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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

South Central Railway

Course Material
for
Loco Inspectors
(Initial) (Diesel)
Prepared by

B Durga Prasada Rao, Sr.Instructor

Electric Traction Training


Centre
Vijayawada
Page 1 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

INITIAL COURSE FOR LOCO INSPECTOR


DURATION

3 WEEKS (18 WORKING DAYS)

SESSIONS (1 HOUR DURATION)


:
72
(4 SESSIONS PER DAY i.e., 6 HRS OF STUDY + 1 HR SESSION FOR COMPUTER)

Topic
No.

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

SUBJECT
Introduction & objective
Railway System & Role of Loco Inspector, Duties of
Loco Inspector, LP & ALP, Supervisory skills,
Leadership, Motivation Techniques,
Communication, Knowledge of trade, Redressal of
grievances, Monitoring and Counselling
Safety Rules
G&SR, Ghat section rules, Automatic signal territory
rules, Operating Manual, Block working manual,
Accident Manual, Station working rules, Important
safety circulars
Disaster Management
ART, 140 T BD CRANE, SPART/ SPARMV,
ARME, LUCAS, HRD/HRE,
Mock Drills, Hooter codes, Types of
Accidents/Derailment, Investigation of accident/
derailment, preparation of joint report, derailment
mechanism, Load stalling & train parting, fire
fighting, first aid and hygiene
Inspections
VIP moves, foot plate inspection, lobby & running
room inspection, Inspection of ART / ARME, Crane,
RDI inspection, Punctuality drives, foggy weather
precautions, Ambush check and other special drives
Establishment
D&AR rules, Enquiries, standard forms, major and
minor penalties, Dos and Donts for dealing DAR
Cases, HOER classifications of Railway staff, Rules
pertaining to running staff pay & allowances, leave
rules, pass rules and welfare activities of Railway,
PF, gratuity and pension rules for running staff.
Manpower planning
Requirement of Loco running staff including Loco
Inspectors, CCC/CC/PRC/CPRC, Crew Links &
power links, Power plan, Power on line (POL),
Training courses of Running staff including
aptitude / psycho test, Learning road & PME rules,
Grading of Drivers
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No. of No. of
sessions days

Page
No.

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

7th

8th

9th

10th

11th

12th
13th

14th
15th

Railway Diesel Installation (RDI) and fuel


conservation
Records maintained at RDI, anti pilferage measures,
calibration of gauges, decanting facilities, flow
meters, SFC, LOC, fixation of trip ration, fire
protection at RDI, fuel conservation measures.
Driving Skill
Plane section, Graded section, Ghat section, Extreme
weather condition, Negotiation of CDs
Loco Maintenance Management
Layout of Diesel Sheds, Standard Maintenance
schedules, latest modifications in Diesel Loco, EMD
Locos, DEMU, SPART, SPARMV & Shunting
Locos, Load charts of various types of DSL locos,
Load factor trials, Avoidable failures discussion,
tell-tale signs analysis, Simulator training, Loco
Trouble shooting, Loco Management system (LMS),
Loco failure investigation
Power Controller Organization
Brief duties of power controller organization,
implementation of 10 hrs. duty, Loco turn round,
engine failure, punctuality loss, engine hours, four
hourly holding, crew balancing, power balancing,
DSL utilization chart, FOIS, ICMS & Control Office
Application (COA) etc.,
Crew Controller Organization
Records maintained at lobby, breath analyzer test,
booking of crews, CMS, crew lobby and running
room management, accepted recommendation of
running room committee, up-gradation of running
room and crew lobby. Rest and duty hours of
running staff
Signal & Telecommunication
Panel Interlocking, RRI, SSI, Track circuiting and
axle counter, points and crossings geometry and
readings
Permanent way
Track measurement, rail wear profile
Rolling stock
Readings at the time of accident, Rolling stock
defect that can cause derailment / accident, wheel
profile, wheel slip and wheel skidding, brake
systems, brake binding and hot axle
Other operational issues
Track train dynamics, Tractive effort, braking effort,
adhesion, haulage capacity, requirement of locos,
Emergency braking distance(EBD) in various
conditions, braking system and brake power
certificate, statistics related to performance of
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12

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

16th
17th

Mechanical power wing (fuel & loco operation),


M&P, RSP and WP, weighbridge and WILD
Stress Management
Yoga, sports activity and development of hobby
Evaluation and feed back

AN IDEAL SESSION
Morning
session
06.00 07.00

1st session
8.30-10.00

2nd session
10.30-12.00

3rd session
13.00-14.30

Yoga &
Meditation

4th session
15.00-16.30

Special
session
16.30-17.30

Computer

# Computer training will include basic knowledge of computers and IT gadgets like Pen
drive, burning CD/DVD, use of Digital Camera, Basic knowledge of MS Office, use of
Internet, Email, Speedo graph and microprocessor analysis.

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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Introduction Objective
Railway System

INDIAN RAILWAY ORGATION STRUCTURE


MINISTER OF RAILWAYS
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


MINISTER OF STATE FOR RAILWAYS NORTH
MINISTER OF STATE FOR RAILWAYS SOUTH
CHAIRMAN RAILWAY BOARD
(UNDER CRB)
(a) SECRETARY ESTABLISHMENT MATTERS
(b) SECRETARY ADMINISTRATION MATTERS
1. MEMBER MECHANICAL
2. MEMBER ELECTRICAL
3. MEMBER ENGINEERING
4. MEMBER TRAFFIC
5. FINANCIAL COMMISSIONER
6. MEMBER STAFF
(UNDER MS)
(a) DIRECTOR GENERAL RAILWAY HEALTH SERVICES
(b) DIRECTOR GENERAL RAILWAY PROTACTION FORCE
ZONAL RAILWAYS
( 17 GENERAL MANAGERS )
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

HEAD QUARTERS

CENTRAL RAILWAY
MUMBAI
EASTERN RAILWAY
KOLKATA
EAST CENTRAL RAILWAY
HAJIPUR
EAST COAST RAILWAY
BHUBANESHWAR
NORTHERN RAILWAY
DELHI
NORTH CENTRAL RAILWAY
ALAHABAD
NORTH EASTREN RAILWAY
GORAKHPUR
NORTH EAST FRONTIER RAILWAY
MALIGAON
NORTH WESTREN RAILWAY
JAIPUR
SOUTHERN RAILWAY
CHENNAI
SOUTH CENTRAL RAILWAY
SECUNDERABAD
SOUTH EASTREN RAILWAY
KOLKATA
SOUTH EAST CENTRAL RAILWAY
BILSAPUR
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY
HUBLI
WESTERN RAILWAY
MUMBAI
WEST CENTRAL RAILWAY
JABALPUR
METRO RAILWAY, KOLKATA
KOLKATA

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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PRODUCTION UNITS
( 05 GENERAL MANAGERS )
CHITTARANJAN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS
DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS
INTEGRAL COACH FACTORY
RAIL COACH FACTORY
RAIL WHEEL FACTORY
( CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER)

a.
b.

DIESEL LOCO MODERNISATION WORKS


CENTRAL ORGANISATION FOR MODERNISATION OF
WORKSHOPS
OTHER UNITS
( 03 GENERAL MANAGERS )

1.
2.
3.

NF RAILWAY ( CONSTRUCTION)
METRO RAILWAY KOLKATA
CENTRAL ORGANISATION FOR RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION

4.
5.

( DIRECTOR - GENERAL )
RAILWAY STAFF COLLEGE
RDSO

PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS/CORPORATIONS ETC.


IRCON = Indian Railway Construction Company Ltd.
RITES = Rail India Technical and Economic Services Ltd
CRIS
= Centre for Railway Information System
CONCOR= Container corporation of India Ltd.
IRFC
= Indian Railway finance corporation
KRCL = Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd.
IRCTC = Indian Railway catering and tourism Corporation Ltd.
RCIL = Railtel Corporation of India Ltd.
MRVC = Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation
RVNL = Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd.
IRWO = Indian Railway Welfare Organisation
PRCL = Pipavan Railway Corporation Ltd
Role of LOCO INSPECTOR
The duties of loco inspector Diesel traction are summarised as under:
INSPECTION:
1. Foot plate inspection during day and night to check abnormalities on line and
rectification of the same through concerned departments.
2. Inspection of running rooms allotted to him regarding facilities available for running
staff.
3. To conduct ambush checks in automatic signaling territory to see whether the loco
pilots are following relevant rules as laid down in general & subsidiary rules.
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


4. Surprise inspection of out pits, crew booking offices including breath analyser
equipment for proper functioning, proper usage and to check that proper procedure is
followed.
5. Inspect locomotives allotted to him (if any) particularly in regard to safety items
including proper functioning of flasher lights etc. and take necessary action to get the
defects attended to by the home or outstation shed as per convenient.
6. Check wastage, spillage, misuse or pilferage of lubricating oil/ grease etc.
7. Joint checking of emergency telephone sets used on electric locos with supervisors of
S & T department.
8. Periodical checking of loco pilots personal equipment and stores.
Field work (on line):
1. Plan out in advance and train loco pilots and other running staff to learn the road and
become fully familiar with all the signals especially automatic signaling sections and
layout of the track, en-route and in yards, test the running staff for their knowledge of
road and arrange for issue of competency certificate to them.
2. Train the running staff in the correct methods of trouble shooting, correct manner of
operation of electric locomotives, inspection of locomotives in accordance with the
prescribed instructions and observance of safe working rules. Train the running staff
about new modifications carried out in electric locos.
3. Check out load, speed checks, intersectional running time, braking distance and signal
visibility checks (joint inspection with S & T department), riding quality checks of
locomotives, test staff of other departments as prescribed for their knowledge of rules
applicable. If any irregularities are noticed with loco/ crew to be reported to sr. DME
& ADME.
4. Train the new loco pilots regarding train dynamics, how to apply vacuum/ air brake
application on loco and on train.
5. To train loco pilots of poor caliber allotted to him by giving intensive training on line
and in exceptional cases when a person fails to make the grade, submit reports to sr.
DME/ Power.
6. Conduct trails for energy conservations, modifications, and heavy hauled trains with
maintenance staff.
7. To improve driving skills of loco pilots by adopting latest methods of energy
conservation.
8. Foot plating by mail/express trains to make up lost time (to maximum permissible
limits) lost due to loco defects or any other account.
9. Conducting punctuality drives to ensure punctual running of mail/ express and slow
passenger trains and counsel loco pilots to make up time without exceeding maximum
permissible speed.
10. To arrange issue of competency certificate to running staff for working in automatic
signaling sections after giving them one day intensive training and after testing their
knowledge.
11. Test and check the accurate working of the speedometers on run and arrange for
attention to defective speedometer by shed staff as required.
12. Arrange timely renewal of speedometer charts and sealing of speedometers.
13. Scrutinize speedometers charts removed from locomotives and report to superiors, if
any over speeding or other irregularities are noticed. 100% scrutiny of charts from
mail/ express and passenger trains and 25% of charts from goods trains should be
carried out.
14. Escort VIP and other important/ special trains.
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


15. Carry out special drives and trails as directed by head quarters/ division.
16. Maintain records in respect of running staff allotted to his control indicating the
training imparted, refresher and promotional courses gone through knowledge of
safety rules, knowledge of trouble shooting procedures etc.
17. Make a review of troubleshooting carried out by each loco pilot and impart necessary
guidance if any incorrect procedure or irregularity is brought to notice.
18. To associate training school and ensure the troubleshooting aspects that are taught in
the classes are relevant to the existing problems, education of running staff regarding
engineman-ship - loco failures and breakdowns.
Punctuality
Punctuality is two kinds
1. Divisional punctuality: Time loss for less than 45 minutes.
2. Zonal punctuality
: Time loss for above 45 minutes.
Items to be checked, role of LOCO INSPECTOR in punctuality monitoring
To maintain punctuality of train, especially to an important train, Loco Inspector
should take the following.
1. The importance of punctual running of said train may be informed to the crew well in
advance informing that loco inspector is coming in the Loco, other officials in the coach/
Saloon, if any.
2. Ensure that Loco Pilot came to on duty in time as per the Divisional Instructions.
3. Loco Inspector should collect the fresh caution order of the section.
4. Ensure Loco Pilot has gone through all necessary registers in crew lobby and signed
wherever required.
5. Ensure Loco Pilot is not intoxicated position with the help of breather analyser.
6. Ensure Loco Pilot got his personnel and necessary tools for working the train.
7. Ensure Loco Pilot has collected all necessary documents, keys, if any, from in charge of
crew lobby.
8. Ensure PT set & walkie-talkie are working and to be kept ready always.
9. As LI, he should ensure that no unauthorized person is allowed in engine.
10. Loco Inspector should ensure that Loco Pilot and Asst. Loco Pilot checked loco
thoroughly. LI may also check the loco, to ensure the loco is fit to work the existing
formation and required amount of BP/ Vacuum level in Engine. (Also conduct continuity
test).
11. Ensure safety items of loco are in good working order such as Horns, wipers, Flasher
Light, Head Light, etc.
12. Ensure all necessary documents were received and correct Authority To Proceed is given
and starting signal from guard.
13. Dont increase the speed of train till platform is cleared.
14. Advice Loco Pilot to reach Maximum Permissible Speed, as early as possible.
15. Ensure Loco Pilot has checked brake power of train and satisfy that brake power is upto
the required and also make judgment for further controlling of train.
16. Ensure Loco Pilot is maintaining correct speed at the engineering restricted spots and on
points wherever required.
17. Ensure train is controlled correctly i.e. not well in advance.
18. Judicial application of brakes is an important role in punctual running of train.
19. While stopping the train at station ensure train is on platform to enable to entrain or
detrain of passengers and loading or unloading of luggage / parcels.
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20. Ensure engine crew exchanging all right signals with crew and guard of opposite trains
and station staff en-route.
21. Ensure correct visibility of signals in section.
22. If loco is giving any trouble try to attend it on run, if not possible, after stopping the train
but it should be rectified in a lesser time.
23. If train is stopped due to any other reasons i.e. ACP, etc. It should be rectified in less time
and to be restarted as quick as possible.
24. Always advice Loco Pilot to run the train at MPS to make up the time and also to
overcome the unforeseen detentions.
25. LI to ensure Loco Pilot and Asst. Loco Pilot calling out signals properly.
26. Dont allow the Loco Pilot to think about any other things except punctual running of
train.
27. If loco/ formation is required to be attended by concerned maintenance staff, it should be
informed to TLC/ SCOR well in advance, en-route.
28. Advice Loco Pilot/ Asst. to use appropriate whistle codes at the time of whistling.
29. After reaching the destination loco and other documents to be handed over to the
concerned staff promptly.
30. Ensure Loco Pilot had made entries in RS 5 register of C & W and other necessary
registers in crew lobby.
PROCEDURE OF CONDUCTING LOAD TRIALS
Load Trials: These trials are carried out as per orders of CEE/COM/CME by the divisional
inspectors. These trials are aimed at achieving an optimum load that could be hauled by a
Diesel /Electrical loco within permissible limit of their strain on the ascending gradients and
on the falling gradients the maximum load that could be controlled at the specified speed with
minimum required brake power using the RB and as well as vacuum / air brake of the locos.
The following are the limitations for fixing load on a graded section.
Ascending:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Horse power of the locomotive.


Gradient of the section.
The minimum continuous speed permitted for each locomotive.
The load current supplied to Traction motors. Normally within the unrestricted zone
within the time limit specified.

Descending:
a. Brake Power of the Locomotive; RB, Vacuum and Synchronized air brake
application obtained.
i.

Brake power of the train: it depends upon the type of stock of train and
amount of vacuum maintained by the locomotive and percentage of operative
brake equipment.
ii. Speed limit.
iii. Weather condition.
iv. Emergency braking distance.
v.
Train holding ability of the loco brakes on steep falling gradient.
vi. Brake application technique.
vii. Loco Pilots reflex time towards any unusual incidents.

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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


RDSO has issued a haulage chart for each type of locomotive on different gradients
and speed with respect of bogie stock of goods and standard coaching stock and ICF allcoiled coaching stock. The RDSO haulage chart is kept as a guidance before undertaking any
load trial.
Method of conducting load trial: Trial should be undertaken with an average load, average
Loco Pilot. The train brake power should be checked for effective brake power. Engine
should be checked for good working speedometer, RB, vacuum and air brake. The
synchronized function of air brake along with vacuum has to be ensured for a successful trial.
A minimum of 2 inspectors should travel on the foot plate, one to monitor the Loco Pilot for
proper handling of the loco and other to take every minute reading of the following
parameters.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Time
Notch
Speed
Load Amps.
Gradients
Km/TP post and remarks on halt and detention

The loco should be normally worked on its maximum output observing all
permanent speed and temporary speed restrictions in force. For test purpose the train
should be stopped at Ruling Gradient where ever there is a stop signal which may
interpose while hauling such maximum load and may be kept at ON for operational
reasons. Restarting from such locations has to be done with utmost care to avoid parting
as well as slipping and straining the loco beyond certain limit. During restarting from the
critical spots the notch, speed, load amps if on the restricted zone, the minute zone and
duration in seconds should be recorded. On completion of this trial documentation has to
be done from the working sheet to calculate the Load Factor.
Load Trials on the Ghat section comprising long stretches of descending gradient
are undertaken to check whether the train could be controlled at the speed laid down,
whether the load could be held firmly by the loco air brakes alone so that vacuum could
be recharge to overcome brake fade and whether the train could be stopped dead on
emergency application of brakes within the authorized EBD ( ie. 1400 meters ).
During this load trial the following particulars are recorded for every 30 seconds
to assess the extent of fade and availability of residual vacuum level to stop the train
wherever necessary.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Km/TP
Time
Vacuum level
RB brake load amps
Speed
Gradient
Remark

While holding the train on the falling gradient, brake cylinder pressure can be
increased to 3.5 Kg/cm2 and it should be reduced to 2.8 Kg/Cm2 after clearing the ghat
section or on arrival at the next station. During emergency braking distance test, it should

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be conducted preferably on a straight stretch over the steepest falling gradient. The mode
of application will be as follows:
a. A9 moved to emergency with synchronized air brake application.
b. Keeping RB at max. 650 amps on BG locos. A9 should be moved to over
reduction duly taking care to avoid A9 handle falling in emergency position which
will qualify the RB.
The following records should be made using a stop watch.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Km A9 applied to emergency.
Time A9 applied to emergency
Speed at the time of brake application.
Extent of spurt in speed noticed.
Km train came to a stop.
Time train came to a stop.
Time taken for the train to come to stop.
Emergency braking distance obtained in meters (to be reckoned either by actual
measuring or counting the number of traction poles).

If the emergency braking distance is more, then either the load or speed should be
reduced to keep the emergency braking distance within the safe limit.

Supervisory Skill
Leadership / Motivation
1. Irrespective the ethics and formalities of the family always to reach the goal, the
person attitude should be changed as a leader.
2. Though the person came from a rich family should not have the ego.
3. Similarly if came from a poor family should not feel the inferiority.
4. Once got the chair all are equal and also should see that the value of the CHAIR is
not decreased at all.
Character
Humility
Adjustment
Integrity
Respect
A supervisor wherever he works the day if he maintains the chair as above, his
name will be remembered in the hearts of the staff.
Management
1. Management is a science.
2. A leader should have a full pledged understanding on this science ie,. Policy,
Planning, Communication and inter personal system, Assignment, Supervision, Team
work, Motivation and Co-Ordination.
3. In these things the supervisor should have the perfection.
4Ds formula to achieve the goal (Management expert Mr.Jackwelsh).
1. Designing
2. Direction
3. Decision making
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4. Delegation
Any department is depended on the four important issues.
1. People
2. Structure
3. Environment
4. Technology
These are the pillars to strengthen the slab.
LEADER SHIP
The work leader ship can be derived as
Leading the team
Envision and energise
Attitude
Decision making
Effective self management
Resource and strategy planning
Stress management
Hypnotic motivation
Innovative thinking and change
Perfect communication
The supervisor should work as an ESCORT to his members
Equality
Support
Cooperation
Openness
Respect
Trust
If the supervisor, if escorts his members, the members can do wonders.
How the motivation should be?
Do you want to know how to motivate your staff? If so, you have to answer this
question paper. Each question contains three answers. Select & tick one which is nearer to
your experience.
Q.No.

Question

1.

I am trying like to be a friend to my staff

2.

If my staff does not know the work I use to tell with patience

3.
4.

To keep my staff happy I will be doing some thing


In my staff I never give scope for politics

Page 13 of 239

Answers
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

5.

All the departmental information I will inform to my staff truly

6.

The staff leaving the department I will ask for the reason

7.

I will meet all my staff in any one of the occasion

8.

Before taking disciplinary action on any one of my staff I will


discuss with him.

9.

I will take decision only after consulting my staff.

10.

I will be observing each and every time the behavior and workmen
ship of my staff.

11.

I believe the long standing problem will arise if I make my staff to


work by threatening.

12.

At the time of failures before blaming one I will enquire.

13.

In case of motivation I am improving my skills in each and every


time

14.

I will be editing the work procedure and rules which come in the
way of work.

15.

All the employees are getting bonus according to the ratio.

16.

I will discuss directly with the staff at the time of reconcile.

17.

I will counsel the staff for doing the work, if they do not listen, I
will resort for severe action.

18.

I will chitchat in a friendly way with my staff very often.

19.

I will attend every function in my staff houses.

20.

I will utilize every opportunity to present gifts to my staff.

Page 14 of 239

No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

21.

The staff who served the organization for 5 years, I will recognize
his services with a gift and offer the same for every five years.

22.

I will try to solve the disputes among the staff and personal
problems.

23.

If it is required to promote one of two, I will explain the reasons to


the employee who was not promoted.

24.

I will create such an environment to the staff, who come forward


on their own for work.

25.

I will call outside experts for training to improve skills of the staff.

26.

I will convey my heartful greetings with my own handwriting to


the staff who perform outstanding in their work besides gifts.

27.

I will encourage the staff to think in a different way to solve the


work related problems.

28.

I will treat a lesson to the staff who escapes from work.

29.

I will be flexible about rules to help the staff if required.

30.

If will try to make every staff as a leader

No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No
Yes
At times
No

Communication Skill
AREAS OF COUNSELLING

A supervisor before going to counsel the employee:


Must prepare a note of area of topics to be counseled.
Must explain the objective of the topics and how they are useful for his profession.
Must have thorough knowledge about the subject.
When any topic is reiterated, supervisor shall listen to employees view.
After completion of counseling, ask for any doubt.
Dont allow any argument, but give directions or instructions.
For testing his understanding ask few questions and if required counsel once again
briefly.

WRITTEN MESSAGE
Written message is used for giving any information about an incident.
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For giving a good written message subject grammar is very essential along with
punctuation.
Francis bacon says reading makes a full man,writing makes and exact man, and
speaking makes a ready man.
Written message shall include TO address, with date, place and time. From address
along with signature is also essential along with acknowledgemet.
Written message shall comprise simple grammar with simple present tenses.
Since it is an official message unnecessary and irrelevant subject shall be eliminated.
It should be easily conveyable to the officials and shall not arise any other doubts.
VERBAL MESSAGE

Verbal message shall be given when employee is attentive to you.


It shall be with eye to eye contact.
Before starting the message the topic shall be disclosed first.
At the end we can check whether the message is understood or not.
It is a way of expressing the matter from source to receiver.
The following four things will help to overcome the barriers.
Developing an open communication climate.
Communication should be ethical.
Adopting an audience centered approach.
Creating and processing the messages effectively and efficiently.
Non verbal communication skills
Smile genuinely.
Respect status with eye contact.
Adopt a hand shake.
Oral communication
Speaking and listening are oral communication skills.
Dos of good listening.
Listen caringly.
Listen with your body.
Listen with your eyes.
Listen with your ears.
Listen with your heart.
Listen with your mouth closed.
Donts for good listening.
Dont interrupt.
Dont contradict.
Dont criticize about past behaviour.
Dont interrogate.

The essentials for good communication are

Clarify ideas before communicating.


Examine true purpose of communication.
Take the entire environment, physical and human into consideration.
Be a good listener.
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Communication can be defined as The interchange of information to bring about mutual
understanding and confidence between persons.
Dimensions of communication:

Intra personal communication.


Interpersonal communication.
Group communication.
Mass communication.

Basic forms of communication


Non verbal communication.
Facial expressions and eye behaviour.
Gestures and postures.
Vocal characteristics.
Personnel appearance.
Use of time and space.
Verbal communication.

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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

BECOME A GOOD OBSERVER


LEARN TO LISTEN
ASK OPEN QUESTIONS
DOCUMENT YOUR DAY
GIVE CLEAR INSTRUCTIONS
KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDERS, REQUESTS AND SUGGESTIONS

Counselling Technique
LI Diary
PERSONAL BIO-DATA OF LI
Name
Date of Birth
Date of Appt. (As)
Qualification
P.F. A/C No
Grade

:
:
:
:
:
:

Due Date of PME


Due Date of refresher
Due Date of safety camp
Blood Group
Residence Address &
Phone

:
:
:
:
:

TRAINING / SEMINAR ATTENDED BY LI


Duration

Place

Name of Training / Topics

Remarks

INSTRUCTION FROM OFFICERS


Date

Instructions

Action taken

IMPORTANT ITEMS TO BE DEMONSTRATED


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Manual operation of SMGR.


Checking whether OHE is having power supply or not.
Wedging of three phase contractors.
Wedging of Q-118 relay.
Manual operation of Q-44 relay.
Manual operation of REV. & CTF by opening HT compartment.
Checking whether exhausters are working and creating adequate vacuum by seeing the PVs
exhaust pipe and leak test.
Checking whether loco train pipe is free of obstruction.
Proper fixing of HRC fuses.
Repercussion over shooting of master controllers wheel.
Checking of batteries.
Manual operation and wedging of VEPT / VER.
Isolation of QOP / QOA / HOBA.
Isolation of loco brakes with the help of peddle switch.
Application of emergency brakes by Loco Pilot and Asst Loco Pilots.
Isolation of TM in various loco.
Checking of CBC.
How to dummy compressor safety valve.
How to attend brake-binding cases.

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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


20.

How to measure flat tyre.

ITEMS FOR CROSS CHECKING OF CREW


TECHNICAL
1.
Location of equipment
2.
Complete preparation of loco.
3.
Inspection of loco on arrival.
4.
Traction failure.
5.
Auxiliary failure.
6.
Rheostatic braking failure.
7.
Air brake system.
8.
How to enter loco logbook.
9.
Checking of traction motor.
10.
Mechanical parts of under gear.
11.
Driving techniques.
12.
Functioning of Airflow indicator, LSAF,
LPAR & Buzzer.
13.
Auto flasher light.
14.
How to give information in case of
failure / Accident (with in 20 minutes).
15.
Information about OHE.
16.
Knowledge of DJ control circuit.
17.
Knowledge of Traction Power Circuit.
18.
Knowledge of Progression & regression
circuit.
19.
Use and availability of Fire Extinguishers.
20.
Modifications.
21.
Various Test of Loco.
a. BP/FP/Vacuum leak test (LE/Load)
b. MR leak test with & without auxiliary.
c. Compressor capability test.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

d. BP/FP/Vacuum leak hole test.


e. ACP test.
f. Loco brake power test (SA-9 & A-9).
g. Traction test.
h. Sanding test.
i. LT test.
j. DBR test.
SAFETY
1.
Signals failures.
2.
IBH signal failures.
3.
Protection of trains.
4.
Authorities.
5.
Single line working on double line.
6.
Parting on train.

9.
10.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Speed of different types wagons.


Total interruption on SL & DL.
How to read WTT
Different system of working.
Different places exchanging of signals.
Clearing of stable load.
Precaution in the event of a train
coming to a stand on gradient.
Working precaution during Summer,
Winter & Monsoon.
Ghat working knowledge.
Look back on curvature.
Awareness of Energy conservation.
Checking of BPC.
Correct procedure of shunting.
G & SR correction slip.
Accident manual.

MISCELLANEOUS CHECKING
1.
2.

Uniform wearing.
Spectacle.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Cab & look out glass cleaning.


Working of PT phone & last check.
Loco Pilots personal store.
Detonators & fusee.
Spare vacuum / BP / FP hosepipe.
Fire extinguishers on loco and
condition.
Signals location and their aspects.
Up keep of Loco Pilots memo book.

QUIZ FOR LOCO PILOTS


Locomotives, Traffic / C & W / OHE, TRAIN OPERATIONS TECHNICAL, 3- Locomotives,
EMU/MEMU, G& SR and Others SAFETY CIRCULAR

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No

Date

Issued By

Contents
TECHNICAL CIRCULAR

No

Date

Issued By

Contents
SOBs for the Year

No

Date

SUBJECT
SAFETY DRIVE

No

Date

Issued by

Subject

Grade
Phone No

DOR

Pay Scale
Address

LP(M/E)DOP
Family Details

DOP LP(P)

Page 20 of 239

Blood Gr.

Simulator

LP (G)DOP
Psychological trg

DOA
ValidityAutomatic

DOB
PME Due

Qualif

Deg
PME Attn

Tech Due

G&SR Due

Loco Pilot
Name

COMPLETE BIODATA OF NOMINATED LOCO PILOTS

SURPRISE / AMBUSH CHECKS (Including mock drill)


Place &
Type of
Remark
time
check

CBC Optg. Key

TSD
Relay Wedges

Tape

WedgesContactor

G&SR

Fusee

Deto nator

DriverScrew

Hammer

No. of spanners

Dummy Plugs

IR washers

No. of Flags

nDesignatio

PERSONAL EQUIPMENT OF NOMINATED LOCO PILOTS


Loco Pilot Name

lightTri-color torch

WTT

S. No

A/M

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Action Taken

Date
Name
T. No.
L. No.
LIST OF ALCOHOLIC LOCO PILOTS
SNo

Name of LP (Sri)

Designation

Depot

Driving Technique

Knowledge of Safety & Operating Rules

ShowingTechnical Knowledge & Trouble

Personal Habits

Accident Record

25

30

15

10

20

Gradation awarded.

Total Marks

AccidentPrimary or Secondary Responsible for

Negative
Marks

Alcoholism Chronic or Habitual

Date of Grading

Name of the
Driver

Depot

S.
No.

Designation

SUMMARY OF THE GRADING IN DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF NOMINATED


DRIVERS

MONITORING PROGRESS OF OWN LOCO PILOT AT A GLANCE


Name

Cat

Pg No

Jan

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Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

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from to
Name

Cat

Pg No
from to

Jul

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Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


MONITORING DETAILS OF LOCO PILOT
Name:

Designation:

Date

Weak areas of LP

Cat:
Counseling imparted in regard to overcome
the weakness

Counseling of SOBs
S.No

Loco Pilots Name

SOBs
4
5

Counseling of Circulars
S.No

Loco Pilots Name

DAILY MOVEMENT REPORT


Date

Loco
No.

Train
No.

From

To

Departure

Arrival

Page 23 of 239

LP
Name

ALP
Name

Reason for
movement

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Safety Rules

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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Indian Railways is the largest Railway system in ASIA and first largest system in
single management in the world. Railways are the principal mode of transport for both
passengers and goods in the country.
With growing passengers and freight traffic Safety has become one of the principal
concerns. The safety of Railway operations is becoming all the more imperative in view of
the Railways endeavor to lift more passengers and fright traffic. The Railways are gearing
themselves to meet the challenges posed by the increasing traffic needs. Accordingly, High
priority is being given to various safety measures to ensure greater safety in rail travel and
transportation of goods
While every care is taken to ensure safety, disasters of rail accidents do occur for
internal and external factors on Railways.
The term Disaster envelops a wide spectrum of occurrences are arrayed by sudden
calamitous event having loss of life, injuring, grate material damage loss and distress.
Disasters are caused as a result of:

Human failure / equipment failure.


Sabotage.
Natural calamities.

Disasters in Railways result in heavy loss of lives, injuries, damage to property and affect the
normal movement of trains.
Human / Equipment failure leads to
Collisions
Derailments
Level crossings accidents at manned / unmanned level crossings
Fire on Train
Sabotage involving disaster is on account of:
Bomb blasts.
Setting fire to train/Railway installations and Railway property.
Tampering with Railway fittings to cause accidents.
Placing of obstructions on track to cause disruption to traffic.
Disasters owing to natural calamities are
Earth quakes.
Land slides.
Cyclones/Floods.
Storm/Tornadoes.
NEED FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN
Indian Railways do have an established system of disaster response. Swiftness of
response in an accident primarily, depends upon various components constituting the
accident relief them being fully conversant with their areas of responsibility.

