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Design and Development of Quad Copter

INDEX
SR.
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

10
11
12
13

TITLE
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
PROJECT OVERVIEW
SCOPE
LITERATURE REVIEW
RECENT DEVELOPMENT
METHODOLOGY
7.1
BASIC MATERIAL
7.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
7.3
WORKING PRINCIPLE
7.4
MOTOR ROTATION
7.5
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
MATERIALS
8.1
FRAME
8.1.1 REASONS TO CHOSE ALUMINUM
8.2
MOTOR MOUNT BASE PLATES
8.2.1 DESIGN
8.3
CENTER PLATE
8.3.1 DESIGN
8.4
BLDC MOTOR
8.4.1 MOTOR DRAWING
8.4.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE
8.4.3 THRUST CALCULATION
8.5
ESC
8.5.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE
8.6
PROPELLERS
8.7
TRANSMITTER
8.7.1 TRANSMITTER KEYS &COMBINATION
8.8
CAMERA
8.8.1 CAMERA ACCESSORIES
8.9
FLIGHT CONTROLLER
8.10 BATTERY
8.11 LANDING GEAR
8.11.1 DESIGN
FLIGHT CONTROLS
9.1
MOTIONS
9.2
TORQUE
9.3
YAW
9.4
ROLL
9.5
PITCH
BILL OF MATERIALS
FUTURE SCOPE AND SUMMARY
CONCLUSION
REFERRENCE

Department of Production Engineering, K.I.T.'s COEK

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

LIST OF FIGURES
SR.
NO.
7.1
7.2
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.5
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.3
8.3.1
8.4
8.4.1
8.5
8.5.1
8.6
8.7
8.7.1
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.8
8.8.1
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.11.1
8.11.2
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
12.1

TITLE
WORKING PRINCIPLE - BLOCK DIAGRAM
WORKING PRINCIPLE RECEIVER & FLIGHT CONTROL
MOTION OF MOTORS (TAKEOFF)
MOTION OF MOTORS (LANDING)
MOTION OF MOTORS (FORWARD)
MOTION OF MOTORS (BACKWARD)
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
ALUMINUM FRAM
MOTOR MOUNT BASE PLATES
DESIGN
CENTER PLATES
DESIGN
BLDC MOTOR
MOTOR DRAWING
ESC
WORKING PRINCIPLE ESC
PROPELLERS
TRANSMITTERS
TRANSMITTERS KEYS & COMBINATIONS (RUDDER)
TRANSMITTERS KEYS & COMBINATIONS (ELEVATOR)
TRANSMITTERS KEYS & COMBINATIONS (AILERON)
CAMERA
CAMERA ACCESORIES
FLIGHT CONTROLLER
BATTERY
LANDING GEAR
CROSS LEGS DIMENSIONS
CROSS LEGS WITH REFERENCE TO FRAME
FLIGHT CONTROL MOTIONS
FLIGHT CONTROL - TORQUE
FLIGHT CONTROL - YAW
FLIGHT CONTROL - ROLL
FLIGHT CONTROL PITCH
FINAL IMAGE QUADCOPTER

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

TABLE NAME

PAGE NO.

BILL OF MATERIAL

53

NO.
1

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

1. ABSTRACT

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

1. ABSTRACT

The military use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has grown because of
their ability to operate in dangerous locations while keeping their human operators at
a safe distance. The larger UAVs also provide a reliable long duration, cost effective,
platform for reconnaissance as well as weapons. They have grown to become an
indispensable tool for the military. The question we posed for our project was whether
small UAVs also had utility in military and commercial/industrial applications. We
postulated that smaller UAVs can serve more tactical operations such as searching a
village or a building for enemy positions. Smaller UAVs, on the order of a couple feet
to a meter in size, should be able to handle military tactical operations as well as the
emerging commercial and industrial applications and our project is attempting to
validate this assumption.

To validate this assumption, my team considered many different UAV designs


before we settled on creating a Quadcopter. The payload of our Quadcopter design
includes a camera and recording of video that will allow us to watch it from the
Quadcopter on a laptop. We have just finished the project but we will continue to
work on the Quadcopter to improve performance and controllability.

