Você está na página 1de 27

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE485)
NAME
STUDENT NO.
GROUP
EXPERIMENT
DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAMME / CODE
SUBMIT TO
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference / Appendix
TOTAL MARKS

: MUHAMMAD IZWADI BIN ZAILAN


: 2014850608
: EH2201A
: EXPERIMENT 1 DETERMINATION OF THE
CONCENTRATION OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR
: 29 SEPTEMBER 2014
:1
: EH220 / CHE485
: DR. SAFARI BIN ZAINAL
Allocated Marks (%)

Marks

5
10
5
10
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
100

Remarks:
Checked by :
--------------------------Page | 0

Date :

Page | 1

ABSTRACT / SUMMARY
This experiment determines the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of

acetic acid in vinegar by the method of titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide
solution. Besides, preparing a stock solution of standardized solution of sodium
hydroxide. The NaOH solution is standardized by titrating potassium hydrogen
phthalate, KHP solution with NaOH solution. The KHP stock solution is prepared by
dissolving KHP in distilled water.
Acetic acid, CH3COOH is an organic compound that is in form of colorless
solution and it is a weak acid. This acid is the main component of vinegar apart from
water. In this experiment the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic
acid in vinegar is determined by using titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution.
Basically, this experiment is divided into two parts which are the first part is
standardizing the NaOH solution and the second part is proceeded with the determining
the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. In
standardizing the NaOH solution, 250 mL of distilled water is used to dilute
approximately 6 g of NaOH solid in order to prepare 0.6 M NaOH solution. This NaOH
solution is then titrated with potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC 8H4O4 or KHP solution
which has been prepared by diluting 1.5 g of KHP granules in 30mL of distilled water.
The experiment is then preceded to the second part of the experiment which
standardized NaOH solution is titrated the with 10 mL vinegar that has been diluted with
100 mL of distilled water. Both titration for part 1 and 2 are repeated twice to get more
accurate results.
Overall, it can be conclude that the greater the mass of solute in the acid solution,
the more concentrated the solution becomes. Thus, the higher the molarity and more
volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the acid. The experiment is completed and
successfully conducted.

Page | 2

2 INTRODUCTION
Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A
concentrated solution contains relatively large quantity of solute in a given amount of
solvent. Dilute solutions contain relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. There
are two specifics term to express concentration, which is molarity and percent by mass.
Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

Molarity(M) =

Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution

Percent solute =

Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. The molecular formula for acetic acid is
CH3COOH. Both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in a vinegar solution can
be determine by performing a titration. A titration is a process in which small increments
of a solution of known concentration are added to a specific volume of a solution of
unknown concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is attained. Knowing the
quantity of the known solution required to complete the titration, calculation of the
unknown solution can be done. The purpose of titration is to determine the equivalence
point of the reaction. The equivalence point is reach when the added quantity of one
reactant is the exact amount necessary for stoichiometric reaction with another reactant.

Page | 3

3 AIMS
a) To determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in
vinegar by the method of titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution.
b) To determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar.
c) To standardize the sodium hydroxide solution by using KHP acid.

4 THEORY
In the titration process, burette is used due to dispense a small, quantifiable of
solution of the known concentration. A typical burette which has the smallest calibration
unit of 0.1 mL always been used and the volume dispensed by the burette will be
estimated to the nearest 0.01 mL.

Figure 1.1 a) A typical 50 mL burette. b) Smallest calibration unit of burette

When the moles of acid in the solution equals to the moles of base added in the
titration, the equivalence point is occur. For example, the stoichiometric amount of 1
mole of the strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of
the weak acid, acetic acid (CH3CO2H).
NaOH(aq) + CH3CO2H(aq)