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Success or failure of rescue operations, in the event of major disaster, depends upon
the availability of adequate resources both in terms of men and material and extensive
teamwork and co-ordinated efforts. In this regard Railways have set up an High Level
Committee to review disaster management on Indian Railways. Based on the
recommendations of the Committee, it has been felt necessary to have well documented
disaster management plan and upgrade our resources to improve the capability to handle
disasters and mitigate the hardships and suffering of passengers.
OBJECTIVES:
Disaster management plan is prepared as per high level committees report keeping in
mind the following objectives.
Quick extrication of victims are effective on site medical management.
Speedy transportation of the injured to hospitals.
Preservation of clues and evidences.
Early restoration of traffic with better on site management.
Quick dissemination of information at all levels.
Better media management.
Details of first information to be given in case of accident/disaster:
Time of accident
Train No.
Type of accident-Collision/Derailment/Manned LC/Unmanned
LC/Fire/Misc.
Block Section,KM
Obstruction of line/adjacent line
If derailment:
No.of coaches/wagons/loco derailed/canted
If collision:
Trains/wagons collided
If LC accident:
Train/road vehicle
If fire:
Loco/coach etc.,
Casulties-Killed/injured
Whether any Doctor/officer/staff available
Assistance required:MRV/ART with crane or without crane, whether re4quired from both
ends.
Prima-facie cause if known:
DISASTER RESPONSE
INSTANT ACTION TEAM (IAT):
Disaster response constitutes the spontaneous contribution of men at site and
meticulously planned action by trained teams to rescue the people. Under such situation,
it is necessary to take firn and quick decisions to save lives and property. For immediate
relief and rescue operations i.e., before the arrival of ART/MRV, an INSTANT ACTION
TEAM (IAT) is formed to perform various activities:
When a train is involved in a serious accident associated with deaths/injuries to
passengers;
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Railway servants on train/at site shall volunteer themselves to render assistance


and report to TS/TTE/Guard of the Train.
Immediately TS/TTE/on duty shall collect all Railway servants on train/at site and
form three or four groups.
One group shall assist the Guard and Driver and the other groups may be directed
t5o assist in rescuing injured/entrapped the passengers.
In the absence of TS/TTE the Guard/Assistant Guard shall take steps to form such
groups.

INSTANT ACTION TEAM (IAT)


The Instant Action Team comprises:

The Guard, Crew, TS, TTE, Asst. Guard and other staff on duty by the train.

Railway servants ON/OFF duty/ as passenger by the train.

Doctors and other volunteers traveling by train.

Railway staff working at site.

Non-Railway resources available at site.


Every member of this team is responsible to ensure that timely action is taken to protect
traffic, save lives and communicating the incident to the all concerned properly.
RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATIONS
The relief team arrived by ART with its elaborate preparedness shall swing into the
following action.
Rescue operation
Relief operation
Installation of Communication Network
Crowd Control and Law and Order
Clearance from State Police for restoration
Preservation of clues and Evidence
Media Management at site
Restoration Operation
Salvage operation
Officer /official nominated from various departments, arriving at site by ART form part of
Disaster Rescue Team. The officer/official representing each department is responsible to
ensure that the assigned duties of the department concerned are efficiently carried out for
fquick rescue/relief operation.
Disaster Rescue Team normally comprises members of following departments: Trained Railway men from Mechanical, Medical, Engineering, RPF and other
departments.
In case of fire accidents, trained Fire services personnel shall form part of this unit.
In case of an accident on water body, Divers, Naval cadets.
In case of a Sabotage/Bomb explosion, Bomb squads and GRP/Local police.
Rescue unit shall accompany the Relief Train or move it by road as quickly as
possible.
MANAGEMENT OF RESCUE OPERATIONS

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One of the most important factors in managing the disaster is prompt rescue
operation. By following meticulously the duties listed below, there are chances of saving
lives and giving relief to the injured. All Railway men whether on or off duty should provide
assistance in rescue operations. The following action should be taken promptly.
Render medical attention to the injured at the earliest without any loss of time.
Stop Bleeding and restore Blood pressure within an hour.
Persons under shock shall be relieved of shock.
Transport the casualties to the nearest hospital.
For being effective, any Disaster Management system must aim at recovering as many critical
patients as possible and rushing them to hospital at the earliest.
COMMUNICATION NET WORK
Due to leap in information dissemination, the electronic media is in the forefront of
reporting train accidents even before the details reach Divisional control/Central control.
In this environment, there is an urgent need for quicker information flow in
disaster/accidents/unusual occurrences. Therefore it is necessary that the information
regarding accident is relayed with least possible delay.
DUTIES OF ELECTRICAL OFFICIALS/OFFICERS
OPERATION

Where an EMU or Electrical Local is involved arrange for relief loco/train if required.
Proceed to the site immediately with adequate shed/break down staff.
Ensure that records of maintenance of loco/EMU and repair books are seized and
sealed.
A responsible Electrical Officer of respective branch in Control Office shall coordinate with site and arrange supplemental assistance.
Assess the cost of damage.
If loco is provided with memory module speedometer, break the window glass of the
SPM and switch off the switch to freeze the memory. This would help in saving the
recorded memory.
SPM chart need to be extracted jointly by Driver/Loco Inspector, SM/TI or along with
any other authorized staff of C&W and P.Way department etc.,
Ensure vehicle next to engine are not detached until their condition regarding brake
application is recorded/photographed.

140 TONNE GOTTWALD DIESEL HYDRAULIC BREAKDOWN CRANE


8.1 INTRODUCTION
Accident Relief Trains (ARTS) have always been an integral part of our Steam Loco sheds
and have been manned by Loco Shed Staff. To help in restoration of traffic, a breakdown
crane formed a part of most ARTS. Two types of ARTs existed, namely,'A'and'B'class. The
difference between the two was only on the basis of the scale of equipment provided in each.
Based on the erstwhile location of steam sheds, there were 141 'A' and 60 'B' class ARTs on
the Indian Railways till the early 80s.

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Location of the ARTs and consequently the cranes that they included was based on the
location of the sheds. On an average, the ARTs were located about 2OO to 250 kms apart but
were closer at many points. Most of the ARTs included a Medical van also.
Bulk of the rolling stock on the ARTs was fit to run at 90 to 100 kmph. Actual speed was,
however, limited to about 65 kmph due to the limitation imposed by the maximum speed of
the breakdown crane. Also, most of the cranes were steam powered and of very inadequate
capacity, ranging from 20T to 75T. There were only 6 diesel cranes of 120T capacity on the
Railways at that stage.
The Railways had in the meantime gone in for heavier and bigger rolling stock. Heavy BOX
type wagons had replaced the erstwhile 4-wheeler. Need to reach the site of accident as
quickly as possible was also a prime requirement. The Railways had no option but to think of
a new faster crane capable of lifting heavier loads. It, was therefore, decided by the Railway
Board in 1981 that new diesel powered cranes of 140T capacity on the BG and 75T on the
MG would be inducted into the Railways. Due to on-going electrification, it was also
decided to include hydraulic retailing equipment as part of the ARTS. At the same time the
location of the cranes was fully rationalised on the following basis:
1.
'A' class ARTs would be located so that no point on their beat would be more than 250
kms from its base. These ARTs would be equipped with heavy-duty breakdown cranes of
140T capacity as well as hydraulic retailing equipment. A Medical Van would also be located
along with these ARTS.
2.
'B' class ARTs would be located so that the maximum distance from the site of
accident would not be more than 150 kms. These ARTs would include an auxiliary van only
with retailing equipment. A Medical van would form part of these ARTs also. Based on this
rationalisation, it was possible to reduce the number of ARTs from the earlier 201 to 151.

Accident Relief Trains


(a) Location, Classification and composition of Accident Relief Trains stabled:
S.
Location
Class
Composition
No.
SECUNDERABAD DIVISION
1.

2.

Secunderabad

Secunderabad

Kazipet

140TCrane Spl
Match Truck
Slings Wagon
LUKAS Van
Staff, Kitchen & Elec. Van.
Officers & Staff rest Van.
Self Propelled Accient Relief Train (SPART)
MFD Van
Rest Van.
140 T Crane
Match Truck
Ballast Wagon
Kitchen, Elect. Van Tool & packing Van.
Officers & Staff rest Van
Accident Relief Train (ART)
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


A

3.

Bellampally

MFD Van
Engg. C&W tool Van
Staff rest Van
Kitchen & Staff Van
Engg. Wagon
OHE Wagon.
B
Accident Relief Train (ART)
MFD Van
Staff rest Van
Kitchen & Engg. Tool Van
Engg. Wagon
OHE Wagon
VIJAYAWADA DIVISION

1.

Vijayawada

2.

Bitragunta

3.

Rajamundry

1.

Guntakal

2.

Renigunta

140 T Crane
Match Truck
Ballast Wagon
Officers rest Van
Kitchen & Staff Van
Tool & Packing Van
Self Propelled Accident Relief Train (SPART)
B
LUKAS Van
Staff Van
B
Accident Relief Train (ART)
LUKAS Van
Kitchen & Staff Van
Elec. S&T. Engg. &
OHE Tool Van
Officers rest Van
Engg. Wagon
OHE Wagon
B
Accident Relief Train (ART)
LUKAS Van
Kitchen & Staff Van
Elec. S&T. Engg. &
OHE Tool Van
Engg. Wagon
OHE Wagon
GUNTAKAL DIVISION
Accident Relief Train (ART)
MFD Van
Officers & Staff Van
Kitchen, Elec. Engg.
Tool Van
Accident Relief Train (ART)
LUKAS Van
Officers & Staff Van
Kitchen, Elec. Engg.
Tool Van
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


3.

Gooty

1.

Purna

1.

Guntur

1.

Nizamabad

Engg. Wagon
A
Accident Relief Train (ART)
140 T Crane
Match Truck
Ballast Wagon
Officers rest Van
Kitchen Cum Staff Van
Elec. Van
Packing Van
Crew Rest &
Emergency Store Van
NANDED DIVISION
A
Accident Relief Train (ART)
140 T Crane
Match Truck
Water Tank for Crane
MFD Van
Staff rest Van
Kitchen & Staff Van
Elec. & Engg. Tool Van
Crane Crew Van
GUNTUR DIVISION
B
Accident Relief Train (ART)
LUKAS Van
Staff Van
HYDERABAD DIVISION
B
Accident Relief Train (ART)
LUKAS Van & Elect. Van
Staff Van
Engg. Tool Van
METRE GAUGE

S.
No.

Location

1.

Guntakal

2.

Pakala

Class

Composition

GUNTAKAL DIVISION
A
Accident Relief Train (ART)
35 T Steam Crane
Match Truck
Water Tank for Crane
LUKAS Van
Officers & Supervisors Van
Elec. Van
Ropes and Packing Van
Kitchen cum Dining Van
Material Van
Coal Wagon for Crane
A
Accident Relief Train (ART)
35 T Steam Crane
Match Truck
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

1.

Akola

Water Tank for Crane


Mechanical Tool Van
Elec. Van
Kitchen Cum Tool Van
Brake cum Rest Van
Engg. Packing Van
Engg. Tool Van
Engg. Rail Wagon
Coal Wagon for Crane
NANDED DIVISION
Accident Relief Train (ART)
35 T Steam Crane
Match Truck
Water Tank for Crane
Equipment Van
Staff Rest Van
Engg. Tool Van
Coal & Packing Van
Rails Wagon

Keys of Accident Relief Train


(b) (i) The key of Mechanical equipment van or power and tool van or staff car shall be kept
in TXR Office / the loco shed and the engineering equipment van in the Permanent Way
Inspectors office for normal use when Accident Relief Trains are ordered. The duplicate
keys of all the vehicles of the Accident Relief Train shall be kept in a separate sealed glass
fronted box at a conspicuous place in the Station Masters office for emergency use. In the
event of the keys from the C&W/S&T/PWI/Electrical office cannot be obtained readily for
any reason, the seal or the glass of the box in the Station Masters office shall be broken and
the duplicate keys taken out for use. After use of such duplicate keys, they shall be put back
in the box immediately on its return, after which the Station Master will ensure its sealing
forthwith.
(ii) Whenever the duplicate keys of the Accident Relief Train in the Station Masters office
are taken out of the box, and put back, the Station Master shall enter the fact in the station
diary noting the date, time and reasons for having done so.
(c) The Accident Relief Train and Crane Spl shall be readily available at all times on a
stabling siding set apart exclusively for this purpose, preferably with double exit.
(d) The DRM, DME, DOM, DSO and Assistant Officers of the Transportation (Traffic),
Mechanical and Engineering Departments and the Control office may order an Accident
Relief Train if necessary. It is desirable to indicate to the concerned department, the nature of
work required to be done, the type of engine and number of vehicles or rolling stock involved
to be dealt with.
(e) Whenever the Accident Relief Train is ordered, the Chief Crew Controller / Station Master
/ SSE (C&W) shall report for duty no sooner the Hooter/Siren is sounded. They shall take
steps to turn out the Accident Relief Train with the least possible delay.
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(f) (i) The target time for turning out Accident Relief Train is as under except as provided in
sub-paras (ii) & (iii).
(a) During day light hours (from 6 to 18 hours) 30 minutes
(b) During night hours (from 18 to 6 hours)
45 minutes
(ii) The target time for turning out Accident Relief Train, in respect of the following stations
is as under:
Station
Day
Hrs. Mts
Vijayawada 01 00
Bitragunta
01 00
Guntakal
01 00
towards
Hubli
Pakala
01 00

Target time
Night
Hrs. Mts.
01 00
01 00
01 15
01 00

(iii) Guntakal station, while turning out the Accident Relief Train, except for the direction
indicated in para (ii), shall adhere to the provision of 30 during day and 45 during night as
mentioned in para (i).
(iv) There shall be no delay whatsoever in dispatching the Accident Relief Train. The Chief
Crew Controller shall ensure that the first available engine and crew are provided for accident
relief train to be despatched within target time.
Chief Controller and Section Controller concerned will also ensure that engine and crew are
provided for dispatching the Accident Relief Train within the target time.
(g) The Accident Relief Train shall be inspected monthly by the following officials.
o Chief Crew Controller, SSE/P.way, SSE/C&W, Station Manager, SSE/S&T and
SSE/Elec.
o The Chief Crew Controller and the SSE/C&W shall examine the Mechanical
Equipment Van or Power and Tool Van or Staff Car etc., including the Mechanical
condition of the complete Rolling Stock and the Crane. The SSE/C&W will also
ensure that periodical oiling and re-packing is done to the rolling stock and there
are no overdue POH vehicles on the composition.
o The SSE/P.Way shall examine the Engineering Equipment van and the signal
Inspector shall thoroughly test the communication equipment provided in the
Accident Relief Train such as portable field telephone, public address system,
Megaphone etc., and ensure that they are in good working order and ready for use
in emergency.
o The SSE/Elec shall examine and test the electric Generators and other Electrical
equipments. He shall ensure that the staff who are called upon to use the same are
competent and thoroughly conversant.
o Such periodical inspections carried out by the Supervisory staff shall be entered in
a separate register meant for this purpose and a detailed report submitted to their
Departmental Officers and Sr.DSO / DSO. The Inspection Registers for Officers
will, however, continue to be separate in the Accident Relief Train. The copy of
the Inspection Report of the Officers shall be sent to the Departmental Officers
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


concerned and Sr.DSO / DSO. The Departmental Officers concerned and Sr.DSO /
DSO shall be responsible for ensuring the compliance of the irregularities notified
in the above Inspection Reports.
o Proper house keeping, proper stocking of equipment and tools and their location
with name badges in all the ART vans shall be ensured by all departments
concerned.
1003. Generating Plant:
Both portable and stationary type oil engine driven generator sets are mounted in Power &
Tool Van and Auxiliary Van. Power & Tool Van is marshaled with the Accident Relief Train
and Auxiliary Van is marshaled with Medical Relief Train.
o Generator sets are used mainly to provide lighting at the accident spot by means of
flood lights fixed on the roof / side of the van, portable stand lights, hand lamps
etc., with trailing cables.
o The vehicles (Power & Tool van and auxiliary Van) in which the generator sets are
mounted shall be maintained in the same way as other coaching stock in regular
use and shall be inspected monthly by the Electrical Official in charge and the
Train Examiner. The Electrical Official in charge shall inspect the generator sets
along with the other electrical equipment provided to ensure that all equipment is
in good working condition to meet emergencies. Particulars of inspection and
maintenance work carried out shall be recorded in the inspection book provided in
the van.
o The Divisional / Assistant Electrical Engineer shall inspect once in a quarter the
equipment and the inspection book provided in the Power & Tool Vans and
Auxiliary Vans of all depots of his Division and ensure the satisfactory condition
of the equipment. He shall also ensure the staff who are earmarked for the
operation of the equipment on these vans in emergencies are fully competent and
conversant with their duties.
o For operating the generator sets provided in power & tool van, Auxiliary van for
providing the lighting at the accident spot, the following set of staff should be
earmarked.
For Power & Tool Van
o Two sets of staff comprising one Fitter-cum-Driver and two khalasis in each set for
handling portable generator sets.
o One Fitter-cum-Driver to operate the stationary generating sets.
For Auxiliary Van
o Two sets of staff comprising one Fitter-cum-Driver and two Khalasis in each set for
handling the portable generator sets.
o The staff should be made available by giving suitable training to selected men from
the existing Train Lighting staff only. In addition, wherever possible another set of
staff should also be selected and given training who will be available for emergencies
when the staff earmarked for the work are absent or on leave. The staff earmarked
should be provided with Railway quarters near the Station premises. Immediately on
becoming aware of an accident they shall report to the Station Master and proceed
with the Accident Relief Train / Medical Relief Train.
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1004. Medical Relief Equipment:
Types of Medical Equipment:
o There are two types of Medical equipment namely, Scale I and Scale II.
Scale I equipment is stored in Medical vans and Scale II equipment is
stored in boxes in Special rooms preferably being at two ends on the
Station Platforms. This equipment will be called Accident Relief Medical
Equipment.
o The Accident Relief Medical Equipment Scale I and II are provided at the
following stations.

Medical Relief Train


(a) Location, Classification and composition of Medical Relief Trains stabled:
(BROAD GAUGE)
S.
No.

Location

1.

Secunderabad

2.

Kazipet

Scale

Composition

SECUNDERABAD DIVISION
I
Self Propelled Accident Relief Medical Train
(SPARMT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
I
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van

1.

Vijayawada

2.

Rajahmundry

3.

Bitragunta

1.

Gooty

2.

Renigunta

1.

Purna

VIJAYAWADA DIVISION
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
GUNTAKAL DIVISION
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
NANDED DIVISION
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
HYDERABAD DIVISION
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1.

Nizamabad

Medical Relief Train (MRT)


Medical Van
Aux. Van

MEDICAL RELIEF TRAINS


METRE GAUGE
S.
No.

Location

1.

Guntakal

2.

Pakala

1.

Akola

Scale

Composition

GUNTAKAL DIVISION
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
I
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
NANDED DIVISION
I
Medical Relief Train (MRT)
Medical Van
Aux. Van
ACCIDENT RELIEF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT
SCALE-II
I

SECUNDERABAD DIVISION
S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Location
Bellampalli
Dornakal
Parli-vaijnath
Vikarabad
VIJAYAWADA DIVISION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
1.
2.

Gudur
Ongole
Eluru
Tuni
Bhimavaram
GUNTAKAL DIVISION
Cuddapah
Raichur
Dharmavaram
Nandalur
Madanapalle Road (MG)
Kadiri (MG)
HYDERABAD DIVISION
Mahabubnagar
Nizamabad
NANDED DIVISION
Jalna
Kinwat
GUNTUR DIVISION
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1.
2.

Nadikudi
Nandyal

o The Medical van containing scale I equipment is marked Accident Relief Medical
Equipment and bear on each side a Red cross against a white background, each
unit of the cross being 60Cms long and 15 Cms wide.
o The special room containing the Scale II equipment is marked on at least two sides
by a Red cross against white background as mentioned in clause (iii) above.
o A copy of the list enumerating the equipment Scale I and II shall be exhibited on the
wall inside the Medical Van and the special room, respectively, for ready reference.
(b) Stabling and Maintenance of Medical Relief Trains
(i) The Medical Relief Train consisting of a Medical van and an Auxiliary van, coupled
together shall be stabled in traffic yard in a siding which has preferably an exit on both ends
for quick despatch in either direction. Since the Medical and Auxiliary vans have to leave the
station within 15 minutes of the ordering of the Medical Relief Train, it should on no account
be detained.
At such stations where the staff conversant with the use of Oxy-acetylene equipment and
other tools already provided in the Medical Relief Train may not be able to accompany the
Auxiliary van within the target time of 15 minutes, the TXR staff and Train Lighting staff
available at the station who are trained for handling these equipments should leave with the
Medical Relief Train.
(ii) No other vehicles shall be stabled on the line or siding set apart for the Medical Relief
Trains.
(iii) All the officials of the departments concerned shall ensure that the Medical Relief Trains
are kept always in a fit condition.
(c) Keys of the Medical Relief Equipment: o Scale I equipment in Medical Van The keys of locks of the Medical Van shall be
in duplicate. One set of the keys shall be in the custody of the Station Master and
the second set retained by the Assistant Divisional Medical Officer of the station
where the Medical Van is stabled. These keys shall be secured in a sealed glass
fronted box fixed in the office of the respective officials. The keys of all the locks
inside the Medical Van shall be secured in a glass fronted case fixed inside the
Medical Van, duly sealed by the ADMO and the other retained in his custody.
o Scale II Equipment at Stations The boxes of the Accident Relief Medical
Equipment (Scale II) shall be sealed by the ADMO of the station where the
equipment is stored. These should not have any locks. The complete equipment
shall be kept in a separate room either in the station building or adjacent to it.
This room shall be locked, the lock being provided with duplicate keys. The keys
shall be secured in a sealed glass fronted box, one in the Station Masters office
and the other in the office of the ADMO.
o Auxiliary Van The keys of the locks of the Auxiliary van shall be in duplicate,
one set of the keys shall be in the custody of the Station Master and second set
retained by the TXR at the station. These keys shall be secured in a sealed glass
fronted box fixed in the office of the respective officials. The keys of all the locks
inside the Auxiliary Van shall also be in duplicate. One set of these keys shall be
secured in a glass fronted box fixed inside the Auxiliary Van duly sealed by TXR
and other set of keys retained by TXR at the station.
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The keys shall be made available to the Electrical Official in-charge at the station for
inspection and periodical maintenance of electrical equipment by TXR.
o Entry in Tools and Plants Register--- The articles in the Accident Relief Medical Van
and the Scale II equipment room shall be entered in the Tools and Plants Register of
the concerned ADMO, while the articles in the Auxiliary Van entered in the Tools and
Plant Register of the TXR as the case may be.
o Inspection Book --- An inspection Book is provided in the Medical Van and in the
Scale II Equipment room. All Inspecting Officials shall sign in this book together with
any remarks they wish to offer with regard to the equipment. The book shall be neatly
maintained. The copy of the Inspection Report of the Officers shall be sent to the
Departmental Officers concerned and Sr.DSO / DSO. The Departmental Officers
concerned and Sr.DSO / DSO shall be responsible for ensuring the compliance of the
irregularities notified in the above Inspection Reports.
o The target time for turning out the Medical Relief Train is as under --For stations other than Secunderabad and Vijayawada
(i) For direct dispatch
15 minutes
(ii) For indirect despatch i.e., shunting on 20 minutes
to the running line first

Both during day and


night

For Secunderabad Jn Station

Between
20 to 06 hours
20 mts
20 mts

(i) For direct despatch


(ii) For indirect despatch (i.e.) shunting
on to the running line first

Between
6 to 20 hrs
15 mts
20 mts

For Vijayawada Jn Station


(i) For direct dispatch
20 minutes
(ii) For indirect despatch i.e., shunting on 25 minutes
to the running line first

Both during day


and night

This time is reckoned from the time the Medical Relief Train is ordered to the time it is taken
out and kept ready for despatch on a suitable running line. It shall be ensured by all
concerned that there is no delay in dispatching Medical Relief Trains.

140 ton breakdown crane


Capacity
Capacity of a breakdown crane is usually expressed in tonnes. For example, the
crane under discussion is the 140T crane. This figure is actually the capacity of the
lifting hook and as far as the crane capacity is concerned is a misnomer. The term that
describes the capacity of a crane more correctly is the load moment, which is defined as
the load that can be lifted in tonnes multiplied by the radius at which it is lifted. For
example, the existing 120T diesel crane can lift this load at a radius of 5 metres only so
that its load moment is 600 tonne-metres. On the other hand, an 80 tonne crane that can
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lift this load at a radius of 15 metres has a load moment of 1200 tonne-metres. The
140T Gottwald Crane lifts its 140 tonne at a radius of 9 metres, so it has a load moment
of 1260 tonne metres. It is thus seen that the 80 tonne crane has a capacity that is
double that of the 120 tonne crane. A crane with a bigger load moment is the bigger
crane and cranes should not be compared by their hook load capacities only.
Today, breakdown cranes are classified into three categories:
1.
2.
3.

Small
Medium
Large

Upto 700 tonne-metre load moment


700 to 1 000 tonne-metre load moment
above 1000 tonne-metre load moment

By this definition,
2.

the 140T crane is a large crane.

Number of axles
The number of axles has an important bearing on the working of the crane. If the
number Of axles is kept large to stay within axles load limitations, it will result in an
unduly long crane that may require extra time for attaching, detaching, preparation,
etc. It is also likely to have lower running speeds. Cranes with a large number of
axles usually have poor riding. It is, therefore, desirable to keep the number of axles
as low as possible.

3.

Tall Radius
This is the maximum distance from the center of rotation to the tail of the revolving
Superstructure. If the tail radius is small the crane will not get obstructed by the tail
portion of its super structure while working in cuttings, etc. However, a small tail
radius will increase the need for more counter weights, which may require an
additional ballast wagon, and consequently more setting up time.

4.

Prop base
The effective span or area of the supporting base when outriggers are used to increase
Stability by virtue of making contact with the ground at points farther from the centre
line of the crane than the normal wheels/track position, the size of this base is
obviously very critical in the design of the crane. A small prop base is advantageous
while working in cuttings while a large base is useful in embankments where the soil
cannot take heavy loads. The prop base, therefore, has to be carefully designed.

5.

'A' frame
In large cranes derricking forces can be very high. To accommodate these forces a
frame shaped like an 'A' is located on the tail side of the crane that helps in the
derricking. All large cranes have such a frame. This obviously poses problems when
working under catenary in electrified sections. The enclosed sketch shows that for
large cranes, an 'A' frame is required to reduce derricking forces.
6.

Basic crane motions are:


Hoisting: The movement of the hook, main or auxiliary, with or without load,
when being raised or lowered vertically, Jib remaining stationary.
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Slewing: The movement of the superstructure along with jib rotating about a
vertical axis.
Derricking: Raising and lowering of Jib in a vertical plane.
Travelling: This is the self-travel of the crane.
7.

Working radius
The horizontal distance from the centre line of the lifting hook to the centre
about which the Crane slews.

8.

Outreach
The horizontal distance from the centre line of the lifting hook to the headstock
(under Carriage)

9.

Stability
Stability is based on the moments about the tipping fulcrum. The worst condition
usually occurs when the jib is at right angles to the track. For a free on rail duty the
fulcrum is the rail while for propped duty, the jack beam-ends are the fulcrum. The
sum of the moments in front of the fulcrum plus a percentage of the load for stability
margin must be balanced by the sum of the moments behind the fulcrum. For this
naturally the maximum load at the maximum radius is taken into consideration.
A crane has to be stable backwards also. This introduces some problems as the weight
in the tail used to counterbalance the weight in the jib and the hook load becomes an
overturning moment for backward stability when the jib is raised to its minimum
radius and consequently its weight only partially comes into play for forward moment.

TECHNICAL DETAILS OF DIFFERENT BREAKDOWN CRANES


(i) Maximum Capacity
For full propped condition.
132 Tonnes at 1 0 metre radius 30 degree slewing (with 43.2
Tonnes counterweight) For free on rail condition.
59.5 tonne at 8 metre radius 13 degree slewing (with 43.2 tonne
counterweight)
(ii) Cabin: Mounted on front of Superstructure between Jib fork.
(iii) Hoist Block: Main hook of Rams horn type and auxiliary hook of shank type.
(iv) Axle Load :
Jib resting on match truck.
For match truck
17.5 tonnes
For crane
20.0 tonnes
(v)
Maximum moving dimensions (RDSO Drg No. CSL 3039)
Width 3200 mm
Height 4200 mm
Specifications of 140T Diesel HYD BD Crane.
i) Track gauge

1676mm
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ii) Wheel dia nominal
iii) Bogie centres (Crane)
iv) Length over buffers (crane)
v) Brakes
vi) Brake control
vii) Max. axle load in train order
viii) Tail Radius
ix) Max. Propping load
x) Minimum Track Curvature

915mm
7500mm
13300mm
Wheel disc brakes
Air pressure system, Vacuum Brake system
20 tonnes
5500mm
200 Tonnes
174 metre radius.

JIB
i) Overall length
ii) Min. Working radius
Max. Working radius

18000mm (Main hoist centre to jib foot pin centre).


5.5 metre
16.0 metre

MAIN POWER PACK


i)
ii)
iii)

Make CUMMINS U. S. A.
Type NT855 R4
Performance 224KW at 1800 rpm.

EMERGENCY ENGINE
Make Schule (Germany)
Type TA2
Performance 10.5 KW at 1800 rpm
1)
ii)

HOISTDRIVE
Capacity
Hoist speed

MAIN HOIST
140 Tonnes
Normal
Rapid

AUX. HOIST
25 Tonnes

2.5m/min 15 metre/min
5.0m/min 30 metre/min

DERRICKING DRIVE
i) Derricking speed

5.5 to 16m in 90 Seconds

RECOVERY WINCH
i) Pulling force
i) Speed

Max. 5099kgf.
Max. 20 m/min

PROPELLING SPEED
i) Self propulsion of crane
ii) Self propulsion with load
iii) Crane hauling in train order

Max. 12 Kmph
Max. 6 Kmph
Max. 75 Kmph

COUNTERWEIGHT COMBINATION ON SUPERSTRUCTURE

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No counterweight

Nil
5.2tonne

on Superstructure.
on undercarriage.

Half counterweight

29.2 T.

Full counterweight

43.2 T.

counterweight.
(24T in special condition)
counterweight

OUTRIGGER COMBINATION
Condition

Propping base

Free on rail
Half prop
Full prop

1.74 metre x 7.5 metre


2.70 metre x 11.8 metre
6.00 metre x 11-8 metre

CAPACITIES OF 140T BRAKEDOWN CRANE


The 140T crane of M/s Gottwald make is capable of performing the following tasks
FULL COUNTERWEIGHT
The crane with full counterweight of 43.2 T. when fully propped is capable of lifting A fully
loaded BOX wagon (85 tonne gross weight) over crane head stock, at an outreach of 9 metres
(Radius 15M) with limited slewing range of 30 degrees on either side of track center line.
The crane with full counterweight of 43.2 Tonne and free on rail is capable of lifting an
empty BOX wagon (30 tonne tare weight) over end of the crane on same track, at an outreach
of 3 metres with limited slewing range of 13 degrees on either side of track centre line.
HALF COUNTERWEIGHT
The crane with half counterweight of 29.2 Tonnes when fully propped is capable of lifting
an empty BOX wagon (30 Tonne tare weight) over crane head stock at an out reach
of
9 metres for 360 degree slewing range.
ii)
The crane with half counterweight of 29.2 tonnes when fully propped is capable of
lifting a loaded CRT wagon of 41 tonnes at an outreach of 5.3 metres over crane. head stock
for 360 degree slewing range.
iii) The crane with half counterweight of 29.2 Tonnes when fully propped is capable of
lifting one end of a standard diesel/electric locomotive on the same track (lifting capacity
required 66 tonnes) at 5.1 metre outreach with a limited slewing of 30 degrees on either side
of track centre line.
HALF COUNTERWEIGHT-SPECIAL CONDITION
The crane with 24 tonnes on Super Structure and 5.2 Tonnes on Chassis while free on rail is
capable of lifting an empty CRT wagon (1 3.1 Tonne Tare weight) over crane head stock at an
outreach of 5.3 metre for 360 degree slewing range.

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8.4 CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF 140T BD CRANE
140T crane is having the following assemblies incorporating hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical
and electronic equipment
a)
b)
c)
d)

Match Truck
Jib
Undercarriage
Superstructure.