Our project has verified that it is possible to build a small-scale Quadcopter


that could be used for both military and commercial use. Our most significant
problems to date have been an ambitious development schedule coupled with very
limited funds. These constraints have forced compromise in components selected and
methods used for prototype development. Currently our Quadcopter has achieved
stable untethered flight as well as autonomous altitude hold. Although there are many
enhancements that we could do to the design, we have proven that it is possible to
produce a small scale UAV that performs functions of interest to the military as well
as commercial/industrial applications.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

2. INTRODUCTION

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

2. INTRODUCTION

Quad copter is an aerial vehicle which is operated to fly independently. It is a


type of a small representation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV).A Quad Copter,
also called a Quad rotor helicopter, is a multicopter that is lifted and propelled by four
motors.
Quad Copters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-wing aircraft,
because their lift is generated by a set of revolving motors. Control of vehicle motion
is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or more rotor discs, thereby changing
its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics.

Summary of goals

Determine a suitable quad copter RC UAV design.

Determine suitable parts and components to be used for the design.

Select a camera system to mount on the quad copter.

Determine a method to Record video to the controller.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

3. PROJECT OVERVIEW

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

3. PROJECT OVERVIEW

The ultimate goal of our project is to record an aerial video which can be
processed and stored. This technology can be used for search and rescue, firefighting,
law enforcement, military, and news reporting by being able to deploy aerial
correspondence much faster than conventional helicopters.

The end result of producing a digital video signal will allow for future expansions
such as UAV sentience, target tracking and video compression. There are many
components to this project and we must decide which areas will developed ourselves
and which areas will be implemented with 3rd party products.

The quad copter chassis and controller system consists of everything needed to
build and control the flying platform in which the camera will be mounted. This
includes a frame, DC motors, power supply, rotors, flight control circuit board, flight
control software, and an RC controller.

The video recording system consists of the components that record, store and
display the video. The digital video analysis system will take the raw video data,
convert it to digital if necessary, and load it into a computer. This system will need a
memory card, a computer and video processing software, if necessary.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

4. SCOPE

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

4. SCOPE

Since as early as 1920, multicopter vehicles have been designed, built, and
used to experiment with aerial vehicle designs. The quadrotor or quadcopter design is
one example of the many prototypes produced. This particular design uses four
identical rotors mounted symmetrically; the result is a very stable flight platform. The
goal of this project is to use the stable aerial quadcopter design for practical uses by
attaching a live feed camera to a small-scale, remote controlled, quadrotor, unmanned
aerial vehicle (UAV). The video received will be transmitted by digital or analog
signals. If the captured video is an analog format it must be converted to digital video
after transmission. With a digital signal, the video can be easily processed for analysis
and storage.

Scope in present Aerospace Industry -

Quadcopters are uninhabited or unmanned aerial vehicles which are widely


being used in modern aerospace industry. The wide area of operation and high
maneuverability makes quadcopter even more useful. Quadcopters are used in
scientific research, geological survey, aerial photography, weather sensing, spying,
and reconnaissance. Quadcopters are not limited to the above specified practices.
They are light in weight, maneuverable, easy to build, easy to deploy, portable, and
can be extended and optimized as per the specific task.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

5. LITERATURE REVIEW

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

5. LITERATURE REVIEW

Etienne Oehmichen was the first scientist who experimented with rotorcraft
designs in the 1920s. Among the six designs he tried, his second multicopter had four
rotors and eight propellers, all driven by a single engine. The Oehmichen used a steeltube frame, with two-bladed rotors at the ends of the four arms. The angle of these
blades could be varied by warping. Five of the propellers, spinning in the horizontal
plane, stabilized the machine laterally. Another propeller was mounted at the nose for
steering. The remaining pair of propellers was for forward propulsion. The aircraft
exhibited a considerable degree of stability and controllability for its time, and made
more than a thousand test flights during the middle 1920s. By 1923 it was able to
remain airborne for several minutes at a time, and on April 14, 1924 it established the
first-ever FAI distance record for helicopters of 360 m.Later, it completed the first 1
kilometer closed-circuit flight by a rotorcraft.

After Oehmichen, Dr. George de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome developed this
aircraft, with six bladed rotors at the end of an X-shaped structure. Two small
propellers with variable pitch were used for thrust and yaw control. The vehicle used
collective pitch control. It made its first flight in October 1922. About 100 flights
were made by the end of 1923. The highest it ever reached was about 5 m. Although
demonstrating feasibility, it was, underpowered, unresponsive, mechanically complex
and susceptible to reliability problems. Pilot workload was too high during hover to
attempt lateral motion.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter


Convertawings Model A Quadrotor (1956) was intended to be the prototype
for a line of much larger civil and military quadrotor helicopters. The design featured
two engines driving four rotors with wings added for additional lift in forward flight.
No tail rotor was needed and control was obtained by varying the thrust between
rotors. Flown successfully many times in the mid-1950s, this helicopter proved the
quadrotor design and it was also the first four-rotor helicopter to demonstrate
successful forward flight. Due to a lack of orders for commercial or military versions
however, the project was terminated. Convertawings proposed a Model E that would
have a maximum weight of 42,000 lb (19,000 kg) with a payload of 10,900 lb (4,900
kg).