NaCH3CO2(aq) + H2O(l)
Page | 4

As the titration has reached the equivalence point, there will be a sudden change
in the pH of the solution. In an aqueous solution, pH is related to its hydrogen ion
concentration. Symbolically, the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [H 3O+]. pH is
defined as the negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
pH = -log [H3O+]
A method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution is by using the pH
scale. As the solutions have a pH less than 7 they are acidic, pH is same with 7 are
neutral and pH more than 7 are basic. In this experiment, pH electrode will be used. The
titration is initiated by inserting a pH electrode into a beaker containing the acid solution
(pH within 3-5). Some of the hydrogen ions will be neutralized as the sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, is incrementally added to the acid solution. The pH of the solution will gradually
increases as the hydrogen ion concentration decreases. The next drop of NaOH added
will cause a sudden sharp increase in pH as the sufficient NaOH is added to completely
neutralize the acid (most of the H 3O+ ions are removed from the solution). The volume of
based required to completely neutralized the acid is determine at the equivalence point
of the titration.

Figure 1.2 Acid-base titration curve of weak acid titrated with NaOH

Page | 5

Titration of a vinegar with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution will be done


in this experiment. Initially, a primary standard acid solution is prepared in order to
standardize the sodium hydroxide solution. In general, dissolving a weighed quantity of
pure acid or base in a known volume of solution will produce the primary standard
solutions. In this experiment, sodium hydroxide solution will be titrated with sodium
potassium phthalate, KHP.
KHC8H4O4 (aq) + NaOH (aq)

KNaC8H4O4 (aq) + H2O (l)

Figure 1.3 Titration of KHP with NaOH

When the sodium hydroxide already standardized, it will be used to titrate 10.00
mL vinegar.
CH3COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq)

NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O (l)

Then, the molarity and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar can be
calculated after standardized the sodium hydroxide solution and titration of acetic acid in
vinegar.

Page | 6

5 APPARATUS
5.1 Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

Page | 7

5.2 Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar

Page | 8

6 METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE
6.1

Standardization Of Sodium Hydroxide Solution

1) 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution from NaOH solid was
prepared. The solution was prepared in a beaker and the calculation was checked
by the laboratory instructor prior to prepare the solution. The calculation was
recorded.
2) A beaker was placed on the balance and it was tared. 1.5 grams of KHP was added
into the beaker and the mass of KHP was recorded to the nearest 0.001 g. Then, 30
mL of distilled water was added to the beaker, and the solution was stirred until the
KHP had dissolved completely.
3) This solution was titrated with NaOH and the pH was recorded with 1 mL additions
of NaOH solution.
4) Steps 1 to 3 was repeated and two more solutions was prepared for NaOH
standardization.
5) The graph of pH versus NaOH was plotted. From the plots, the volume of NaOH
required to neutralize the KHP solution in each solution was determined.
6) The molarity of sodium hydroxide for titrations 1,2 and 3 was calculated.
7) The average molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution was calculated. The resulting
sodium hydroxide concentration would be used in part B of the experiment.

Page | 9

6.2

Molarity Of Acetic Acid And Mass Percent In Vinegar

1) 10.00 mL of vinegar was transferred to a clean, dry 250 mL beaker using a 10 mL


volumetric pipette. Sufficient water, 75 to 100 mL, was added to cover the pH
electrode tip during the titration.
2) 1 mL of NaOH was added to the vinegar solution and pH was recorded.
3) The above steps were repeated twice more.
4) The graph of pH vs NaOH volume added was plotted and from the plots, the volume
of NaOH required to neutralize the vinegar in each titration was determined. The
5)
6)
7)
8)

data was recorded.


The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1,2 and 3 was calculated.
The average molarity of acetic acid for each titration was calculated.
The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1,2 and 3 was calculated.
The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar was calculated.