Structural items are mostly to DIN standard of which Indian equivalent is IS 961 ST
55 HTW and SAILMA450HI. Welding is of Argo-shield type to radiographic quality.
a) MATCH TRUCK
Match truck is of bogie type with suspension consisting of two spring packs in each
bogie. Each pack consists of four pairs of helical springs and two stacks of disc springs
centrally arranged. Disc springs are available indigenously.
Match truck is mainly for carrying jib, Counterweights, Main and auxiliary Snatch block,
ropes and tackles. The location of weights tackles, lifting beams and Jib head is placed so as
to distribute the load evenly and keep the axle load within limits.
b) JIB
Jib is of articulated and cranked type so that the jib footpin is fully relieved of all stresses
arising from the crane passing over curved track with buffers in full compression and jib
resting on trestle of match truck. For articulated jib, it is important to ensure that the derrick
wire rope is sufficiently slack when the jib rests on the trestle to permit articulation. Jib main
body is of hollow type and of octagonal shape (two split octagonal halves welded along the
length). Boom stopper rest is provided on the top to prevent backward swing of jib from
maximum position (due to storm or otherwise). Jib is lifted by two gantry ropes one of which
is fitted with load sensing devices. Boom angle sensor is mounted on the fork end inner side.
Design also exists for telescopic jib, derricking by hydraulic cylinder and rail-cum-road
type in heavy-duty break down cranes.
ii) HOOKS
The main hoist of the crane is provided with a rams horn hook of 140 tonne capacity
supported on thrust ball bearing to allow free swivel even under loaded condition. An
auxiliary hook of shank type for a safe working load of 25 tonne capacity is also provided.
c)

CRANE UNDERCARRIAGE

i)
Crane undercarriage is pivoted on two bolsters which are mounted on three axle bogie
wheels provided with disc brake due to which wear of only the motion on rail goes to tread

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and braking wear goes on disc. Each wheel is braked with double jaw brakes by separate
pneumatic cylinders.
ii)
A Crane suspension in each bogie consists of four spring packs, each pack with two
stacks of coil springs (inner and outer) and two stacks of disc springs diagonally arranged.
iii)
In coil springs, release of load being instantaneous, damping effect is minimum.
Incase of Disc springs contact area of friction is released gradually (with release of load)
resulting in provision of damping.
iv)
The spring suspension arranged can be blocked by axle blocking arrangement. Each
bogie is fitted with gear drive (pinion to be engaged by pneumatic cylinders) operated by
hydraulic motors.
d)

SLEWING RING

i)
Slewing ring is a large size roller bearing mounted horizontally and
connecting under carriage and superstructure ( while permitting rotations of
Superstructure and under carriage). This is specially designed to accommodate
oscillating moments. Slewing ring comprises of inner ring and outer ring. Inner ring is
having gear teeth which mesh with slewing gear pinion mounted on slewing motor.
The Inner ring is having 64 holes and Outer ring is having 64 holes. The outer ring is
fastened with Superstructure and Inner ring is fastened with undercarriage by long
studs. The Slweing ring permits rotation of the superstructure on under carriage and
accommodates tilting movement as well as axial and radial loads.
ii) The main advantage of the slewing ring assembly is that it is much more compact
and its hollow centre permits the installation of driving mechanism (slewing motor) and
the passage of various control connections through rotor. Further, the superstructure
and various mountings on it are very easily accessible from under-neath.
e) SLEWING MECHANISM
By provision of slewing pinion driven by a hydraulic axial piston motor, complete
slewing with speed of 360 degrees rotation per minute has been provided. Slewing
motor is supplied oil from a closed hydraulic circuit (pump Q3) which ensures extreme
sensitive and jolt free slewing of the crane. The lamina brakes engage automatically at
the end of the stewing motion and disengage automatically at the beginning of any
slewing motion.
f) ROTOR CONNECTION
The Rotor is mounted on the undercarriage in the centre of the slewing ring and it
connects hydraulic and air system of Superstructure and Undercarriage.
8.5 VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CRANE WITH BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS.
a) AIR PRESSURE SYSTEM
I) Air pressure system in the crane carries out the following operations
Operations of the brake cylinder.
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- Engaging the traction gear pinion.
-Operations of condition indicators for service brake, hand brakes and springs
suspension blocking.
-Signal horns.
ii) When the main power pack of crane works, the main engine air compressor
charges the entire air pressure system. The pressure-regulating valve keeps the
pressure in the range of 6.2 to 7.3 bar. A gauge in drivers cabin indicates the
pressure. An air oiler mixes small quantity of oil with air, thereby ensuring that
pneumatic valves and equipment are lubricating continuously. Condensed water from
the system can be removed by means of drainage valve provided in air supply tanks.
b)

Brake system

The Undercarriage is equipped with air brake system but can be integrated in
both vacuum braked or compressed Air braked train order. For this the corresponding
hose couplings must be connected and the brake valves switched over with side
mounted hand levers. Each bog i.e. has a total of 6 compressed Air brake cylinders,
whose double jaws at on the discs mounted on wheel centres.
c) Hauling In Train Order with compressed air brake
In this case, the crane has to be changed over to the vacuum controlled
compressed air brake system, which means that the brake and release impulses come
via the train order vacuum line; however the braking force itself is still generated with
compressed air. Two Axle mounted air compressors serve to charge the air tanks,
which are driven by belt from the axle.
Automatically operated multiple disc clutches ensure that the air compressor is
only driven in case of need. Thus, caution must be taken by prefilling it with main
power pack as the air compressor requires about three hundred metres hauling distance
to fill the air tank in case it is completely empty.
d) Self propelled crane travel
In uncoupled condition of the undercarriage, brake system is supplied air from the
compressor on the crane's main drive assembly. The air pressure is directed by
means of a rotor to the undercarriage air tanks. When the spring suspensions
blocking is engaged, the brake also closes. By operating the travel control lever,'the
brakes open and when the control lever is pulled back to neutral position the brakes
are automatically engaged again.
In addition, independent of the position of the control lever, braking can be initiated
by foot valve in the cab. Slow motions of the control lever and simultaneous braking
enables the crane to be braked very smoothly when travelling with load.
vi)
When air brake train hauls the crane, the air supply is made from the trains
main air pipeline.
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vii) Whether it is an air brake train or a vacuum brake train, in either case brakes
on the
crane are applied simultaneously with the application of brakes on the train.
e)

Parking brake

While leaving the crane on site or in yard ( in every case when the diesel engine
is not running), the parking brake must be applied. On track with more than 3%
gradient, additional wedges should be used to protect the crane from rolling. By
turning the parking brake hand wheel, the brake jaws will be closed by means of a
piston pump and additional hydraulic cylinders on each brake cylinder per axle. The
respective brake condition (open/ close) is signaled by side mounted indicator
devices.
f) MATCH WAGON BRAKE SYSTEM
Each match wagon bogie wheel is braked by means of a double jaw brake
with a Separate air pressure cylinder. One of the brake cylinder per axle is fitted
with a hydraulic cylinder which is pressurised by the hand brake and closes the
corresponding brake. Contrary to the crane Undercarriage, match wagon brake
system is only in operation in compressed air braked train order and by selfpropulsion in combination with the crane. When being hauled in vacuum braked
train order the compressed air brake will be shut off and the through vacuum brake
line connected. In this condition there are no brakes in the match truck.
g)

ROPE WINCHES

The crane is fitted with two single rope winches for main and auxiliary hoists as well as a
double rope winch for derricking the boom in and out. Each winch gear and rope drum
form a compact sub-assembly and comprises of internal planetary gear, built-in lamina
brake and flanged hydraulic motor.
h)

COUNTERWEIGHTS
Counterweights are mounted on the Superstructure as per requirement of load
condition. Sensing of 29.2T/43.2T or no counterweight is done by pressure switches
provided with the counter weight gallows hydraulic cylinder and it is transmitted to
the PAT and also indicated in the drivers cabin.

i)

TRACTION GEAR

In the inner wheel of the crane bogie, traction gear is mounted during travel
mode, traction pinion meshes with the gear operated by pneumatic cylinders.
This occurs if Axle blocking is operated. With Axle blocking, brake is applied
on the crane wheels. When the driver operates the control lever for travelling of the
crane, brake opens automatically.
j)

OUTRIGGERS
The outriggers comprise 4 swing-type telescopic beams, each fitted with a vertical
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outrigger cylinder at the end. Extending and swinging out the beams is carried out
simultaneously by means of a hydraulic cylinder.
According to space and operating conditions the crane can be propped in both swing
limited positions. Outrigger bases are (i) 1 1.8 m x 2.7m (ii) I 1.Bm x 6.Om
k)

LAMINA BRAKE IN CRANE MOTION

In main hoist drive, auxiliary hoist drive, derricking drive, slewing drive and
salvage winch motors, lamina brake has been provided. The drive assembly consists
of hydraulic motor, gear box with built in lamina brake and rope drum. This
arrangement provides safety in case of damage to the circuit and prevents free fall of
the load/motions.
In case of main/auxiliary hoist and derricking drive, while lowering, pressurised
oil releases lamina brake. When the load is getting lifted up, the check valve provided
in the brake valve attached to the hydraulic circuit prevents falling of the load in case
the motor is not able to produce the required torque to lift the load. While lowering the
load lamina brake is released and the throttle provided in the brake valve permits
smooth lowering of the load.
While lifting or lowering when the motion is stopped above the ground, due to
drop in pressure lamina brake gets applied and holds the load at the same position.
This ensures safety in crane motion.
l) SAFETY DEVICES
In this crane, all the crane motions and related actuation are carried out hydraulically
and controlled from the Cab. Hydraulic pumps are driven by main diesel engine (224
KW at 1800 rpm). Hydraulic system is protected by means of check valves to take
care of pipe/hose fracture/leakage.
ii)

Main hydraulic circuit working pressure being 280 bar, the valves are not
directly
operated manually. The main valves and the circuits are actuated by another
hydraulic circuit called "Pilot circuit" which is at 30 bar. All joy sticks and levers which
are manually operated, in fact control through the pilot circuit only.
NOTE: - Though joy stick and lever operation does not take much effort, it
should not be operated with jerks. Due to rough handling, valves have got damaged in
some cranes.
III)
Three sensing devices, i.e. slewing angle, load cell and boom angle
sensors, respectively monitor the slewing angle, actual load on hook and boom angle.
The sensing is continuous. These work in conjunction with PAT system provide
computer monitored safety against unsafe operation based on excess load moment.
IV)
All the electrical safety solenoid valves are incorporated in, the 30 bar
pilot control circuit. While operating the crane, if the operator exceeds the safe
working parameters such as working radii or overload conditions are approached, the
safety components such as limit switches, load cell, angle sensor, etc. respond and
interrupt the power to solenoid valves. This results in connecting concerned pilot line
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to return line (to hydraulic oil reservoir) thereby stopping the functioning of
respective hydraulic working equipment (motor cylinder etc.)

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m) MAIN POWER PACK
Main power pack is a horizontally mounted, six cylinder diesel engine with super
charger. The main power pack at the radiator end drives two pumps (06 & 07) and sits
the opposite end, is flanged with the transmission box and drives 5 pumps (Ql to Q5).
The main power pack also drives the main compressor and the three phase alternator
through belt drive, both at the radiator end.
n) AUXILIARY POWER PACK/EMERGENCY ENGINE
This is a smaller capacity vertically mounted, two cylinder type diesel engine (starting
through hand cranking) located on the radiator side of the main power pack close to the
Cab, on the superstructure. It is used to clear the site by derigging the crane in case of
main power pack failure.
r) Continuous monitoring of the engine is possible from the operator's cab due to the
following instruments mounted on the operating panel
I)

Fuel oil level' indicator

II)

Lube oil pressure indicator

III)

Lube oil temperature meter

IV)

Coolant water temperature meter

V)

R.P.M. Meter

VI)

Engine hour meter.

Important operating equipment in cab


I)

Key switch to bridge working position of boom

II)

Key switch to bridge safe load indicator (PAST)

III)

Pre-selector switch.

Important gauges provided in cab


I)

Pressure gauge for hydraulic oil in slewing circuit.

II)

Pressure gauge for hydraulic oil in circuit-1.

III)
IV)

Pressure gauge for hydraulic oil in circuit-11.


Pressure gauge for hydraulic oil in control circuit.

V)

Air pressure gauge.

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8.6 OPERATING PROCEDURES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF DIFFERENT


CRANES
OPERATION OF THE CRANE
Here you have detailed instructions on how to prepare the crane for use and how to
use it. Precautions to be taken have been brought out clearly. At the end of this script you
should have no problem guiding the working of this crane at an accident site.
1.

GENERAL OPERATIONAL CHECKS


Before the crane is hauled out of the Shed or any other place where it is stabled,
please check the following items:
Before the crane is hauled out of the Shed or any other place where it is
stabled, please check the following items:
Travel Gear should be in disengaged position (side mounted display should
indicate "GREEN"). Crane brake and parking brake should be released (side mounted
displays should indicate "GREEN"). Brake system side mounted handle (on the
undercarriage) must be in position AIR or VACUUM as per locomotive brake system.
CAUTION:- The air line shut off cock must be closed if the locomotive brake is
operative on vacuum system or vacuum hose to be blocked if locomotive brakes are
operative on air system.
Boom should be locked on its trestle. Derricking wire rope. Should be slack.
By starting the main Engine, fill air reservoir for brake arrangements in train
order (as pressure is built up by auxiliary compressor only after approximately 200m
run).
All side mounted platforms on the undercarriage must be lowered and locked.
All the four propping outriggers should be locked properly.
Check the following oil and coolant levels:
a) Hydraulic Oil. (b) Fuel Oil. (c) Enginge Lub. Oil. (d) Radiator water level. and (e)
Oil level in all gear boxes.
Check function of AUX Engine working system. Ensure that Axle blocking is not
there.
After reaching the work site, the following points should be checked :
12345-

2.

Load to be lifted Dimensions and approximate weight.


Required radius.
Required working cycle (hook height, slewing range, travelling with load).
Site conditions for propping.
Ground conditions for outrigger pad area.

PERMISSIBLE GROUND FORCE


The condition of the ground in the outrigger pad area is very important. Given below
are the approximate pressures different types of surfaces can support. Follow the
following procedure.
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Natural ground Approx. 50 to 60 Tonne/ metre square.
Medium Sand 40 Tonne/ metre square (firm clay and grave).
Fine Sand, firm- 15 tonne/ meter square
Determine the required counterweight (cwt) combination and type of outrigger
propping.
3.

ERECTION OF CRANE RIGGING

Before Starting the Engine the following oil and coolant levels should be checked once again:
Hydraulic oil level (can be checked by gauge in the operator's cab)
Oil level in the gear boxes.
Engine lubricating oil.
Radiator water level
All stop valves of Hydraulic oil lines should be in open position.
Start engeine and check the following :
Engine Lub. Oil pressure.
Battery charging current (Ammeter in the cab.) Pilot circuit pressure should be 30 bar.
Air pressure should be 6.5 bar plus.
Visual check of the oil line, air line water line leakages.
AXLE BLOCKING
The bogie spring suspension is provided purely for hauling operations. When crane
operation is required or self-propulsion in the crane is necessary, axle blocking is a must, i.e.
spring suspension is to be blocked. This means that the spring should make a solid block.
For this an Axle blocking control lever is fitted on the side of the undercarriage. Two
pressure gauges (0 to 600 bar) are also fitted near the control lever on the undercarriage. To
indicate axle blocking pressure which should be approximately 240 bar. When operating the
crane one person should be nominated to observe the axle blocking pressure gauges. Any fall
in the pressure caused due to leakage of oil of axle blocking cylinder should be made up by
repressurising the control lever. Sequence of operation for axle blocking is explained below.
Select oil transmission line pre-selector switch (in the operator's cab ) for undercarriage.
Operate Axle blocking lever (side mounted on the undrcarriage ) until all springs are
comjpressed against the stop. The pressure should be 240 barapprox. When Axle blocking is
done, the following operations take place simultaneously :
Travelling gear engages, ii) Brake apply, iii) All side mounted display devices indicate RED".
ERECTION OF BOOM
Pre-selector switch for oil line transmission to counterweight,
By operating the valve (on the left panel) counterweight gallows should be raised to
maximum position until the indicating lamp (in the cabin) is off.
Derrick 'IN' untill boom heels sit on the pin.

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Continue derricking 'IN' till 'A' frame is at full position
Secure 'A' Frame pin in positon.
Remove boom lock provided on the match truck trestle.
Raise boom clear of head rest (trestle) approx. 40 ems bring hook blocks under the boom
head vertically either by moving the crane or Match Wagon.
OR
After raising the boom approx. 40 cms above the trestle continue derricking 'IN' and
simultaneously both hook blocks are to be lowered till the boom head is vertically above the
hook blocks.
The crane is ready for picking up the counterweight as per requirement, or the crane is ready
for operation without counterweight.
Repositioning of the match wagonIf necessary due to space requirements, the match wagon can be repositioned behind
the crane undercarriage or on a side track. In any case, prior to uncoupling the match wagon,
parking brake should be CLOSED
To reduce the required radius crane buffers can be folded sidewards.
PROPPING THE CRANE
Switch on oil Transmission line (pre-selector in the crane cabin to undercarriage).
Operate lever (fitted on the undercarriage) to swing out the outrigger beams as required.
Operate lever (fitted on the undercarriage) to lower the propping cylinder on the stabilizer
foot. Lock the stabilizer foot and the piston with pin.
NOTE : It is advisable to use load distribution pads, except where space does not permit.
Raise the crane until the wheel sets lift clear off the rails.
Set oil transmission line pre-selector in the crane to neutral position.
Level the crane with the help of side mounted spirit level on the undercarriage.
COUNTERWEIGHTS
There are three counterweights of 6, 14 and 18 tones respectively. All lie on the match truck
and have to be picked up as per requirements, (A weight of 5.2 tones lies on the chassis as
base load). For using the counterweights, follow the instructions given below.
a)
b)
c)

Switch on boom bridging key, so that 5 meters limit switch is in circuit (by-passing
5.5m limit switch).
Switch on key switch which bridges safe load indicator. Now the crane should not be
slewed.
Pick up the counterweight from match wagon individually to form standard
counterweight condition as below.
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HALF COUNTERWEIGHT
Place 18 T on 5.2 T (5.2 T lying on the undercarriage in front of the cabin). Then place 6 Ton 18 T counterweight.
ONLY FOR FREE ON RAIL
18 + 6 = 24 T on Gallows
5.2 T on chassis
FULL COUNTERWEIGHT
Place 18 T, 6 T and 14 T counterweights on 5.2 T weight on the undercarriage in front of the
cab. This gives 43.2 Tones on gallows.
Note :
Half propped and full propped conditions :
During half propped and full propped conditions the counterweight combination is 29.2 T
(5.2+ 18+6) on gallows and 43.2T (5.2 +18+6+14) counterweight on gallows.
d)
e)
f)
g)

Switch 'OFF' safe load indicator switch key to bring the computer safety system into
the circuit. Check the correct mode of stability.
Interlock the Counterweight sections and boom out to 8 m radius. Then slew the super
structure to 180 degrees.
Set oil Transmission line selector switch at "Counterweight", lower Counterweight
gallows, mount the weights and raise the gallows to the limit position. (indication
lamp goes off).
Switch off boom key switch, so that 5.5 m limit switch is in circuit

CAUTION
-

Check if safe load indicator is in operation.


Correct mode of stabilization is set on the selector switch.
Axle blocking pressure is approximately 240 bar.

A FEW DOs AND DON'Ts


Axle blocking pressure should be checked by a nominated person. If the pressure drops, the
nominated person should recharge the axle blocking pressure to 240 bar.
When fixing counterweight on the crane, the crane should not be slewed unless correct
propping base is selected (the mode selector on the display unit of the PAT system must show
full out-rigger.)
Before slewing take the following action.
(i)

while working free on rail, 360 degree slew. No counter weight on gallows, 5.2 Ton
counter weight should remain on the chassis.

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(ii)

While working free on rail, 360 degrees slew, half counter weight on gallows, 5.2 T
on chassis, (24 T on gallows). Jib must be beyond Sm radius.

Load charts affixed inside the cabin should be followed in to.


After gallows operation or axle blocking operation pre selection switch for oil transmission
should be brought to 'O' position.
Before starting work make sure that Computer override key and boom override key are
switched to working position.
Ensure counter weight indicating lamps indicating correct counterweight on gallows, are in
operation.
Manually operated mode switch showing correct outrigger basis is. Operational
DERRIGGING OF THE CRANE
Sequence of derigging is given briefly below :
Check axle blocking pressure.
Unload counterweights on the match truck.
Leave base counterweight of 5.2 T on crane chassis indirection of match truck. This is
mandatory.
Boom out to 16 m radius. At this point derricking out will be cut off by 16 m limit switch
and PAT.
Switch 'IN' boom over bridge key.
Switch 'IN' compute over bridge key.
Raise both hooks to limit position of derigging.
Boom down until both boom head is approx. 40 cm higher than rest position.
Travel crane forward until boom rest pin matches with recess in boom rest.
Boom down until boom slides fully into the boom rest to the lock position.
IMPORTANT At this point lock the hook in the boom rest.
Raise counterweight gallows to full height.
Fasten the 'A' frame hind bottom leg with counterweight gallows by link rope arrangements.
Remove pins from 'A' frame.
Boom out to give small amount of slack in derrick ropes.
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Lower counterweight gallows which will result in 'A' frame going over center which will
facilitate further collapse.
Raise gallows fully.
Remove link rope arrangement.
Further derrick out till 'A' frame front rests on the top of the raised gallows. Now
simultaneously derrick out and lower gallows till gallows sit on their desired position on
super-structure.
Continue to derrick 'OUT' while simultaneously lowering A frame arm into locking rest
position on crane chassis.
Derrick out until the ropes are slack over the operators cab. This derricking out should be
restricted by 'minimum number of turns on drum' limit switch (the setting should be for
slackness just adequate to negotiate designed track curve).
It is essential that while rigging and derigging one staff member is deputed to watch proper
setting of the rope on drum and to ensure that rope does not get out of its path.
WORKING CONDITION FREE ON RAIL
With no counterweight on gallows 360 degree stewing . During this operation 5.2 T
counterweight should remain on chassis. The entire operation should be done within load
parameters as shown in the load chart. All the load capacities are within the range of Aux,
Hoist, l. e. below 25 T. Hence only auxiliary hoist should be used.
With half counterweight (5.2 T on chassis and 24 t on gallows) and for 360 degree slewing
this operation follow the instructions :
a)
b)
c)

5.2 T counterweight to remain on chassis,


24 t counterweight to be affixed on the gallows.
The minimum boom radius should be 8 meters for slewing beyond 30 degrees (as
shown in the load chart).

Note : While placing the counterweight on the chassis the boom is stationed at 5 meters
radius. Once the counterweight is loaded, the boom should be derricked out to 8 meters
radius. Afterderricking out to 8 metre radius only the slewing should be done. If the crane is
slewed within the 8 metre radius it will become unstable.
IMPORTANT: ALWAYS BOOM OUT TO MINIMUM 8 METRES RADIUS THEN SLEW
With full counterweight (43.2T) on gallows : During this operation, as indicated in the load
chart, the operator must not exceed the slewing angle beyond 13 degrees, i. e. all operations
are to be carried out within the 13 degrees range.

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IMPORTANT : UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WHILE SLEWING WITH 43.2 T
COUNTERWEIGHT ON GALLLOWS 13 DEGREE ANGLE TO BE EXCEEDED.
RAPID MOTION
Rapid motion or fast gear is possible by pressing the knob which is fitted on the floor
of the cabin, left of the foot brake. When the rapid motion lever is pressed, the pumps of
Hydraulic circuits I & II are interconnected and the working speed of the following winches
is doubled :
1)
2)
3)
4)

Main Hoist Aux. Hoist


Derricking
Recovery winch

'UP' and 'DOWN'


'UP' and 'DOWN'
Derricking 'IN' and Derricking 'OUT'
Recovery winch 'IN' and 'OUT'

The operator should use his own discretion as to when to use rapid motion. It should be
operated without load. The operator should utilize the rapid motion as far as possible as this
will reduce preparatory time.
RECOVERY WINCH
This crane is equipped with a recovery winch which enables a maximum line pull of 5099
kgf. The rope is guided by rollers from the winch rope drum to the crane Cab side, where it
emerges through a propeller roller. This propeller roller enables an off set pull up to 45
degrees. The maximum rope speed is 100 m/min. Limitswitches are provided at maximum
permitted winch 'OUT' and winch 'IN' of the rope.
Wherever necessary the operator should use the recovery winch for faster work.
AUXILIARY DRIVE ASSEMBLY
This crane has been provided with an auxiliary diesel engine. When the main Engine
fails the auxiliary engine can be used to lower the load and derigging of the crane to transport
condition. The auxiliary drive assembly consists of :
1)
2)

Diesel Engine, manufactured by SCHULE, Type TA2, output 10.5 KW at 1800 rpm.
Two hydraulic pumps 08 & 09 which generate the working and control pressures for
auxiliary operations.
The Diesel Engine is started by a crank, as the power of the Engine is very
low. While operating auxiliary diesel engine the working motions should be carried
out individually, i.e. no two motions simultaneously. The travelling gears are not to be
used in this condition.
During operation of the auxiliary engine, the battery is being discharged.
Hence, power should not to be wasted unnecessarily. If possible, lighting load on the
batteries should be avoided.

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PRECAUTION:
Even when all safety devices are in operative condition, there is a possiblity of the
safety system not responding or responding late. These failures can be caused by certain
undesirable operations, which should be avoided. A few are briefed below
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

pendulum motion of the load.


Loads which are stuck should not be broken loose.
Loads failing on the ropes.
Diagonal pull.
Subsoil cave in.
Inadmissible high wind forces.
Hoisting an extra heavy load through derricking 'IN'

12.

SAFETY CUT-OFFS

The following safety cut-offs are provided in the system:


Limit switch cut-out at 5.5 m radius : This limit switch should be bridged only when /311.
Counterweights are to be picked up or when counterweights are to be placed back on the
match truck.
Limit switch cut-out at 16 m radius.
Computer cut-out at 16 m radius.
The maximum working radius of 16 m should be bridged only by the computer key and boom
key when the crane is to be derigged i.e. the boom is to be placed on the match truck.
c)

Limit switch at 5 m radius : This prevents the operator from over shooting while
derricking 'IN' during counterweight engaging and disengaging operations.
d)
A limit is provided for minimum number of turns left on the drum. This prevents the
operator from completely unwinding the rope drum. These limit switches are provided
on Main Hoist, Auxiliary Hoist, Derricking and winching Drums.
12.
1.
The operator, before starting work, should check the working radius limit
switches cut- off at 5.5 m radius, (minimum working radius) and 16 m radius (maximum
radius) and also Main Hoist and Auxiliary Hoist number of turns limit cut-offs.
13.

THE CRANE IN TRANSPORT POSITION (TRAIN ORDER) :


After derigging the crane, when the boom has been properly locked in the trestle, and
gallows with 'A' frame lowered in position, outrigger beam locked, the following
operations should be done before hauling the crane :-

Close undercarriage parking brakes.


Release the axle blocking, until all cylinders are fully detracted, simultaneously traction gear
would be disengaged, crane brake will be released and the brake pedal in the cabin will also
be ineffective.
"Brake System" side mounted handle (on the undercarriage) must be in position 'AIR' or
'VACUUM' as per locomotive brake system.
Brake changeover lever of match truck is to be positioned to "ON" for air-brake train.
Otherwise position it to "OFF".
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Connect the brake hoses according to crane order,
Shut off diesel Engine and look the crane cabin.
Lower all platforms and lock them.
Release Hand brake.
TRAVELLING THE CRANE WITH LOAD
As a general principle, when the crane travels with load, the boom should be exactly
over the centre of the track, pendulum motion of the load must be strictly avoided, by
travelling at slowest of speeds, or by proper lashing of the load. The load should be kept as
low as possible over the ground.
The control lever should not be operated abruptly. When braking, the travel control
lever is to be pulled back to neutral position slowly and simultaneously braking initiated with
the pedal brake.
Travelling with loads which exceed the Maximum Moving dimensions, must be
carried out with utmost care.
The load capacity for travelling is the same as given in the load chart "FREE ON
RAIL CONDITIONS"
PAT / LIMIT SWITCH
COMPUTER (PAT) BRIDGING KEY
Computer should be bridged only during the following operations
a)
b)

While deringging To bypass maximum working radius of 16 m


While rigging / derigging- Operating free on rails, or with half props for picking
counterweights from Match Truck or placing them back in the Match Truck.

BOOM BYPASS KEY


Boom bypass key when bridged effects the following :
a)
b)

5.5 m working radius, limit switch bypassed, 5 m limit switch effective.


16 m maximum working limit switch bypassed, minimum number of turns left on the
drum limit switch effective.

2 feet working hoist limitsv : VitchevofMMn-artdAux. Hoist bypassed and-6 feet main and
Aux. Hoist (for derigging purpose) limit switches effective.
PAT SAFE LOAD INDICATOR
WORKING PARAMETERS WITH RESPECT TO LOAD CHART
The PAT Safe Load Indicator is a microprocessor, incorporating the electronic
circuitry specially designed for crane operation. The PAT is pre-programmed in the factory in
accordance to the crane manufacturers specifications and lifting capacities.
The purpose of the S. L. I. (Safe Load Indicator) is to :
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a)
b)
c)

Protect the crane from overload condition.


Indicate to the operator the working position of the crane.
Indicate to the operator of an approach to overload.

The PAT S.L. I. Fitted to the Gottwald G. S. 140 ton crane has been programmed in
accordance to the load charts attached with this write-up.
These load charts give nine working combinations of the crane. Though the safe load
indicator cuts off power, whenever an overload condition occurs, the operator should not
depend solely on the SLI but must strictly follow the load chart as an added precaution.

MOCK DRILLS
With a view to test the readiness and quick turn out of Relief Trains, it is desirable to have
periodical drills once in every quarter, in case those relief trains are not turned out in that
quarter for any accident. The real intention of these mock drills is to test the practical
knowledge of all the staff that has to play a part in any accident in addition to turning out the
relief trains. Training i.e. drill regarding accidents shall be practical since practice leads to
perfection. It is necessary always to watch and measure the results of training and drills so
that the circumstances, at a given occurrence can be grasped and the prescribed plan of drills
followed, to find out the alertness of staff in case of emergency. These accident drills should
be conducted at all important stations under the supervision of the Safety Officers and Safety
Counsellors. In order to ensure that maximum benefit is derived from drills, this should be
properly planned before hand so that delays and mistakes, if any committed by staff, can be
noted and instructions given at the spot. While conducting the drills, it should be ensured that
only the concerned Railway Staff participate in such drills and that the Police, Civil
Authorities, the Public and the Press are not scared unnecessarily of such mock drills. The
real purpose of these drills is to make all the staff who have specific duties to perform in case
of an accident, to practice their parts regularly and test check the equipments, so that in a real
emergency they perform their duties without confusion. Not only the Accident Relief Train
staff, but the control staff, the Guards, the Station Masters and Supervisors such as
JE/SE/SEE (P.way), JE/SE/SSE (S&T) etc., as also the Officers are required to participate in
these drills and the specific duties of each should be clarified to all and they should practice
the same during the course of such drills.
The staff should be drilled in the following items:
o Calling out Accident Relief Trains.
o Whether correct information is given to the control particularly in respect of
the nature of assistance required.
o Action to be taken to stop any train or trains approaching the station
o Medical assistance available mustered in full strength and calling out St.John
Ambulance Brigades.
o Arrangements to the extent possible for protecting public belongings.
o Other assistance to provide succor.
o Staff conversant with the use of Portable telephone; and
o Information, if required, given to adjacent stations etc. Detailed reports on the
Drills conducted shall be sent to the Safety Branch of Head quarters office.

HOOTER CODES
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The specific code of sounding the hooters of the electric siren, as indicated below shall be
used, to give the emergency call
S.
Description of accident
No.
1.
When an accident takes place in the loco shed or
traffic yard adjoining the loco shed
2.
When an accident takes place at out-station but
main line is clear -- ART to be moved.
3.
When an accident takes place at out station but
main line is clear MRT and ART to be moved.
4.
When an accident takes place at out-station and
main line is blocked ART to be moved.
5.
When an accident takes place at out station the
main line is blocked -- MRT and ART to be
moved.

No.of hooters to be
sounded
2 long
3 long
3 long &
1 short
4 long
4 long &
1 short

The duration of the long hooter shall be 30 seconds and 5 seconds for the short, with 30
seconds interval between two successive calls. These calls shall be given at least three times.

Accident
For the purpose of railway working, accident is an occurrence in the course of working of
railway which does or may affect the safety of the railway, its engine, rolling stock,
permanent way and works, fixed installations, passengers or employee or which affect the
safety of others or which does or may cause delay to train or loss to the railway. For
statistical purposes accidents have been classified in categories from "A" to "R" excluding "I"
and "O".
Serious accident
Accident to a train carrying passengers which is attended
(i) With loss of life or
(ii) With grievous hurt to a passenger or passengers in the train, or
(iii) With serious damage to railway property of the value exceeding
Rs.25,00,000 and
(iv) Any other accident which in the opinion of the Chief Commissioner of Railway
Safety or Commissioner of Railway safety requires the holding of an inquiry by the
Commissioner of Railway Safety shall also be deemed to be a serious accident.
Note:
The following shall be excluded:
(a) Cases of trespassers run over and injured or killed through their own carelessness or of
passengers injured or killed through their own carelessness.
(b) Cases involving persons being Railway employees or holding valid passes/tickets or
otherwise who are killed or grievously injured while traveling outside the rolling stock of a
passenger train such as on foot board or roof or buffer but excluding the inside of vestibules
between coaches, or run over at a level crossing or elsewhere on the railway track by a train
and
(c) Level crossing accident where no passenger or Railway servant is killed or grievously
hurt, unless the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or Commissioner of Railway safety is
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of the opinion that the accident requires the holding of an inquiry by the Commissioner of
Railway Safety.
Injuries:
Injuries are classified as
(a) Grievous injury
(b) Simple injury
Grievous injuries for the purpose of these statistics should be taken as injuries as defined in
section 320 of Indian Penal Code reproduced below for ready reference: (Section 320, Indian
Penal Code 45 of 1860)
The following kinds of injuries only are termed as grievous injuries:(a) Emasculation
(b) Permanent privation of the site of either eye
Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear.
(d) Privation of any member or joint
(e) Destruction or permanent impairing of the powers of any member or
joint.
(f) Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.
(g) Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to be,
during
the period of 20 days or, in severe body pain or unable to follow
his ordinary
pursuits.
Simple injuries:
(i) A person will be considered to have incurred simple injuries, if these injuries incapacitate
the injured person to follow his customary vocation during 48 hours after the occurrence of
the accident.
(ii) A railway employee is considered to have been injured if he/she is prevented from
returning to work as a result of injuries for a period of 48 hours after the occurrence of the
accident.
Kinds of accidents
Accidents are classified under following heads:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Train accidents
Yard accidents
Indicative accidents
Equipment failures
Unusual incidents

Train accident
Train accident is an accident that involves a train. Train accidents are further divided as:
a)
Consequential train accidents, and
b)
Other train accidents

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Consequential train accidents
Include train accidents having serious repercussion in terms of either one or many or all of
the following:(a) loss of human life,
(b) human injury,
(c) loss to railway property
(d) interruption to rail traffic.
Train accidents under following classification will be termed as consequential train accidents.
1.

Collision.

2.

Fire

3.