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

6. RECENT
DEVELOPMENT

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

6. Recent Development

Recent quad rotors or quadcopter which are being manufactured and used in
aerospace industry are listed below:

Aermatica Spa's Anteos is the first rotary wing RPA (remotely piloted aircraft)
to have obtained official permission to fly (Permit To Fly) issued in the civil airspace,
by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC), and will be the first able to work in
non-segregated airspace.

AeroQuad is an open-source hardware and software project which utilizes


Arduino boards and freely provides hardware designs and software for the DIY
construction of Quadcopters.

ArduCopter is an open-source multicopter UAV. Based on Arduino, it


supports from four to eight motors, as well as traditional helicopters, and allows fully
autonomous missions as well as RC control.Open Pilot is a model aircraft opensource software project.

Parrot AR.Drone is a small radio controlled quadcopter with cameras attached


to it built by Parrot SA, designed to be controllable with iOS or Android devices.
Parrot AR.Drone 2.0 carries a HD 720P camera and more sensors, such as altimeter
and magnetometer.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

7. METHODOLOGY

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

7. METHODOLOGY

7.1 BASIC MATERIALS REQUIRED


1. KK Multicopter v 5.1.2
2. Brushless DC Motors
3. 1.2 GHz Transmitter and receiver
4. Electronic Speed Controller
5. Bullet Connectors
6. Propellers
7. Gyroscope
8. Accelerometer
9. A strong base to hold the structure (Frame)

7.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig. 7.1 Working Principle Block Diagram


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Design and Development of Quad Copter


As the figure above clearly shows block diagram as to how the quadcopter
actually works. It can be seen that the micro controller ATMEGA 328 is at the center.
The flight controller includes this MCU ATMEGA 328 which is connected to ESC
Electronic Speed Controllers.

7.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE


Quadcopter is a device with a intense mixture of Electronics, Mechanical and
works mainly on the principle of Aviation.
The Quadcopter has 4 motors whose speed of rotation and the direction of
rotation changes according to the users desire to move the device in a particular
direction (i.e Takeoff motion, Landing motion, Forward motion, Backward motion,
Left motion, Right Motion. )
The rotation of Motors changes as per the transmitted signal send from the 6Channel transmitter. The program for which is written in the AT-MEGA 328 chip.
The signal from microcontroller goes to ESCs which in turn control the speed
of motor.

Fig. 7.2 Working Principle - Receiver and Flight Control

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

7.4 MOTOR ROTATIONS

Fig. 7.3.1 Working Principle Motion of Motors (Takeoff)

This Figure above shows the motion of motors for Takeoff. It is clearly seen
that front left motor & rear right motor rotates in clockwise direction and front right
motor & rear left motor rotates in anticlockwise direction. The takeoff motion
happens when throttle is positively increased.

Fig. 7.3.2 Working Principle Motion of Motors (Landing)


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Design and Development of Quad Copter


The direction of motors while in Landing is clearly shown in the figure above. It is
same as that of takeoff motion but here the throttle that is given is negative. It means
that when throttle is decreased gradually, the quadcopter gradually lowers its altitude
and eventually touches ground.

Fig. 7.3.3 Working Principle Motion of Motors (Forward)

From the figure above, it is clearly understood that when quadcopter is in


forward motion the front motors decreases their speed and rear motors increase their
speed.
The direction of rotation remains the same. It doesnt get changed whilst in
flight.Now because of this the quadcopter tilts from forward region and the rear
region of the quadcopter gets lifted up. Hence the forward motion takes place.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

Fig. 7.3.4 Working Principle Motion of Motors (Backwards)

When motor speed of front is increased and the speed of rear motors is
decreased, then the quadcopter tilts in rear direction and the front region gets lifted up.
This causes the backward motion of quadcopter. It is to be noted that the
direction of the motor remains the same while in flight.
The only way to change motor direction is to land it and make changes in
motor bullet connectors to electronic speed controller.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