Page | 10

7 RESULTS
7.1

Experiment 1

Table 1 Volume of NaOH required to neutralized KHP

Volume of NaOH required to neutralized


KHP (mL)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

pH
Titration 1
4.31
4.37
4.53
4.76
4.84
5.04
5.20
5.36
5.37
5.51
5.67
5.91
6.31
11.68
12.26

Titration 2
4.31
4.43
4.62
4.76
4.90
5.03
5.17
5.29
5.43
5.58
5.76
6.00
6.45
11.72
12.25

Page | 11

Figure 1.4 pH against volume of NaOH required to neutralized KHP

Page | 12

7.2

Experiment 2

Table 2 Volume of NaOH required to neutralized vinegar

Volume of NaOH required to neutralized


vinegar (mL)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

pH
Titration 1
2.87
3.29
3.64
3.83
3.98
4.10
4.20
4.28
4.35
4.42
4.49
4.54
4.61
4.66
4.72
4.77
4.82
4.87
4.94
4.98
5.03
5.08
5.16
5.28
5.35
5.43
5.51
5.61
5.72
5.86
6.06
6.39

Titration 2
2.83
3.30
3.58
3.78
3.98
4.09
4.18
4.27
4.35
4.43
4.49
4.57
4.63
4.69
4.75
4.81
4.87
4.91
4.98
5.04
5.10
5.16
5.21
5.31
5.38
5.47
5.55
5.69
5.82
6.04
6.49
9.57
Page | 13

32
33
34
35
36
37
38

7.91
11.64
11.93
12.09
12.21
12.31
12.31

11.92
12.09
12.20
12.29
12.35
12.42
12.42

Figure 1.4 pH against volume of NaOH required to neutralized vinegar

Page | 14

8 CALCULATIONS
8.1 Standardization Of Sodium Hydroxide Solution
8.1.1 Calculation for the preparation of 150 mL of approximately 0.6M sodium hydroxide
solution,
Molarity (M)

= Moles of solute
Litres of solution

Moles of solute (NaOH)

= Molarity x Litres of solution


= 0.6 M 0.25 L
= 0.15 mol

Mass of solute (NaOH)

= Moles of NaOH x Molar mass of NaOH


=0.15 mol 40 g/mol
=6g
Titration 1

Titration 2

Mass of beaker (g)

96.33

99.30

Mass of beaker + KHP (g)

97.83

100.83

Mass of KHP (g)

1.50

1.53

Volume
of
NaOH
to
neutralize the KHP solution
(mL)

13.00

13.00

Page | 15

8.1.2 Calculation of molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration


Titration 1
Moles of KHP,
1.50g KHC8H4O4 (1mol KHC8H4O4 / 204.2g KHC8H4O4)(1mol NaOH/1mol KHP)
= 0.00735 mol of NaOH
Molarity of NaOH solution,
13.00 mL NaOH (1L / 1000mL) = 0.013 L of NaOH
Molarity of NaOH solution

= Moles of NaOH / Litres of solution


= 0.00735 mol of NaOH / 0.013 L of NaOH
= 0.5654 M NaOH

Titration 2
Moles of KHP,
1.53g KHC8H4O4 (1mol KHC8H4O4 / 204.2g KHC8H4O4)(1mol NaOH/1mol KHP)
= 0.00749 mol of NaOH
Molarity of NaOH solution,
13.00 mL NaOH (1L / 1000mL) = 0.013 L of NaOH
Molarity of NaOH solution

= Moles of NaOH / Litres of solution


= 0.00749 mol of NaOH / 0.013 L of NaOH
= 0.5762 M NaOH

8.1.3 Calculation of average molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration


Experiment 1
Average molarity of NaOH = (Molarity 1 + Molarity 2) / 2
= (0.5654 M + 0.5762 M) / 2
=0.5708 M of NaOH

Page | 16

8.2 Calculation Of Acetic Acid And Mass Percent In Vinegar

Titration 1

Titration 2

32

31

Volume of NaOH to
neutralize vinegar (mL)

8.2.1 CALCULATION OF THE MOLARITY OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR FOR EACH


TITRATION

For titration 1:
Reacted moles of NaOH,
32 mL (1L / 1000mL) = 0.032 L of NaOH
0.032 L of NaOH (0.5708 M of NaOH/ 1L of NaOH) = 0.01827 mol of NaOH

