Você está na página 1de 12

Name:

SULIT
964/2
BIOLOGY
2015
1 Hour 30 minutes

Class:

SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN BATU 8,


JALAN PUCHONG, 47100 PUCHONG,
SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN STPM PENGGAL 2 TAHUN 2015

BIOLOGY
PRA UNIVERSITI 2
One and a half hours

Instructions to candidates:
Answer all the questions in Section A, Section B and any two questions
from Section C. For Section A and Section B write your answers in the
spaces provided.
For Section C write your answers on the answer sheets provided. Begin
each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answer in
numerical order. Tie your answer sheets to this question paper.
Read the instructions on each question carefully.

For examiners use


Section A
1-15
Section B
16
17
Section C
18
19
20
Total

______________________________________________________________________________
This question paper consists of 8 printed pages.

SECTION A [15 marks]


Answer all questions in this section
1. In Bohrs effect, the affinity of haemoglobin towards oxygen is reduced because
A
B
C
D

the shape of haemoglobin is altered by high concentration of CO2


haemoglobin acts as a pH buffer in erythrocytes
ferum ion in haemoglobin is attracted to chloride ions that diffuses into erythrocytes
the concentration of carbaminohaemoglobin increases in erythrocytes

2. The vital capacity of lungs is


A
B
C
D

the volume of air still left in the lungs after a maximal forced expiration
the volume of air breathed out after a forced inspiration followed by a forced expiration
the maximum volume of air in the lungs after a forced inspiration
the extra volume of air taken in voluntarily after normal inspiration

3. Which of the following are the roles of carbonic anhydrase enzyme in the process of gaseous
exchange in human being?
I
II
III
IV

increases the release of CO2 gas to the lungs


increases the capillary walls absorbability of oxygen gas
increases the concentration of H+ in the red blood cell at tissue level
increases the concentration of HCO3- in the red blood cell at tissue level

A I and II
B I and IV

C I, III and IV
D II, III and IV

4. Which of the following events in a normal cardiac cycle takes the shortest time?
A Atrial systole
B Atrial diastole

C Ventricle systole
D Ventricle diastole

5. What is the sequence of events in the translocation of assimilates?


A active loading of sucrose into sieve elements via companion cells at the source, increased
hydrostatic pressure, mass flow, unloading at the sink
B hydrolysis of storage compounds in sink, lowered water potential in sink, unloading of sucrose
from sieve elements down the water potential gradient, mass flow from the source
C lowered pressure in sieve elements at the source, movement of sucrose down the pressure
gradient from companion cells, mass flow down a diffusion gradient to the sink
D mass flow of dissolved sucrose via companion cells into the sieve element at the source lowered
hydrostatic pressure, diffusion of sucrose down concentration gradient to sink , active unloading

6. The diagram below shows the structure of a sarcomere of a skeletal muscle myofibril.

According to the sliding filament hypothesis, which of the following events occur in the sarcomere when the
skeletal muscle contracts?
I band
Shortens
Shortens
No change
Shortens

A
B
C
D

H zone
No change
Shortens
Shortens
Shortens

A band
Shortens
No change
Shortens
No change

Sarcomere
No change
No change
Shortens
Shortens

7. The table below shows the effect of three different drugs on the synapse.
Drug
I
II
III

Effect
Acts as the non-competitive inhibitor for cholinesterase
Inhibits release of acetylcholine
Attaches to acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane

Which of the above drugs would prevent the transmission of impulses across the neuromuscular
junction?
A
B

I and II
I and III

C II and III
D I, II and III

8. Which of the following statements describe the functions of progesterone during pregnancy?
I
II
III
IV

Inhibit contraction of myometrium


Stimulate growth of mammary gland
Inhibit secretion of FSH
Inhibit secretion of prolactin

A I, II and III
B I, II and IV

C II, III and IV


D I, II, III and IV

9. A long-day plant species has a critical night length of 10 hours for it to flower. The following treatments
were conducted on samples of the plant species for several days. Which one of the treatment would cause the
plant to flower?