Level Crossing

4.

Derailment

5.

Miscellaneous

All these
categories
All these
categories
All these
categories
All these
categories
All these
category

cases comes under A 1 to A 4


cases comes under B 1 to B 4.
cases comes under C 1 to C 4
cases comes under D 1 to D 4
cases comes under E 1

Collisions
Means the impact of a train or trolley against another train or trolley or any vehicle or other
obstruction. It includes head-on collision, rear collision and side collision. It does not include
impact of wagons or loads due to rough shunting, unattended with casualties or only attended
with negligible damage and also the accidents at level crossings.
Fire in Trains
A fire in a train should be treated as train accident only when it results in death or physical
injury or loss (damage) of railway property to the value of Rs. 500 and above
Note: The other cases of fire in trains, which do not come within this category, should
be accounted separately as Other Accidents and should continue to be thoroughly
investigated in order to find out their causes and to take effective action to prevent
recurrence.
Accidents at Level Crossings
Means train running into road traffic, and / or road traffic running into trains at level
crossings. Level crossing means the intersection of the road with railway track at the same
level.
Derailments
Means off loading of wheel or wheels causing detention or damage to rolling stock /
permanent way.
Derailment during reversing or shunting operations etc., on an incoming, outgoing or any
other load, including a sectional carriage, etc., shall be deemed to be a train derailment only
when the train engine or a vehicle still forming a part of the train derails, irrespective of
whether the shunting was being done by the train engine or by a shunting engine. If however,
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the derailed vehicle/vehicles do not form part of a train, the derailment would be classified as
other derailment whether the shunting etc., was being done by the train engine or by a
shunting engine.
Capsized Coach / Wagon
Capsized coach / wagon is one in which all wheels are off the ground and it is resting on its
side, either on the ground or against an obstruction.
Miscellaneous
Train running over or against any obstruction including fixed structure other than accidents at
level crossing gates, resulting in
(i)
Loss of human life and / or grievous hurt.
(ii)
Damage to railway property and / or
(iii)
Interruption to traffic is more than the threshold value.
Other train accidents
All other accidents which are not covered under the definition of consequential train
accidents are to be treated as other train accidents. These include accidents under categories
B-5, B-6, C-5 to C-8, D-5 and E-2.
Yard accidents
All accidents that take place in yard and do not involve a train are termed as yard accidents.
These include accidents falling under categories A-5, B-7, C-9 and D-6.
Indicative accidents
In real term they are not accidents, but suggests an indication of serious potential hazards and
include all cases of
(i) Averted collision (Classification F)
(ii) Breach of block rules (Classification G)
(iii) Train passing signal at danger (Classification H)
Averted collision
An averted collision is a circumstance under which but for the vigilance shown by any person
or persons, a collision would have occurred either in the block section or within the station
limits between two trains or between a train and an obstruction.
Provided, further, that such an occurrence may not be treated as an averted collision

(a) If, outside the station limits, the distance between the two trains or the train and
the obstruction, at the time the train or trains have finally come to a stop is 400 metres
or more.
(b) If, within the station limits, there is an intervening Stop signal at danger governing
the moving train and compliance by the moving train with the indication conveyed by
the Stop signal between the train and the obstruction
Breach of block rules
When a train enters a block section
(i) Without any authority to proceed; or
(ii) With an improper authority to proceed, or
(iii) Is received on a blocked line not constituting an averted collision, or

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(iv) When it enters or is received on a wrong line at a station or a
Catch/Slip siding or sand hump, constitutes breach of Block Rules.
Note: "Received on a blocked line not constituting an averted collision means when a train is
received on to a line when adequate distance as per GR 3.40 is not kept clear and train
stopped short of starter signal which is at "ON".
Train Passing Signal at Danger
When a train passes a fixed stop signal including a Banner Flag or an Engineering Stop
Indicator (other than automatic stop signal and gate signal) at danger
(i)
without any authority to pass
(ii)
with an improper authority to passconstitutes Train passing signal at
danger
Equipment failures
Equipment will be considered as failed if it is not able to perform the prescribed function
within the prescribed time limit. These include all failures of railway equipment i.e.,
(i)
Failure of locomotive and rolling stock Class J.
(ii)
Failure of Permanent Way Class K.
(iii)
Failure of Electrical Equipment Class L.
(iv)
Failure of Signalling and Telecommunication Class M.
Unusual incidents
These include cases related to law and order resulting in train accidents or not resulting in
train accidents and other incidents as follows:(i)
Attempted Train wrecking or Train wrecking or Bomb Blast or Explosion or
Hijacking or Sabotage Class N.
(ii)
Casualties Persons falling out of train or run over Class P.
(iii)
Other Incidents Accidental or natural death or murder or suicide or robbery or
blockade to train services Class O.
(iv)
Miscellaneous Vehicles running away or Train running over cattle or floods /
breaches and landslides etc. Class R.
Sabotage
Means the criminal interference with any part of the working machinery of a railway with the
object of rendering it inoperative or any act intended to cause damage to railway property
other than train wrecking or attempted train wrecking. These include accidents falling under
category N-1, N-2 and N-3.
Train wrecking
Means the willful obstruction of or tampering with the permanent way, works or rolling
stock, resulting in an accident to a train with or without loss of life or damage. These include
accidents falling under category N-1, N-2 and N-3.
Attempted train wrecking
Means the willful obstruction of or tampering with the permanent way or works, structures,
equipment or rolling stock, which, if undetected, would have resulted in an accident. These
include accidents falling under category N-1, N-2 and N-3.

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Serious dislocation to traffic
means interruption to through traffic for more than 6 hours on trunk routes, 12 hours on man
lines and 24 hours on branch lines.
Threshold value
For the purpose of accident threshold value is a minimum value beyond which the accident
will be treated as having serious repercussion on the basis of loss to railway property or
interruption to communication. It shall constitute two portions.
(i) Threshold value of railway property loss of which is fixed at one lakh rupees or;
(ii) Threshold value of interruption to communication either partial or total where
duration of interruption is equal to or more than number of hours specified against
each column.
Interruption BG-A,B,C or D BG-D,E Spl or MG- BG-E or
Spl (in hrs)
Q, R (in hrs)
(in hrs)
Total
3
4
Or
Or
Or
Total
+
6
8
Partial

MG-S route
6
Or
12

Duration of interruption is defined as duration from the time of accident till starting of first
train on line clear from adjacent station for movement over the affected line in that section.
Classification of routes on South Central Railway is given in
Engine failure and time failure
(a) An engine is considered to have failed when it is unable to work its booked train from
start to destination. Reduction of the load for a part of the journey would also constitute an
engine failure, provided this is due to a mechanical defect on the engine or mismanagement
on the part of the engine crew.
Note: In the event of an engine failure, the Loco Pilot shall give written advice of it to the
Guard. The Guard will advise the Station Master who will issue the necessary All
concerned message.
(b) When an engine causes a net delay of one hour or more throughout the entire run owing to
some mechanical defect or mismanagement on the part of the engine crew, it would constitute
a time failure. Trains stalling due to engine trouble or mismanagement by the engine crew
necessitating working of the train in two portions would constitute a time failure provided the
net loss of time on the entire journey exceeds an hour.
Railway property
Means Locomotives, Rolling Stock, Permanent Way and Works, Signalling and interlocking
equipment, electric equipment and other property owned by the Railway.
Public Property
Means all such property as does not belong to the Railway namely Goods, Parcels, Luggage,
Live stock and Other materials tendered to and accepted by the Railway for carriage from a
fixed place of departure to a certain destination, excluding the luggage carried by passengers
on train.
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Slight damage to property
Means damage to railway property roughly estimated to cost less than Rs.1000.
Damage to property
Damage to property means damage to railway property roughly estimated to cost Rs.1000
and over up to Rs. 25,00,000.
Serious damage to property
Serious damage to property means damage to railway property roughly estimated to cost over
Rs.2, 00,00,000.
Department
Includes all branches concerned under the administrative set up.

Information to be collected on the spot to facilitate Inquiry committee to arrive at the


cause of the accident:
After every accident certain vital information bearing on the cause of the accident is to be
collected on the spot which later may not be available on account of clearance operations
undertaken and the resumption of normal traffic. Due to failure to collect such information, it
often becomes difficult for the Inquiry Committee to ascertain the cause of the accident. The
information to be collected in different cases is given below:
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(a) Loco Pilot passing signal at danger:
o In order to avoid any dispute later, the fact that a Loco Pilot has passed a signal at
damage should be formally brought to his notice.
o The Pointsman / ASM / SM must confront the Loco Pilot and Guard with regard to
the position of the signal and the position of the lever concerned. The position of the
signal and route should be recorded by the SM and signed by the SM, Loco Pilot,
Guard and other witnesses, if available.
o The distance by which the train has passed the signal should be recorded in engine +
bogie lengths and / or telegraph posts, and by measuring the actual distance in meters.
o In the night time, the brightness of the signals should be noted. The weather condition
o If the Loco Pilot is required to use glasses, it should be checked whether he was in
possession of them and using them.
o Arrangement for testing brake power of the train shall be made by Officers /
Sr.Subordinates at the nearest C&W examination point.
o Breathlyzer test of the Loco Pilot should be done immediately and the Loco Pilot shall
be sent for further medical examination.
(b) Collision and averted collision:
(a) The position of the signal levers, point levers and block instruments should be
immediately checked and noted down.
(b) The train signal register should be signed so as to indicate the last entry made and
then seized.
(c) If Line Admission Books are in force, these should be seized immediately noting in
whose possession they were last.
(d) The position of the two trains or train and obstruction should be marked on the
sleepers. The distance between the two should be measured in meters in case of
averted collision. A rough sketch should be drawn showing their position vis--vis
signals, station platform, turnouts and other fixed land marks.
(e) Arrangement for testing brake power of the train shall be made by Officers /
Sr.Subordinates at the nearest C&W examination point.
(f) Breathalyser test of the Loco Pilot should be done immediately and the Loco Pilot
shall be sent for further medical examination.
Derailments
o Track measurements should be taken and a sketch should be prepared in
accordance with instructions given in Appendix
o Measurements of rolling stock should be taken as per Appendix
o For locomotives derailments, Examination of locomotives should be done as
per proforma given in Appendix.
o The rail fittings and the point roddings including the locking arrangement
should be examined. It should be seen whether there was any obstruction
resulting in a gap in the points. Marks on the rails and sleepers should be
observed.
o In cases of derailments during shunting operations, it should be noted as to
who was actually supervising the shunting.

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o The position of the shunt signals, if any, point levers, point / track indicators
concerned should be recorded.
(d) Accident at manned level crossing
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Location and number of the gate


Whether engineering or traffic?
Whether interlocked or non-interlocked?
Gate working instructions validity
Visibility of signals
Visibility for road users.
Condition of the road surface and approaches of the level crossing
Duty roster of the Gateman
Competency certificate of the Gateman
Last census date and TVU
Length of cleanliness of the check rails
Availability of the safety equipment
Frequency of inspections and last inspection by officers / supervisors
Availability of whistle boards, road signs, speed breakers and stop boards etc.

(e) Accident at unmanned level crossing


o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Location and number of the level crossing


Curve or straight for railway track and road separately.
Visibility for road users and the Loco Pilot separately.
Condition of the road surface and approaches of the level crossing.
Last census date and TVU.
Length and cleanliness of the check rails.
Availability of Whistle boards, Road signs, speed breakers and stop boards etc.

2001 Report of accident


From: ------------------- Station

Specimen Form Acc 1 (i)


REPORT OF ACCIDENT
To: All concerned

1. Date and time of accident----2. Train No. and engine No.----3. System of working
4. Number of tracks
5. Gauge
6. Section.
7. Location (KM)
8. Load of train/trains.
9. Nature of accident
10. Weather
11. Division
12. District and State
13. Sectional Speed
14. Brief particulars
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15. Casualties.
Signature___________
Name of Station Superintendent/
Section In-charge
Date ------------------ Time---------2002 Report of untoward incident
Specimen Form Acc 1 (ii)
REPORT OF UNTOWARD INCIDENT
From:------------- Station

To, All concerned.

Kilometer at which untoward incident occurred.


Name of the Loco Pilot of the train with his headquarters
Name of the Guard of the train with his headquarters.
Name of the train ticket examiner of the train, if posted, with his headquarters.
Nature of the untoward incident.
Accidental fall
Bomb blast
Rioting/shoot out
others
Time of occurrence
Position of human body in relation to track
Whether medical help was given to the injured.
Whether train stopped or not
Condition of doors and occupation of coach.
Signature
Name of Station Superintendent / Section In-charge
Date
----------- Time
----------2003 Brief particular of untoward incident
Specimen Form Acc 1 (iii)
BRIEF PARTICULARS OF UNTOWARD INCIDENT
1.

IN CASES OF DEATH
a. Time and place of the body detected.
b. Position of the body in relation to the track.
c. Blood stains on ballast or engine, extent of the injuries and whether prima facie
inflicted by a train or otherwise.
d. Position of any clothing etc., found on or near the rails.
e. Name of the informant, his parentage and address.

2.

IN CASE OF ACCIDENTAL FALLING OR OTHER UNTOWARD INCIDENTS


a. Kilometreage at which the passenger fell or person was knocked down.
b. Was the incident noticed by the Guard/Loco Pilot/TTE and the train stopped or was
the alarm chain pulled to stop the train
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c. Was the train backed to the incident spot?
d. How the injured or dead person was dealt with.
3.

IN CASE OF THE PASSENGER FALLING OUT


a. Name, age, sex and address of the passenger, with the particulars of ticket, if any
held.
b. If child, also give the name and address of the guardian at the time and his
relationship to the child.
c. Where was the person or child seated or standing at the time last seen by fellow
passengers?
d. Owning railway, painted number, compartment number, type, description and
position of the carriage from the engine.
e. Condition of doors.
f. Officer of the Railway Protection Force on train.
g. Brief statement of the injured person containing cause of accident.
h. Name and signature of the passenger in whose presence the statement was
recorded.
i. In the case of a child, the name and signature of the guardian.
j. Statement of co-passengers.
k. Type of injuries sustained by the injured.
i.e., temporary, permanent, partial or complete disablement.

Signature
Name of Station Superintendent / Section In-charge
Date----------- Time----------2004 Statement to be submitted
Specimen Form Acc.2
Statement to be submitted, in duplicate, by DRM to GM(T) in cases of parting of trains, along
with special reports.
PARTED TRAIN No.at / between .
1. Time
2. Date
3. Station from which reported
4. Kilometreage of parting
5. Gradient and any change of gradient
6. Stations between or at which
7. No. and description of train
8. No. and class of engine
9. No. of vehicles on train
10. Total tonnage of vehicles
11. Tonnage behind breakage/s
12. If two engines, was the second engine in rear of train?
13. No. and class of second engine
14. Number and owning Railway of parted vehicles
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
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Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


15. Position of affected vehicles on train from engine
.
16. Type of coupling
.
17. Manufacturers name
.
18. Period in use
.
19. Date of last periodical overhaul
.
20. Loco Pilots report
.
21. Guards report
.
22. Distance between the parted portions

23. Cause of the parting


..
24. Staff responsible
.
25. Workshop code, date and type of steel stamped at weld mark
26. Remarks
.

2005 Form to be filled in by Guard / Loco Pilot in the case of accident / unusual
occurrence
Specimen form ACC.3
Form to be filled in by Guard/Loco Pilot in the case of accident/unusual occurrence.
(a) Kilometerage at which the accident (sketch is attached) occurred..
(b) Name of nearest station to the spot.
(a) Date of accident..
(b) Time of accident -----------------------------------(a) Number and description of train
(b) Name of the Loco Pilot
(c) Engine number -------------------------(d) Speed of train------------------------------(e) State if accident occurred on straight road or curve, on level or on a grade.
(f) Weather conditions and visibility..
Nature and cause of accident --------------------------Persons injured, nature and extent of their injuries:
(a) Names and addresses
(b) Ticket numbers held
(c) Station from and to traveling
(d) Number and class of carriage in which traveling
(e) Caste
(f) Sex
(g) Approximate age
(h) Occcupation ----------------------------(i) The result of medical examination ----------------------------(j) How the injured was dealt with?---------------------(k) If a railway servant is injured on duty how long on duty at the time of accident, the
probable time to resume duty may be stated------------------------Individual number of vehicles damaged & extent of damage:(a) Position of vehicle or vehicles in relation to engine (b) How disabled vehicles were disposed off?-------Approximate cost of damages :(a) Permanent Way
Rs.--------(b) Locomotive
Rs.--------(c) Rolling stock
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(d) Signalling and interlocking Rs.--------(e) Electrical equipment
Rs.--------(f) To property in train or within station limits Rs.-----In case of obstruction on line (cattle run over etc.,)
(a) What was the cause of obstruction? ---------(b) Did it appear willful or accidental? -----------(c) Is any one suspected? -------------(d) Was the line fenced? ---------------If so, state of the fencing ----------Was the engine fitted with a cattle guard? ------Has obstruction been removed? ------------------In case of trains parting, broken tyres/wheels/axles/ rails, hot axles, fires in trains:(a) Composition of the train, details of load ----------(b) How far was vehicle - from engine/motor coach (its number)
(c) Description of the content of the vehicles ------------(d) What was the cause of breakage of tyres, wheels, axles and rails -------------(e) Condition of broken metal, how disposed of ----------(f) In case of persons falling out, or fires etc., in passenger trains, state if alarm chain
was
pulled -------In case of deaths in train:(a) Give description of deceased,
(b) Caste
(c) Name
(d) Age
(e) Sex
(f) Whether railway employee, passenger or trespasser, residence, employment or
vocation--------(g) If passenger, ticket number and class -------(h) Number of persons in same compartment --------(i) Number, type and class of carriage, if the death is due to infectious disease, whether
carriage was detached and disinfected? -----------(j) Cause of death ----------(k) List of property belonging to deceased and how disposed of -----------(l) State what has been done with body, whether made over to the relatives or police or
sent to mortuary -------In case of dead bodies or injured persons discovered on line or within station limits:(a) State in what position body was lying and give details of any apparent injury to the
body or other circumstances which may have caused death or injury ------(b) Whether passenger, railway employee, trespasser or suicide ---------If persons run over:
(a) Did the engine crew see the person -----------(b) Was the Loco Pilot's or Assistant Loco Pilot's view at the site of the accident
obstructed? ----------(c) Was it daylight or dark at the time? -------(d) If it was not definitely known by what train the person had been run over, the crew
controller at both ends of the engine run to examine engines for traces of blood marks
or other evidence ----------In case of derailments, collisions or bursting of points
(a) Number, owning Railway and type of vehicles derailed or damaged and position of
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vehicle on train ------(b) State the position of points and signals -------(c) State if points and signals were interlocked -------13 A. In case of averted collisions, state
Load of train ---------No.of vehicles with effective brake power --------Speed of train when obstruction or danger was observed -------Distance from engine to obstruction when latter was first observed ----------Time and visibility ---------In case of engine passing signals at ON.
(a) If signals are interlocked---------(b) By what length did the Loco Pilot pass the signal at ON? -------------(c) If stop signal exhibited and by whom? ----------(d) Was the block section occupied and when did the last train leave ------------If vehicles blown away from stations due to heavy winds, state how the vehicles were
fastened and how they broke adrift -------Detention to trains affected and further probable detention if traffic is not yet resumed -----(a) How long was road blocked and to what extent -----(b) If, transhipment was necessary, what arrangements were made ---------What system of block working is in force and was everything normal, if not give details
-------Measures taken to re-establish traffic -------Time assistance asked for and time arrived -----------Station arrived from --------------Cause of delay, if any, in getting assistance ---------Report by guard ------------Report by Loco Pilot ------------In case of serious accidents :
(a) Whether RMS authorities advised in case of accident to a train carrying mails
--------------(b) Whether local Government authorities duly advised (if accident comes within the
purview of section 113 of the Railways Act 1989) -------Action taken in regard to staff responsible, name and designation and the department:
Description and cause of accident ---------No.-----------------Date:-------------Forwarded to the ---------------- for information
Station ------------Date ----------------

Signature -------Designation-----

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Derailment Mechanism

Typical diagram of accident spot

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TRAIN PARTING
Train parting is a common unusual occurrence affecting the train movement. There
are number of contributing factors towards train parting such as inadequate maintenance,
material failure poor engineman ship, improper marshalling, loco troubles etc.
Role of Engineman ship Towards Train Parting:
What is Engineman ship?
It is the capability of a Loco Pilot to handle his loco along with its trailing load, so
that same reaches destination in time in a most economic manner and without adversely
affecting safety. Poor engineman ship adversely affects all these requirements. Same is also a
contributory factor leading at times to train parting, and on other occasions result in stalling,
passing signal at danger, brake binding, loco failure or even derailment. Such of these factors,
which are associated with Loco Pilots enginemen ship, are described as below:
When The Train Parting Takes Place?
1. If the tractive force exceeds the tensile strength of the coupling system.
2. If any coupling gets opened or works out.
3. If any coupling gets disengaged due to excessive buffer height/ difference in rail level.
Out of the above 3 situations the first one is related to engineman ship, provided there is no
material failure.
How the tractive effort exceeds the tensile strength?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Due to sudden notching up.


Shock loads.
Sudden application of brakes from rear.
Notching up with out proper recreation of vacuum/ air.

How to Notch Smoothly And Steadily:


While advancing the graduator in power, time interval of minimum 10 sec. should be
given between two consecutive notches. After taking a notch observe the traction ammeter
and ensure that the pointer stabilized before notching further, This practice will definitely
avoid sudden development of tensile force on coupling system that may lead to breakage and
parting especially in lower speed.
Shock Loads/ Jerks :
What is Jerk?
Instantaneous and sharp variation in momentum of a body moving with a uniform
velocity can be termed as jerk. The intensity of a jerk depends upon mass. velocity and range
of speed variation during jerk.
How jerks are formed?
Sudden increment or reduction of tractive effort due to:
a) Poor Engineman ship
b) Loco defects such as
i) Power ground
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ii) Wheel slip
iii)
Automatic shutting down or
c) Sudden drop of traction effort, e.g. OHE failure.
d) Sudden application of brakes from rear by guard/ banker Loco Pilot on run.
How the Loco Pilot can create a jerk on a train?
A) By rapid notching up.
B) Sudden application of brakes
C) Sudden cutting down of power.
For Example:
1. Tripping of loco, wheel slip, loco failure, failure of OHE etc. will result in sudden
cutting of power from maximum to zero leading to heavy jerks. Normally no train
parting takes place due to these if the speed is above the critical limit.
If the net tractive effort is more than the momentum of the train, there is every likelihood
of train parting. Therefore bring the net tractive effort well below the momentum of the
train,
How To Avoid Jerks During Starting:
A random observation of trains at a station clearly brings out the different driving skill
and technique of train driving. While some trains will stop and start smoothly without any
jerk, many other trains will be observed not only to experience heavy jerks but multiple
impact leading to high intensity of sound associated with sudden movement of wagons /
coaches, impact between adjoining draft/ buffer gear components and at times wheel slip and
screeching sound between rail and wheels.
For avoiding jerks during starting:
1. Ensure all the couplings are properly secured (back the train by about half wagon
length in order to lock all CBC coupling).
2. Ensure complete release of train brakes and sufficient vacuum/ BP pressure before
starting.
3. Take one notch and wait for 10 sec., so that the load ammeter will stabilize then
release the loco brake. Wheels will then start rolling gradually as the brakes are
releasing. This procedure will ensure gradual stretching of couplings (smooth run
out).
3.1 In case of level gradient and lighter trains 3rd notch will be sufficient to move the
train. But in case of starting on up gradient and heavier trains, graduator should
be advanced suitably to develop sufficient tractive effort for moving the train
before releasing the loco brake. By this procedure, wheel slip also can be
minimized during starting.
3.2 If the train is on down gradient, gradually release the loco brake so that the train
will start rolling due to gravitational force. No jerk will develop since the all
couplings are in bunched condition.
3.3 If we release loco brake fully and then apply power, all the traction motors will
immediately start rotating so that a sudden pulling force will be experienced.
The pull will be transferred to all the vehicles one by one according to the
slackness of couplings, resulting in jerk.

Page 87 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


How to Avoid Jerks on Run:
1. Advance the graduator notch gradually giving sufficient time for traction ammeter to
stabilize so that the run out will be taken care of.
2. Through knowledge of road is essential for maintaining uniform drafting force in
undulating gradients.
3. Uniform and steady acceleration and decelerations.
4. Apply brakes judiciously and control the train well in advance taking advantage of the
permissive signals.
5. Ensure complete recreation of vacuum/ BP pressure and free rolling after each brake
application, before notching further.
6. Rheostatic brake should be applied and released gradually observing the current.
Before applying RB formation should be bunched up by minimum application of train
brake. Care should be taken to ensure that co-action working of loco brakes is not
taking place.
7. Try to avoid co-action operation of loco brakes during application of train brakes.
8. Maintain proper communication with guard either by walkie-talkie or by hand signal
and observe the train when ever possible. By this practice Loco Pilot can avoid brake
application by guard to certain extent.
9. In case of wheel slip due to wet rails or up gradient bring the graduator to lower
notches preferably 5th or 6th notch and proceed slowly. Do not ease or advance
graduator frequently, as same will lead to rapid variation in tractive effort and may
result in parting.
10. Maintaining proper communication and synchronized operation between leading and
banker Loco Pilot is essential. The banker Loco Pilot should also carefully observe
the vacuum and drive according to the road and signals. Normally banker Loco Pilot
should not apply any brakes. He should not cut off the power until the train stops.
After dead stop, apply loco brake fully and then close the notch, Otherwise if the
banker Loco Pilot closes the graduator earlier the train will roll back and may lead to
train parting. While restarting the train the banker Loco Pilot should push first.
S
N
1
2
3
4

OPERATION
SYSTEM
Single Pipe
Single Pipe
Twin Pipe
Twin Pipe

RATE
APPLICATION
Full Service
Emergency
Full Service
Emergency

OF RELEASING TIME TO
BE GIVEN
Not less than 90 Sec.
Not less than 180 Sec.
40 Sec.
90 Sec.

How to avoid jerks while stopping:


1. Apply the brakes gradually as far as possible.
2. Avoid co-action working during first application.
3. Apply the loco brake after stopping the train, if loco brakes are applied before the
train stop, the engine will stop first but the load will move towards engine due to
inertia leading to compression of buffers and skidding of loco. Application of the train
brakes should be such so that the momentum of train will be uniformly reduced to
zero and after comes to dead stop apply the loco brake. In down gradient since there is
no chance of rolling back train can be stopped in bunched condition also.
4. Always try to stop the train by raising vacuum/ air pressure.
5. Working heavy train in up gradient. If we stop the train by destroying vacuum/ air
pressure, restarting may be difficult due to brake binding.
Page 88 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


6. In such cases Loco Pilot can control the speed in advance and allow the train to stop
in lower notches so that all the couplings will be in stretched conditions. Now apply
the loco brake keep graduator in 2nd or 3rd notch for one or two minutes so that the
momentum of all the vehicles will get absorbed fully and then close the notch
gradually. This procedure will avoid rolling back of the train, While closing the notch
sufficient time should be given other wise it can lead to train parting.
7. Marshalling of trains is also an important factor contributing to train parting. Loaded
vehicles may preferably be marshalled in front portion and empty vehicle at rear.
Similarly, in case of train with CBC and screw coupling the CBC vehicles should be
kept in front and screw coupling vehicles shall be attached in rear. This is essential as
drafting force on front portion is always higher than that in the rear portion.
8. Double head or multiple unit operation to be avoided in goods trains with screw
coupling as far as possible.
Air Flow Indicator White Needle Deviating During Run :
As soon as the Loco Pilot observes the white needle of air flow indicator deviating
from its original position, he should immediately put ON Flasher Light and stop the train
ACP signal/ whistle.
He should then send his Asst. Loco Pilot to jointly check with guard the cause of
pressure drop of BP and attend the same. Details such as KMs, vehicle number, location,
cause & attention given etc. should be recorded and endorsed by Loco Pilot.
While checking the load, position of piston movement of the brake cylinder should
also be observed. If any of the pistons are observed to have been operated, brakes must be
released by means of release valve. Thereafter, after ensuring the continuity and reconciling
the Red needle with the White needle then only the train is to be started.
JOINT ACCIDENT MEMO BY SUPERVISORS
1.Brief History:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
2.Particulars of the Train :
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Train No.
Loco No.
Section /Km/Station
Time of Occurrence
BPC Particulars
Derailed wagons/Coaches
Loco, Numbers,With
Pro-particulars
G. Position from TE
H. Total Load

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Page 89 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


I.
J.
K.
L.

Name of Driver
Name of Asst. Driver
Name of Guard
Damages to P.Way

:
:
:
:

Rolling stock

OHE

S&T

Commercial
:
3.JOINT OBSERVATIONS :
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4.PRIMA FACIE CAUSE:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5.STAFF Responsible:
SLI//Diesel

SSE/P.WAY

SSE/C&W

TI/

Wagon Particulars
Date of Incident:
Train No.
BPC.No:
Brakepower % :
S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Issued at:

Date:
BPC Remarks:

Description

Name of TXR :

Measurements

Remarks

Wagon No.
Type
Mech Code
Tare in tonnes
Carrying capacity
Built Date
Return Date
POH

DATE

SHOP

ROH

DATE

SHOP

10

Pay Load in Tonnes

From lables

From actual
weight

11

Commodity Loaded
Page 90 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


12

Station

From

13

Position from Engine

14
BUFFER HEIGHT
on level track.

15

To

Measurement to be taken after un coupling and rerailing

Wheel and Axle face particulars (In case of Breakage of breakage of Wheel /axle)

Axle Face particulars

1L

1R

2L

2R

3L

3R

4L

4R

Ultrasonic particulars
On the hub

1L

1R

2L

2R

3L

3R

4L

4R

Stamping particulars
on wheel disc
regarding
manufacturer/RA/RD

1L

1R

2L

2R

3L

3R

4L

4R

16

WHEEL AND AXLE

Wheel Gauge in mm (Taken at four places)

Observations after measuring the


profile with tyre defect gauge ( good /
Rejeectable)

SUPERVISIORY COMBINED TRACK READING REPORT


Page 91 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


IN CONNECTION WITH THE DERAILMENT OF______________on Date
1.Point of Mount Reference

2.Distance between PM to PD :
3.Distance between PD to PR :

STATION
No.
0

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Dist
In

Sleepers

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Cross
Level
under
NO
under
load
LOAD

Gauge
Slack
/Tight

mts.
0

Marks
on
sleepers

Grindin
g or
Rubing

or Rail
top

marks on Rails

3mts

6mts

9mts

WHEEL SETS AND BOGIE MEASUREMENTS


LOCO No.:
Date Of Measurements:
S.No
Description
1
Wheel diameter in

SCHEDULES :
2

Page 92 of 239

10

11

12

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


mm (1092 to 1015)
Wheel Flange wear
in mm
32 29 = 3 mm
Wheel root wear
37.5 31.5 = 6 mm
Tread wear
28.5 35.0 = 6.5
UST of Axle
(in case of Axle
breakage
Longitudinal
clearances
1.5 to 5 mm
Lateral clearances
6 to 12mm (End
axle)
26 to 31mm (middle
axle)
Wheel gauge
1596 +/- 0.5 mm
Buffer height
1030 to 1105
Height of rail guard
104 to 119

2
3
4
5
6
7

8.
9.
10

SOIL
Type - eg. Sandy, Loam clay,Moorum
Black cotton etc
2

SL.
No.
1

Type stone
moorum
Sand etc.

