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HISTORY OF PLANNING

Maria
Lourdes
T.
Munrriz, PhD, EnP
UP-School of Urban and Regional Planning Institute of
Environmental Planners

Trends in Human Settlements


Prior to the 18th century, most cities of various civilizations did
not exceed 50,000 inhabitants. With small populations and
no mechanical means of transportation, most cities of the
past, even the larger ones, did not exceed 2 kms and could
be crossed on foot in not more than 20 minutes. Thus, these
towns were built on human scale.

Trends in Human Settlements


For about 10,000 years, Man lived in villages, and for more
than 5,000 years in small urban settlements whose size and
slow growth permitted the creation of continuous and

compact settlements, and endowed these with values which


remain important.
In almost all these settlements, the 5 elements of human
settlements nature, man, shelter, society and network were
in complete balance.

Trends in Human Settlements


However, at the start of the 18th century until the 19th century,
and especially in the 20th century, the picture completely
changed the elements of human settlements have
developed individually and in turn, the balance among them
was lost.
Man developed demographically, culturally and intellectually.

Society grew and became more complex.

Trends in Human Settlements


Industrial Revolution brought large masses of people to live
within cities.
More and more people live in metropolitan areas, but even
the most economically successful of these regions manifest
sharply uneven development.
For instance, gentrified neighbourhoods adjacent to
lowincome areas display the emblems of affluence, and
suburban enclaves of privilege, increasingly set off by walls
and gates, sharpen the distinctions between the haves and
have-nots.

Trends in Human Settlements


At the end of the 20th century, urban areas are vastly different
from the metropolises of a hundred years earlier.
The old central cities contain a shrinking proportion of
regional wealth and population. Although some cities are the
command center of the global economy or nests of
technological innovation, others have lost economic function
even while they still encompass large populations.
Environmental pollution, traffic congestion, racial and ethnic
discrimination, and financial crises afflict many urban cores.

Urban Settlement Pattern of Man

Villages
Town
City
Metropolis
Megalopolis
Urban Region

Evolution of Planning

st

stage master plan or blueprint era

nd

stage systems view of planning

rd

stage participative-conflict in
planning

Evolution of Planning continued


1st stage master plan or blueprint era

Main concern: Set out the desired future, in


terms of land-use patterns on the ground
(maps);

Old planners, e.g., Geddes or Abercrombie;


Set up after WWII After the 1947 Town and
Country Planning Act of Great Britain.

Evolution of Planning continued


2nd stage systems view of planning
Under the 1968 Planning Act embodied new
structure plans;
Managing and controlling a particular system
the urban and regional system;

Concentrated on the objectives of the plan


and on alternative ways of reaching them
(writing rather than detailed maps).

Evolution of Planning continued


3 rd stage participative-conflict in planning

Emphasis on tracing the possible


consequences of alternative policies;
Evaluating alternatives against objectives and
then choosing a course of action;

Monitoring process is continually repeated.

History of Planning in the


Philippines
Pre-Hispanic Filipino Settlements

communities called barangays settled by


separate kinship groups within their respective
defined territories.

Manila was already a homogenous population

of 3,000 inhabitants before Spain came. It was


an important Muslim outpost held by Rajah
Soliman.

History of Planning in the


Philippines
Spanish Colonial Period gridiron arrangement

plaza complex. The church and town hall


were the dominant structures. Streets were laid
to provide a continuous route for religious
processions.

The compact villages provided a framework for

rapid Christian indoctrination and societal


organization. (Fort Santiago)

History of Planning in the


Philippines
Towards the end of the 19th century, road

building programs were introduced by the


Spanish government the Manila-Dagupan
railway.

Similar settlements were built by the Spaniards

throughout the country Fort Del Pilar in


Zamboanga, Davao, Ilocos, Visayas, etc.

History of Planning in the


Philippines
American Era saw the urgent need for

guiding the urban growth and physical


development of the country concentrated in
planning of cities where growth was inevitable.
Examples: development of waterfront; location of parks
and parkways as a means of recreation to every
quarter of the city.

History of Planning in the


Philippines

Street system securing direct and easy

communication from one district to another;

Location of building site for various activities;


Development of waterways for transportation;

and

Summer resorts.

History of Planning in the


Philippines
Settlements During the New Republic

problem of housing, health and sanitation

the

became the major concerns. The Peoples


Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC),
now the National Housing Authority (NHA)
purchased 1,572 has. in Q.C. (including UP
area) for Php2.0 million for the different
housing projects.

History of Planning in the Philippines


Settlements During WWII about 4/5 of

Greater Manila Area was devastated. Manila


was a giant slum.

Pres. Roxas instructed the National Housing

Commission in 1946 to build houses for the


US-Philippine War Damage Commission.

The National Urban Planning Commission was

created to prepare general plans, zoning


ordinances and subdivision regulations.

History of Planning in the


Philippines

Post War Settlements Pres. Quirino created

the National Planning Commission (NPC) for


more integrated planning in the urban and
regional areas.

History of Planning in the Philippines

NPC has prepared a master plan for Manila by


1954 with the following objectives:
1.

Make Manila a convenient and ideal place for settlement, work, play
and own;

2.

Remedy the critical traffic congestion;

3.

Prevent overcrowding of population;

4.

Use land optimally;

5.

Distribute schools and playgrounds; 6. Protect and promote

healthy property values;


7. Utilize existing improvements.

END

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