10. Which of the following hormones are secreted by the placenta?


I
II
III
IV

Progesterone
Oestrogen
HCG
Prostaglandin

A I, II and III
B I, II and IV

C II, III and IV


D I, II, III and IV

11. The diagram below shows the changes in the osmotic concentrations of the fluids in the
mammalian kidney.

The difference in the osmotic concentration between the tubular fluid and the interstitial fluid at
point X is due to
A the active uptake of potassium ions by the tubule cells.
B the active secretion of sodium ions into the interstitial fluid.
C the loss of water from the interstitial fluid by osmosis.
D the loss of water from the tubule by osmosis.
4

12. After a man drinks a glass of glucose, his blood glucose concentration increases quickly above the
normal range. If his blood glucose level does not decrease back to the normal range, what is the
conclusion that can be made ?
A
B
C
D

Excretion of excess glucose from kidney does not occur


The man has diabetes mellitus
The man has diabetes insipidus
His pancreas is not secreting insulin

13. Autoimmune disorder occurs when antibodies and T-lymphocytes attack the bodys own tissues.
Which one of the following shows the correct combination of antibody-mediated and cell-mediated
autoimmune diseases?

A
B
C
D

Lupus

Multiple sclerosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

antibody-mediated
cell-mediated
antibody-mediated
cell-mediated

antibody-mediated
antibody-mediated
cell-mediated
cell-mediated

cell-mediated
cell-mediated
antibody-mediated
antibody-mediated

Insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus
cell-mediated
antibody-mediated
cell-mediated
antibody-mediated

14. What could cause an outbreak of malaria in a country where it had been eliminated?
1 mosquitoes became resistant to insecticides
2 migration of population due to war
3 malarial parasites became resistant to quinine
A 1 and 2 only
B 1 and 3 only

C 2 and 3 only
D 1, 2 and 3

15. Which of the following is not the symptoms of severe dengue previously known as dengue symptoms of
severe dengue previously known as dengue haemorrhagic fever?
A Severe muscle and joint pain
B Skin rash

C Severe bleeding
D Persistent cough

SECTION B (15 MARKS)


Answer all questions
Diagram below shows the events that occur between two neurones at a synapse.

16 (a)(i) Name A : .
(ii) Name C :.
(c) State the function of mitochondria in the synaptic knob.

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

(d) Explain how the release of the neurotransmitter substance results in the transmission of an
impulse across the synapse.
[4 marks]

(e) In normal synaptic transmission, the transmitter substance is rapidly hydrolysed after the impulse
has been transmitted across the synapse. Suggest why it is important that the transmitter substance
is rapidly hydrolysed after its release.
[1 mark]

(f)

Nerve gases are known to prevent hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter substance at a synapse.
Suggest one symptom of nerve gas poisoning if a nerve gas is applied at a neuromuscular junction.
[1 mark]

17. The simplified structure of a nephron is shown in the diagram below.

(a) In the table below, columns 1 and 2 show the quantities of water, glucose and urea passing through P and Q
in a 24-hour period. Columns 3 and 4 show the quantities and percentages reabsorbed during the same
period. Complete the table by writing the correct figures in the boxes labeled S, T, U and V.
[2 marks]

Substance

1
Quantity passing
through P

2
Quantity passing
through Q

3
Quantity
reabsorbed

4
Percentage
reabsorbed

Water
Glucose

180dm3
180g

1.5dm3
T .

178.5dm3
180g

S
100

Urea

53g

25g

U ..

V ..

(b) Describe how R is involved in the production of concentrated urine.

[3 marks]

(c) People suffering from kidney failure may be treated by haemodialysis.


(i) Give one disadvantage of this method of treatment.

[1 mark]

(ii) Suggest a long-term solution for such patients.

[1 mark]

SECTION C (30 MARKS)


Answer any two questions
18. (a) Briefly describe the following hypotheses proposed to explain translocation in plants.
(i) Cytoplasmic streaming
(ii) Electro-osmosis
[6 marks]
(b) Describe the mechanism of mass flow hypothesis for translocation in phloem with the aid of
Munchs model.
[9 marks]
19. (a) Explain how hormones regulate ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects.
(b) Describe how the endocrine system differs from the nervous system.

[11 marks]
[4 marks]

20. (a) What is meant by the concept of self and non-self in immunity?
[5 marks]
(b) With reference to the roles of macrophages, T-cells, B-cells and plasma cells, describe
the mechanism of humoral immune response.
[10
marks]

Disediakan oleh:
.
Pn Then moli
Guru Biologi

Disemak oleh:

Disahkan oleh:

.
Pn Lourett
Ketua Unit Sains

...
Pn Siti Khadijah Bt Abd Wahab
Penolong Kanan Pra-U

Answers for STPM Penggal 2 Trial questions.


