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Antans Sauhats, Member, IEEE, and Marija Danilova, Student member, IEEE

I. INTRODUCTION

faults. To expedite repairs and restoration of power it is

important to know where the fault is located. Several fault

location schemes for transmission lines that utilise digital

techniques and microprocessor-based systems have been

developed during the last few decades [1]-[3]; some of them

use the information available at both ends of the line to obtain

the accurate fault location, while others utilise data at only one

terminal of the line [1],[2]. The single ended approach to

transmission line fault location is important, as it is less

expensive than the double-ended approach (no communication

link required between the ends of the transmission line) and

more reliable (the ability to operate requires only that the local

end equipment is in operation). The one-terminal data

algorithms determine the impedance and, as a result, distance

to the fault. However, several factors affect the accuracy of the

distance to the fault calculation. One of the main factors

results from the combined effect of the load, fault resistance

and equivalent impedances of the power systems connected to

Technical University, 1 Kronvalda str., Riga, LV-1010, Latvia (phone:

+371 7089 930, fax: +371 7089 931, e-mail: sauhatas@eef.rtu.lv)

M. Danilova is with Joint Stock Company Latvenergo, 12 Pulkveza

Brieza

str.,

Riga,

LV-1230,

Latvia,

(phone: +371 7328 364,

fax: +371 7328 362, e-mail: marija.danilova@energo.lv)

5%

of fault location on high voltage transmission lines. The proposed

fault location algorithm utilizes statistical information about the

equivalent impedances of the system at the unmonitored end of

the transmission line. Knowledge about the distribution laws of

these values or their numerical characteristics, which are more

accessible for practical use, results in more accurate fault

location for lines with grounded neutral, especially in case of

distant short circuit through the large transient resistance. The

proposed algorithm is based on modelling of the faulted line and

the method of Monte-Carlo. The utilized line model with

distributed parameters is described by two-port network theory

equations. The algorithm automatically eliminates the effect of

line shunt capacitance and calculates not only the expected value

of the distance to the fault, but also another important additional

characteristic for the fault location, namely, the length of the line

segment, where short circuit may have occurred. Furthermore,

the possibility to reduce the costs on the inspection of

transmission line faulted segment and fault point location is

described in the paper.

Index Terms-- Fault Location, Power Transmission Lines,

High voltage, Statistics

resistance may be high, especially for ground faults and,

accordingly, the accuracy of fault location may be insufficient.

The operation experience of one terminal data based fault

locators shows that in the majority of cases (80%) the

accuracy of fault location may be considered as satisfactory.

The fault location error may comprise 1-2 % of the monitored

line length. In relatively infrequent cases (10%) the error

may reach 5% and even more [5]-[7]. The possibility of

appearance of considerable errors weakens the confidence in

the results of the measurements and causes the necessity to

search fault location on the long line segments. In real practice

of power systems operation the length of the segment

subjected to the inspection is defined assuming the presence of

maximal error, even in those cases when it is not likely that

such error will appear.

In the previous works [5],[8] we have described the

possibility to calculate not only the expected value of the

distance to the fault, but also the distribution density function

of the distance. Such calculation can be based on common

utilization of the measured values of currents and voltages,

information about statistical characteristics of the equivalent

impedances of power system feeding the opposite end of the

transmission line and the Monte-Carlo method. The algorithm

[5],[8] is based on line model with concentrated parameters

and, therefore is applicable to relatively short transmission

lines. Starting with 150-200 km length of the line, the errors

become significant due to neglected influence of the line shunt

capacitance. Fig. 1 shows the fault distance estimation error

arising from ignored charging effect.

500 kV

4%

3%

330 kV

2%

750 kV

1%

0%

0

100

200

300

400

Line length (km)

Fig. 1. Fault location error as a function of 330 kV, 500 kV and 750 kV

transmission line length

for single ended approaches, i.e. when the resistance of the

fault is equal to zero. This paper describes the extension of the

approach [5],[8] for fault location on long transmission lines.

II. THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE METHOD

Let us consider a faulted transmission line with distributed

parameters connecting two power systems with known

equivalent impedances (Fig. 2.). In this paper, we will only

refer to the most common failure case: the single line-toground short circuit. Nevertheless, it can be noted that the

described approach can be easily extended for application to

other fault types conditions.