7.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig. 7.5 Circuit Diagram

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8. MATERIALS

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.1 FRAME

Fig. 8.1 Aluminum Frame

Material Aluminum
Shop Novel Aluminum, Bagal Chowk
Shape X
Angle between Landing Gear and Frame 40 Degrees
Nuts & Bolts M3 (3x40mm Center, 3x30mm Side)
Raw material length10 Foot (4 Bar 10 In. each)
Welding Argon Welding (Udyamnagar)
Landing Gear 15 cm

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.1.1REASONS TO CHOOSE ALUMINIUM

Aluminum is a fine material for multis and is widely used. Aluminum is easy
to fabricate and can often be bent back into shape after crashes. Aluminum has been
used in aircraft since WW2, and is still being used today. Even the most advanced
aircraft use a significant amount of aluminum. It's also a great material for Aero
Quads.

Aluminum is an excellent electrical conductor though, and therefore adequate


care must be taken to not short out your electronics, or more importantly your LiPo.Because it is a homogeneous material three dimensional shapes can be machined
from it as well, something that can't really be done with composites like carbon fiber
or fiberglass.

It's readily available and fairly inexpensive. It's also easy to machine, as
carbide and steel tools can machine it fairly easily. There are a fair range of different
aluminum alloys available, and although they generally have similar densities and
stiffness's, the strength can vary greatly. Although 6061 is frequently referred to as
'Aircraft grade' it isn't used on modern aircraft at all and with a tensile strength of just
30 ksi, its not very strong.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.2MOTOR MOUNT BASE PLATES

Fig. 8.2 Motor Mount Base Plates

Material Acrylic
Pieces 4
Diameter Center Hole 8mm & Side holes 3mm
Length 40mm
Thickness 2mm
Number of holes 7
Radius 12mm
Designing Software AutoCAD & CorelDraw
Cutting Method Laser Cutting
Nuts & Bolts - 3x30 mm

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.2.1DESIGN

Fig. 8.2.1 Motor Mount Base Plates Design in CorelDraw

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.3CENTER PLATE

Fig. 8.3Center Plates

Centre Plate Size 10x10 cm


Quantity 2
Material Acrylic
No. of holes 1 Center, 8 Sides
Design Software CorelDraw & AutoCAD
Cutting Method Laser Cutting
Nuts & Bolts 3x40 mm

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.3.1 DESIGN

Fig. 8.3.1 Center Plate CorelDraw Design

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.4 BLDC Motor

Fig. 8.4 BLDC Motor

Manufacturer Phantom
Type Brushless DC (Out runner)
Shaft Diameter 4mm
Shaft Length: 49mm
Ratings 930 KV , 6000 - 8000 rpm , 12 14 Volt
Thrust 850 to 950 Grams using 10 X 4.5 (Inch X Pitch) Propellers
Connectors Gold Bullet
Dimension: 28X24mm
Shaft: 8.0mm
Weight: 56gr (with Prop Adapter)
Standard Current: 15-25A Max Current : 30A
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8.4.1MOTOR DRAWINGS

Fig. 8.4.1 BLDC Motor Drawings

8.4.2WORKING PRINCIPLE BLDC MOTOR

A brushless motor is constructed with a permanent magnet rotor and wire


wound stator poles. Electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy by the
magnetic attractive forces between the permanent magnet rotor and a rotating
magnetic field induced in the wound stator poles. There are three electromagnetic
circuits connected at a common point.

Each electromagnetic circuit is split in the center, thereby permitting the


permanent magnet rotor to move in the middle of the induced magnetic field. Most
BLDC motors have a three-phase winding topology with star connection. A motor
with this topology is driven by energizing 2 phases at a time.
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Design and Development of Quad Copter

The static alignment is that which would be realized by creating an electric


current flow from terminal A to B, noted as path 1.The suggested magnetic alignment
is used only for illustration purposes because it is easy to visualize. In practice,
maximum torque is obtained when the permanent magnet rotor is 90 degrees away
from alignment with the stator magnetic field.