Section A
1.
11.

B
B

2.
12.

B
D

3.
13.

C
C

4.
14.

A
D

5.
15.

A
D

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Section B
16
(a)
(c)
(d)

(e)
(f)

Answer
(i)Vesicle containing neurotransmitters
(ii) Synaptic cleft
To provide ATP for the re-synthesis of the neurotransmitter substance
Neurotransmitter diffuse across synaptic cleft to post-synaptic membrane
Binds to receptor molecules on post-synaptic membrane
Causes increased permeability of post-synaptic membrane to sodium ions/ sodium ion
channels on post-synaptic membrane and influx of sodium ions.
Local depolarization of post-synaptic membrane occurs
Total
Prevents overstimulation/continues stimulation of the post-synaptic membrane// Allows
further transmission of another impulse across the synapse// allows the neurotransmitter
to be recycled
Loss of muscle control/ uncontrolled muscle contractions.
Total

17
(a)
(b)

Answer
S 99.17 %
T-0.0g
U- 28g
V-52.83%
+
Na and Cl ions are removed out frm R by diffusion and active transport.
These ions accumulate in the interstitial fluid creating a region of high salt concentration in
the medulla.
This causes water to diffuse out from Q by osmosis producing concentrated urine.
(c )
(i)
costly// time consuming // inconvenient- required frequent trips to hospital or
dialysis centre // disruption to daily life // patient shave to follow a strict diet to
prevent waste substances from accumulating to a dangerous level // protein
restriction
(ii)
Kidney transplant
Total

Mark
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
8
Mark
2
1
1
1
1

1
7

Section C
18
(a)
(i)

(ii)

Answer
Cytoplasmic streaming
P1-Cytoplasmic streaming involves a circular movement of cytoplasm from one end of the
sieve tube element to the other end.
P2-Solutes pass through the pores of the sieve plates by active transport.
P3- Cytoplasmic streaming helps to account for bidirectional movements along individual
sieve element.
Electro-osmosis
P1- Companian cells contain numerous mitochondria which generates ATPs during cellular
9

Mark
3

Any 3
points

respiration.
P2-Energy is required to remove the K+ ions frm one side of the sieve plate into the
companian cell.
P3-The K+ ions are then secreted on the other side of the sieveplate.
P4- This creates a potential difference across the sieve plate.
P5- This causes an electro-osmosis flow of polar water molecules and dissolved solutes
through the sieve pores to the adjacent sieve tube element.
(b)

Mass flow hypothesis


P1- The organic solutes synthesized in the mesophyll cells(source) are actively loaded by
transfer cells and companion cells into the sieve tube.
P2- The accumulation of solutes lowers the water potential of the solution in the sieve
tube.
P3-Water frm the xylem vessels in the leaves is drawn into the sieve tube by osmosis down
the water potential gradient.
P4- the entry of water generates a high hydrostatic pressure in the sieve tube.
P5- In the root(sink), sugars are actively transported into tissues for cellular respiration, for
synthesis of cellulose cell walls or for conversion to starch for storage
P6- Water potential of the root cell decreases and water is drawn from the sieve tube with
higher water potential into the root cells.
P7- The hydrostatic pressure is higher at the source(leaf) compared to the hydrostatic
pressure at the sink(root).
P8- There exists a hydrostatic pressure gradient in the sieve tube which causes the passive
flow of water and dissolved solutes frm the source to the sink.
P9- Drawing (Model to demonstrate the principle of Munchs mass flow hypothesis
P10-Concentrated sucrose solution in A(represents the source such as mature leaf) has low
water potential.
P11-The increase in hydrostatic pressure in A forces the sucrose solution to enter into the
connecting tube B(B represents phloem sieve tube) and pass to C(C represents sink, such
as root)
P12-Water diffuses out frm C and enters into D(D represents xylem) and then to A

19
(a)

Answer
Ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects are regulated by 3 types of hormones:
1. Brain hormone(BH) / Prothoracicotrophic hormone,
2. Ecdysone
3. Juvenile hormone (JH)