Depth below
sleeper bottom
in cm.
Stating
weather
cleaned or
choked
5

Type wooden
CST 9
Steel through etc.
10

Condition firm wet slushy,etc


3

BALLAST
Width of shoulder in cm
From outsiede of

Rail
Sleeper
L
R
L
R
6

SLEEPER
Condition- New / Second
hand/damaged/Unserviceable.etc

Density

Square not

11

12

13

RAILS
Page 93 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


Weight

Condition
of wear

14

15

Rail fastening like dog spikes keys, tie bars cotters,


loose jaws, etc.
...........................
No.per sleeper seat
Condition tight or loose
16
17

Condition Hogged, battered,


low etc
18

RAIL JOINTS
General remarks about cracks
or fractures of fish plates fish
bolt and other components
19

Location of point of Mount


Whether on straight,
Whether on a falling
curves or Transition
grade,level or rising
grade and on sag
21
22

Description of anti-sqabotage
measures like reversed jaws
welded rails, etc
20

Location of Point of Derailment


Whether on straight, Whether on a falling
curves or transition
grade, level or rising
grade and on sag
23
24

NOTE
1. Left and right are with respect of direction train movement
2. The data in column 2 to 19 need not be collected when the defect is obviously and
indisputably on account of major obstruction on track.
3. Only broken track material which is not indisputably established to be broken after
the accident should be included in column 19 and should be preserved.
4. Column 20 need be filled in only when there is suspicion about sabotage being the
cause of derailment.
5. Sag extents 90 meters on either side of theoritical junction of the grade lines (column
21 to 22).
6. Entry in column 16 nd 17 must invariably be filled for wooden sleeper in case of
derailment on curves indicating further whether bearing plates were provided.
Track measurements
1. Point of mount should be marked as station no. 0. The stations ahead of site of
derailment be marked serially as +n and in rear as -n for measurement.
2. The cross level will be measured on the left rail only as determined from the direction
of movement.
3. Normally measurements will be take at stations three meters for a distance of 45
meters on either side of 0 station, and to be taken individual sleepers for a length of
9 meters in the rear of 0 station. They may be taken for a distance of 90 meters in
rear of where the cause of derailment is not obvious.
4.
The measurement of Versines should preferably done on 62 feet chord for
curves upto 10 degree sharpness and on chords of 31 feet on curves 10 degree and
sharper. The versines should be recorded in both cases at 15.5 feet intervals. The value
of versine should be recorded against the nearest adjacent cross level recording
station.
Permissible Standards for TWIST Track category
* Left low is indicated as( - ) and Right low as ( + )
Page 94 of 239

Twist in mm/meter
B.G
M.G
(3.6 M chord) (2.74 M chord)

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


____________________________________________
A
0 to 5
0 to 3
B
5 to 7.5
1 to 2
C
7.5 to 10
2 to 3
Permissible Gause Tolerances
On straight (All Gauses)
On curves with radious:
1. More than 400 M on B.G
275 M on M.G
2. Less than 400 M on B.G
275 M on M.G

TIGHT
3 mm

6 mm

SLACK

3 mm

15 mm

Nil

20 mm

Limits of Rail Wear


Vertical Wear
Gauge
Rail section
Limit of
B.G

60 KG/M
52 KG/M
90 KG/M

Lateral Wear(measuregd 13 to15mm below the rail Table)


LIMIT
Section
Gauge Category of Track
13 mm
8 mm
5 mm

Curves

B.G

Straight

B.G

A&B
C&D
A&B
C&D

lateral Wear
8 mm
10 mm
6 mm
8 mm

Gap between stock Rail and Toune Rail: should not exceed 5 mm
VERSENE:

a) Above 100 km/Hr


b) Below 100 km/ Hr

15mm/ 10 meter chord variation


20mm/ 10 meter chord variation

The gauge and cross levels should be checked at the following locations:
I) At stock joint
II) 150 mm (6) behind toe of switch
III) At mid switch for straight road and for turnout side
IV) At heel of switch for straight road and for turnout slide.
1.Clearence between stock & tongue rails at heel of switch
1 in 16 or 1 in 12
1 in 8
B.G ----- 133 mm (5 )
136 mm (5 3/8)
M.G ---- 117 mm (4 5/8)
120 mm ( 4 )
2.Throw of Switch
Recommended
B.G ----115 mm
M.G ---100 mm

Minimum
95 mm
89 mm

3. Conditions of crossing and tongue rail


The conditions of crossings & fittings should be checked. Maximum VERTICAL
WEAR permitted on point rail is 10 mm and recondition should be done when wear is 6
mm. The burrs should also be removed. The fittings should be tightened.

Page 95 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


Maximum vertical wear permitted on tongue rail is 6 mm, where as LATERAL WEAR
permitted is 8 mm for 90 RU and 52 kg rails and 5mm for 60R and 75 RU rails.(lateral
wear measured at 13 mm to 15 mm below the rail table)
Clearence Check rails at crossing (turn outs) B.G ----- Max 48mm
Clearence of check rails at level crossings
Max 57mm
Clearence of the check rails at curves
Minmum thick ness of Blunt nose
------- 6mm

Min 44mm
Min 51mm
Min 44

B I O D ATA
Name:
Designation:
PF.No:

S/O:
T.No:
Scale:

HQ:
Pay:

Division:

Qualification
Technical :
Acadamical:
Date of Birth:
Date of Appointment:
Date of Entry in to present grade:
Psycho test attended date :
Technical refresher course attended:
G&SR refresher course attended:
Automatic signal refresher attended:
PME attended:
Gradiation:
Nominated Loco inspector:
Address and contact phone number:
CARRIAGE & WAGON
Sl.No. Vehicle
Type
No.

Traffic
Mech.
1
Pay load
in Tonnes
From
From
Actual
Weigh.
lables
11
12

Commod
ity
loaded

13

Due:
Due:
Due:
Due:

Tares
in
Tonnes

Carrying
capacity
in
Tonnes

Building
Date

Return
date

..
From To

Rigid
wheel
Base in
mm

Weather
braked
or pipe

Position
from
Engine

16

17

18

4
Station

14

15

Page 96 of 239

POH/ROH
Particulars
..
Date
Station
9
10
Wheel & Axle
Thickness
Wheel gauge dia.
Of flange
In mm
in mm
19

20

21

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


Wheel & Axle

Axle Box (for IRS stock only)

Any
indication
of bent
axle

Observation
after
measuring
the profile
with tyre
defect gauge

Any marks
of
obstruction
on tyres

Brass
thickness
in mm

Condition
of box and
brass

Condition
of sole
plate

Condition
of journal

Clearance
between
brass and
collar of
journal in
mm

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

AXLE GUARD (for IRS stock only)


Clearence
Weather
Are the axle
Remark
between
axle guard guard bent
regarding
axle box
can work or otherwise Bridle bar
groove and
clear of
damaged to
axle guard
axle box
prevent free
in mm
groove
movement
of axle box
30

Remarks
on
condition
of spring
plates and
buckles
37

31

32

33

Spring and Spring gear


Clearanc Remarks Weather
e
on
any
between
condition spring
shackle
of
Eye
plate and shackle
touches
pin
plates
sole bar
and pins
38
39
40

Remarks
regarding free
movement of
bolster and pivot
and their
condition
45

Spring and Spring gear


Free
Camber of
Thickness
camber of
spring
of packing
spring in under load plate under
mm
in mm after spring seat
re-railing
in mm
on a level
un-canted
track
34
35
36

Buffer
Type
height to be
taken after
uncoupling
& rerailing in
mm
41
42

BOGIE
Bolster spring Details of broken
camber under
parts giving
load in mm
locations
w.r.t.point of
mount and
derailment
46
47

Bogie
Rigid
Vertical
wheel clearance at
base side bearers
in
in mm
mm
43

44

Wheather load
is placed on
more than one
wagon

Any other defect in


vehicles which may
have contributed to
or caused the
derailment.

48

49

NOTE:
1. Details regarding all derailed vehicle should be given except.
a. Where vehicle have derailed due to locomotive derailment.
b. The first derailed vehicle is obvious from examination of marks on tyres,
where details for first Derailed vehicle need only be given.
c. When obvious and indisputable cause is sabotage or an obstruction on track.
2. Front and rear and left (L) and right (R) are with respect to the direction of the
movement.
Page 97 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


3. For an obvious cause of derailment such a broken axle, spring dropping on run, or
some part of under gear hanging loose and causing obstruction. Only relevant
particulars need to be filled.
4. The spring characteristics should also be got checked with a load deflection testing
machine in addition to filling information under items, (46),(47), (48) and (49) of the
proforma.
Limits of wheel diameter
Type of wagon /
On same On the
trolly
axle
same
trolly
Four wheeled
0.5 mm
13mm
trolley
Six wheeled trolley
0.5mm
6mm

Wheel gauge
On the
same
wagon
13mm

Standard

6mm

Maximum
Minimum

Six wheeled units

0.5mm

6mm

6mm

Four wheeled units

0.5mm

**

25mm

1600
mm
1602
mm
1599
mm

AXLE BOX LATERAL & LONGITUDINAL CLEARENCES


1. Lateral play between B/Brass & journal collar min.. 5mm / max ..10mm
2. Total lateral clearance between axle guard and axle box groove10 mm max
3. Lateral longitudinal clearance between axle box lug and horn check for box type
trolley
LATERAL
LONGITUDINAL
Maximum
Minimum

25 mm
20 mm

18 mm
12 mm

THIN FLANGE: Flange thickness reduces to 16 mm; it will be measured at the


distance of 13 mm from flange tip.
SHARP FLANGE: The radius of the tip of the flange becomes less than 5 mm
WORN OUT FLANGE: When radius at the root of the flange becomes less than 13 mm
DEEP FLANGE: when the depth of flange measured from the flange top to a point on
the wheel tread
(63.5 mm away from the back of B.G wheel) becomes greater than 35 mm, it is called
deep flange (35-28.5 = 6.5 mm)
FALSE FLANGE/HOLLOW TYRE: when the projection of the outer edge of the
wheel tread below the hollow of the tyre exceeds 5 mm, the outer edge of the wheel forms
a false flange and the worn tread is called hollow tyre.
Buffer height: B.G Empty 1105 maximum Loaded 1030 minimum
Buffer projection: for long case max 635mm min 584 mm, for short case max 456mm
406 mm

FIRST AID
Page 98 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


The Principles and practice of First - Aid
First-aid is the first assistance of treatment given to a Casualty for any injury or sudden
illness before the arrival of an ambulance or qualified medical expert. It may involved
improvising with facilities and materials available at the time.
First-aid treatment is given to a casualty:
i.
ii.
iii.

To preserve life.
to prevent the condition from worsening.
to promote recovery.

Rules of First-aid:
The best advice to the first aider is Make Haste slowly.
1. Reach the accident spot quickly.
2. Be calm, methodical and quick.
3. Look for breathing, bleeding and shock.
Start artificial breathing, stop bleeding and then treat the shock and avoid handling of the
casualty unnecessarily.
4. Reassure the casualty.
5. Arrange for dispatch to the care of the Doctor or to the Hospital.
6. Do not attempt too much. You are only a First Aider. Give minimum assistance so that
the condition does not become worse and life can be saved.
The three emergency situations where a casualty is especially at risk because of interference
with vital needs are:

lack of breathing and / or heart beat.


severe bleeding
a state of unconsciousness.

Skilled first aiders can save lives by maintaining a casualty's vital needs:
a.
b.
c.

An open airway.
Breathing
Circulation.

a.

Opening the Airway: It is imperative that one should establish a


clear airway immediately by removing the block in the airway. Once the airway is
open, the casualty may begin breathing spontaneously. If he / she does begin
breathing, keep the casualty in the Recovery position. If he / she still does not
breathe, begin artificial respiration immediately. After first opening the airway, look,
listen and feel for any signs of respiration.

b.

Breathing: The technique of restoring breathing for a casualty is


known as Artificial Respiration. The most efficient method is to transfer air from
Page 99 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


your own lungs into the casualty's by blowing into them through the mouth (mouth to
mouth respiration). Sometimes however this is not possible in which case you may
have to use any other manual method. After two inflations, check the pulse to make
sure the heart is beating (Check for circulation). If the heart is beating and a pulse is
felt, continue to give inflations at a rate of 12-16 times per minute until natural
breathing is restored. If the heart is not beating, you must perform external chest
compression immediately.
c.

Checking for Circulation: Before commencing External Chest


Compression, it is very important that you establish that there is no circulation. Lack
of circulation is established by checking the pulse at the neck (carotid pulse). It must
be checked again after the first minute and then every three minutes thereafter. It will
only return spontaneously if the heart is beating.

External Heart Compression


It is a basic life saving technique.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

This should go on along with artificial respiration. Therefore, ask the First Aider
giving mouth-to-mouth breathing to sit to the right of the casualty and place yourself
on the left side.
Feel and mark the lower part of the sternum.
Place the heel of your hand on the marked part (make sure that the palm and
fingers are not in contact with the chest).
Place the heel of the other hand over it.
With your right arm, press the sternum backwards towards the spine ( it can be
pressed back in adults).

Notes
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Adults should be given about 60 pressures a minute. For children of two


to ten years old, pressure with one hand will be enough and it should be 80-90 times a
minutes.
Press firmly but carefully. Carelessness may cause injury to ribs and
deeper tissues.
If the treatment is effective a.
Colour will become normal.
b.
Pupil will contract as improvement begins; and
c.
Carotid pulse beats with each pressure.
When pulse is not restored, continue compression till the patient reaches
Hospital.
Inflation of lungs to heart pressure, ratio should be 2:15. If there is only
one First Aider, he has to be very smart and active. Finish 15 heart compressions and
rush to head side, given two inflations to the lungs and get back to the heart and give
15 compressions. Repeat these.
If there are two First Aiders, No.1 makes 5 heart compressions, then No.2 gives one
lung's inflation. These are repeated. At the same time, No.1 can watch, the pupils and
No.2 can feel the carotid pulse.
Page 100 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


C (Cardio) P (Pulmonary) R (Resuscitation)
Essential when both breathing and heart beat are affected.
Steps:
o Thumping the heart region.
o External Cardiac Compress (ECC)
o Mouth to Mouth respiration.
If two First Aiders, one does ECC 5 times followed by the other mouth to mouth respiration,
1 time repeat. If single First Aider, ECC 15 times followed by mouth to mouth respiration 2
times. Repeat.
Wounds and bleeding
When any tissue of the body e.g. skin, muscle bones etc. is torn or cut by injury, wound is
caused. There will be bleeding from the injured part and it also form an opening through
which germs can get into the body. The depth of a wound is often more important than its
area; small deep wounds caused by knives, bullets etc. are often more dangerous.
Bleeding
Bleeding is the immediate danger and shock be treated promptly. Bleeding is a common
cause of death in accidents. It is caused by the rapture of blood vessels due to severity of the
injury. If the bleeding is from the surface of the body, it is called external bleeding. If
bleeding is within chest, skull or abdomen, it is called internal bleeding. Bleeding may occur
from (a) arteries (b) Veins or (c) Capillaries.
Infection
Infection only occurs after a lapse of 6 hours. Our aim is to prevent infection occurring. We
do this by promptly attending to wounds.
o Wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water.
o Clean the external wound with plenty of good cleaning water. Wipe gently the
surrounding skin and remove dirt sticking to the wound.
o Dry the surrounding of the wound gently with dry sterile gauze.
o Then cover the wound with dry sterile gauze.
o Bandage.
o Do not apply any antiseptic for large wounds.
Injuries to bones (Fractures), ligaments and tissues round the joints (sprains)
Fracture
A fracture is the partial or complete breakage of a bone. Simple (closed) fracture is that the
broken ends of the bone do not cut open the skin and shown on the outside. When the
fractured bone is in contact with outside is called compound (open) fracture. In addition to
the fracture, an important internal organs like brain, major blood vessels, lung, liver, spleen
etc. may also be injured, then it is called complicated fracture. The fracture is detected by
noticing pain at the spot, tenderness, swelling, loss of normal movements of the part,
deformity of the limb, irregularity of the bone. The aims of first aid areo To prevent further damage.
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o To reduce pain; and
o Make the patient comfortable.
o The First Aider should handle very gently avoiding all unnecessary movements and
immobilize the fracture area and the joints on both sides of fracture (above and below
fracture side) by using bandages; and / or by using splints where available and where
he is confident of their use.
Sprains:
A sprain is tearing of the ligaments of joint and the tissues round the joint. There is a pain
and swelling at the joint and casualty cannot use the joint without increasing the pain. The
first aider can advise rest and support to the injured part so as to reduce the pain. Apply a
firm bandage. Sprain are common in ankle joint.
Dislocation:
Dislocation is the displacement of one o r more bones at a joint. There will be severe pain
and swelling at or near the joint, the casualty cannot move the joint and joint looks deformed
and the limb assumes an unnatural position. The first aider should immobilize the joint and
reduce the pain. Dislocations are common in shoulder, lower jaw and elbow.
Strains and ruptures:
A strain is caused by over stretching of muscles. It generally happens as a result of a twist or
sudden effort to lift heavy weight. A rupture or tear is a more serious injury. The entire
muscle bundle or tendon are injured. Sudden pulling of calf muscle is common example.
There is a sudden sharp pain, swelling and feeling stiff at the muscle and the casualty cannot
move the injured part. First Aider should support the injured part using the sling in case of
upper limb, a crutch or stick for lower limbs and apply cold compress.
Artificial Respiration
To revive the lungs, you have to give artificial respiration by mouth to mouth (Kiss of Life)
method. Lift the chin forward and press the jaw, open the mouth with one hand and close the
nose with other hand, keep your mouth on the casualty's mouth and blow.
Heart Revival
To revive the heart, you have to give external chest compression. Keep your heel of the palm
on the chest (Pit of stomach) of the casualty and keep the other palm over that hand and
compress. The casualty must be in a hard surface.
Recovery Position
Sometimes, you may not be in a position to do first-aid due to tense situation. In such
circumstances, at least turn the casualty to recovery position, which would help to save many
precious lives.
803 Hints of First Aid to the Injured
1(a) In majority of the cases of severe injuries, death is due to either hemorrhage or shock
or both combined. So, the First Aider should always know the correct treatment of
hemorrhage and shock. Most First Aiders are under the impression that the only effective
method of arresting bleeding is by a tourniquet. This is not so. By the indiscriminate use of
tourniquet many a person has lost a limb and some times life, due to cutting off the blood
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supply to the part far away from the injury. Hence avoid a tourniquet as far as possible and
try to stop bleeding by the minor and safer measure of digital pressure, pad and bandage and
flexion, wherever possible.
o When the limb is completely cut off.
o When the main blood vessel is cut.
o When there is a compound fracture of the limb with bleeding.
o When there are multiple bleeding injuries.
o When there is a foreign body in close vicinity of a blood vessel cutting the tissues
around.
o When all other minor measures to stop bleeding have failed.
(b)
A tourniquet should not be left indefinitely except when the limb is completely
severed. By keeping a tourniquet on for a long time, the portion of the limb below does not
get its blood supply, death of the limb below takes place and finally the limb may require
amputation. Remember always to relax the tourniquet every quarter of an hour and note if
bleeding recurs. If necessary reapply the tourniquet and repeat relaxing every quarter of an
hour, till medical aid is obtained.

When dealing with hemorrhage of any kind, either external or internal, remember the
golden rule to avoid stimulants. Stimulants strengthen the action of the heart and more blood
is pumped out, thereby bleeding is encouraged and the object of the First Aid is lost.
(d)
Bleeding may vary in intensity from severe to slight. Severe hemorrhage comes from
a torn artery or torn vein or both combined. Many large arteries and veins lie close together
and are frequently injured together.
Blood from an artery in the systemic circulation is bright red. If the injured artery is
near the skin, the blood spurts out in jets corresponding to the pulsation of the heart.
2)
When foreign body, which cannot be easily removed or a projecting broken bone, is
present in a wound(a)When gauze or lint dressing is being used, cover the wound with the dressing and
build up the pads around the wound to a sufficient height to allow for pressure to be applied
by the bandage referred to in sub clause 3(1) without pressing on the foreign body or
projecting bone.
(b)When sterile dressing and pads are being used, build them up in cone fashion
around the wound to sufficient height to cover the wound and to allow for pressure to be
applied by the diagonal bandage referred to in sub clause 3(1) without pressing on the foreign
body or projecting bone.
3)
In the case of wound involving fracture of the dome of the skull, a ring pad must be
used.
a) Bandage the pads firmly in position. When a foreign body or projecting broken bone is
present in a wound it may be advantageous to apply the bandage diagonally to prevent
pressure on the foreign body or projecting broken bone. The bandage should not be applied
more tightly then is sufficient to stop the bleeding. If blood still soaks through, apply further
pads on top with a fresh bandage, but do not remove the original bandage and pads.
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b)
If bleeding is not controlled by the application of direct pressure, apply a firm
bandage round the limb few centimeters above the wound. It is preferable to use a rubber
bandage about 120 cms long and about 5 cms wide with the tape attachment at the end for
fastening. At the end of every 20 minutes the bandage shall be relaxed. If bleeding has not
ceased, the bandage may be retightened. A note shall be made of the application and time
applied.
c)
Where a limb has been amputated, no time should be wasted in attempting to apply
direct pressure, but a constrictive bandage should be immediately applied a few centimeters
above.
d)
When it is impossible to apply direct pressure successfully for the arrest of arterial
hemorrhage as in the case of wounds in the throat, high up in the arm and high up in the
thigh, it is necessary to apply indirect pressure to carotid, subclavian or femoral pressure
points.
e)

Immobilize the injured part. When the wound is near a joint, immobilize the joint.

f)
When bleeding has stopped, keep the patient warm; give him plenty of fluids
especially warm tea sweetened with sugar.
4)
In the limb fractures, to maintain some extension and give the maximum amount of
immobilization, the choice is the well padded splint or splints and when available, they
should be used.
If a leg is fractured, steady the limb by holding the ankle and place it in its natural
position along with its hollow and do not let go until the splints have been fixed. Apply
splints on the outer and inner sides of the leg reaching from above the knee to beyond the
foot. If only one splint is available, place it on the outer side, secure splints by bandages
(a) above
(b) below the fracture
(c) immediately above the knee,
(d) round the ankles and feet and
(e) a broad bandage round both the knees.
If the fracture is a compound one, remember always that you have to attend to bleeding and
the wound first, and then to the setting of the fractures as the bone ends will carry infective
material into the depths of the wound. Only mere splinting to keep the injured part immobile
shall be made. Before splinting, ensure that the tourniquet is put in position and tightened up
sufficiently to stop bleeding. In case where there is no bleeding, put tourniquet in position
but do not tighten it and then attend the fracture with splints. By doing this you will be able
to tighten the tourniquet if bleeding takes place at any later time. In setting all fractures, the
object of the First Aider should be to see that the joints above and below the fractures, are
immobilized by proper fittings, splints and bandages.
5)
a)

Treatment of all fractures of the Upper limb:


When the elbow can be bent without difficulty or increasing paino Carefully remove the patient's coat if possible.
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o Bend the patient's elbow and lay the injured limb against his chest, with the fingers
just touching the opposite shoulder.
o Apply adequate padding between the limb and the trunk.
o Except in the case of a collar fracture, fix the hand in a position with a collar and cuff
sling. Taking care that there is no constriction at the wrist.
o Secure the limb firmly to the chest by broad bandages as detailed below:

(b)

the first with its upper border level with the top of the shoulder.
the second with its lower border level with the tip of the elbow.
tie both bandages at opposite side of the body.
replace the coat and button if it is possible.

When the elbow cannot be bent without difficulty or increasing pain:o Place the limb by the side, palm to thigh, with adequate intervening padding.
o Secure the limb to the trunk and lower limb by three broad bandages tied.
o One round the arm and trunk, one round the elbow and trunk and one round the wrist
and thighs.
o Transport the patient in recumbent position.

(c)

When both upper limbs are fractured:

Adapt rules (b) (1) & (2) and transport the patient in recumbent position.
6. Shock
(a)
Shock is the sudden depression of the nervous system mostly due to pain or
hemorrhage or both combined. In case of shock, there may be partial or complete
insensibility.
(b)
Do not try to make the patient with shock sit up nor use stimulants like alcohol
indiscriminately. By making the patient sit up what little blood he has in the brain is allowed
to gravitate down and the shock is aggravated. Alcohol, by stimulating the heart, increases
bleeding and thereby does harm in cases of shock due to hemorrhage.

When a man is unconscious, the food tube and the wind pipes are open and any liquid
that is poured down the throat, instead of going into the stomach, may find its way into the
lungs and so the patient may die of asphyxia due to blocking of the air passage. Do not
therefore give any thing by the mouth if a patient is unconscious.
(d)
To sum up the treatment of shock:
(1)
Rest the patient with the head lower than the body and limbs. This position ensures
blood supply to the brain and prevents any fluid collections in the mouth and throat from
getting into the air passage.
(2)

Keep the patient warm as his body is cold and clammy, which aggravates the shock.

(3)
Give the patient stimulants, if there is no bleeding and if he is conscious. This
stimulates the depressed system.
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(e)
Electric shock:
If possible switch off the current immediately. Take precautions to prevent receiving electric
shock yourself. If no means of protection are at hand, drag the patient away by means of a
dry rope or crooked stick. In electric shock, the act of breathing is suspended and efforts at
natural breathing will be renewed only if artificial respiration is started at once and
effectively performed for a long time. If shock is severe, treat for shock by means of warm
blankets. Treat burns, if present. Do not allow patient to exert physically or mentally without
the consent of a doctor, however slight the shock may have been.
7.

Burns and Scalds-

The first-aider should remember that most burns and scalds to all intents and purposes are
sterile for a short period and every effort should be made to keep them so until medical aid is
available. Prepared sterile dressings should always be used and great care shall be taken in
their handling and application.
General rules for treatment of burns and scalds(a)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(b)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

When medical aid is readily available:


Do not remove clothing and do not break blisters
Cover the area (clothing included) with prepared sterile dressing.
Apply a pad of cotton wool
Bandage firmly except when blisters are present or suspected in which case
bandage lightly.
Wrap the patient in blankets to keep him warm.
In severe cases immobilize the affected area by the application of slings,
bandages or splints.
Give large quantities of warm fluids preferably light tea sweetened with sugar.
When medical aid is not readily available:
Do not remove clothing and do not break blisters.
Saturate the area, clothing included, with warm alkaline solution (two
teaspoonful of baking soda to one pint of sterile water at body temperature).
This treatment will relieve pain and thereby minimize shock.
Cover the area with prepared sterile dressing soaked in similar solution and
keep them moist with the solution. If the above solutions are not available,
cover the area with prepared sterile dressings.
Apply a pad of cotton wool
Bandage firmly in position, unless blisters are present or suspected, in which
case, bandage lightly.
Wrap the patient in blankets to keep him warm.
In severe cases, immobilize the affected area by the application of slings,
bandages or splints.
Give large quantities of warm fluids preferably light tea sweetened with sugar.

8. Unconsciousness
a) In cases of asphyxia, perform artificial respiration immediately

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b) If the breathing is present, lay the patient on his back with his head turned to one side and
if necessary, press forward the angle of his jaw so that his tongue does not impede respiration
by falling back.
c) Undo all tight clothing around the neck, chest and waist.
d) Ensure an abundance of fresh air by opening windows and doors, keep back the crowd,
and remove from harmful gases or impure atmosphere.
e) Adopt the special treatment for the condition which has caused the insensibility.
f) Remove the patient to shelter in a recumbent position as early as possible.
g) Give no food or fluids whatever by mouth while the patient is insensible.
h) Do not leave the patient until he has been placed in the charge of another responsible
person.
i) When the patient returns to consciousness, water may be given to drink in sips. If the pulse
is feeble, give hot strong tea or coffee sweetened with sugar, unless hemorrhage is apparent
or hemorrhage, from an internal organ is suspected.
j) A desire to sleep should be encouraged except in cases of poisoning by administering drugs
to relieve pain or induce sleep.
9. Poisons:
(a) Remember the broad division of poisons into corrosive and non-corrosive. Under noncorrosive come Narcotics and Nerve poisons.
(b) Corrosive poisons burn the mouth and the passage below. Hence, remember that in all
cases of corrosive poisoning, nothing should be given to the patient to induce vomiting as this
will merely spread the burns. Always give something to dilute the poison followed by the
antidote, if any. For all non-corrosive poisons, try to eliminate the poison by giving emetics.
The most common emetic is two table spoonful of common salt to a tumbler full of lukewarm
water or a table spoonful of powdered mustard to a to a tumbler of lukewarm water.
Vomiting can also be produced by tickling the back of the throat with the fingers. This
should be done with sufficient precautions to avoid the fingers being bitten.

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Establishment
Discipline and Appeal Rules, 1968
Came into force from 01.10.1968
Appointing Authority: The highest of the authorities appointed the Railway servant to the
highest post held by him during the entire service.
Disciplinary Authority: The Controlling Authority of the Railway servant which is also
empowered to impose upon him a penalty in the context of penalties shown in the Rule 6 of
RS(D&A) Rules, 1968.
Appellate Authority: The authority to which the Disciplinary Authority is immediate
subordinate.
Revising Authority: The authority to which the Appellate Authority is immediate
subordinate.
Reviewing Authority: Only the President of India.
Suspension
It is not a penalty.
Its purpose is to keep the Railway servant away from his work place.
A Railway servant may be placed under suspensiona) Where a disciplinary proceeding of a major penalty is contemplated against him.
b) Where the Competent Authority opines that the Railway servant has engaged himself
in activities, which are interest of the security of the state.
c) Where a case of criminal offence against him is under investigation.
A Railway servant may be placed under deemed suspensiona) With effect from the date of his detention in custody for a period
hours.

exceeding 48

b) With effect from his conviction with imprisonment for a period exceeding 48 hours.
c) Where a penalty of Dismissal/Removal/Compulsory Retirement is set aside due to
procedural lapses found in his DAR case.
Subsistence Allowance
It is equal to Half Average Pay Leave.
The Competent Authority does review of the subsistence allowance every three months.
The amount of subsistence allowance can be reduced or enhance by 25% but it should not
less than HAPL.
Penalties (Minor)
i)

Censure
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ii)

Withholding of promotion for a specified period

iii)

Recovery of pecuniary losses

iii-a) Withholding of privilege passes/PTOs or both


iii-b) Reduction by one stage in the same time scale of pay not exceeding 03 years
without cumulative effect and not adversely affecting his pension
iv)

Withholding of increment for a specified period with or without cumulative effect.

Penalties (Major)
v) Reduction by one stage in the same time scale of pay
exceeding 03 years, with cumulative effect, and adversely affecting his pension.
vi) Reduction to lower time scale of pay/grade/service with postponement of
future increments and loss of seniority or both.
vii) Compulsory Retirement
viii) Removal from Railway service
ix) Dismissal from Railway service.
Procedure for imposing a Minor Penalty
a) Issuing of a minor penalty charge memorandum (SF-11)
b) Obtaining his acknowledgement as token of receipt.
c) On the receipt of his representation, passing Reasoned Speaking Orders
d) Communicating the above to him under own signature of the Disciplinary Authority.
Procedure for imposing a Major Penalty
a) Issuing of a major penalty charge memorandum (SF-5)
b) Obtaining his acknowledgement as token of receipt.
c) If representation of the employee is not satisfactory, appointing Enquiry
issuing a SF-7.

Officer by

d) On the receipt of a copy of Enquiry Report, sending its copy to the employee to make
a representation.
e) On receipt of the representation, passing Reasoned Speaking Orders
f) Communicating the above to him under own signature of the Disciplinary Authority.
Appeal
After being imposed with a penalty the employee can prefer an appeal under Rules 18 and 19
of RS (D&A) Rules, 1968 to the Appellate Authority.
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Appellate Authority is the Authority to which the Disciplinary Authority is immediate
subordinate.
Time limit for preferring appeal is 45 days; however, the Appellate Authority can condone
delay in justified cases.
Appellate Authority can confirm/reduce/enhance the penalty imposed by the Disciplinary
Authority or send the case to the Disciplinary Authority where it finds it necessary.
Revision Petition
If the Appellate Authority confirms the penalty imposed by the Disciplinary Authority, the
employee can prefer a revision petition under Rule 25(1) of RS (D&A) Rules, 1968.
Revising Authority is the Authority to which the Appellate Authority is immediate
subordinate.
Time limit for preferring a revision petition is 45 days, however, the Revising Authority can
condone delay in justified cases.
Revising Authority can confirm/reduce/enhance the penalty imposed by the Disciplinary
Authority or sends the case to the Appellate Authority where it finds it necessary
Time limit for preferring a revision petition is 45 days, however, the Revising Authority can
condone delay in justified cases.
Sequence of Authorities
SR.DME (Disciplinary Authority)
ADRM/DRM (Appellate Authority)
CMPE/CME (Revising Authority)
Note: Powers of ADRM and DRM, HOD and PHOD and AGM and GM are same.
Standard Forms
1) SF-1 for placing under suspension.
2) SF-2 for placing under deemed suspension.
3) SF-3 for non employment certificate from the employee.
4) SF-4 for revocation of suspension,
5) SF-5 for major penalty disciplinary action.
6) SF-6 for refusing to inspect documents.
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7) SF-7 for appointing Enquiry Officer.
8) SF-8 for appointing Presenting Officer.
9) SF-9 Not in existence.
10) SF-10 for disciplinary action in common proceedings
11) SF-11 for issue of Minor Penalty charge memorandum.

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RUNNING ALLOWANCE RULES (as per IREM)


901. Running Allowance for staff performing running Duties
1. Running Allowance Rules are called "The Rules for the payment of Running and other
Allowances to the running staff on the Railways" coming to force with effect from 1-8-1981.
902. 2. In the provision of these rules, the following terms shall have the meaning assigned to
them for the purpose of payment of Running and other Allowances to the running staff :
(i) "Competent authority" means the President of India or any authority to whom the power to
amend or interpret these Rules may be delegated or any authority in whom powers are vested
by or under these Rules.
(ii) "Day" means a calendar day beginning at midnight of a day/date and ending at midnight of
the following day/date. The concept of "Rostered Day" as existing hitherto shall be abolished
with effect from 1-8-1981.
(iii) "Running duties" mean duties directly connected with the movement of trains and
performed by running staff while employed on moving trains or engines including shunting
engines.
(iv) "Running staff" performing "running duties" shall refer to Railway servants of the
categories mentioned below :
Loco
Traffic
(a) Drivers, including Motormen & Rail
Shunters.

Motor Drivers but excluding

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(b) Assistant
Guards

(b) Shunters
(c) Firemen, including Instructing Firemen, Electric Assistant on Electric Locos
and Diesel Assistant/Drivers. Assistants on Diesel Locos.