8.4.3THRUST CALCULATION

The Thrust we calculated is 850 950 grams.Method Used Digital


Weighing Machine. Setting the digital weighing machine to zero we started the
motors and began revolving in anticlockwise direction.
The reason for anti-clockwise direction is that, we dont want the Quad to be
lifted in air. Instead, we want it to apply force on weighing machine.So when Quad
Copter applies force on weighing machine, the display unit shows 850- 950 grams on
Full Throttle.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.5ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROLLER

Fig. 8.5 Electronic Speed Controller

It has Power requirement of 25 Ampere. ItIncludes Microcontroller and


MOSFET Signal transmitted from transmitter is converted by Pulse Width
Modulation. The working of electronic speed controller is explained below.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.5.1 WORKING

Fig. 8.5.1 Working ESC

Signals are directly sent by the transmitter remote control to receiver and then
sent to ESC. Transmitter is used by the user to control the quad manually. If the user
changes the input, transmitter sends radio signals to receiver and receiver changes
these signals to PWM signals. These PWM signals are sent to ESCs causing the
change in the speed of the motors.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.6 PROPELLERS

8.6 PROPELLERS

Material Plastic & Nylon Combination


Pitch 10 X 4.5 (Inch x Pitch)
Quantity 4
Color Coding
Orange Rear
Black Forward

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8.7TRANSMITTER

Fig. 8.7 Transmitter

Channel 6
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Manufacturer Fly Sky
Channel 5 Auto Stability
Channel 6 Free for GPS
Transmitting Range 1 Km
Power 12 Volt
Source AA Batteries
Our Transmitter is Mode 2, where left hand side is throttle unlike Mode 1, where left
right hand side is throttle (European)

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.7.1TRANSMITTER KEYS & COMBINATIONS

Fig. 8.7.1 Transmitter Keys & Combinations Rudder

It is clearly seen in the above figure, the left joystick in transmitter is for
Throttle in vertical direction (up and down) and Rudder in horizontal direction (left
and right). This motion is related to Yaw motion of quadcopter which is explained
later.

Fig 8.7.2 Transmitter Keys & Combinations Elevator

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From the figure above it is clearly seen that right joystick in the transmitter is
for Elevator motion in vertical direction ( up and down ). This motion is related with
Roll motion of quadcopter.

Fig. 8.7.3Transmitter Keys & Combinations Aileron

From the figure above, it is understood that right joystick of transmitter is for
Aileron motion in horizontal direction (left and right). The aileron motion is
concerned with Pitch motion of quadcopter.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.8 CAMERA

Fig. 8.8 Digital Camera - Recording

5 MP Camera
1280x960 Pixels Camera
Rechargeable Camera
Mini Camera
Size: 4.6cm x 3cm x 1.5cm (1.81inch x 1.18inch x 0.59inch)
Format: AVI (video), JPG (picture), WAV (sound)
Video compression: M-JPEG
Charging time: About 3 hours
Video resolution: 720*480 @ 30fps

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.8.1 CAMERA ACCESORIES

Fig. 8.8.1 Camera Accessories

The Accessories that are provided with the camera are:


USB charging cable
Portable Camera Charging unit
Neck Hanging Belt

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.9 FLIGHT CONTROLLER

Fig. 8.9 Flight Controller

Manufacturer Hobby King KK


Version 2.1.5
Weight: 21 gram
MCU ATMEGA 328
Gyroscope & Barometer MPU 6050
Accelerometer ADXL 35
Auto-level: Yes
It Includes Gyroscope and Accelerometer with hybrid sensors and algorithms.
Gyroscope detects which side is down.Accelerometer accelerates and de-accelerates
motor speed.Flight Controller is used for Auto Stability.

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8.10 BATTERY

Fig. 8.10 Li-Po Battery

Type Li-Po (LithiumPolymer)


12 Volt
3 cells
2.2 Ampere
2200 MAh
Selection Method
1) 12 Volt for propeller size 10 X 4.5

Inch X Pitch

2) 8 Volt for propeller size 8 X 5 Inch X Pitch


It is to be noted that Thrust is directly proportional to Battery Power Rating.
(Thrust ~ Battery Power)
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8.11LANDING GEAR

Fig. 8.11 Landing Gear

For Shock Absorption Smiley Balls


Material EPP High Density Foam
Attachment - Stuck to landing gear (Legs) by Cyanoacrylate
Cross Legs 4
Angle(Between Horizontal plane and cross legs) 40 Degrees

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

8.11.1 DESIGN OF LANDING GEAR

Fig. 8.11.1 Cross legs dimensions


The aluminum bar of 16.5 centimeters is chosen. It is then cut according to the
diagram shown above. This is required for proper balance of quadcopter when it ia on
the ground. The bar is cut from top and bottom side by 1.5 centimeters in 45 degree
angle.

