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Appendix I

Single Storey House Drawings


Recommended by ERRA

Appendix II
Comparison of Compressive
Strength of Concrete Blocks
Prepared by PPAF & Available in
Market

Compressive Strength test results for Concrete Blocks and Results of PPAF
Concrete Mix Design
PPAF Test Results for Hollow Blocks (Compressive Strength at 10 days)
Bagh

Sample Location
Shahid Block Factory, Hardigail
near dispensary, Bagh
Jamil Block Factory, Hardigail,
Bagh
Friends Enterprise near Rafiqabad,
Bagh
Ittehad Block Factory, Nagmanpura,
near Pulmera, Bagh
Ahmadabad Block Factory near
Nagmanpura Petrol Pump Bagh
Amjad Gardezi Block Factory, near
bypass road, Hadabody, Bagh
Rawalakot

Sample Location
Farhan Block Factory, near PPAF
office, Rawalakot
Rafique Block Factory, Darak, near
Eidgah, Rawalakot
Al-Hassan
Methal
Merra,
Rawalakot
Sharif Block Factory, Darak near
Eidgah, Rawalakot
Hasrat Block Factory, near NADRA
office, Rawalakot
Mansehra

Sample Location
Kaghan road, Mansehra

Block
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Block
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Block
#
1
2

Size
16x 5 7/8 x 8
16x 5 7/8 x 8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
15 1/4x5 7/8x8
14 7/8 x 5 7/8x 8
14 7/8 x 5 7/8x 8
15 3/4 x 6 x 7 3/4
15 3/4 x 6 x 7 3/4

Size
15 3/8 x 5 7/8 x 8
15 3/8 x 5 7/8 x 8
15 1/4 x5 3/4 x7 1/2
15 1/4 x5 3/4 x7 1/2
15 x 5 7/8 x 7 3/4
15 x 5 7/8 x 7 3/4
15 x 6 x 8
15 x 6 x 8
15 1/8 x 5 7/8 x 8
15 1/8 x 5 7/8 x 8

Size
16x 6 x 8
16x 6 x 8

Weight
Kg
17.36
15.48
16.18
16.00
15.42
15.16
16.84
16.16
14.59
14.42
16.08
17.14

10
days
Psi
712
396
365
318
696
435
399
290
440
337
369
448

Weight
Kg
17.34
15.88
14.40
14.70
14.22
14.33
13.90
14.04
15.02
15.04

10
days
Psi
652
422
583
563
718
619
346
493
417
441

Weight
Kg
15.00
15.80

10
days
Psi
214
471

Avg
10
days
Psi

Estd.
28
days
Psi

554

739

342

455

566

754

345

459

389

518

409

545

Avg
10
days
Psi

Estd.
28
days
Psi

537

716

573

764

669

891

420

559

429

572

Avg
10
days
Psi

Estd.
28
days
Psi

343

457

Note: None of the blocks tested have the specified strength1. Average varies from a low of 253 Psi to 669
Psi.

(28 days ASTM C 90: 1700 Psi net area unit compressive strength, average of three units to be not less
than 1900 Psi; if based on gross area then 1000 Psi.)

PPAF Test Results for Solid Blocks (Compressive Strength at 10 days)


Mansehra

Sample Location
Chinar Road Mansehra
Ghandian Road Mansehra
Badara Chowl

Block
#
1
2
3
4
5
6

Size
16x 6 x 8
16x 6 x 8
12 x 5.5 x 5.5
12 x 5.5 x 5.5
12 x 5.5 x 5.5
12 x 5.5 x 5.5

Weight
Kg
20.8
21.1
11.98
12.21
14.32
14.32

10
days
Psi
565
671
269
269
250
255

Avg
10
days
Psi

Estd.
28
days
Psi

618

824

269

359

253

337

Compressive strength test results for PPAF concrete mix designs for solid blocks
(Compressive Strength at 10 days)
Avg Estd.
28
10
10
Block
Weight days days days
Psi
Psi
Mix (cement: sand: aggregate)
#
Size
Kg
Psi
1:2:4
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 2421
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 2236 2,329 3,105
1:3:6
1
12 x 8 x 6
22.40 1545
2
12 x 8 x 6
22.26 2154 1,850 2,466
1:4:8
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 1614
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 1591 1,603 2,137
1:6 (cement:river bed material)
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 2793
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 3065 2,929 3,905
1:8 (cement:river bed material)
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 2282
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 2282 2,282 3,043
1:10 (cement:river bed material)
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 1451
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 1358 1,405 1,873
1:3:6 with hole
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 1350
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 1427 1,389 1,851
1:3:6 half block
1
12 x 8 x 6
15.00 1521
2
12 x 8 x 6
15.80 1890 1,706 2,274
Note: Trials show that 1:3:6 and 1:4:8 both provide adequate strength (28 days ASTM C 90:

1700 Psi net area unit compressive strength, average of three units to be not less than 1900
Psi; if based on gross area then 1000 Psi.). Even 1:8 blocks using river bed material gave
satisfactory results. The key is to have proper mix design, water : cement ratio and adequate curing.