(v) "Running Allowance" means an allowance ordinarily granted to running staff in terms of
and at the rates specified in these rules, and/or modified by the Central Government in the
Ministry of Railways (Railway Board), for the performance of duties directly connected with
charge of moving trains and includes a "Kilometrage Allowance" and "Allowance in lieu of
kilometrage" but excludes special compensatory allowances.
(vi) "Terminal" means station/yard from which trains start after formation or the station/yard at
which they terminate and does not include Roadside stations.
(vii) "Shunting (Section or pick-up) train" means a scheduled goods train regularly run for
picking up and detaching wagons, either loaded or empty, at roadside stations.
(viii) (a) "Emergency shunting" includes attaching/detaching of all wagons which have
developed hot axles or wagons which are not fit to run.
(b) "Occasional shunting" includes all attaching/detaching of inspection carriages.
(ix) "Through Goods Trains" means a train which is scheduled to run from one terminal to
another (including those stabled enroute and stabled trains which are picked and cleared) and
which ordinarily has shunting planned at only one station/point with one emergency or
occasional shunting, with provision for shunting at one or more station/point in exceptional
circumstances. It includes light engines run on traffic account.
(x) "Tranship (van) train" means a scheduled goods train regularly run for picking up and
delivering consignments of smalls at stations. SQT/ASQT services which were hitherto
covered under this category shall be discontinued with effect from 1-8-1981.
(xi) "Shunting/Van Goods /Works train" means a goods train which is run to perform scheduled
sectional work and which is required to do shunting at more than one station/point and which
may also be required to do emergency/occasional shunting.
(xii) "Ballast, Material and Crane, Specials" means trains working on departmental account for
the carriage of ballast or material or for the haulage of cranes,
(xiii) "Breakdown and Medical Relief train" means train working on departmental account on
breakdown duties or for Providing medical relief on account of accidents etc.
(xiv) "Light engines on mechanical account" means light engines proceeding for repairs to
shops/sheds after repairs in shops to sheds and after temporary repairs to shops when they are
unfit to work a train.
(xv) "Departmental train" means a train working on departmental account and includes ballast
trains, Breakdown relief trains, material trains and light engines on mechanical account. It also
includes the following services :
(a) unloading coal or pump boiler at the pump houses while working light engine or train;
(b) light engine ordered with engineering representatives to certify the track;
(c) light engine ordered with water tender from one station to another.
The following services are to be treated as ordinary services :
(a) Inspection specials or specials with Railways Officials in cases of emergency e.g. GM's
Inspection specials, Divisional Inspection Specials;
(b) "Damaged rake specials and trial rake specials".
(xvi) (a) "Stationary posts" refers to all posts excluding those specified under item (iv).

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(b) "Stationary duties" refers to duties performed other than running duties specified under item
(iii).
(xvii) "Regulations" means the Hours of Employment Regulations in so far as they apply to
running staff.
(xviii) "Signing on" and "Signing off" shall have the same meaning as in Hours of Employment
Regulations.
903. Pay element in running allowance:- 30% of the basic pay of the running staff will be
treated to be in the nature of pay representing the pay element in the Running Allowance. This
pay element would fall under clause (iii) of Rule 1303-FR-9 21 (a) i.e. "emoluments which are
specially classed as pay by the President".
904. Dearness Allowance on the pay element of Running Allowance:-The running staff
shall be paid Dearness Allowance, at the appropriate rates sanctioned by the Government from
time to time, on their basic pay plus the pay element of Running Allowance i.e. 30% of the
basic pay.
905. Types of Allowances admissible to Running Staff :-Running staff shall be entitled to
the following allowances subject to the conditions specified by or under these rules :
(i) Kilometrage Allowance for the performance of running duties, in terms of and at the rates
specified in these rules.
(ii) An allowance in lieu of kilometrage (ALK) for the performance of stationary duties such as
journeys on transfer, joining time, for attending enquiries or law courts on Railway business,
attending departmental inquiries as Defense Counsel or witness, Ambulance classes, volunteer
duty in connection with Territorial or other similar Fund and Staff Loans Fund Committees,
meeting of Railway Institutes, Welfare and Debt Committees, Staff Benefit Fund and Staff
Loan Fund Committees, Staff and Welfare Committees, for attending the meetings of Railway
Co-operative Societies in cases where special casual leave is granted for doing so, medical and
departmental examinations, participating in recognized athletic contests and tournaments,
scouting activities and Lok Sahayak Sena Camp, representing recognized labor organizations,
attending periodical meetings with District Officers, Heads of Departments and General
Managers, attending First-aid classes, undergoing training in carriage sheds and as worker
teacher under the Workers' Education Scheme attending training schools for refresher and
promotion courses, undergoing sterilisation operation under Family Planning Scheme
appearing in Hindi Examination Guards booked on escort duty of treasure and other insured
parcels on trains, Drivers and Firemen when kept spare for a day or two to enable them to
examine and clean the engines thoroughly before being deputed to work special trains for VIPs,
or any other duties which may be declared in emergencies as qualifying for an allowance in
lieu of kilometrage.
(iii) Special Compensatory Allowances
The running staff are eligible for the following compensatory allowances under the
circumstances and at the rates specified in these rules :
(a) Allowance in lieu of Running Room facilities.
(b) Breach of rest allowance.
(c) Outstation (Detention) Allowance.
(d) Outstation (Relieving) Allowance.
(e) Accident Allowance.
(iv) An officiating Allowance when undertaking duties in higher grades of posts open to
running staff or in stationary appointments.
906. Kilometrage Allowance
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(i) The rates of Running Allowance for every 100 kms. shall be as specified by the competent
authority from time to time.
(ii) The dual rate system of payment of kilometrage Allowance (III A and III B rates) as in
vogue prior to 1-8-1981 shall be abolished w.e.f. 1-8-1981. Accordingly, with the
commencement of these rules, no distinction shall exist among the running staff working
different types of trains, in the matter of payment of Kilometrage Allowance. The rates of
Kilometrage Allowance for the performance of running duties shall, however, be different from
those applicable for shunting duties performed by shunting staff. The rates of Kilometrage
Allowance introduced w.e.f. 1-11-1986 on account of the revision of scales of pay and increase
in the rates of TA/DA shall be as under :
S.
Category of Running staff
New scales of pay (in Rs.)
Revised rates of running
NO.
Allowance per 100 km. *
introduce w.e.f. 1-11-1986 (in
Rs.)
1

Mail Driver

16402900

28.25

Passenger Driver

16002660

28.20

Goods Driver

13502200

28.15

First
Fireman/Diesel 9501500
Astt/Electric Asstt.

19.30
12.75 (Shunting duties)

Second Fireman

8251200

16.40
9.90 (Shunting duties)

Shunter

12002040

20.65

Mail Guard

14002600

23.10

Passenger Guard

13502200

23.05

Goods Guard .

12002040

23.00

10
Assistant Guard/Brakesmen 9501400
13.75
*No. PC IV/86/Imp/24 dated 24-4-1987.
employed for shunting duties on shunting engines, the rates prescribed above shall be applied
after equating each hour's work (from 'signing on' to 'signing off') to 15 kms.
2. Kilometrage shall be calculated according to the distance shown in the Working Time Tables
in vogue in the Railways from time to time on the basis of the actual or computed kilometrage
performed.
3. Except as otherwise specified by or under these rules, the rates shown above are inclusive
of all duties performed from time to time of 'signing on' to the time of 'signing off', including
engine or train attendance, all incidental detentions and all other items of work related to or
incidental to running duties.
907. Allowance in lieu of Kilometrage (ALK)
When running staff are engaged in or employed on non-running duties as specified in Rule 3
(ii) above, they shall be entitled to the payment of an allowance in lieu of Kilometrage as
indicated below for every calendar day for such non-running duties as may be required to be
performed by them :

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(a) When such non-running duties are performed by the running staff at their headquarters,
they shall be paid the pay element of the Running Allowance, namely, 30% of the basic pay
applicable for the day.
(b) When such non-running duties are performed by the running staff at outstations, they shall
be paid ALK at the following rates :
S. No.

Category of Running Staff

New scales of pay


(Rs.)

Revised rates of ALK (160


km.) per day w.e.f. 1-111986*
(Rs.)

Mail Driver

16402900

45.20

Passenger Driver

16002660

45.10

Goods Guard

13502200

45.05

First
Fireman/Diesel 9501500
Astt/Electric Asstt.

30.90

Second Fireman

8251200

26.25

Shunter

12002040

33.05

Mail Guard

14002600

36.95

Passenger Guard

13502200

36.90

Goods Guard .

12002040

36.80

10
Assistant Guard/Brakesmen
9501400
22.00
*No. PC IV/86/Imp./24 dated 24-4-1987.
Provided that, if during the same calendar day, a member of the running staff is engaged in
running as well as non-running duties and if the non-running duties are of four hours' duration
or more, he will draw both the kilometrage Allowance for the trip performed as well as the
Allowance in lieu of Kilometrage, in full, for the non-running duty performed.
Note : 1. Allowance in lieu of kilometrage shall also be admissible for the intervening
Sundays/holidays while undergoing training for promotion/refresher course at outstations.
2. When running staff attend training schools for refresher and promotion courses and Lok
Sahayak Sena Camp at a place outside their headquarter and where free messing is provided,
they shall be entitled to payment of ALK at half the normal rates specified at Rule 907 (b)
above.
3. Guards undergoing training as Section Controllers and Drivers undergoing training as
Power Controllers in Zonal Schools or in Control Offices, before promotion as such and
provided they are not accommodated against non-running posts during the period of training
are entitled to ALK at half rate or full rate depending on whether free messing is or is not
provided to them.
908. Allowances in lien of Running Room facilities
(i) At outstations where running rooms are not provided, running staff may be paid a
compensatory allowance known as "Allowance in lieu of running room facilities" at the rates
specified for every 24 hours or part thereof reckoned from the time of "signing off" at the
outstation subject to the period of rest exceeding four hours between train arrival and train
departure timings :

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Rates w.e.f. 1-8-81

Revised rates w.e.f. 1-6-84

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

Drivers

5.50

7.00

Guards

5.50

7.00

Shunter

4.00

5.00

Firemen/Diesel Asstt./Electric Asstt.

3.50

4.50

Assistant Guard (Brakesman)


3.50
4.50
(ii) This allowance shall be admissible at roadside stations irrespective of whether the train
terminates there or not.
(iii) In respect of running room where cooks are not provided, the allowance shall be
admissible at half the rates specified in para (i) above.
(iv) In the case of Ballast and Material trains and trainship Goods Vans, the staff taking rest in
Crew Rest Vans may be paid on allowance at half the rates of the Allowance in lieu of Running
Room facilities during the halts as cooks are not provided in the rest vans.
(v) The allowance shall not be payable if rest facilities are made available even if running
rooms as such do not exist.
(vi) This allowance shall also not be admissible to running staff who are not sent to outstations
on stationary duty.
909. Breach of Rest Allowance
(i) Breach of Rest Allowance shall be granted to running staff who are detailed for running
duties in the following circumstances :
(A) When running staff who work a train to an outstation and return to their headquarters are
detailed for running duty :
(a) before completion of 16 hours' rest at headquarters when the total period of duty
immediately before the rest was for 8 hours or more; and
(b) before completion of 12 hours' rest at headquarters when the total period of duty
immediately before the rest was for less than 8 hours.
(B) When running staff like Shunters and staff manning suburban services, who avail of daily
rest at headquarters are detailed for running duty :
(a) before completion of 12 hours' rest when the total period of duty immediately before the
rest was for 8 hours or more; and
(b) before completion of 8 hours' rest when the total duty immediately before the rest was for
less than 8 hours.
(ii) The allowance shall be payable as Overtime Allowance under Hours of Employment
Regulations at the rate of 2 hours for every hour by which rest falls short of the prescribed
hours of rest, periods of less than half an hour being neglected and those of half an hour or
more shall be rounded off to one hour on each occasion of breach of rest.
(iii) The scale of rest applicable to running staff on rostered duty at headquarters (like shunting
duty etc.) would remain unchanged. However, suburban staff performing "double details" with
rest in a running room/rest room between the two details shall be given liberalized scale of rest
of 12 hours or 16 hours depending on whether the total duty hours is less than 8 hours or 8
hours and more. They will however, not be entitled to be paid any Breach of Rest Allowance.
Note:(a) In no case shall running staff be called upon to go out under 6 hours' rest except when
unavoidably necessary as in. the case of accident or breakdown.
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(b) When a member of the running staff, after performing a short trip, is again called on fresh
duty within one hour, the interval should be treated as running duty for purposes of
determining whether he is entitled to Breach of Rest Allowance in case he is called back to duty
before completing 12 hours' rest.
(c) Duty on ballast, departmental trains etc. is to be treated as running duty in accordance with
the definition given in Rule 3 (iii).
910. Outstation (Detention)
(i) When running staff are detained at outstations for more than 16 hours from the time they
sign off duty, they shall be credited with 70 km. for every 24 hours or part thereof after the
expiry of 16 hours from the time of "signing off."
(ii) At an outstation where running rooms are not provided, running staff shall be entitled, in
addition, to Allowance in lieu of Running Room facilities at the rates specified in Rule 9(i).
911. Outstation (Relieving) Allowance
(i) This allowance shall be payable to running staff deputed to work temporarily stations
outside their headquarters either on running or stationary duties. Payments will be made as the
rates specified in Rule 11 for Outstation (detention Allowance for each day reckoned from the
date of arrival at the outstation.
(ii) The allowance shall be regulated in the following manner :
(a) when the running staff are sent to an outstation to officiate in higher posts, allowance shall
be paid for a period of 14 days only.
(b) when running staff are sent to an outstation in the same capacity, the allowance shall be
paid for a maximum period of 2 months.
(c) the period of journey to and from the relieving station shall be treated as duty, either Spare
or running, and the allowance paid accordingly.
912. Accident Allowance
Running staff who are held up at any station other than their headquarters due to an accident for
a period exceeding 8 hours, shall be paid an Accident Allowance at the rate specified in Rule
911 for Outstation (detention) Allowance for every 24 hours or part thereof reckoned from the
time of commencement of detention. If the period of detention does not exceed 8 hours, no
payment will be made but the hours for which the staff are detained shall be counted towards
hours of duty.
913. Officiating Allowance
(i) The officiating allowance in respect of running staff officiating in running post shall be
regulated as under:
(a) When running staff are put to officiate in a "running post" for 30 days or less, they shall be
entitled to pay as admissible in the lower grade plus Running Allowance at the rates and on the
condition applicable to the higher grade in which they officiate enhanced by 15% (except in the
case of Second Firemen put to officiate as First Firemen and Engine Cleaners put to officiate as
Second Firemen for whom the enhancement will be by 30% of the kilometrage actually
performed for every such higher grade.
(b) When running staff are put to officiate in a "running post" for more than 30 days, their pay
in the higher post shall be fixed under the normal rules.
(ii) (a) When running staff are put to officiate in a stationary post for more than 30 days, their
pay will be fixed on the basis of their pay in the lower post plus 30% thereof representing the
pay element of the Running Allowance.
(b) The fixation of pay of running staff put to officiate in a stationary post for a period of 30
days or less, shall continue to be regulated in terms of para 911 (ii) (a) of Indian Rail way.
Establishment Manual.
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(iii) In cases where the officiating arrangement is initially approved for periods exceeding 30
days the normal rules of fixation of pay will apply; where the period is initially for 30 days, the
enhanced kilometrage allowance drawn upto 30 days should be allowed to stand but payments
for periods beyond 30 days should be in accordance with the rules for normal-fixation of pay
on promotion.
914. Minimum Guaranteed Kilometrage Allowance
(i) The existing system of payment, as a rule, of a minimum guaranteed kilometrage in all cases
where the kilometrage earned in a day falls short of a prescribed level, shall be discontinued
with effect from 1-8-1981.
(ii) However, each Railway shall identify such sections and circumstances which do not have
the potential for enabling the running staff to earn adequate kilometrage within the stipulated
duty hours. For these identified sections and circumstances, the running staff shall be paid at the
rate of 120 kms. for the full stipulated duty hours.
Note : The concept of rostered day shall be abolished w.e.f. 1-8-1981.
915. Incentive scheme for through Goods Trains
(i) An incentive scheme for through goods-trains working on sections and in circumstances
other than those identified as per Rule 15 above shall be introduced w.e.f. 1-8-1981 and
regulated as under:
(a) Steam traction:
Total Kilometrage Actually performed by the Kilometrage to be paid for
running staff
0 to 60

Actual Kilometrage performed.,

61 to 100

Do. +40% thereof

101 to 150

Do. +50% thereof

151 and above


Do. +60% thereof
(b) Diesel and Electric Traction :
Total Kilometrage Actually performed by the Kilometrage to be paid for
running staff
0 to 125

Actual kilometrage performed.

126 to 175

Do. +20% thereof

176 to 200

Do. +30% thereof

201 and above


Do. +40% thereof
(ii) Inflation of kilometrage as indicated above will be applied with reference to the
kilometrage actually performed during one prescribed schedule of duty from "signing on" to
"signing off". It will not be related to either trip or rostered day, which concept has been
abolished in terms of Rule 15 above.
Note : (a) The inflation of kilometrage shall not be applicable to ghat sections for which a
separate method of computation is provided for in these Rules.
(b) The distance, as a whole, has to be taken into account while giving the weightage according
to the slabs.
916. Computation of Kilometrage for slow move Trains
(i) Running staff working shunting and Van Goods trains will continue to be paid at double the
kilometrage for the first 60 Kms. and at three times the kilometrage beyond that distance.

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(ii) In the case of Ballast and Material Trains, Crane Specials and light engines on mechanical
account, the computation of kilometrage shall be at the rate of 20 kms. per hour subject to a
maximum of 200 kms. for prescribed hours of duty, the period being reckoned from "signing
on" to "signing off".
(iii) In the case of Bretckdown specials and Medical Relief Trains the computation of
kilometrage shall be at the rate of 25 kms. per hour from "signing on" to "signing off".
Note : The inflation of kilometrage of slow moving trains in the above manner would not be
applicable to ghat sections, for which a separate method of computation of kilometrage is
provided for under these Rules.
917. Computation of Kilometrage for Passenger Services
In the case of running staff working Passenger Trains, the kilometrage shall be computed on
the following basis:Hours of Duty from Signing on to Kelometrage to be paid for
Signing off
(a) Upto 4 hours
Actual kilometrage subject to a minimum of 120 km.
(b) 4 hours and above but less than 5 Actual kilometrage subject to a minimum of 130 km.
hours.
(c) 5 hours and above
Actual kilometrage subject to a minimum of 150 km.
918. All SGT/ASGT services shall be discontinued w.e.f. 1-8-1981. However, Guards who
were working SGT/ASQT services and were confirmed in their respective posts at the time of
discontinuance of these services shall be granted protection of pay in the grade in which they
were confirmed.
919. Running Staff Working Pilots
(i) In the case of running staff manning the Coal Pilots of Eastern and S.E. Railways, the target
time for completion of trips shall be fixed on the following basis :
(a) From bahar line to bahar line and in those cases where the crew is taking over charge at
outstations, it shall be fixed from the time of taking over charge of the engine to the time of
handing over charge of the engine.
(b) In the case of engines, the target time shall be reckoned from train departure to train
arrival.
(ii) The Trip Allowance to the running staff working the Coal Pilots shall be paid at the rate of
160 kms. for eight hours.
(iii) In addition to the Trip Allowance, the running staff working the Coal Pilots shall be paid at
bonus equivalent of 50 kms., if they perform the complete trips within the stipulated target
time.
(iv) The Coal Pilot guards of Eastern and S.E. Railways who perform commercial duties also,
shall be paid commercial Duty Allowance of Rs. 50/- p.m. further revised to Rs. 100/- p.m.
w.e.f. 1-1-1987. In the case of Guards who are engaged in this job Allow the part of the month,
the Commercial Duty Allowance shall, w.e.f. 1-5-1982, be granted at the rate of Rs. 1.70 for
each day on which commercial duties are performed, subject to a maximum of Rs. 50/- p.m.
with effect from 1-1-1987, this daily rate has been revised to Rs. 3.30, subject to a maximum of
Rs. 100/- p.m.
(v) The provisions contained in sub-paras (i), (ii) and (iii) above shall be extended to the
running staff working all Pilots and also to the loco and traffic running staff working in "Delhi
Area" w.e.f. 1-8-1981.

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Note : In the case of jugglers which are utilized for picking up loads from adjoining
yards/stations, the running staff who are booked for them for 8 to 10 hours, shall be paid at the
rate of 120 kms. for the stipulated duty hours in terms of Rule 15 (ii).
920. Shunting Duty Allowance :
(i) Running staff working through Goods Trains and Shunting Van Goods Trains shall be paid
shunting duty allowance to the extent and at the rates indicated below :
(a) For through Goods TrainsFor shunting from 3rd station/point in one trip.
(b)
For Shunting/Van. Goods trainsFor shunting from the 4th station/point in one
continuous spell of duty.
The rates of the allowance for shunting at each station/point are as follows :
Drivers
Rs.2.00
Guards
Rs.1.50
Firemen/Diesel Asstt./Asstt. Electrical Driver
Rs.1.25
(ii) When the main line crew is utilised for shunting duty at the terminals, which is preceded by
or followed by train working, such shunting duty shall be paid for at the rate of 15 kms. per
hour.
921. Waiting Duty Allowance
Waiting duty allowance at the rate of 15 kms. per hour upto 10 hours shall be paid to the
running staff in the following cases :
(a) Waiting/Stand-by duty as per roster.
(b) Station duty including detentions on account of cancellation of the trains or
cancellation of booking of the staff after they have reported for duty.
(c) Running staff kept back in administrative interest, such as booking for President's Special,
Relief Trains etc.
(d) Waiting in steam in the case of President's Special.
922. Ghat Sections
(i) The following criteria shall be adopted for declaring a section as Ghat Section for the
purpose of payment of running allowance on the basis of computation as indicated in sub-para
(ii) below :
(a) The ruling/gradient of a section shall be the determining factor.
(b) Sections with a ruling/gradient of 1:40 or steeper shall be classified as Class I Ghat Section
and those with a ruling gradient of 1:80 or steeper but less steep than 1:40 shall be classified as
Class II Ghat Sections.
(c) The distance between two adjacent block sections shall be treated as a section for this
purpose.
(d) The total length of the stretches in such a section having the gradients specified in sub-para
(b) should have at least one third of the length of the section concerned.
(ii) Computation of kilometrage for the purpose of payment of Running Allowance to the
running staff working trains on a Ghat Section shall be made on the following basis :
(a) In the case of running staff working trains on all Ghat Sections where the banker is
actually employed in assisting the train, the computation of kilometrage shall be five times the
actual distance travelled.
(b) In all other cases (including those where the banking engine is run as a light engine or
assistance is not required), the computation shall be five times the actual distance travelled in
the case of Class I ghat section and three times the actual distance in the case of Class II ghat
section.
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923. High Speed Trains


The following criteria shall be adopted for classifying a train as 'High-Speed-Train' for the
purpose of payment of Trip Allowance to the running staff working such trains :
(a) The maximum permissible speed should not be less than 110 kms. in the case of B.G. and
100 kms. in the case of M.G.
(b) The aforesaid limits of maximum permissible speed should obtain over at least 50% of
the total run of the train.
(c) The average speed should be not less than 66 kms. on the B.G. Section and not less than
60 kms. on M.G. Section.
(d) The minimum distance between terminals of the trains should be 400 kms. on B.G. and
300 kms. on M.G. sections.
(ii) A trip allowance at the following rates shall be paid to the running staff working HighSpeed Trains and Rajdhani Express for completion of trips :
Category
Trip allowance per trip
Revised rates per trip w.e.f. 1-1-1986
Drivers
Rs.4.00
Rs. 6.00
Co-Drivers-Drivers Gr.
Rs. 3.00
Rs. 4.50
B (if provided)
Guards
Rs. 3.00
Rs. 4.50
Asstt. Guards
Rs. 2.00
Rs. 3.00
(iii) The co-driver in respect of Rajdhani Express will be in the grade of Mail Driver i.e. Rs.
1640-2900(RS) and the co-drivers in respect of all other High-speed trains will be in the grade
of passenger-driver viz. Rs. 1600-2660 (RS).
924. Reckoning of Running Allowance as pay :
(i) 30% of the basic pay of running staff shall be reckoned as pay for the following purposes :
(a) Entitlement to Passes and P.T.Os.
(b) Medical attendance and treatment.
(c) Educational assistance.
(d) Fixation of pay in stationary posts.
(e) Compensatory (City) Allowance,
(f) House Rent Allowance.
(g) Entitlement to quarter.
(h) Recovery of rent for quarters.
(i) Dearness Allowance/Addl. Dearness Allowance.
(j) Overtime Allowance,
(k) Leave Salary.
(ii) For the purpose of educational assistance, 30% of the basic pay shall be reckoned as pay for
determining the eligibility for all the scheme of assistance given to Railway employees for the
education of their children/ward viz. reimbursement of tuition fees, children's educational
assistance and subsidized hostels.
(iii) For the purpose of retirement benefits, 55% of basic pay shall be taken into account in the
case of running staff retired/retiring on or after 1-4-1979. 55% of basic pay shall also be
reckoned as pay for the purposes of recovery of subscription towards Provident Fund.
(iv) When running staff are on leave (including casual leave) they shall be paid their leave
salary based on their basic pay plus 30% thereof and the other allowances including Dearness
Allowance/Addl. Dearness Allowance due on such basic pay plus 30% thereof.
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(v) For the purpose of deduction of Income-Tax, 30% of the actual Running Allowance earned
by the running staff shall be reckoned as pay and the balance 70% of the Running Allowance
shall be exempted under section 10(14) of the Income-Tax Act, 1951, with effect from the
financial year 1982-83 (Assessment Year 1983-84).
(vi) The pay element in Running Allowance viz. 30% of basic pay is also reckoned as pay for
the purpose of grant of Interim Relief in terms of Board's letter No. PC-III-83/PC-IV/3(IR)
dated 2-8-1983.
Note
(a) While 30% of the basic pay of running staff will be taken into account for the purpose of
determining entitlement to Passes and PTOs, the members of the running staff who were
already entitled to a higher class of Passes/ PTOs on regular basis as on 31-7-1981, shall
continue to be eligible to such Passes/PTOs.
(b) For the purpose of retirement been fits, 55% of basic pay shall count as pay for
calculating pension and DCRG as well as for special contribution to PF Rules.
(c) While determining the emoluments for the purpose of calculation of retirement benefits,
Dearness Pay as admissible from time to time, shall be calculated on basis of pay plus 30%
thereof in the case of running staff retired/retiring on or after 1-8-1981.
925. (i) Running staff learning the road shall be paid for the total kilometrage actually run
instead of for three-fourth of the distance.
(ii) Inflation of kilometrage on account of incentive scheme, ghat sections etc. is not admissible
to the running staff learning the road.
(iii) Not more than 3 trips in the up direction and 3 trips in the down direction shall be allowed
for learning the road on each section.
926. (i) Running staff traveling as passengers on duty before or after working trains or when
they are called upon to work a train at outstations but have to return without working the train
due to its cancellation shall be treated as performing "light duties" and shall be paid at half
the kilometrage actually traveled.
(ii) In the case of trains which are provided with double sets of crew, the spare crew traveling in
the crew Rest Vans shall be paid half the kilometrage admissible to the crew on duty.
927. When running staff cannot be allowed running or other duties on account of:
(a) occurrence of natural calamities like breaches due to flood etc; or
(b) coal shortage. they shall be paid Allowance in lieu of kilometeage as admissible at
Headquarters in terms of Role 907(a).
928. The total kilometrage earned by the running staff during a month shall be rounded off to
the nearest 50 kms, i.e., 1 to 24 kms. will be disregarded 25 to 74 kms. shall be rounded off to
50 Kms and 75 to 99 kms. shall be rounded off to 100 kms,
929. With the commencement of these Rules namely with effect from 1-8-1981, the provisions
relating to Running Allowance in Chapter V of the Indian Railway Establishment Code Vol.1
and in Chapter IX of the Indian Railway Establishment Manual shall stand modified to the
extent and in the light of the provisions enumerated in these rules.
930. (i) The power to amend these rules shall vest in the President.
(ii) The power to interpret or clarify the provisions in the application of these rules shall be
exercised by the Ministry of Railways.

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Manpwer planning

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Training
Railway Board vide letter E(MPP)/2009/3/14 dated 05.06.2009 have issued Revised Training
Programme for Assistant Loco Pilot and as per programme, an Assistant Loco Pilot is required
to undergo an initial training for 17 weeks (25 weeks for dual traction training) at the time of
his first appointment. Detail of the programme as under:

Further, at every three years interval, an Assistant Loco Pilot as well as a Loco Pilot is required
to undergo a refresher course for three weeks. At the time of promotion from Assistant Loco
Pilot to Loco Pilot (Goods) and from Loco Pilot (Goods) to Loco Pilot (Passenger), the
promotional training is imparted for twelve weeks and eight weeks respectively. The various
courses of training are as under:
S.No
Name of Course
Stage of training
Period of
training
1.
LOCO-RNG-1
Induction from RRB/Lateral induction from 17 weeks
maintenance to Assistant Driver (Mech./Elect.)
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2.

LOCO-RNG-2

3.

LOCO-RNG-3

4.

LOCO-RNG-4

5.

LOCO-RNG-5

6.

LOCO-RNG-6

7.

LOCO-RNG-7

8.

LOCO-RNG-8

9.

LOCO-RNG-9

Promotional course from Asst. Electric


Driver/ET to Goods Driver (Elec. Drivers)
Promotional course from Electric Goods Driver
to Passenger Driver/Motorman (Elec. Drivers)
Promotional course from Asst. Diesel Driver to
Goods Driver (Diesel Drivers)
Promotional course from Goods Driver to
Passenger Driver (Diesel Drivers)
Refresher course for Asst. Drivers (Electric
Drivers)
Refresher course for all Electric Drivers
(Electric Drivers)
Refresher course for Asst. Drivers (Diesel
Drivers)
Refresher course for all Diesel Drivers (Diesel)

13 weeks
8 weeks
13 weeks
8 weeks
3 weeks
3 weeks
3 weeks
3 weeks

TRAINING OF RUNNING STAFF ON SIMULATORS


Railway Safety Review Committee had recommended harnessing of the latest technologies
such as simulators for imparting training, extensive use of computers as a vital training tool and
the predominant focus on the practical, hands-on side of training. The Railway Safety
Review Committee had also recommended that the initial and refresher training capsules for
Asst. Loco Pilots and Loco Pilots be reviewed in their entirety, so that greater emphasis is
placed on practical training and the use of the latest training aids such as simulators and
interactive computers.
Locations of Simulator over IR are as under:
S. No.
Railway
Location
Traction
1.
CR
Bhusawal
Electric
2.
ER
Jamalpur
Diesel
3.
ER
Asansol
Electric
4.
NCR
Kanpur
Electric
5.
NE
Gonda
Diesel
6.
NF
Siliguri
Diesel
7.
SR
Golden Rock
Diesel
8.
SR
Avadi
Electric
9.
SWR
Hubli
Diesel
10.
SCR
Vijayawada
Electric
11.
SECR
Bilaspur
Diesel
12.
SECR
Hoslapur
Electric
13.
WR
Vatva
Diesel
14.
WR
Vadodara
Electric

LEARNING ROAD
Every Loco Pilot should be given three trips including one night trip from 2000 hrs to 0600
hrs road learning for familiarizing himself with the section(s) on which he is rostered for
duty. This would apply to all systems of working.

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If a Loco Pilot has not operated on a section for over 3 months, he should be given road
learning trips as per the schedule given below.
Duration of absence
3 to 6 months
6 months to 2 years
Over 2 years

Number of trips
1
2
3 (as for new entrants)

Any additional trip/s considered necessary should be provided with the approval of the
controlling branch officers of the Division.
On Hill and Ghat sections, the Loco Pilot shall operate minimum of 6 (six) trips including
two night trips from 2000 hrs to 0600 hrs for learning road purposes.
Additional trips for road learning may be prescribed for special conditions of working like
Automatic block territory, important junctions/stations etc., by DRM if considered necessary.

POINTS TO BE KEPT IN VIEW WHILE PREPARING LOCO PILOT'S LINKS


1.

1. Loco pilot/Crew links are prepared by CPRC/CTLC and got verified from Personnel
Branch. Objective of crew links is to ensure optimum utilization of crews.
2. Train timings to be checked from the latest timetable.
3. Links to be prepared before promulgation of new time table.
4. Max. duty hours in anyone trip should not exceed 10 hours.
5. Avg. duty hours in a fortnight should not exceed 104 hours.
6. Min. no. of rests in a month should be 5 of 22 hrs. or 4 of 30 hours including night in
bed from 22 hrs. to 6 hrs. from sign off to sign on.
7. Efforts should be made to include all the sections in the link to avoid giving learning
road again and again.
8. Min. out of station rest in case less than 8 hrs. duty in the previous trip should be 6 hrs
from sign off to sign on. In case duty is 8 hrs or more than 8 hrs, then 8 hrs. rest to be
given. In case of short trips of less than or equal to 5 hours then duty performed plus 1
hrs. will be sufficient.
9. Min. home station rest should be
(a) If duty performed in the last trip is less than 8 hrs., then 12 hrs
(b) If duty is 8 hrs. or more. then 16 hrs.
(c) If staff is required to work train less then stipulated rest then breach of rest
allowance is payable to running staff.
10. Link having the maximum earning kilometerage should be worked by senior most loco
pilots and so on.
11. Separate links should be prepared for superfast trains such as Rajdhani/Shatabdi Exp.
12. Chronic late running trains should be kept in view to avoid link failures.
POINTS TO BE KEPT IN VIEW WHILE PREPARING LOCOMOTIVE LINKS
1. Loco/Power links are prepared by HQ.'s office and circulated to the divisions. The
objective of power links is to ensure optimum utilization of powers.
2. Train timings should be checked from latest time table.
3. Links to be prepared before commencement of new time table.
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4. Efforts should be made to send the loco to home shed for servicing within the stipulated
schedule time
5. Minimum possible out station halt should be provided.
6. Ensure loco is permitted to run on the sections at the max. permissible speed of the
train.

