomata).

Features of Leaves
Epidermis Outer layer of tissues
Cuticle Waxy protective outer layer of epidermis that prevents water loss on leaves,
green stems, and fruits. The amount of cutin or wax increases with light intensity.
Leaf hairs part of the epidermis that function in protection
Stomata - Natural openings in leaves and herbaceous stems that allow for gas exchange
Guard cells Specialized kidney-shaped cells that open and close the stomata.
Chloroplasts - Photosynthetic structures in leaves and other
green tissues. It contain chlorophyll, a green plant pigment
that captures the energy in light and begins the
transformation of that energy together with CO2 into sugars.
Leaf blade Flattened part of the leaf
Petiole Leaf stalk
Stipules Leaf-like appendages at the base of the leaf.
Modification of Leaves
Specialized Function
1. Support

2. Absorption
3. Attraction

4. Reproduction

5. Protection

6. Storage

Nature of Specialization
Supporting leaf bases that grow
close together to form a false trunk
Epidermis doesnt contain cuticle
Insectivorous leaves
Bright colors of the entire or a
portion of leaf blade.
Petalloid bracts
Buds or plantlets that grows at
certain part of the leaves
Bud scales
Leaves that moves
Spiny leaves
Leaves reduced to spines
Fleshy or thickened leaves

Garlic vine
Water Hyacinth/Lily

Pitcher plant
San Francisco

Rubber plant
Aloe vera

Mainly function for reproduction that begins with pollination and fertilization.
Attracts and rewards pollinators.
Essential Parts
Pistil Central female organ of the flower. It is generally bowling-pin shaped and located in the center
of the flower. Collectively known as Gynoecium.
Stigma Receives pollen, typically flattened and sticky
Style A structure that connects between stigma and ovary
Ovary Contains ovules or embryo sacs

Ovules Contains the egg cell. Sometimes called

immature seeds
Stamen Male flower organ. Collectively known as
Anthers Site for pollen grains production
Filament A stalk supporting the anthers

Accessory Parts
Petals Usually colorful and showy structures that
pollinators such as insects. It is collectively called the
They may
contain perfume and nectars that reward the pollinators.
Sepals Protective leaf-like structures that enclose the developing flower buds, usually green & is
collectively called calyx. Sometimes highly colored like the petals.
Receptacle Base of the flower.
Peduncle Flower stalk that supports the flower.
Terms Defining Flower Parts
Terms referring to flowers
Complete Flower Flower containing sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil
Incomplete Flower Flower lacking sepals, petals, stamens, or pistils
Perfect Flower Flowers containing male and female parts
Imperfect Flower Flowers that lack either male or female parts
Pistillate Flowers containing only female parts
Staminate Flowers containing only male parts

Terms referring to plants

Hermaphroditic Plants Plants with perfect flowers
Monoecious Plants Plants with separate male flowers and female flowers on the same plant (corn)
Dioecious Plants Plants with male flowers and female flowers on separate plants (Papaya)
Gynoecious Plants Plants with only female flowers
Andromonoecious Plants Plants with only male flowers

Fertilization In Plants

After pollen is
deposited on the stigma,
it must germinate and
grow through the style to
reach the ovule. The the
pollen, contain two cells:
the pollen tube cell and
the generative cell. The
pollen tube cell grows
into a pollen tube
generative cell travels.
The germination of the
water, oxygen, and certain chemical signals. As it travels through the style to reach the embryo sac, the pollen
tubes growth is supported by the tissues of the style. During this process, the generative cell divides to form
two sperm cells. Of the two sperm cells, one sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a diploid zygote; the other
sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei, forming a triploid endosperm. Together, these two fertilization events
in angiosperms are known as double fertilization. After fertilization is complete, no other sperm can enter.
The fertilized ovule forms the seed, whereas the tissues of the ovary become the fruit, usually enveloping the

Related Terms:
Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the flower.
Self-Pollination the transfer of pollen grains in the same flower.
Cross Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from one plant to another plant.

Matured or ripened ovary that usually develops after fertilization.
It usually functions in seed dispersal
Structures of Fruit
Pericarp the wall of the ovary and is divided into 3 distinct parts.
Exocarp outermost layer of the pericarp & may be tought, soft,
hard, or fleshy.
Mesocarp the middle layer of the fruit and is usually fleshy, soft or
Endocarp innermost layer of the fruit.
Placenta a structure where seeds are attached.
Types of Fruit
Simple Fruit A fruit develops from single flower & ovary (Ex. Avocado)
Aggregate Fruit A fruit develops from many ovaries in a single flower. (Ex.Strawberry)
Multiple Fruit A fruit develops from many ovaries & flowers (Ex. Pineapple)
Dehiscent Fruit A fruit that splits at maturity (Ex. Ipil-ipil)

Matured or fertilized ovule.
Function in protection and nourishment of plant embryo.
Seed Dormancy - State of suspended growth to survive under adverse or harsh conditions.
Seed Dispersal Transfer of seeds from the parent plant to other places.
Structures of Seed
Testa or Seed Coat the outermost covering of the seed that is usually tough & hard for
protection to embryonic plant.

Tegumen the inner seedcoat and is usually thinner & more delicate.
Funiculus or Seed stalk holds the seeds within the placenta.
Endosperm a triploid structure of seed that stores food.
Embryo Immature plant
Cotyledon Food storing seed leaf
Plumule Shoot
Hypocotyl first stem
Radicle first root
Epicotyl first leaves

Seed Germination Sprouting of seedling from a seed.

Germination starts when a seed is provided with water as long as the temperature is appropriate. The
uptake of water by dry seed is called imbibition (seed drink water).As seeds imbibe water, they expand and
enzymes and food supplies become hydrated. Hydrated enzymes become active and the seed increase its
metabolic activities to produce energy for the growth process. In addition, the water causes turgor pressure to
increase in the cells and they are able to enlarge until its seed coat erupts.
Prepared by: GC14