Appendix III
Calculation of Seismic Forces
Developed in Masonry Wall

Seismic Forces for Masonry Structure with 6 Solid Blocks


As per UBC-97, base shear is calculated as follows:

V=

CvI
W
RT

Seismic Band
at Roof

Where

3ft

Cv = Seismic Co-efficient; Table 16-R

Seismic Band
at Lintel

R = Overstrength Factor; Table 16-N


I = Importance Factor; Table 16-K

4ft

3/4

T = Time Period; Ct(hn) where Ct = 0.02


Seismic Band
at Sill

W = Weight of the Building


R=Overstrength Factor; Table 16-N

3ft

I=Importance Factor; Table 16-K


T=Time Period; Ct(hn)3/4 where Ct = 0.02
Cv = 0.96; R=4.5; I=1; T=0.1125(where height of the building is taken as 10)
Weight of Building (Room 15x15; ht=10ft):
Roof Level: (30.15.15 + 6/12x3/2x15x4x145)/1000 = 13.30k
Lintel Level: 6/12(3/2x15)x4x145 + 6/12x(4/2x15)x4x145 = 15.225 k
Sill Level: 6/12x(4/2x15)x4x145 + 6/12x(3x15)x4x145 = 21.75 k
Total weight, W = 50.275 k
V=0.96x1x50.275/(4.5x0.1125)
V= 95.33 k
But shall not exceed
V= 2.5x0.44x50.275.0/4.5
V= 12.3 k

Eq. 30-5

governs

a) Seismic Forces when earthquake is applied in the weaker direction of the wall
Base shear V is distributed statistically and following are the value at different level:
5.37 k

Lintel Level:

4.30 k

Sill Level:

2.63 k

Since two walls (hatched) will


resist above seismic forces. Hence
seismic forces to be divided by 2
while analyzing one wall.
Hence, seismic forces on
one wall:

Seismic Force
Direction

Walls resisting Seismic Forces

Roof Level:

Roof Level:

2.68 k

Lintel Level:

2.15 k

Sill Level:

1.32 k

b) Seismic Forces when earthquake is applied in the weaker direction of the wall

Wall resisting
Seismic
Forces

Seismic
Force

In this case, the calculated base shear is applied uniformly on the wall face.
For solid block wall; the earthquake pressure is approximated as:
Base shear, V=12.3kips
Pressure on the wall = 12.3/(15x10) x 1000/4
= 20.5 Psf

Seismic Forces for Masonry Structure with 6 Hollow Blocks


As per UBC-97, base shear is calculated as follows:

V=

CvI
W
RT

Seismic Band
at Roof

Where

3ft

Cv = Seismic Co-efficient; Table 16-R


R = Overstrength Factor; Table 16-N

Seismic Band
at Lintel

I = Importance Factor; Table 16-K

4ft

3/4

T = Time Period; Ct(hn) where Ct = 0.02


Seismic Band
at Sill

W = Weight of the Building


R=Overstrength Factor; Table 16-N

3ft

I=Importance Factor; Table 16-K


T=Time Period; Ct(hn)3/4 where Ct = 0.02
Cv = 0.96; R=4.5; I=1; T=0.1125(where height of the building is taken as 10)
Weight of Building (Room 15x15; ht=10ft):
Roof Level: (30.15.15 + 6/12x3/2x15x4x(2/3x145))/1000 = 11.10k
Lintel Level: (6/12(3/2x15)x4 + 6/12x(4/2x15)x4)x(2/3x145) = 10.15 k
Sill Level: (6/12x(4/2x15)x4x145 + 6/12x(3x15)x4)x(2/3x145) = 14.50 k
Total weight, W = 35.75 k
V=0.96x1x35.75/(4.5x0.1125)
V= 67.80 k
But shall not exceed
V= 2.5x0.44x35.75.0/4.5
V= 8.58 k

Eq. 30-5

governs

a) Seismic Forces when earthquake is applied in the weaker direction of the wall
Base shear V is distributed statistically and following are the value at different level:
4.22 k

Lintel Level:

2.70 k

Sill Level:

1.65 k

Since two walls (hatched)


will resist above seismic
forces. Hence seismic
forces to be divided by 2
while analyzing one wall.

Seismic Force
Direction

Walls resisting Seismic Forces

Roof Level:

Hence, seismic forces on


one wall:
Roof Level:

2.11 k

Lintel Level:

1.35 k

Sill Level:

0.83 k

b) Seismic Forces When Earthquake is Applied in the Weaker Direction of the Wall

Wall resisting
Seismic
Forces

Seismic
Force

In this case, the calculated base shear is applied uniformly on the wall face.
For solid block wall; the earthquake pressure is approximated as:
Base shear, V=8.58kips
Pressure on the wall = 8.58/(15x10) x 1000/4
= 14.3 Psf

Appendix IV
Stresses Developed in
Block Wall

Case 1: Earthquake applied in the major direction of the wall made of


solid blocks
Load1: Stresses due to earthquake load only; (Stress= 22.0 Psi)

Load 2: Stresses due to dead load; (Stress= 100.4 Psi)

Combination of Load 1 + Load 2 (Stress= 101.2 Psi)

When slenderness effect of wall is not considered (Stress = 24.0 Psi)

Moment at Seismic Band

Max. moment; 235.8 lb.ft

Moment at Wall; 147.6 lb.ft

Case 2: Earthquake applied in the minor(weaker) direction of the wall


made of solid blocks
Load1: Only earthquake forces (23Psi)

Due to dead load 102.2Psi

Combination of Load 1 + Load 2 (118.6Psi)

Case 2: Earthquake applied in the minor(weaker) direction of the wall


made of solid blocks
Moment at Seismic Band

Max. moment; 275.8 lb.ft

Moment at Wall; 172.9 lb.ft

Appendix V
Calculation of Soil Bearing
Capacity

CHECK FOR SOIL BEARING CAPACITY :


a) FOR 6" HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCKS :

Average Stress

60

60.0 x 6 x 30 x 144
30 x 30 x 2.24 x 1000

psi

0.771 Tons/sft

b) FOR 6" SOLID CONCRETE BLOCKS :

Average Stress

90

90 x 6 x 30 x 144
30 x 30 x 2.24 x 1000

psi

1.157 Tons/sft

30 "

Hence soil bearing capacity is adequake to undertake such stresses.

30 "