PME rules (Medical Examination for Running Staff (as per IRMM))
510. Classification of staff - for the purpose of visual acuity and general physical
examination of candidates and of serving Railway employees, the non-Gazetted Railway
services are divided into the following broad groups and classes.
Groups
A. Vision tests required in
the interest of public safety

Classes
A-1. Foot plate staff, Rail car drivers and Navigating staff
( For foot plate staff see para 520).
A-2. Other running staff, Other shunting staff, Point lockers
Station masters, and other staff in operative control of signals.
A-3 Loco, signal and transportation Inspectors, staff authorised
to work trolleys, Yard supervisory staff, Road motor drivers and
gate keepers on level crossings.

B. Vision tests required in the B-1 Such station and yard non supervisory, shed and other
interest of the employee
staff , excluding shed man, as are engaged on duties where .
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himself or his fellow workers failing eye sight may endanger themselves or other employees
or both
from moving vehicles, road motor drivers, permanent way
mistries, gang mates, keymen, and staff of the Railway
Protection Force.
B-2 Certain staff in workshops and engine rooms engaged on
duties when failing eye sight may endanger themselves or other
employees from moving parts of the machinery and crane
drivers on open line.
C. Vision tests required in the C-1. Other workshop and engine room staff, shed stockers and
interest of administration
other staff in whom a higher standard of vision than is required
only
in clerical and kindred occupation is necessary for reasons of
efficiency and others not coming in group A or B
C-2 Staff in clerical occupations not included in A,B and C-1
512. Vision tests
(1) Acuity of vision:- The following are the tables of standards of visual acuity requirements.:
(A) Standards at examination on appointment:
Class
A-1
A-2
A-3
B-1
B-2
C-1
C-2

Distant vision
6/6, 6/6 without glasses with fogging test(must
not accept +2 D)
6/9, 6/9 without glasses (no fogging test)
6/9, 6/9 with or without glasses. Power of lenses
not to exceed 2D.
6/9, 6/12 with or without glasses. Power of
lenses not to exceed 4D.
same as above
6/12, 6/18 with or without glasses.
6/12, nil with or without glasses.

Near vision
Sn.0.6, 0.6 without glasses
...Do...
Sn.0.6, 0.6 with or without glasses.
Sn. 0.6, 0.6 with or without glasses
when reading or close work is
required
...Do...
...Do...
Sn. 0.6 combined with or without
glasses where reading or close
work is required

Note:
a) No glasses are to be permitted at the time of initial recruitment of Railway Protection Force
staff where their medical category is B-one.
b) Candidates in C-1 and C-2 medical categories having power of glasses of more than 4 D
should be examined by an eye specialist and may be declared fit if there is no evidence of any
progressive eye disease.
(Bd.'s No 83/H/5/16 dt. 17/04/1984)
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Standards at re-examination during service:


The standards at re-examination would apply only for employees with not less than six years
service. This could be permanent or temporary, including continuous service as casual labour, if
in the same medical category.
Class

Distant vision
6/9, 6/9 or 6/6, 6/12 with or without glasses.
Naked eye vision not below 6/60, 6/60 Power of
lenses not to exceed 4D.

A-1

A-2

A-3
B-1
B-2
C-1
C-2

BELOW 40 YEARS
6/9, 6/12 or 6/6, 6/18 with or without glasses
Power of lenses not to exceed 4 D. Naked eye
vision not below 6/60.
40 YEARS AND ABOVE
6/12, 6/12 or 6/9, 6/18 with or without glasses.
Power of lenses not to exceed 6 D. Naked eye
vision not below 6/60.
6/12, 6/18 with or without glasses. Power of
lenses not to exceed 8 D.
6/12, 6/24 with or without glasses. Power of
lenses not to exceed 8 D.
As above
6/18, nil or combined 6/18 with or without
glasses.
6/24, nil or 6/24 combined with or without
glasses.

Near vision
The combined vision with or
without glasses should be the
ability to read ordinary print.
Where reading or close work is
required. Where reading or close
work is required, the combined
near vision should be Sn 0.6
As above

As above

As above
As above
As above
Sn. 0.6 with or without glasses
where reading or close work is
required.
As above

(10) Cataract:
Employees with aphakia : - Employees operated for cataract by conventional surgery resulting
in aphakia, irrespective of acuity of vision with glasses will not be permitted to continue in
categories other than C-1 and C-2.
Employees with Pseudoaphakia : - Employees having undergone intra ocular lens implant
surgery (Posterior chamber I.O.L) will be allowed to continue in service in categories A-3 and
below; provided that all employees undergoing Posterior I.O.L surgery will be subjected to
complete ophthalmic assessment by an ophthalmologist at monthly intervals post operatively
till the findings become stable or for a maximum period of six months to see if they can attain
the visual standards required for the A-3 category. In case of
failure of the employee to reach the standards of A-3 in six months following surgery he/she
will be declared fit in the category in which his/her visual standards allow him/her. Subsequent
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P.M.E.s of such employees only with reference to ophthalmologic check up will be done at six
monthly intervals by an ophthalmologist, keeping in view, the possibility of upgrading the
medical category on improvement of the visual abilities of the employee (which in some cases
is possible). Their cases can be reviewed once every six months.
Employees in B-1 having undergone I.O.L implant surgery will be allowed to continue in their
original category with subsequent medical examination done every year instead of the usual
schedule.
(Bd.'s letter No. 88/H/5/3 dt. 07/02/96)
Note: - Posterior chamber Intra Ocular Lens implantation(PCIOL) in one or both Eyes shall
not be a bar for the inservice
Aye two (A2) category staff to continue in the respective category after cataract surgery of one
eye/eyes provided his /her visual acuity comes up to the prescribed standard. The periodicity of
Periodical Medical Examination (PME) for A2 in IOL cases would be as under :
1st PME 6 weeks after surgery
2nd PME 6 months after the first PME after the PCIOL
Subsequent PMEs after the completion of one year from the previous PME
All PMEs will have to be conducted by Ophthalmologists only in such cases
(Bds No 2002/H/5/1 dt 5-2-2004)
The relaxation given vide Bds letter NO above will also be extended to in-service employees
in Aye two category who have undergone IOL (PC) inplant I one or both eyes prior to 5-2-04.
However all such cases will be examined by a Medical Bd including one seye specailist./
Based on the recommendtions of the medicla Board and it being accepted by CMD of the zone
the in service employee can be permitted to continue in Aye-two category.
(Bds No 2002/H/5/1 dt 2-7-2004)
(F) Special Medical Examination :
The staff in the categories A-1, A-2, A-3 should be sent for special medical examination in the
interest of safety under the following circumstances unless they have been under the treatment
of a Railway Medical Officer.:(a) Having undergone any treatment or operation for eye irrespective of the duration of
sickness.
(b) Absence from duty for a period in excess of 90 days. In case of A-1, A-2 and A-3 an
employee may be asked to give an undertaking to his supervisor when reporting back to duty
after leave or absence, irrespective of the period, that he has not suffered from any eye disease
or undergone an eye operation 81
( Bd.'s No 79/H/5/30 dt. 03/06/80)

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515. Authority from responsible departmental superior required prior to examination:(1)

Examiners will grant certificates under these regulations only to such candidates or
Railway employees as hold authority from their departmental superior to present
themselves for examination. The forms to be used are given in annexure V and VI of
this chapter.

(1)

Authority to present himself for the medical examination should not be granted to any
candidate who has at any time been pronounced unfit for Government employment by
any duly constituted medical authority. Candidates should be warned to disclose any
previous rejection from Government employment on medical ground.

(2)

The onus of sending the candidate or a Railway employee for medical examination is
that of the employing department.

(3)

The employing branch or the department will in every case be responsible for the
punctual appearance of the Railway employee, particularly the operating staff
concerned with train passing duties, before the appropriate authorised medical
examiner. For this purpose, the staff should be relieved on or before the due date for
medical examination. It will not be exactly the date when the re-examination falls due,
but it will be the month in which this falls due, so that he can appear for P.M.E any day
during the month. This does not, however, mean that staff should be relieved and kept
idling for an indefinite period but it should be ensured, in co-ordination with the
medical department, that staff are medically examined invariably on or near about the
due dates.

516. Identification of the examinees:- In order to ensure the identity of the examinee, the
recruiting or employing branch or department will, furnish a list of examinee's permanent
physical marks of identification in the forms as given in annexure V and VI referred to in para
515 above. The examinee's signature or thumb impression is also to be obtained on the forms
as given in annexure IX and Annexure X to this chapter and this will be verified afterwards by
the branch or department concerned. The recruiting or employing branch or department will, in
the following cases, however, provide that the examinee is accompanied by a
responsible member of the branch or department, to whom he is known, to act as a guarantor.
(i)

When the candidate/employee is having no distinguishable marks of identification,

(i)

When the candidate/employee is having a number of moles/scars on the body


that it would be very difficult for the examiner to identify the moles/scars even if they
were to be represented to the best of their ability by the employing branch/personnel
department.

520. Standards for Foot-plate staff in A-1:-

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(a)

Medical Examiner

(b)

Periodicity

: D.M.O or above specifically nominated by C.M.D. A special


training of 7 days may be imparted to all the doctors
undertaking the medical examination of drivers to familiarise
them with relevant rules
: Every four years from the date of appointment till the date of
attainment of 45 Yrs, every 2 yrs up to 55 Yrs, and thereafter
annually till retirement

(1) At the time of entrance in A-1:


(i)

(ii)

At the time of appointment, a thorough and stringent medical examination


including M.M.R /Xray(chest), ECG, Urine examination, Blood sugar
estimation, Fundus examination or any other investigation/observation as
deemed fit by the medical examiner is to be done keeping in mind
Hypertension, Diabetes, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hearing, Mental
condition/Reaction of the candidate.
Vision: As detailed in Para 512 for A-1 candidates,

(2) During Periodical examination of employees in A-1 :


(i)

Thorough physical examination, detailed eye examination, M.M.R/X-Ray chest,


Fundoscopy, Urine analysis, Fasting Blood sugar, and any other
examination/investigation as deemed fit by the examiner, keeping in mind , interalia the following conditions:
a) Blood Pressure: The peripheral blood pressure with medication should not be
above 140/90 up to the age of 50, 150/90 up to 55 Yrs and 150/95 up to
superannuating age Ganglion blocking drugs are not permitted for control of
hypertension.
b) Diabetes : If controlled by diet alone- to be considered fit for all categories. If
controlled by drugs, not fit as a driver except for shunting duty in the yard.
c) Ischemic Heart Disease: Candidates and employees suffering from Ischemic
Heart Disease will not be passed fit. Relevant investigation in this context
should be done where necessary.
d) Ear examination: Hearing should be normal. Hearing aids are not allowed.
There should be no chronic ear discharge.

(ii)

Vision: As detailed in Para 512 for A-1 employees.

(iii)

The examiner should specifically mention in the report that


a) Contact lenses are not being used,
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b) No Intra Ocular Lens implant is present and


c) No Radial Keratotomy has been done.
(iv)
(3)

Drivers should be mentally agile with normal reactions

All the drivers and motormen should carry the health cards, provided to them and should
present this to the doctor during P.M.E for making necessary entries on results of P.M.E
including X-ray chest and special instructions, if any. Whenever the Drivers/Motormen
report to the hospital for sickness, the same should be recorded in the Health card in the
appropriate column. Whenever any P.M.C is to be endorsed by the doctor, the particulars
of incidence of such sickness should also be recorded in the Health Card.

(4)

At the time of entrance into service and at the time of each P.M.E. declaration as given in
Annexure VII & VIII to this Chapter has to be obtained from all drivers.
(Rly Bd.'s letter No.88/H/5/12 dt.. 29/10/1993 and No.ENG/1/82/RE/3/4 dt. 31/12/1982)

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Railway Diesel Installation (RDI) and fuel conservation

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Driving Skill
TRAIN HANDLING IN DIFFERENT GRADIENTS
(Starting, Negotiating & Stopping of train)
Train Handling On Level Section
Level Gradient: Section of track is not having any
up & down gradients.
Starting: Keep train brakes in released condition.
1. Move MP to take 1 notch and simultaneously release SA9.
2. Wait for few seconds until the ammeter reading stops increasing and begin to reduce.
3. Advance MP to notch 2 and again note ammeter indication (as in 3).
4. If necessary, advance the MP 3 or 4 notches but always wait for a few seconds between
each notch position.
5. When the train is in stretched condition and in motion, slowly advance the MP as
required {as in (3)} for achieving maximum speed of the train.
Negotiating:
1. After achieving maximum speed, maintain it by increasing / decreasing notch.
2. Avoid frequent changing in notches as this develops slack in the train.
Slowing of train:
1. At a sufficient distance in advance of point of slowing, ease the MP notch by notch for
the slack to adjust to a bunched condition.
2. Coasting to be done for some distance before braking.
3. Apply Dynamic / train or both brakes as required.
4. Observe speed restriction. (In low speed caution order try to negotiate caution order in
released condition.)
5. Release Train / Dynamic brakes as the termination indicator is approached.
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6. After complete release of train advance MP for achieving maximum speed.
Stopping of train:
1. Same procedure of slowing of train from (as in 1 to 3).
2. When the speed has reduced sufficiently so that dynamic brake effect fades (below 5
KMPH), release A9 (train brakes) and gradually release the dynamic brake at the same
time.
3. As the train comes to stop apply SA-9 (loco brakes).
Train Handling on Ascending (UP) Gradient

UP

Ascending Gradient: A section of track is having


continuous up.

Starting: Assuming train brakes are applied


1. Move MP to take 3/4notches (keep watch on Ammeter).
2. Release SA-9 (loco brake).
3. Gradually release A9 (train brake).
4. Wait for few seconds until the Ammeter reading stops increasing and begin to reduce.
5. Advance MP, wait for few seconds (as in 4) for achieving maximum speed.
Negotiating:
1. Before arriving up gradient, take sufficient momentum of train.
2. Take maximum notches as you can up to the crest (end point of up gradient).
3. Reduce notches after 3/4 of the entire train comes on level track.
4. Maintain maximum speed.
Stopping of train:
1. At a sufficient distance in advance of point of stopping, ease the MP notch by notch to
allow speed to reduce naturally due to the gradient.
2. Stop the train with the help of A9 to avoid roll back of train. Then apply SA-9 (loco
brake).
3. Before releasing train brakes train should be protected.
Train Handling on Descending (DOWN) Gradient

DOWN

Descending gradient: A section of track is having


continuous down.

Starting: Assuming train brakes & loco brakes are applied


1. Release loco brakes first then release train brakes.
2. Allow train to slowly move forward until entire train is moving.
3. Pick up & maintain the maximum speed.
4. If necessary use train / dynamic brake to avoid over speeding.
Negotiating:
1. Start reducing notches after passing 1/4th of entire train in the down gradient.
2. Notches should be '0' up to 80% of train's maximum speed.
3. Use dynamic brakes to avoid over speeding. Train brakes can also be used if required.
4. Before ending the down gradient train should be in released condition & there should be
margin in speed to take few notches.
5. Advance MP only up to Ammeter reading starts increasing to avoid high buff force.
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6. Advance MP further to maintain maximum speed.
Stopping:
1. Reduce the speed by using Train / dynamic brakes.
2. Release dynamic brakes when speed comes to below 5KMPH.
3. Train brakes should not be completely released to avoid roll down of train.
4. Apply loco brakes.
5. Release train brakes only after proper protection of train.
Train Handling on Undulating Gradient
Undulating: A section of track which changes
gradient so often that an average train
passing over the track has some
wagons on three or more alternating
ascending and descending gradients.
Required knowledge:
In some undulating areas, the track profile is of such severity that is in virtually
impossible to control slack action with out generating high draw bar force levels with in the
train. Skilful operation by the driver can reduce the severity of the slack changes to a
tolerable degree.
To properly negotiate such undulating gradient, it is essential that the driver has
knowledge of:
1. Total length of the train.
2. Total tonnage of the train.
3. Location of terrain features and speed boards.
4. Locomotive capabilities.
5. Location of rear portion of the train at all time in relation to ascending & descending
gradients.
6. Location of the rear portion of the train at all times in relation to changes to track
curvature.
Starting:
1. Apply SA-9 fully, advance the MP in notch 1, observe Ammeter increase.
2. Gradually release SA-9 until locomotive begins to move.
3. After a few seconds pause, advance the MP to notch 2 and again note Ammeter
indication.
4. Before advancing MP further, wait for Ammeter reading to reduce.
Negotiating:
The most reliable procedure is to reduce speed & power prior to entering the series of
undulating gradients & to operate at a constant speed throughout the undulating area by MP
manipulation. Concentrate up on the rear end of the train, traction amperage, speed and pull
of the train.
The important steps:
1. Reduce power of approach to the undulating gradients.
2. Concentrate on the location of the rear end of the train.
3. Increase power when the locomotive approaches an ascending (up) gradient.
4. Decrease power when the locomotive approaches to descending (down) gradient.
5. Maintain a uniform speed through out the undulating gradient section.
Stopping:
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In undulating gradient, stopping procedure of the train should be followed as per
ascending or descending gradient, where the train has to stop during running.
TRAIN HANDLING ON HUMP (KNOLL) & CRESTING GRADIENT

SUMMIT

Camel hump/ knoll : A hump is a rapid increase in gradient


followed by a decrease
in
gradient.

Starting:
There are no special requirements for starting on a hump or cresting gradient. The
starting procedure is the same as for starting the train on an ascending (up) gradient.
Negotiating Hump (Knoll) gradient:
1. Approach the hump with reduced power thus providing margin for power increase and
for stretching the train as the locomotive starts up the hump. Increase power, if possible,
to avoid bunching the slack at the leading end and maintain this stretch condition until
the locomotive reaches the crest of the hump.
2. As locomotive passes the hump, and starts to pickup the speed the draw gear will tend
to stretch out. To keep action to a minimum, reduce power to keep speed constant.
3. Keep the slack action to a minimum by MP manipulation to suit loading on the train
and the gradient condition.
Negotiating crest gradient:
1. Changing of slack condition: - the train slack is required to change from a stretch
condition while ascending or approaching the crest to a bunch condition on the
descending portion.
2. Road knowledge: - The driver must be aware of the characteristics of terrain for
adequate braking on the descending gradient following the summit.
3. Maintain constant speed: - as locomotive reaches the crest of gradient, the driver should
attempt to maintain speed by reducing MP to relieve stress on couplers at the crest.
4. Use of dynamic brake after a crest: - A following down gradient is long steep, the
dynamic brake should be engaged after one half of the train has crested over the
summit, the dynamic brakes should be engaged and carefully adjusted to control speed
& gradually bunched the train.
5. Balancing a cresting gradient: -If the gradient following the summit is a light
descending gradient, MP manipulation & dynamic brake may be used to control speed
and train slack movement. If dynamic brake is not available, the train brake should be
used in the same manner as for the descent of a light descending gradient.
Stopping on a crest gradient:
1. Avoid draw gear stresses: Take all efforts to avoid stopping of train on a cresting
gradient, for which the driver must have a good knowledge of the location of all
cresting gradient. A stop of a train on a cresting gradient can lead to excessive draw
gear stress on the Wagon at the crest while attempting to restart the train.
2. Reducing draw gear stresses: If a stop has to accomplish, do so in accordance with the
stopping procedures for descending gradients. When stopping on a cresting gradient,
always ensure that the brake application used to stop the train is the lightest possible
there by reducing draw gear forces particularly on the apex of the crest.
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Stopping on a hump (knoll) gradient:
Avoid Run-ins: While stopping the train on a hump, extreme care must be taken that the
brake application does not result in sever run-in. To avoid slack bunching on the hump
or knoll, the train should be stopped in a stretched condition.
Train Handling on Sag or Dip Gradient
SAG

Sag or dip: A sag or dip is a rapid decrease in


gradient
followed by an
increase in
gradient.

Starting:
1. Advance MP to 1st notch and note the increase of current on the Ammeter.
2. Release SA-9 (loco brakes) and wait for the release of the locomotive brakes.
3. After a few second pause advance the MP and again note the ammeter indication. If
necessary advance the MP to 3rd or 4th notch.
4. If acceleration is too rapid, reduce notches 1 or more.
5. When the complete train is in stretched condition & in motion, slowly advance the MP
as required.
Negotiating:
1. In order to control slack when moving through a sag or dip, the train speed must be
allowed to reduce before the train moves into the sag or dip & MP manipulation used to
negotiate the sag or dip gradient. This can be achieved by power & speed before
reaching such areas.
2. Continue to reduce power to prevent speed increase as the head portion of the train
begins descending in to the sag.
3. Just before the leading portion of the train reaches the ascending gradient, begin to
advance notches gradually.
4. Continue to advance the MP on one notch at a time until the rear portion of the train
approaches the base of the sag or dip.
5. Reduce power as the rear portion of the train starts on the ascending gradient of the Sag
or dip thereby permitting slack to adjust gradually.
Stopping:
1. In advance of the sag or dip, apply A-9 brakes to minimum reduction & engage
dynamic brakes.
2. As the brakes get effective apply A-9 further up to full service.
3. As the speed decrease below 5 KMPH release dynamic brakes as well as A-9.
4. Apply SA-9.
SPEED-TIME CHARACTRESTIC CURVE:
It is the curve showing instantaneous speed of train in kilometer per hour along ordinate and
time in seconds along abscissa. Area under the curve gives the distance travelled during given
time interval. Slope at any point on the curve towards abscissa gives the acceleration or
retardation at that instant.

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Typical speed time curve of a train running on main line is shown in figure.

SP
EE
D

t1 t2
TIME

t3

t4

t5

There are five distinct periods in the run as discussed below.


(1)Notching up period (0 to t1).
During this period the load is Accelerated from Rest. In this period acceleration
increases uniformly Motor current, during notching up period, fluctuates between
certain maximum and minimum limits. Therefore, torques developed by the motor
and tractive effort also fluctuates. This is clearly shown in AB portion of speed
tractive effort diagram. Since average tractive effort during notching up period
remains same and there is no appreciable rise in the train resistance, acceleration
remains constant. Speed time curve, therefore, is a straight line.
(2) Acceleration on speed curve (t1 to t2).When all the starting resistance has been
cut out, tractive effort exerted by the motor is more than the train resistance. The
difference of the two is responsible for further acceleration of the train. We should,
however, mark one difference between the acceleration which is constant during
period (0 to t1) and acceleration which decreases with speed during period (t1 to t2).
The decrease in the acceleration is due to the torque speed characteristic of the
traction motors.
(3) Free running period (t2 to t3) During this period, train runs at constant speed
attained at the end of the speed curve running. It is large for main line services.
Whereas sub-urban & urban services it is negligible.
(4) Coasting period (t3 to t4). At the end of the free running period, supply to motors
is cut off and train is allowed to run under its own momentum. Due to train resistance,
speed of the train gradually decreases.

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(5) Braking period (t4 to t5). At the end of the coasting period brakes are applied to
bring the train to stop.

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Power Control Organization

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FOIS/COIS

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Signal & Telecommunication


Inter Locking
Safety of Railway operations in areas where several lines meet or diverge is maintained by
Signals which ensure that when any train is allowed go into a area it protected by at least one
signal at its rear. Trains are required to follow the signals given to ensure safety. For signaling
Color light signals are used and they have multi colored lights which are turned on or off
depending on the state of the occupation of the Railway track ahead. In addition to
occupation of tracks by other trains the availability of a signal also implies that the routes
maintained by the tracks are correct. This is required because trains should not be signalled
along tracks which are not connected properly. The system which ensures signals allow safe
passage of trains into sections of track ahead of it is known as Interlocking in parlance of
Railway Signaling.
Interlocking is achieved using in several methods and using various technologies starting
from mechanical interlocking to the presently popular Solid State Interlocking.
Any system of interlocking can be divided into four parts
a) The outdoor equipments which are control or which monitor the state of the Railway Track
as:
Signal Units - which show various position or colors indicating trains to move ahead
or stop moving.
Point Machines- which sets routes moving portions of the Railway tracks
Track Circuits - which monitor the occupation of Railway Track
Point detectors - which detects the direction to which the track is set at diverging
points of the track
b) The indoor arrangement which maintains logic for safe operation of trains
c) The medium connecting the indoor to the out door equipments
d) The interfacing arrangement at the indoor equipment and the outdoor equipment end for
matching the medium

Solid State Interlocking and its implementation methods affect three of the four
components
a) The indoor arrangement which maintains logic for safe operation of trains
b) The medium connecting the indoor to the out door equipments
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c) The interfacing arrangement at the indoor equipment and the outdoor equipment end for
matching the medium
The main component is the indoor arrangement which uses computer based logic for ensuring
the logic in the case of Solid State Interlocking arrangement.
In addition to this the introduction of Solid State interlocking arrangement also introduces
certain changes in respect of the medium of interconnection and the interfacing arrangement
in some design options.
The options which are possible are
For the medium
a) Conventional signaling cables which are basically power carrying copper cable
normally multi core and armoured for protection.
b) Telecommunication cables using balanced copper conductors
c) Telecommunication cables coaxial cable
d) Optical Fiber cables
The interfacing method is dependant on the medium and the internal arrangement.
However the common type of interfacing used are:
a) Simple termination connecting the outdoor equipments to the indoor equipments through
terminals of suitable design. Here the outdoor equipment is almost an extension of the indoor
equipment with the outdoor equipment
The implementation of logic for train operation is done using computers in solid state
interlocking system. The Railway signaling follows simple logic to ensure safety is ensured.
The computer system ensures that the logic required for ensuring safety is maintained when a
train is signalled to move proceed beyond a signal.
The logic required for signaling is quite simple
a) Ensure that the portion after the signal being cleared and till the next signal is clear of any
obstruction. The clearance of obstruction is proved by suitable means as track circuits or axle
counters generally or it can even be manually done by switches etc.
b) Ensure that if any diversion is required then the portion of track which allows diversion
(normally referred as switch) is properly mechanically set and locked in the required
direction of the movement of the train. The setting locking and detection of route is done by
point machines.
c) Ensure that a adequate distance beyond the next signal is also set properly and is clear of
any obstruction. This in effect means that the checks as in a) and b) above is required to be
carried out for a adequate distance beyond the signal at which the train is supposed to stop
after it is allowed to proceed beyond the signal being cleared.
d) See that if trains are running at high speed then there are no connected tracks from where
rail vehicles can roll and collide with the train being signalled to move.
Once this logic is understood as required for a yard the implementation using a computer
based system becomes quite simple. The critical item however is the need to ensure high
level of availability and safety as any failure of the system should not lead to clearance of a
signal when the logic as explained is no longer being satisfied. To ensure this any system of
Solid State Interlocking tends to adopt redundant processing of the information and then
comparison of the results of processing. Only when the result of multiple processing matches
with each other and the result is a accepted clearance of signal then only the Solid State
Interlocking system send command for clearance of a signal or move a switch.
The multiple processing can take various shapes as
a) Multiple processors
b) Logic implemented in several different arguments
c) Independent processing of the inputs
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Different manufacturers use different methods of multiple processing and different
implementation techniques. The input to all such systems and the nature of output required
for such systems continue to be all the same.
The input logic to be followed by the Solid State Interlocking system can be in the shape of
logical input or can be in the shape of yard layout.
For Solid State Interlocking systems with logical inputs the rules of interlocking of the yard is
converted into logical expressions and after input to a computer which convert it into
software to work the interlocking.
In some other systems the yard layout can be input to the computer which will generate the
interlocking software from this input.
Of the two arrangements the second is free of complexity and very good for implementation
of yard layout changes without loss of safety at any stage of yard layout change.
The first arrangement is less convenient from this angle and requires more input from the
signal engineer. However the first arrangement helps in changes in the rules of interlocking
more easily as the basic input is the logical input depending on the rules adopted for
interlocking and can be changed if the rules of interlocking changes. In the second
arrangement changes in rules of interlocking will be more difficult to introduce.
Implementations use combination of the methods also. The feed back from the output to the
comparator for ensuring that multiple processes lead to the same result before command is
given is a very important part of the solid state interlocking system and forms the crux of the
equipment. Large part of the safety is dependant on this part of the implementation and the
design of the comparator is critical to the system. The comparator has to ensure that by itself
it is fail safe and then it can keep the total system is failsafe.
Failsafe in Railway signaling parlance means it will not cause clearance of a signal, or it will
not move any switch. Fail safety is required to be ensured in a Solid State Interlocking system
in several levels:
a) Solid State Hardware: The design is done so that a single failure of the hardware will be
detected and causes the system to give suitable alarms and also shut down if needed for
maintaining safety.
b) Other hardware: The fail safety in the connected system is maintained by feedback and
comparison using fail safe comparator
c) Communication: If any communication is involved as in the connecting link between
outdoor and indoor then the communication requires to be made fail safe by protecting it
against errors in the transmission links and other such conditions of fault of the
communication link. Protection against such conditions is done by coding of the data and
use of error correcting techniques as used in telecommunication links.
d) Software: By using different logic with the same input to protect against design defects
and using watch dog timer for protection against drifts during execution of the software.
The watch dog arrangement is a piece of software which ensures that the software for the
interlocking is performing its required functions properly and the software is not drifting
from the proper paths. This piece of software is put in the software for solid state interlocking
with the logic that as the main software progresses normally it triggers this software in its
path. In case the main software drifts then this software will not be triggered and the watch
dog circuit will trigger a alarm or cause shut down of the system as under such condition it
can cause unsafe side failure.
The connection between the outdoor and the indoor equipment can be through several
methods as explained earlier. In case the connection is made by multi core cables the system
connects the outdoor gears through a simple parallel connection from the indoor drive circuits
to the outdoor signaling gear as point machine, signal unit etc.
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If any other method is used as telecommunication balanced lines, coaxial cable (Ethernet),
Optical fibers circuitry is required at the field level to convert the information into required
drive for the function. The unit at the field requires being failsafe and is required to read the
coded serial information in the medium and if it pertains to the function being read it is
required to act on the basis of the information in the serial data. The conversion at the field
level has additional advantage as it can reduce cable requirements significantly. At the same
time this reduces maintenance due to the reduction of the cable conductors to be maintained.
The use of this method requires the use of failsafe multiplexers as interfaces in the indoor and
also at the outdoor. This portion of the circuitry is merged with the other circuits in the indoor
or the outdoor.

Route Relay Interlocking Supervisory System


A
Supervisory
system
on
Interlocking
failures
and
Wrong
Operations.
System Architecture:
System will be connected to a Data Acquisition device 'Data-logger that records the statuses of
Interlocked Relays. System gets the relays status from Data Logger and process the information with
the help of Static and Dynamic logics to conclude the occurred operation is Safe , wrong operation or
failure,
If any wrong operation or Failure occurs that will be alerted to the user located at Control Panel
Capabilities:
The system is capable of monitoring
Signaling Operations
Point Operations
Operations on Control Panel
Permitted Train Movements
Conditions for Route setting and Route Release Operations.
Route Initiation
Checking and Locking Relays
Unsafe conditions on above will be identified and alerted by the system besides giving daily report or
reports between any two cumulative dates.
Application:
System can be applied to the following interlocking types
Solid State Interlocking
Panel Interlocking
Route Relay Interlocking
Electro Mechanical Interlocking

Advantages:
Reduces the accident occurrence probability by warning at initial stage.
Improves discipline of Operator while working on Control panel.
Minimizes time lapses during Signal Failures
Useful for post analysis on Failures.