Number of moles of acetic acid that neutralized by the number of moles of NaOH,
0.01827 mol of NaOH (1mol of CH3COOH / 1mol of NaOH)
= 0.01827 mol of CH3COOH

Molarity of the acetic acid,


10 mL of CH3COOH ( 1L / 1000mL) = 0.01 L of CH3COOH
Molarity

= Moles of CH3COOH / Litre of CH3COOH


= 0.01827 mol of CH3COOH / 0.01 L of CH3COOH
= 1.827 M of CH3COOH

Page | 17

For titration 2:
Reacted moles of NaOH,
31 mL (1L / 1000mL) = 0.031 L of NaOH
0.031 L of NaOH (0.5708 M of NaOH/ 1L of NaOH) = 0.01769 mol of NaOH

Number of moles of acetic acid that neutralized by the number of moles of NaOH,
0.01769 mol of NaOH (1mol of CH3COOH / 1mol of NaOH)
= 0.01769 mol of CH3COOH

Molarity of the acetic acid,


10 mL of CH3COOH ( 1L / 1000mL) = 0.01 L of CH3COOH
Molarity

= Moles of CH3COOH / Litre of CH3COOH


= 0.01769 mol of CH3COOH / 0.01 L of CH3COOH
= 1.769 M of CH3COOH

8.2.2 CALCULATION OF THE AVERAGE MOLARITY OF ACETIC ACID


Average molarity of acetic acid

= (Molarity 1 + Molarity 2) / 2
= (1.827 M of CH3COOH + 1.769 M of CH3COOH) / 2
= 1.798 M of CH3COOH

Page | 18

8.2.3 CALCULATION OF THE PERCENT BY MASS OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR


FOR EACH TITRATION

Titration 1 :
Mass of acetic acid in the vinegar,
10 mL of CH3COOH ( 1L / 1000mL) = 0.01 L of CH3COOH
0.01 L of CH3COOH (1.827 M of CH3COOH / L of solution) (60.06g of CH3COOH / 1
mol of CH3COOH )
= 1.0973 g of CH3COOH

Mass of the acetic acid solution,


10 mL of CH3COOH (1g of CH3COOH / 1 mol of CH3COOH)
= 10 g of CH3COOH

Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar,


% by mass of CH3COOH = (Mass of CH3COOH in vinegar / Mass of CH3COOH)
100%
= (1.0973 g of CH3COOH / 10 g of CH3COOH) 100%
= 10.97% of CH3COOH

Titration 2 :
Page | 19

Mass of acetic acid in the vinegar,


10 mL of CH3COOH ( 1L / 1000mL) = 0.01 L of CH3COOH
0.01 L of CH3COOH (1.769 M of CH3COOH / L of solution) (60.06g of CH3COOH / 1
mol of CH3COOH )
= 1.0625 g of CH3COOH

Mass of the acetic acid solution,


10 mL of CH3COOH (1g of CH3COOH / 1 mol of CH3COOH) = 10 g of CH3COOH

Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar,


% by mass of CH3COOH = (Mass of CH3COOH in vinegar / Mass of CH3COOH)
100%
= (1.0625 g of CH3COOH / 10 g of CH3COOH) 100%
= 10.63% of CH3COOH

8.2.4 CALCULATION OF AVERAGE PERCENT BY MASS OF ACETIC ACID IN


VINEGAR
Average % by mass of acetic acid in vinegar,
= (Titration 1 + Titration 2) / 2
= (10.97% of CH3COOH + 10.63% of CH3COOH) / 2
= 10.8% of CH3COOH