Mark
1m

BH(Brain hormone) is secreted by neurosecretory cells in the brain


P1-BH stimulates the synthesis of ecdysone by the prothroracic gland
P2-BH stimulates corpus allatum(in the brain) to synthesis/secrete Juvenile HormoneJH)
(Any one function from above : 1mark)

1m

10

1m

Ecdysone is secreted by the prothoracic glands


P1- stimulates ecdysis by a activating the genes which controls the synthesis of digestive
enzymes to digest the old exoskeleton/cuticle
P2- ecdysone also activates the genes involve in the synthesis of new
P3-exoskeleton
P4- Ecdysone stimulates the development of adult characteristic
(Any two function frm above: 2 marks)

1m

JH (Juvenile hormone) is secreted and stored in the corpus alatum gland


JH stimulate the genes that promotes the retention of larval or nymphal
characteristics // inhibits metamorphosis
JH inhibits the genes that promote the development of adult characteristics such as
wings and reproductive organs// inhibits metamorphosis in insects.
(Any one function frm above : 1m)

1m

When an immature insect/larva/nymph has grown to a certain size and require a


large exoskeleton/cuticle, BH is secreted (by neurosecretory cells or released frm
the corpus cardiatum)
BH/PTTH stimulates the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone
Ecdysone stimulates the synthesis of new cuticle and ecdysis
JH is secreted by the corpus allatum before each ecdysis in order to inhibit the
development of adult characteristics // metamorphosis
This cause the insects to remain at the immature stage / as larva/nymph
During the last larval/ nymphal stage, corpus allatum shrinks and stop producing
JH// the level of JH drops/decreases
Ecdysone stimulates metamorphosis of larva to pupa and pupa to the adult insect //
stimulate adult structure to develop causing the insect to go through ecdysis and
reach the adult or pupa stage

19 (b)
Signal

Nervous system
Nerve impulses

Transporting
medium for signal
Duration

Nerve impulses transmitted along


neurones and across synaptic cleft via
neurotransmitters.
A shorter time is required for a nerve
impulse to be generated and be
transmitted. Effects are usually shortlived.

Localisation of
responses

Responses are localized to the effector


e.g a muscle/ a specific gland.

11

2m

1m

Any 3
Points
(3m)

Endocrine system
Hormones which act as chemical
messenger
Blood

1
1

It takes a longer time for a hormone to be


produced and to reach the target cell. The
effects are generally long lasting e.g.
growth and metabolism.

Responses are widespread.

20
(a)

(b)

Answer
Self and non-self
P1-ability to distinguish self frm non-self depends on the class I MHC // antigens found on
the surface of nucleated cells
P2- Synthesis of class I MHC proteins- under the control of polymorphic genes.
P3- Immune system does not respond to self antigens because the MHC antigens are
already present in the early stages of embryonic development.
P4- If any immature immune system cell encounters and binds with this MHC antigens, the
immune cells are destroyed.
P5- Only those immune cells that do not respond to the bodys own antigen self will be
retained.
P6- Foreign tissues or grafts- are examples of non-self- sometimes will be rejected by the
body-this occurs because the hosts immune system recognizes the foreign tissue as nonself
P7- Within a short while- T-cells attack the tissues and destroyed it.
P1-Macrophages- ingests pathogen and displays some fragments of the pathogen on its
surface and become macrophage APC
P2- TH cells (lymphocytes, mature in thymus gland, develop specific receptors that
recognize specific antigens)
P3- With specific receptor for the particular displayed antigen binds to macrophage APC
P4- These TH cells divide rapidly and
P5- Secrete cytokines (interferon and interleukins)
P6- TH cells become activated-binds with B cell which is an APC for the same antigen as
macrophage APC.
P7-B cells (lymphocytes, mature in bone marrow, produce antibodies when stimulated,
mature b cells become memory cells or plasma cells- secrete antibodies
P8- Cytokines stimulate B cell to proliferate, form clones of plasma cells and clones of
memory cells
P9- Plasma cells produce and secrete large quantities of antibody, short life span.
P10- Memory B cells long lived, can respond rapidly when exposed to the same antigen
subsequently
P11- Antibodies released-destroys antigen by agglutination, precipitation, neutralization,
opsonisation and complement fixation.

12

Mark
Any 5
points

5 marks