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Data Loggers
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Axle Counters

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Axle Counter

Track Circuiting
Principles and operation
The basic principle behind the track circuit lies in the connection of the two rails by the
wheels and axle of locomotives and rolling stock to short out an electrical circuit. This circuit
is monitored by electrical equipment to detect the presence or absence of the trains. Since this
is a safety appliance, fail-safe operation is crucial; therefore the circuit is designed to indicate
the presence of a train when failures occur. On the other hand, false occupancy readings are
disruptive to railroad operations and are to be minimized.
Track circuits allow railway signalling systems to operate semi-automatically, by displaying
signals for trains to slow down or stop in the presence of occupied track ahead of them. They
help prevent dispatchers and operators from causing accidents, both by informing them of
track occupancy and by preventing signals from displaying unsafe indications.
The basic circuit
Schematic drawing of track circuit for unoccupied block. Series resistor not shown.
Schematic drawing of occupied track circuit
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A track circuit typically has power applied to each rail and a relay coil wired across them.
Each circuit detects a defined section of track, such as a block. These sections are separated
by insulated joints, usually in both rails. To prevent one circuit from falsely powering another
in the event of insulation failure, the electrical polarity is usually reversed from section to
section. Circuits are commonly battery-powered at low voltages (1.5 to 12 V DC) to protect
against line power failures. The relays and the power supply are attached to opposite ends of
the section in order to prevent broken rails from electrically isolating part of the track from
the circuit.
When no train is present, the relay is energised by the current flowing from the power source
through the rails. When a train is present, its axles short (shunt) the rails together; the current
to the track relay coil drops, and it is de-energised. Circuits through the relay contacts
therefore report whether or not the track is occupied.
A series resistor limits the current when the track circuit is short circuited, saving battery
power.
Circuits under electrification
In almost all railway electrification schemes, one or both of the rails are used to carry the
return current. This prevents use of the basic DC track circuit because the substantial traction
currents overwhelm the very small track signal currents.
To accommodate this, AC track circuits use alternating current signals instead of DC
currents. Typically, the AC frequency is in the range of audio frequencies, from 91 Hz up to
10 kHz. The relays are arranged to detect the selected frequency and to ignore DC and AC
traction frequency signals. Again, failsafe principles dictate that the relay interprets the
presence of the signal as unoccupied track, whereas a lack of a signal indicates the presence
of a train. The AC signal can be coded and locomotives equipped with inductive pickups to
create a cab signalling system.
In this system, impedance bonds are used to connect items which must be electrically
connected for electrification purposes but which must remain isolated to track circuit
frequencies for the track circuit to function.
AC circuits are sometimes used in areas where conditions introduce stray currents, which
interfere with DC track circuits.
In some countries, AC-immune DC track circuits are used on AC electrified lines. One
method provides 5V DC to the rails, one of the rails being the traction return and the other
being the signal rail. When a relay is energised and attached to the track, normal voltage is
5V DC. When there is a break in the circuit and there is no train, the voltage rises to 9V DC
which provides a very good means for fault finding. This system filters out the voltage
induced in the rails from the overhead lines.
Joint less track circuits
Joint less track circuits use audio frequency tuned circuits to create what amounts to a block
joint to signalling frequency currents and very low impedance to electrification power
frequency currents. The track can be resonated with the tuning components in the track circuit
system so as to create a 'pole' at the wanted frequency and 'zero' at the adjacent unwanted
frequency.
Frequencies of the Aster SF 15 type track circuit are 1700 Hz and 2300 Hz on one track and
2000 Hz and 2600 Hz on the other. SF stands for Single Frequency and was the name given
to the units made under license by ML Engineering in Plymouth, UK. The original Aster
track circuits were made by the Aster Company in France. These frequencies are by definition
un-modulated.
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TI21 type track circuits (now known as EBI Track 200) use eight nominal frequencies, from
1549 Hz to 2593 Hz for main line applications and eight frequencies from 5600 Hz to
8400 Hz for metro applications (designated TI21-M or EBI Track 300). Actual transmission is
17Hz around the nominal frequency for main line and 100 Hz for metro. The signal is
FSK modulated at 4.8 Hz (20 Hz for metro) unless overridden by the MOD terminal on the
front panel. TI stands for 'traction immune' and was the name used by ML Engineering in
Plymouth. ML Engineering was taken over by various companies and is owned by
Bombardier Transportation (2009). TI21 main line track circuits can be up to 1100m in
length. This can be extended to 2200m with compensating capacitors.
To simplify traction pack design in locomotives many track circuit manufacturers now
transmit a unique code from the transmitter to the receiver. Such systems include the Siemens
FTG S, Westinghouse (Invensys) FS3000 and Bombardier EBI Track 400.
Coding prevents interference from affecting both the safety and availability of the track
circuit.
Advantages of joint less track circuits:
Eliminates Insulated Block Joints, a component liable to mechanical failure (both of
insulation and by introducing stress to adjoining rails) and maintenance.
In electrified areas, joint less track circuits require fewer impedance bonds than any
other double rail traction return track circuits.
Disadvantages of joint less track circuits:
Restrictions on placing impedance bonds, hence any connection for electrification
purposes, in or near tuned zones as this may upset the filter properties of the tuned
zone.
Electronic circuits are more vulnerable to lightning strikes.
CSEE UM71
CSEE are another kind of joint less track circuit. It uses 1700 Hz and 2300 Hz on one track
and 2000 Hz and 2600 Hz on the other. To reduce the chance of stray currents causing a
wrong side failure the basic frequencies are modulated 15 Hz or so. Different rates of
modulation can be detected by equipment on the trains and used for ATC.
The TI21 and Westinghouse FS2500 joint less track circuits are similar to the UM71.
DPU

DPU CSEE End View


A joint less track circuit such as the CSEE can be divided with a Data Pickup Unit (DPU),
which is cheaper than splitting it into two track circuits. A DPU avoids the need to change the
frequency of a whole series of track circuits in a cascade. The DPU consists of a tuned coil
which detects the presence or absence of current in the adjacent rail and picks up or drops a
relay accordingly. One use of DPUs is for timing circuits. Each track circuit frequency has its
own DPU tuned to that frequency.
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The DPU made by CSEE is triangular while the FS2500 DPU made by Westinghouse is
rectangular.
DC Coded track circuits
In non electrified areas, DC coded track circuits may be used. These modulate the current
going from the battery end to the relay end and control the signals and cab signals without the
need for line wires. The modulated currents can be detected by equipment on the train to
provide Cab signalling. [2] They can be overlain by predictor systems to operate level
crossings. One brand of code track circuit is Microtrax by USS.
Failure modes and prevention
Wheels and brakes
Railway wheels are made from steel and provide a good short circuit from rail to rail (shunt
resistance).
Longer trains with more wheels have better conductivity. Short trains or single engines can be
a problem. Single Budd rail-motors which are lightweight had some problems when they
stopped, and had to make a double stop to ensure good contact with the rails.
Cast iron brake shoes tend to clean the wheels of non-conductive debris (such as leaves and
sand-based traction compounds), while disc brakes do not. As a result, some disc-braked
vehicles have "scrubber pads" cleaning the wheels to aid in proper track circuit operation.
Relays
Track circuit relays are specially designed to reduce the chance of wrong side failures. They
might for example have carbon-silver contacts to reduce the likelihood of the wrong contacts
welding shut after power surges and lightning strikes.
Circuit failures
The circuit is designed so that most failures will cause a "track occupied" or TOL aka Track
Occupancy Light indication (known as a "Right Side" failure in the UK). For example:
A broken rail or wire will break the circuit between the power supply and the relay,
de-energizing the relay. See exception below.
A failure in the power supply will de-energize the relay.
A short across the rails or between adjacent track sections will de-energize the relay.
On the other hand, failure modes which prevent the circuit from detecting trains (known as a
"Wrong Side" failure in the UK) are possible. Examples include:
Mechanical failure of the relay, causing the relay to be stuck in the "track clear"
position even when the track is occupied.
Conditions which partially or completely insulates the wheels from the rail, such as
rust, sand, or dry leaves on the rails. This is also known as "poor shunting" ("failure to
shunt" in North America and Australia).
Conditions in the track-bed (roadbed) which create stray electrical signals, such as
muddy ballast (which can generate a "battery effect") or parasitic electrical currents
from nearby power transmission lines.
Parasitic oscillations in the equipment that controls the track circuits.
Equipment which is not heavy enough to make good electrical contact (shunt failure)
or whose wheels must be electrically insulated.
A rail break between the insulated rail joint and the track circuit feed wiring would
not be detected.
Failure modes that result in an incorrect "track clear" signal (known usually in the US as a
"false clear") may allow a train to enter an occupied block, creating the risk of a collision.
Wheel scale and short trains may also be a problem. They may also cause the warning
systems at a grade crossing to fail to activate. This is why in UK practice; a treadle is also
used in the circuitry.
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Different means are used to respond to these types of failures. For example, the relays are
designed to a very high level of reliability. In areas with electrical problems different types of
track circuits may be used which are less susceptible to interference. Speeds may be restricted
when and where fallen leaves are an issue. Traffic may be embargoed in order to let
equipment pass which does not reliably shunt the rails.
Sabotage is possible; in the 1995 Palo Verde derailment, saboteurs electrically connected
sections of rail which they had displaced to conceal the breaks in the track they had made.
The track circuit therefore did not detect the breaks, and the engineer was not given a stop
indication.
Railhead contamination
For a track circuit to operate reliably, the railheads must be kept clean of rust by the regular
passage of trains' wheels. Track circuited lines that are not used regularly can become so
rusty as to prevent vehicles being detected. Seldom-used points and crossovers and the
extremities of terminal platform lines are prone to rusting. Measures to overcome this
include:
Provision of a depression bar or treadle to detect vehicles;
Provision of a stainless steel strip (often zig-zag in shape) welded on the railheads;
The use of a high voltage impulse track circuit such as those made by JeumontSchneider;
The use of axle counters over the affected section.
Provision of "tunnel sticks" whereby a track circuit cannot pickup unless the train is
proven to be occupying the next track circuit.
Another source of railhead contamination is leaf-fall (see also slippery rail).
Transmission of status
Track circuit occupancy status, along with status of other signal and switch related devices,
may be integrated with a local control panel as well as a remote rail control centre. If the
track circuit contains a relay, it can be connected to device for sending status information via
a communications link. The status can then be displayed and stored for archival for purposes
of incident investigation and operations-related analysis. Many signalling systems also have
local event recorders for recording track circuit status.
Siding turnout
It is sometimes convenient to wire the detectors of a set of points through the track circuit
over those points. This can be done in one of two ways:
a contact of the points detector can shunt the track circuit when the points are reverse,
putting the signals to red, however this is not failsafe.
the track circuit can be split with extra block joints and the detectors in the points
complete the track circuit when the points are normal and the signal is entitled to
receive a green light. This is fail-safe.
Track circuit clips
A simple piece of safety equipment that can be carried by trains is a track-circuit clip. This is
simply a length of wire connecting two metal sprung clips that will clip onto a rail. In case of
accident or obstruction a clip applied to a track will indicate that that track is occupied,
therefore putting signals to danger. As an example of use, if a train is derailed on a double
track, and is foul of the second track, application of a clip to the second track will
immediately return signals protecting the second track to danger. This procedure is a much
more effective safety measure than attempting to contact a signalling centre by telephone
because its effect is immediate and automatic.

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P.Way / Bridge

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Rolling Stock

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Air Suspension Coaches


Generally, the entire load of the vehicle is shared by the various springs present in the bogie.
These springs provide the required cushioning for the vehicle. When loading on the vehicle
varies which invariably happens, the Ride Height of that vehicle varies accordingly. It
manifests in the form of variation in Coupling Height of a train formation. The Ride
Height of the vehicle is important to maintain parity with the way-side Platform level and
vehicle floor level.
To maintain Passenger Comfort in rolling and pitching, the ride height of the vehicle and
the coupling height between vehicles in a formation, an extra cushioning is provided in form
of air suspension. The air suspension comprises mainly of two parts
1.

Air Spring Assembly

2.

Pneumatic Control System to maintain constant height independent of load.

The air suspension is preferred where there is frequent and sudden changes in the loading
pattern and also Passenger Comfort is called for, on EMUs, DMUs, Rail Bus, etc. The
required load proportional braking effort can be given to the vehicle depending upon the
particular load present at that instant by introducing an additional valve called averaging
relay valve which uses the airflow from the relief valve as a signal.
Air suspension are installed as shown in the enclosed sketch, with a 4 point system which as
the name suggests have four leveling valves. Four point systems tend to be the accepted norm
for high-speed operation allowing individual control of each air spring and hence optimum
riding control. The two air springs at one end of the vehicle are provided with a relief valve
which will prevent excessive pressure difference occurring between the air springs.
The nominal height and level of the vehicle is set in the tare condition. Depending upon the
evenness of the load spread on the vehicle, each suspension spring will have a slightly
different air pressure to maintain this level. Any subsequent increase or decrease in load over
any air spring will cause a linear deflection to occur at that point. The leveling valve(s) (Sl.
Nos. 5,6 & 7 of the enclosed schematic) will register this movement and increase or decrease
the pressure in the air spring (s) as appropriate to bring the vehicle body back to the correct
level.
When a vehicle body has two leveling valves, the air springs of a bogie need to be connected
together so that if an air spring burst occurs on one side it does not cause a severe tilt or twist.
However, if a direct connection was made, then the pressures in each air spring would try to
equalize and side to side leveling would not be possible. Also, in trying to level it, the more
lightly loaded side would be exhausting air to try and bring itself to the correct height whilst
the more heavily loaded side would be re-feeding the air into the air springs. To prevent this
Page 221 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


happening they are separated by a Relief Valve (Sl. No. 7 of the enclosed schematic) on that
bogie, which only allows air to pass between the air springs when a set differential is attained.
This allows the leveling system to perform its function and prevent excess air consumption,
whilst allowing both air springs to be deflated to a level where they would rest on their
emergency spring should one air spring burst. The pressure differential on the Relief Valve
offered is dependent on the coach requirement. This pressure differential is linked to the
maximum difference in air pressure that can be seen between the air bags in dynamic
conditions plus the collapse pressure of the air bags.

S. No.
1.
2.

PART NO.
R.IC..
R.AF

3.

R.AR.150L

4.

R.CV

5.

R.LV

6.

R.IL.315

DESCRIPTION
QTY/COACH
ISOLATING COCK (OLP TYPE)
3
AIR FILTER (TWO WAY)
1
150L AIR RESERVOIR WITH DRAIN
1
COCK
CHECK VALVE (NON RETURN VALVE)
1
LEVELLING
VALVE
WITH
AIR
4
RESTRICTION
INSTALLATION LEVER (WITH BALL &
4
Page 222 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


7.
8.
9.

SOCKET)
R.DV.1.5
DUPLEX CHECK OVERFLOW VALVE
20L AIR RESERVOIR WITH DRAIN
R.AR.20L
COCK
RASR.747N100 AIR SPRING ASSEMBLY

Page 223 of 239

2
4
4

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Page 224 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Transportaion codes for different types of coaches:


IRCTC owned Luxury Train Maharajas Express
S.No.
Type of Coach
Transportation Code
IRCTC owned Luxury Train Maharajas Express
1
Presidential suite car
WMCTAC1
2
Suit car
WMCTAC2
3
Super deluxe
WMCTAC3
4
Deluxe Car
WMCTAC4
5
Restaurant car
WMCRAC1
6
Bar car
WMCRAC2
7
Observatory car with Bar
WMCRAC3
8
Staff car
WMSAC
9
Generator car
WMSRRMAC
10
Kitchen car
WMCBAC
Palace on Wheels II
S.No.
Type of Coach
Transportation Code
IRCTC owned Luxury Train Maharajas Express
1
Super deluxe
WPCTFAC
2
Deluxe -I
WPCTAC 1
3
Deluxe II
WPCTAC 2
4
Restro Lounge -I
WPCRAC 1
5
Restro Lounge II
WPCRAC 2
6
Spa Car
WPCGAC
7
Kichen Car
WPCB
8
Staff Car
WPSAC
9
Staff cum Store Car
WPSLAC
10
Power car
WPSRRMAC
New enhanced capacity coaches:
S.No.
Type of Coach
1
Enhanced capacity I AC (SG) coach (capacity 22)
2
Enhanced capacity AC 2T (SG) coach (capacity 48)
3
Enhanced capacity AC 3T (EOG) coach for Garib
Rath (with mini pantry, linen room & capacity 78)
4
Enhanced capacity 3 Tier sleeper coach (capacity 84)
5
Enhance capacity AC 2T cum AC 3T (SG) coach
(capacity 24 in AC 2T & 39 in AC 3T)
6
I AC cum AC 3T(SG) coach (capacity 10 in I AC &
33 in AC 3T)

Transportation Code
WGFAC 1
WGACCW 1
WACCNH 1
WGSCN 2
WGCWNAC 1
WGFCNAC

Other Coaches:
S.No.
Type of Coach
1
Non-AC pantry cum Sleeper Class
2
AC pantry cum III AC
3
II class cum luggage & brake van with both AC &
Page 225 of 239

Transportation Code
SWGCBN
SWGCBNAC
SGSRLDAC

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


4
5
6
7

non AC disabled friendly compartments


II class cum luggage & brake van
Chair car (non-AC)
High capacity motor car cum parcel van (LHB
shell on FIAT bogie) for dedicated high speed
parcel express trains
High capacity motor car cum parcel van (LHB
shell on ICF bogie) for Mail/ Express trains

SGSLR
SWGSCZ
LVPHU
SVPHU

Self generating stainless steel BG main line coaches with LHB shell on air spring fitted ICF
design bogie.
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Type of Coach
I AC
II AC
III AC
I AC cum AC 2-T
I AC cum AC 3-T
AC 2-T cum AC 3-T
AC Chair Car
II Class
Sleeper Class
II Class with disabled friendly
compartment, luggage & brake van
II Class with disabled friendly
compartment with brake van

Transportation Code
SWGFAC
SWGACCW
SWGACCN
SWGFCWAC
SWGFCNAC
SWGCWNAC
SWGSCZAC
SGS
SWGSCN
SGSLRD
SGSRD

Broad Gauge coaches (ICF type)


S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Description
COACHES FOR PALACE ON WHEELS
AC SALOON
AC GENERATOR CAR
NON AC STAFF CAR
AC STAFF CAR
COACHES FOR DECCAN ODYSSEY
CABIN CAR
GYM / YOGA CAR
CONFERENCE CAR
RESTAURANT CAR
BAR CAR
STAFF CAR
POWER CAR
OTHER ICF DESIGN COACHES
MILK VAN
High capacity 3 tier sleeper coach with longitudinal
middle berth (capacity 81)
High capacity AC 3 ties self generating coach with
longitudinal middle berth (capacity 72)
High capacity Parcel van without racks & collapsible
Page 226 of 239

Code
WPCTAC
WPSRRMAC
WPSRS
WPSAC
WDCTAC
WDCGNAC
WDCCAC
WDCRAC
WDCBAC
WDSAC
WDSRRMAC
VVN
WGSCN 1
WGACCN 1
VPHX

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

shutter doors
First class chair car (SG)
Second class cum Brake van (SG)
First Class cum 3 Tier Sleeper (SG)
3 Tier Sleeper + Luggage + Brake Van (SG)
Second Class + Buffet (SG)
Air Conditioned Tourist Car
Tourist Car
Other coaching vehicles having light utilization

WGFCZ
WGSR
WGFSCN
WGSCNLR
WGSCB
CTAC
CT
OCV(LU)

Broad Gauge coaches (LHB type)


S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Description
AC FIRST CLASS COACH (EOG)
AC FIRST CLASS COACH (SG)
AC 2 TIER SLEEPER COACH (EOG)
AC 2 TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
AC 3 TIER SLEEPER COACH (EOG)
AC 3 TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
AC HOT BUFFET CAR (EOG)
BRAKE, LUGGAGE CUM GENERATOR CAR
SECOND CLASS COACH (SG)
3-TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
SECOND CLASS CUM LUGGAGE & BRAKE VAN (SG)
AC EXECUTIVE CHAIR COAR(EOG)
AC CHAIR CAR (EOG)

Broad Gauge coaches (ICF type)

Page 227 of 239

Code
LWFAC
LWGFAC
LWACCW
LWGACCW
LWACCN
LWGACCN
LWCBAC
LWLRRM
LGS
LWGSCN
LGSLR
LWFCZAC
LWSCZAC

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Description
AC FIRST CLASS COACH (EOG)
AC FIRST CLASS COACH (SG)
AC 2 TIER SLEEPER COACH (EOG)
AC 2 TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
AC 3 TIER SLEEPER COACH (EOG)
AC 3 TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
AC First class cum AC 2 TIER Sleeper (SG)
AC First class cum AC 2 TIER Sleeper (EOG)
AC 2 TIER cum AC 3 TIER Sleeper (SG)
AC CHAIR CAR (SG)
AC EXECUTIVE CHAIR CAR (EOG)
AC CHAIR CAR (EOG)
FIRST CLASS COACH (SG)
3-TIER SLEEPER COACH (SG)
SECOND CLASS COACH (SG)
Second Class day coach with sitting accommodation (SG)
SECOND CLASS DOUBLE DECKER COACH (SG)
SECOND CLASS CUM LUGGAGE & BRAKE VAN (SG)
SECOND CLASS CUM LUGGAGE & BRAKE VAN
WITH DISABLED FRIENDLY COMPARTMENT (SG)

Code
WFAC
WGFAC
WACCW
WGACCW
WACCN
WGACCN
WGFCWAC
WFCWAC
WGCWNAC
WGSCZAC
WFCZAC
WSCZAC
WGFC
WGSCN
GS
WGSCZ
GSD
GSLR
GSLRD

20

SECOND CLASS CUM LUGGAGE & BRAKE VAN WITH AC


DISABLED FRIENDLY COMPARTMENT(SG)

GSRLDAC

21

SECOND CLASS COACH WITH BRAKE VAN &


DISABLED FRIENDLY COMPARTMENT (SG)
BRAKE LUGGAGE AND GENERATOR CAR
PANTRY CAR (SG)
AC PANTRY CAR (EOG)
AC CHAIR CAR FOR JAN SHATABDI (SG)
SECOND CLASS CHAIR CAR FOR JAN SHATABDI (SG)
Second class chair car cum brake van Jan Shatabdi (SG)
AC 3 TIER SLEEPER COACH FOR GARIB RATH (SG)
Ac coach with sitting accommodation for GARIB RATH (EOG)
Brake, Generator car with AC disabled friendly compartment
for Garib Rath
INSPECTION CARRAIGE (ADMINISTRATIVE)
AC INSPECTION CARRIAGE (ADMINISTRATIVE)
MOTOR CAR CARRIER COACH
POSTAL VAN
PARCEL VAN
HIGH CAPACITY PARCEL VAN
MOTOR CUM PARCEL VAN
REGRIGERATED PARCEL VAN
MEDICAL VAN
TRAINING / INSPECTION VAN
SELF PROPELLED TOWER CAR
ACCIDENT RELIEF AND TOOL VAN

GSRD

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Page 228 of 239

WLRRM
WGCB
WCBAC
WGSCZACJ
WGSCZJ
WGSCZRJ
WACCNH
WSCZACH
WRRMDAC
RA
RAAC
NMG
PP
VP
VPH
VPU
VR
RH
RE
RU
RT

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

vent

vent

SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF TWIN


PIPE GRADUATED
RELEASE AIR BRAKE
type
type
SYSTEM

Note: Pressure gauges are installed only in guards


brake van.

Page 229 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Page 230 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Wagons/freight stock weights


Wagon

Tare weight(t)

Broad Gauge
BOX
BOXN
BOXN-HA
BCN
BCNA
BCX
BOBS
BOBYN
BOBRN
BOST
BFNS
BTP,BTPN
BTCS
BTAP
BTPGLN
CRC
KC/CL
TP

25.6
22.6
23.17
25.5
24.5
29.3
30.4
26.78
25.6
25.0
23.63
27.0
26.0
27.9
41.6
13.7
11.0
12.2

Payload(t) Extra overload(t)

Gross Weight(t)

55.7
58.7
58.81
55.8
56.7
52.0
61.2
54.5
55.68
56.28
57.65
54.28
55.28
58.0
37.6
27.6
22.0
20.3

83.3
83.3
83.98
83.3
83.2
83.3
91.6
81.28
81.28
81.28
81.28
81.28
81.28
85.9
79.2
42.3
34.0
32.5

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
1.0
1.0
n/a

Passenger Coach Weights


Type of coach

Tare
weight(t)

Broad Gauge
WLRRM (Power Car)
60.80
WACCN (EOG AC 3-Tier)
45.86
WACCW (EOG AC-2 Tier )
44.80
WFAC (EOG Ist AC)
44.60
WCBAC (Pantry car)
47.90
WSCZAC (EOGAC Chair car)
42.80
WGSCN (Self Gen. 3-Tier)
39.50
WGACCW (Self Gen. AC 2-Sleeper)
52.10
WGACCN (Self Gen. 3-Tier)
51.90
WGFAC (Self Gen. 1st.AC)
53.50
WGFACCW (Self Gen. 1st AC + 2-tier AC) 50.33
SLR (Brake Van)
40.60
GS (Gen. Second Class)
37.40
WGCB (Self Gen. Pantry Car)
42.0
VPU (Old motor cum parcel vans)
38.0
Meter Gauge
SLR
29.3
WGS (second-class coach)
27.8
WGSCN (3 tier sleeper)
30.2
FC
29.1
AC1
35.7

Train Dynamics
Page 231 of 239

Payload(t
Loaded Net(t)
)
4.20
5.50
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.50
5.80
4.00
5.50
2.00
2.80
13.76
11.70
4.0
16.0

65.00
51.36
48.80
46.60
51.90
47.30
45.30
56.10
57.40
55.50
53.13
54.36
49.10
46.0
54.0

6.2
6.8
6.0
4.0
4.0

36.5
34.6
36.3
33.1
39.7

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


Train Resistance
Train resistance consists of all forces that oppose the motion of the train.
Resistance on Level and Straight Track
On a level and straight track, train resistance could arise due to factors internal and
external to the rolling stock.
The internal forces are: friction at the axle bearings and guides; bogie-pivots; friction at the
motor bearings and gearing in case of locomotive or EMUs running through wheel-rail
interaction based on adhesion.
The external forces are friction between wheel and rail; flange-friction; resistance due to
temporary deflection of the track; aero dynamic drag.
Starting Friction
The train resistance at starting is high due to static friction at the bearings. This drops
sharply as the train rolls but subsequently, as the speed increases, the train resistance rises
again due to speed - related components.
The starting train resistance is also a function of train coupling. If all the couplings are
in tension the starting resistance is high. Thus starting resistance of the train will be more if
couplings are in tension which happens in the case of up gradient. On the other hand, train
couplings will be in compression and starting resistance will be low for train standing on
down gradient. Even on level tracks it is a better practice to move back locomotive by few
meters (2to3 only) so as to release inter- vehicle tension. The starting resistance is usually 4.5
to 5.0 Kg/ tonne on a level track.
The Running Train Resistance, whether internal or external is a function of track and rolling
stock characteristics as well as speed. At higher speed, the aero dynamic drag and flange
resistance increases while the frictional resistance of the axle-bearings decreases.
Running train resistance per tonne weight of the load is as under:
For Indian Railways the running train resistance formulae
(a) For locomotives:
R in Kg = 0.65 W + 13 n + 0.01 Wv + 0.52v2
Where W = is the locomotive weight in tonnes
v = is the speed in Kmph
n = is the number of axles
(b) For coaching stock:
r in Kg/tonne = 1.425 + 0.0054 v + 0.0025v2
(c) For loaded box wagons
r in Kg/tonne = 0.87 + 0.0103 v + 0.000056v2
(d) For empty box wagons
r in Kg/tonne = 1.517 + 0.01074 v + 0.00495v2
Train Resistance due to Gradient
Page 232 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


On Gradients, a component of the train - load would oppose the train movement or
assist it. If the gradient opposes the train movement, it is called UP gradient. In the opposite
case, it is called DOWN gradient.
Gradients are expressed by the height through which the track level rises in 100 or
1000 units of distance. An up-gradient of 1 in 100 would mean that the track level rises by
one unit of distance of 100 units.
Hence for h in 100 gradient the component of load W opposing train movement is
W.sin = W.h/100.

W.sin

w
c
o
s

Curve resistance

Curve resistance rises due to the wheel flange rubbing against the rail head on curves.
It is given by the following formula.
R (curve) =

700 X W (tonnes)
Radius of curvature in meters

________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________

In Railway practice, the track curvature is expressed in degrees rather than radius. 10
curve is defined as one in which 100ft length of curve turns through 10 or (1/360)th of the
circle or 100-meter track turns through 3.270
Hence 1degree curvature would mean a radius of (5730/3.27) or C0 would mean
(5730/3.27) C metres.
Hence curve resistance per degree of curvature would be (700 x w) / (5730 / 3.27C) or
0.4 C.W. Kg (approximately).
In Traction mechanics it is sometimes convenient to express cure resistance as
equivalent gradient resistance. Thus,
Equivalent gradient per thousand = 0.4 C
Total train resistance is the summation of starting and running resistance, grade
resistance and curve resistance.
TRACTIVE EFFORT
Tractive effort is the force developed by the traction unit at the wheel rims for moving
the traction unit and its train. Draw bar pull is the force exerted by the traction unit through
the draw bar for moving the train. Thus draw bar pull is less than the tractive effort by the
force required to move the traction unit. Tractive effort (TE) required to haul a train load
consists of two components, viz.
(i) T.E. to overcome to train resistance.
(ii) T.E to impart acceleration to the load upto the desired running speed.
Maximum Tractive effort from a locomotive would be required at start when the train
resistance is maximum due to static friction and the need for acceleration.
The T.E at start has to be approx. 5% more than the static train resistance such that the
load can move at a slow acceleration. As the train moves and picks up speed of about 05
Page 233 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


KMPH the train resistance drops sharp. If the T.E is maintained at the same level, a higher
acceleration will be realized which will quickly accelerate the train.
SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Energy consumption means consumption of electricity by a locomotive for moving
train from one location to another location and its unit is KWH. Load hauled by a loco for a
length of one kilometer on consumption of one unit of electricity is called TONNE
KM/KWH. SEC is defined as the watt-hours consumed per tonne Km transportation.
Specific energy consumption =

Specific energy output at driving wheels


________________________________________
Overall efficiency of transmission gear and motor

The specific energy consumption of a train running at a given schedule speed is influenced by
1. Distance between stops
2. Acceleration
3. Retardation
4. Maximum speed
5. Type of train and equipment
6. Track configuration.
JERK can be felt when sudden changes on coupler force takes place either from Draft force
to Buff force or Buff force to Draft force.
LURCH can be felt when sudden changes in track gradient from level to down & then up or
due to track defect.
ADHESION means the grip which the wheels have on the rail dependent upon weight, track
condition & weather conditions.
The actual coupling between locomotive and wagon, and wagon to wagon is called DRAW
GEAR.
The impact absorbing apparatus whereby the draw gear is attached to the locomotive or
wagon is called DRAFT GEAR.
When a rear section of a train is traveling faster than a forward section of a train is called
RUN-IN.
When a rear section of a train is traveling slower than a forward section of a train is called
RUN-OUT.
T M Shaft

Drive Motor
Motor Pinion

Gear wheel

Driving wheel

Axle
F

Rw

TRACK
Page 234 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)


//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
ADHESION
The Mechanism of locomotive is completed by a friction drive between the
wheels and the rail. The maximum force that can be transmitted by this drive is dependent on
the load carried by the driving wheels and the coefficient of friction between the rail and the
wheel. This is usually called adhesion. The torque produced is increased, the tractive effort
gets increased. But there is a limit to it, which is imposed by the grip of the wheel on the as
provided by the friction existing between the two. When this limit is exceeded, the wheel
loses the grip and begins to slip.
ADHESION WEIGHT OF LOCO MOTIVE
The total weight of locomotive carried on the driving wheels is called adhesive weight.
Coefficient of adhesion: The proportion of adhesive weight that can be made available as
tractive effort is called coefficient of adhesion, viz,
Tractive effort at which wheel slip occurs
= coefficient of adhesion=
_______________________________________
Adhesive weight
Adhesion also plays an important role in banking. The normal value of with clean dry rails
is approximately 0.25 and maximum achievable with sand is approximately 0.3-0.35.
Factors Affecting Co-efficient of Adhesion:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The Coefficient of Adhesion on wet rail is lower than that on dry rail.
Presence of oil on rail reduces adhesion.
(iii)Use of sanding on the rail surface improves adhesion.
The adhesion in stationary condition of the wheel on the rail is maximum and it drops as
the wheel rolls.
5. Application of tractive effort in a gradual manner improves adhesion.
6. In order to improve the adhesion co-efficient the improvements incorporated have been
broadly based on:
7. Mechanisms to clean the rail surface
8. Effective sanding gear.
9. Stepless control of traction force through use of thyristors with gate control.
10. Mechanisms to detect wheel slip in very initial stages and triggering corrective action by
reducing the tractive effort.
Modern locomotives incorporating latest techniques can have an adhesion co-efficient of the
order of 0.4 to 0.45.

Page 235 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Haulage Capacity

Page 236 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Loco Link
EMERGENCY BRAKING DISTANCE
The distance travelled by the train after shutting off power and an emergent application of
brakes i.e., when brakes are applied suddenly is called emergency braking distance (EBD).
Normal braking distance: the distance travelled by a train after a normal or service application of
brakes by shutting off power and the gradual application of brakes is called normal braking distnace
(NBD).
Conditions for testing of EBD:
On lelvel Section:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Brake power should be 100 % on coaching or goods trains.


Load of the trains should be maximum permissible for the section.
Run at the maximum permissible speed of the train where permitted.
Apply a-9 handle to emergency and note the KM No. and time.
Do not press PVEF and DV should not be isolated.
Note the palce of stopping KM No. and time.

On 1/400 UP Gradient and on 1/200 DOWN Gradient:


Conduct similar test as above.
Calculation of EBD:
EBD of the train = Sum distance travelled in meters of level, 1/400 Up and 1/200 Down gradients
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

Page 237 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Wheel Impact Load Detector (WILD)


Impact load occurs on rail when a defective portion of wheel falls on rail head. Impact load is transferred to
rail head from wheel through combination of any or all of the following defects like

1. Wheel having a flat / Out of roundness


2. Overloaded Axles
3. Defect in suspension system
4. Miss-alignment of bogies
5. Skew in the car body etc
Wheel Impact Load Detector (WILD) is a Safety System used to
identify the defective wheel due to any of the above defects by
measuring the dynamic impact on the track at a very early stage
and thereby protect the Rail Infrastructure, avoid derailments and
catastrophic failures. WILD is also to reduce service failures and
unplanned maintenance cost of Rolling Stocks and Tracks.
WILD System was initially developed along with RDSO & IITKanpur

Salient Features

Wayside system with reliable 24x7 operation without Manual intervention


Automatic Identification of Train and Automatic Measurements

Impact Load Measurement & Impact Load Factor (ILF) Measurement of all Wheels

Automatic Transfer of Report & Analysis to Railway Control Office/Train Examining


Station through GPRS

Transferring of data through OFC link

Intimation of alarms through SMS

Automated Alarm Notification based on Load levels & ILF

Speed Measurement of each axle and average train speed measurement

Bidirectional Traffic

Provides Wagon/Coach Wheel & Axle Information

Instrumentation optimized for capturing full Wheel Circumference data

More Number of Measurement zones to provide greater accuracy

Self-Calibration of Channels to maintain accuracy

Self-Diagnostics

Page 238 of 239

Course material for Loco Inspectors (Diesel) (Initial)

Programmed software available at website for easy analysis of defective wheels

Page 239 of 239