I'1I

I''1I

I''2II

E1

Z1I

U'1I

A1I B1I

RF

A2I B2I

E2

I''2II

I2 U''0I

C2ID2I

A2II B2II

A0II B0II

A0I B0I

I0

U''0I

Z0II

C 0II D0II

the following form (1) to express voltage and current at one

pair of terminals in terms of quantities at the other pair.

(1)

sequence i in the fault point.

By defining the propagation constant per unit length for

symmetrical transmission line with distributed parameters:

( R + j L )( G + j C )

(2)

R + j L

G + j C

Ai = Di = ch ( LF )

Taking into consideration that at the fault point there is an

equality of powers [9]:

U1 I1* = (U 2 I 2* + U 0 I 0* ),

(7)

Proceeding with rearrangements, it is easy to obtain:

2

2

Im Si = Im U i"I I i* = 0 .

i =0

i =0

(8)

thought the currents in the monitored end of the line, the

following can be obtained:

) = 0 ,

*

(9)

four-pole and the system behind as respects to the fault point.

To determine a solution of unknown distance to the fault

LF to the non-linear equation (9), one of the known numerical

methods can be employed (for instance regula falsi [10]). In

addition, it is necessary to keep in mind that there possibly

exist two roots of the equation (9) [5],[8]. In case when both

roots of the equation (9) correspond to the length of the

monitored line, it is difficult to choose the proper root. This

problem should be solved by determination of the

corresponding values of the transient resistance RF (10). If the

distance LF is known, the resistance is defined as one third of

voltage U i and current I i quotient:

iI iI

(10)

iI iI

positive value of the resistance RF (considering the physical

Zc =

(6)

coefficient:

BiII + ZiII AiII

Zi inII

DiII + Z iII CiII

kiI =

=

,

Zi inI + Zi inII BiI + Z iI DiI BiII + Z iII AiII

+

AiI + ZiI CiI DiII + ZiII CiII

RF

1

sh ( LF )

Zc

Ci =

Z2II

I''0II

RF

(5)

CiIU i'I + AiI Ii'I

2

Im DiIU i'I BiI I i'I

ki*I

i = 0

C 2II D2II

I''0I

C0ID0I

Z1II

C 1IID1II

I''2I

I'0I

Z0I

U'0I

U''1I

C1ID1I

I'2I

Z2I

U'2I

A1II B1II

I1

Bi = Z c sh ( LF )

(3)

(4)

proper solution for the distance LF corresponds either to the

least value of RF , or the value LF closer to the remote end of

the line should be chosen [5],[8].

Assuming that the equivalent impedances ZiII are random

values, the unknown distance LF can also be determined as a

random value and fault location results can be expressed, for

example, by the set of the following numerical characteristics:

expected value of the distance to the fault point E [ LF ]

standard deviation

certain conditions of emergency situation.

For calculation of E [ LF ] and s [ LF ] values in common

case, it is necessary to apply Monte-Carlo method.

The algorithm for estimation of these numerical

characteristics is demonstrated in Fig. 3.

The Monte-Carlo method should be employed to obtain the

distribution density function f ( LF ) of the estimated distance

to the fault LF . The density function forms information basis

for decision-making on recommended margins of the segment

to inspect (more details below). Considering that obtained by

Monte-Carlo method density function f ( LF ) is located

appropriate characteristic of the performance of the fault

location algorithm.

Empirical or

uniform

distribution law

N=N+1

Random value

generator

Z1I,Z2I,Z0I,Z1II,Z2II,Z0II

Model of the line

(model Fig. 2.)

measured

values U, I

Calculation of the

current distribution

coefficients

faulted transmission lines and the algorithm for fault distance

estimation to describe the performance and main properties of

the discussed algorithm. It is also emphasized that MonteCarlo method was utilized twice:

to model the processes in the faulted line for calculation

of the measured values of the controlled voltage and

currents;

to estimate the distance to the fault according to the

algorithm depicted in Fig. 3. Since the reviewed algorithm

defines the evaluation results of distance as random

values, the accuracy will be characterized by marginal

estimations: the minimal LF min and maximal LF max

values of the determined distances to the fault.

Fig. 4 illustrates the modelling procedure.