Page | 20

8.3 CALCULATION FOR EQUIVALENCE POINT FROM THE GRAPH

Experiment 1,

Titration 1
pH= (6.31 + 11.68) / 2

Titration 2
pH = (6.45 + 11.72) / 2

= 9.00

= 9.09
Average equivalence point,
pH = (9.00 + 9.09) / 2
= 9.05

Experiment 2,

Titration 1
pH= (7.91 + 11.64) / 2

Titration 2
pH = (9.57 + 11.92) / 2

= 9.78

= 10.75
Average equivalence point,
pH = (9.78 +10.75 ) / 2
= 10.27

Page | 21

9 DISCUSSION
Titration is a technique for determining either the concentration of a solution of
unknown molarity or the number of moles of a substance in a given sample. A chemical
reaction is used for this purpose, and the reaction must be complete and have a
determinable end point. In this experiment, the sample used is acetic acid and sodium
hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide as base substance and acetic acid as acid substance
where the concentration of acetic acid is unknown. Given that the concentration of the
base are 0.6 M.
This first experiment is repeated twice to achieve the required precision reading.
The calculated molarity of sodium hydroxide for the first and second titration in the first
experiment are 0.5654 M and 0.5762 M respectively. The average molarity of sodium
hydroxide is 0.5708 M.
The next experiment is carried out after the standardization of sodium hydroxide
solution, which is to calculate the molarity and mass percent in vinegar. The calculated
molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for the first and second titration are 1.827 M and 1.769
M respectively. The average molarity of acetic acid is 1.798 M. The average percent by
mass of acetic acid in vinegar that we got through this experiment is 10.8%.
One possible source of error for the difference in first and others trials would be
recording an incorrect initial volume of NaOH solution, such as recording the initial
volume as 0.00 mL even though the level of solution was actually higher than the 0.00
mL on the burette. The excess NaOH solution above the 0.00 mL mark would be the
result in more NaOH solution delivered than is actually recorded based on the endpoint.
The resulting calculated molar concentration of acetic acid will be incorrectly low as well
as the incorrectly low volume of NaOH delivered. Thus, correct technique is essential for
obtaining good data and accurate and precise results in this experiment.

Page | 22

Another reasons could be the vigorous swirling of the conical flask which will
allow atmospheric carbon dioxide to enter the beaker, thus increasing the acidity of the
vinegar solution. Although this error may be small, it affects the final result of the
experiment significantly. To avoid this from happening, the beaker should be swirled
gently using the right reading of the magnetic stirrer motor.
Besides, some beakers are not rinsed with distilled water before used and some
of them are not completely dry and clean. This might give some effect on the solution.

Page | 23

10 CONCLUSION
The titration process is used in both experiment which are standardization of
sodium hydroxide and determination of the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar.
Titration is a technique to determine the concentration of a solution and the volume
needed for a base to neutralize acid by slow addition. This titration process need to be
done repeatedly, so that, the result will have minimum error in order to determine the
volume needed by the base to neutralize the acid.
Through the experiment, the equivalence point for the experiment 1 at volume of
sodium hydroxide neutralized KHP is at 13 mL and the pH at equivalence point is 9.05,
while in experiment 2 is at 31 mL and the pH is 10.27. The molarity of sodium hydroxide
is 0.5708 M while the molarity of acetic acid in vinegar is 1.798 M. Then, for the percent
mass of acetic acid in vinegar is 10.8%.

Page | 24

11 RECOMMENDATION
To get the accurate value of result in the experiment, there are a few
recommendations and precaution that need to be considered through the experiments.
First, look at the lower meniscus in the light coloured solution and upper
meniscus in the dark coloured solution because of visibility. Besides, look at the
meniscus of solution at eye level to avoid parallax error. Then, do not forget to add
distilled water to the vinegar.
Usually an air bubble is present in the nozzle of the burette, it must be removed
before taking the initial reading. When chemicals are spilled on skin, wash for at least 15
minutes with running water.

Page | 25

12 REFERENCES/APPENDIX
1) Arun Syamal (2008), Living Science Chemistry, 10 th Edition, Ratna Sagar P. Ltd,
India, p.p 37-66
2) http://projects.icbse.com/chemistry-327
3) https://www.scribd.com/doc/86725525/Determination-of-the-Concentration-ofAcetic-Acid-in-Vinegar
4) Albert R. Leeds, Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 1895, Acetic Acid In
Vinegar, ACS Publications, p.p 741.

Page | 26