For algorithm testing purposes, the PSS/E program

package [11] was used. Two main arguments have contributed

to the decision: PSS/E has powerful ready-to-use fault

simulation tools, and allows to automate the calculations by

running user macro-programs in built-in Iplan programming

language. However, a number of difficulties had to be

overcome during the system modelling in PSS/E: the standard

PSS/E routine, which invokes in-line fault simulation and

parameter calculation, virtually divides the line into two

models [9] and utilizes the line model with concentrated

parameters. That model could provide non-satisfactory

precision of modelling for algorithm testing purposes.

It was easy to

conquer the mentioned barriers

implementing additional fictitious bus Fault, and

recalculating and substituting the lines parameters from the

Iplan program in accordance with distributed parameter line

model and respectively to the fault location on the line [11].

In this paper, the number of trials N (Fig. 3) is equal to

100. It was experimentally determined as able to provide an

appropriate accuracy. The algorithm properties were tested by

system simulation (Fig. 4) under 50 random operating

conditions from strong to weak ones.

...

Random value generator

Z1I,Z2I, Z0I, Z1II,Z2II,Z0II

Number of trials M = 50

Calculation of the

fault power S

Im [Si] = 0

NO

Search procedure of

LF

NO

PSS/E Iplan program

Calculation of line model

parameters

(model Fig. 2.)

YES

N>Number of

trials

YES

Calculation of the

expected value and

deviation

Estimation of the line

segment limits to

recommend for

inspection

Estimation of the limits of line

segment recommended for

inspection

Number of trials N = 100

(the algorithm Fig. 3.)

standard routines

operation software

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

6%

500

750

3 ACO 500

4 ACO 600

0.022

0.014

0.940 0.0122

0.895 0.0130

0.170

0.162

2.37

2.23

0.0065

0.0075

TABLE II

POSITIVE AND ZERO SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES OF THE MONITORED AND

REMOTE SYSTEM

Strong state

Weak State

Sequence

System

R,

X,

R,

X,

Ohm

Ohm

Ohm

Ohm

Monitored

0.157

57.33

0.02

64.41

Positive,Negative

Remote

0.189

39.35

0.436

62.24

Monitored

0.013

66.60

0.012

71.97

Zero

Remote

0.0049

28.14

0.011

33.49

500 kV power transmission line are shown in Fig. 5. In this

case fault location on the line is constant and equals to 90% of

the line length, fault resistance equals to 100 Ohm, the remote

bus load is 200 MW at load factor 0.9.

The varying parameter is the length of the line. It could be

concluded that despite sufficient increase of the length of the

line, utilization of the proposed algorithm provides possibility

to determine the mathematical expectation with close to zero

value of the average error. The deviations of the maximal and

minimal determined distance to the fault from the real fault

point are shown relatively to the line length. Depicted

deviations simultaneously provide information on the length

of line segment to inspect as suggested by the algorithm,

which is equal to sum of the deviations absolute values.

It could be noticed that the deviations are relatively smaller

on longer lines. This trend can be explained by decrease of

variant impedance share in the system and therefore reduction

of the influence of the remote system impedance uncertainty.

For comparison, the results obtained by previously

described algorithm [8] are given. The algorithm is based on

line model with concentrated parameter and neglects the

influence of the charging. As it can be concluded from Fig. 5,

the error will rapidly increase for line lengths exceeding

200 km, while in cases of the short lines with the length less

than 100 km, the difference between the results of the methods

is insignificant.

4%

3%

2%

Proposed

algorithm:

error of

Mathematical

expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

1%

0%

-1%

-2%

-3%

50

Length of the line (km)

400

transmission line.

5%

Method [8]: error of

Mathematical expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

4%

Error (percent of the line length)

TABLE I

POSITIVE AND ZERO SEQUENCE RESISTANCE, REACTANCE AND

CONDUCTANCE OF THE TESTED LINES

Voltage Conductor

Rpos.

Lpos.

Cpos.

Rzero

Lzero

Czero

mark

kV

Ohm/km mH/km F/km Ohm/km mH/km F/km

Mathematical expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

5%

3%

2%

Proposed

algorithm:

error of

Mathematical

expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

1%

0%

-1%

-2%

-3%

50

100

Length of the line (km)

350

400

transmission line.

7%

Method [8]: error of

Mathematical

expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

6%

faulted lines models and digital records of the contingency

processes on 500 and 750 kV transmission lines. The tested

lines were up to 400 km long.

The parameters of the typical transmission line used for

testing procedures are given in table I. During the tests the

impedances of the monitored and remote (unmonitored)

systems were chosen randomly in the impedance interval

corresponding to the strong and weak system operating

conditions as specified in table II. The data is derived from the

real power system measurements.

5%

4%

3%

2%

Proposed

algorithm:

error of

Mathematical

expectation,

Maximal and

Minimal

determined

distance

1%

0%

-1%

-2%

-3%

0

100

200

300

400

Fig. 7. Algorithm precision depending on fault location on the typical 500 kV

transmission line.

FAULT LOCATION TASK

Let us suppose that the estimated distances to the fault LF

are normally distributed. E X is the mathematical expectation

of the distribution and X is the standard deviation. To find

an optimal, in sense of costs, length of the line segment to

inspect, let us additionally assume that:

q is known (cost of fault location per unit length).

segment, then the whole line route with the length L is

subjected to the inspection.

Considering these assumptions the mathematical

expectation E [ q ] of the costs of fault location can be

evaluated as follows:

q

+ (1- p) L q

(11)

100

is the probability of fault location in the

E [ q ] = p l L

where

segment in percents of the line length.

Assuming the segment length l is chosen as proportional

to the standard deviation X , the centre of the segment is

coincident with E X :

l = s X [1]

(12)

Taking into consideration that:

l

l

p = u

u

2X

2X

(13)

possible to obtain:

E [ q ] = Lq 0.02s X u

( 2s ) + 1 2u ( 2s )) .

(14)

1.0

3.0%

1.5%

0.0%

400

100

200

50

30

10

Fault resistance (Ohm)

40

0

Distance to the fault (km)

500 kV transmission line.

line model are presented in Fig. 6. The load at the remote end

was modelled equal to 800 MW. The characteristics behaviour

is similar to the described above. However, it might be noticed

the algorithm would determine smaller dispersion of the

possible fault point location and therefore would suggest for

inspection shorter line segment. The error of the method [8] is

smaller as well, despites increasing charging in 750 kV line

configuration. This phenomenon originates from angle of the

line impedance, which in case of 750 kV lines is convenient

for fault location task.

Fig. 7 represents the results of the algorithms properties

analysis depending on the location of the faulted point on the

line. The system configuration was identical to the described

above. Fault resistance was modelled equal to 100 Ohm. The

average error of the mathematical expectation is weakly

swinging around zero. The inspection zone in this case is

becoming wider moving away from the monitored line end

and reaches 3.2 percents of the line length at the very end of

the line. The advantages of the new method are obvious: the

previously developed method [8] would not find any solution

for determination of the distance to the fault on approximately

last 5 percent of the line. Furthermore, starting at the average

with 180 km distance, the line segment recommended for the

inspection will not contain the factual fault point.

Fig. 8 shows the results of the algorithm application for

determination of the fault distances dispersion on 500 kV

power transmission line depending on the fault locations and

fault resistance values. The faults with resistances over

100 ohm are very unlikely to happen and therefore have not

been considered. The chart surface is rather smooth, which

approves that the trial number choice is appropriate. For each

of the fault resistance values, at the end of the line, it can be

noticed rapid length increase of the recommended for the

inspection segment. The increase of the fault distances

dispersion is more even towards fault resistance axis.

x = 10 %

x = 5 %

0.8

x = 2 %

0.6

x = 1 %

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

2

4

6

8

Proportionality coefficient, s

10

constant s at various standard deviation values

obvious that given the X value, one can determine s and

consequently l corresponding to the minimum of average

costs of the fault location. For illustration, let us assume that

resulting value of distance estimation is X = 2% , then as it

follows from Fig. 9 the minimal value of the mathematical

expectation of the costs corresponds to factor s 4 value,

therefore the recommended for inspection segment length is

4X .

Alternative fault location strategy can be implemented. For

instance, it can consist of the following three steps: first

relatively short segment is subjected for the inspection, then

wider searching zone is defined, at last, in case of

unsuccessful efforts, the whole line should be inspected. Still,

the described cost minimization approach can be employed to

define the length of the segment to inspect.

VII. RESULTS OF TESTS AND IMPLEMENTATION

The algorithm precision was verified using the real test

records shown in Fig. 10. An artificial short circuit was

applied to 396.73 km long 750 kV line with the following

parameters:

Z1 = 0.017 + j 0.289, Z 0 = 0.18 + j 0.618 Ohm/km ,

During the test, the line was operated at 500 kV. The

remote end impedance was 1000 Ohm, purely inductive. The

fault current was conducted thought the tree at 390 km

distance.

location was sufficient under the tested situations that had

included various fault resistances, fault locations, prefault

loading conditions and impedances of the connected systems.

The algorithm efficiency is confirmed by processing of

measurements data obtained during forced short circuit state

on 750 kV line.

It has been shown that it is possible to minimize the fault

location costs utilizing the distribution density function of

fault distance estimation. The fault location strategy depends

on combination of several accuracy-affecting factors.

IX. REFERENCES

[1]

Development of a New Type of Fault Locator Using One Terminal

Voltage and Current Data, IEEE Trans., vol. PAS-101, No 8, Aug.

1982, pp. 2892-2898.

[2] L.Eriksson, M.Saha, S.D.Rockfeller, An Accurate Fault Location with

Compensation for Apparent Reactance in the Fault Resistance Resulting

from Remote-end in feed, IEEE Trans. on PAS, PAS-104, No 2, 1985,

pp. 424-436.

[3] D.Novosel, D.G.Hart, M.M.Saha, S.Gress, Optimal fault location for

transmission system, ABB Review 8/1994, pp. 20-27.

[4] R.K.Aggarwal, D.V.Coury, A.T.Johns, A.Kalam, A Practical Approach

to Accurate Fault Location on Extra High Voltage Teed Feeders, IEEE

Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 8, No. 3, Jul. 1993.

[5] A.Sauhats, A.Jonins, M.Danilova, Statistical Adaptive Algorithms for

Fault Location on Power Transmission Lines based on Method of

Monte-Carlo, in Proc. 7th International Conference on Probabilistic

Methods Applied to Power Systems, September 22-26, 2002, Naples,

Italy, pp.485-490.

[6] I.V.Jakimec, A.V.Narovljanski, I.A.Ivanov, Determination of Fault

Location on Transmission Line based on Power Flows Measurement,

Electrichestvo, No.5, 1999, pp. 5-9 (in Russian).

[7] A.K.Belotelov, A.S.Sauhatas, I.A.Ivanov, D.R.Ljubarskij, Functional

Algorithms and Operation Experience of Microprocessor-based devices

for Fault Location on Transmission Lines, Elektricheskie Stancii,

No.12, 1997, pp.7-12 (in Russian).

[8] A.Sauhats, A.Jonins, V.Chuvychin, M.Danilova, Fault location

algorithms for power transmission lines based on Monte-Carlo method,

in Proc. 2001 IEEE Porto Power Tech Conf.

[9] G.I.Atabekov, Distant approach in long power transmissions protection,

Akademija Nauk Armjanskoj SSR, 1953 (in Russian).

[10] G.Korn, T.Korn, Mathematical handbook, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, 1968.

[11] PSS/E-27 Online Documentation, Power Technologies, a division of

S&W Consultants Inc., December 2000.

X. BIOGRAPHIES

Fig. 10. Records of the contingency processes during forced fault on 750 kV

transmission line.

determined with error 0.38 percent of the line length or

1.5 km.

The algorithm is integrated in program package for digital

records processing, displaying and analysis.

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

The algorithm for fault location and estimation of the

segment length to inspect has been presented. The algorithm

takes into account the probabilistic nature of the equivalent

impedance of the power systems feeding the unmonitored end

of the long transmission line.

and Dr.hab.sc.eng. degree from the Riga Technical

University (former Riga Polytechnical Institute) in

1970, 1976 and 1991 respectively. Since 1991 he is

Professor at Electric Power Systems. Since 1996 he

is the Director of the Power Engineering Institute of

the Riga Technical University.

University, Latvia in 2001. She is currently a Ph.D.

student at the faculty of Electrical and Power

Engineering and planning engineer at the national

power company Latvenergo.

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