Fig. 8.11.2 Cross legs with reference to frame


The figure 8.10.2 clearly shows the angle between horizontal frame and cross
legs. It is given as 40 degrees. The angle is chosen based on the space requirement for
motor on motor mount base plates and the flight controller and battery at center.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9. FLIGHT CONTROL

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9.1 MOTIONS

Each rotor produces both a thrust and torque about its center of rotation, as
well as a drag force opposite to the vehicle's direction of flight. If all rotors are
spinning at the same angular velocity, with rotors one and three rotating clockwise
and rotors two and four counterclockwise, the net aerodynamic torque, and hence the
angular acceleration about the yaw axis, is exactly zero.

Fig. 9.1 Flight control motions

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9.2 TORQUE

Fig. 9.2 Flight Control - Torque

Schematic of reaction torques on each motor of a quad copter aircraft, due to


spinning rotors. Rotors 1 and 3 spin in one direction, while rotors 2 and 4 spin in the
opposite direction, yielding opposing torques for control

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9.3 YAW

A quad rotor adjusts its yaw by applying more thrust to rotors rotating in one
direction. Yaw is induced by mismatching the balance in aerodynamic torques (i.e.,
by offsetting the cumulative thrust commands between the counter-rotating blade
pairs).The shown figure indicates the motion of quadcopter in yaw motion when
rudder is applied through transmitter. The method of applying rudder can be referred
in section 8 materials transmitter transmitter keys and combinations.

Fig. 9.3 Flight Control Yaw

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9.4ROLL

A quad rotor adjusts its roll by applying more thrust to one rotor and less
thrust to its diametrically opposite rotor. The figure shown clearly indicates that when
aileron is applied through transmitter key and combinations, the quadcopter can
perform roll motion which can be explained as the motion of quadcopter where it
rotates about its own axis.

Fig, 9.4 Flight Control Roll

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

9.5 PITCH

A quad rotor adjusts its pitch by applying more thrust to one rotor and less thrust
to its diametrically opposite rotor. As seen in the figure the quadcopter can rise its
altitude or lower its altitude using the pitch motion. When transmitter keys are used to
give elevator function to quadcopter, it performs pitch motion.

Fig. 9.5 Flight Controls Pitch

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10.BILL OF MATERIALS

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

Particulars

Qty

Specification

Function

930kv,

Motion to

6000-8000rpm,

Propeller

BLDC
(brushless

DC Motor)

12-14volt

ESC

25A,Contains

Speed

Microcontroller,

Control

MOSFET

Of Dc

(Electronic

Speed
Control)

Battery

Cost

Manufacturer

6000

Phantom

4000

Hobby king

2000

Turnigy zippy

500

Turnigy

5000

Fly sky

6000

KK Board

Motor

12v,3cell,Li-Po

Power
Supply

Propellers

10X4.5 (InchXpitch)

Flight

Transmit
Transmitter

6channel,2.4Ghz,range1km

signal to
flight
controller

Autopilot

Flight
Controller

mcu- Atmega 328

system

Gyroscope MPU6050

with

Accelerometer

hybrid

ADXL35

sensors
and
algorithm

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

11. SUMMARY AND


FUTURE WORKS

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

The system would consist of GPS tracking for location tracking, ultrasonic
range finders for collision detection, and an autopilot controller to tie all the systems
together.

The autopilot software would be the greatest challenge but also the most
useful feature. With a completely automated system the UAV could be given patrol
routes for constant surveillance in secure areas.

11.1 ADVANTAGES

Small-scale quad -copters have frames that enclose the rotors, permitting
flights through more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging the
vehicle or its surroundings.
Quad copters do not require mechanical linkages to vary the rotor blade pitch
angle as they spin. This simplifies the design and maintenance of the vehicle.
The use of four rotors allows each individual rotor to have a smaller diameter
than the equivalent helicopter rotor, allowing them to possess less kinetic energy
during flight.

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

11.2 DISADVANTAGES

The most significant problem to date have been an ambitious development


schedule coupled with very limited funds. This is followed by complexity in
calculation and designing.
Total Flight time is considerably low because battery available can provide
backup only up to 15 minutes.Without proper permission, flying the Quad may be
considered a crime under the drone act , as it violates privacy of other.

11.3 APPLICATIONS MILITARY

Quadcopter

- Unmanned Arial Vehicle are used for surveillance and

reconnaissance by military and law enforcement agencies, as well as search and


rescue missions in urban environments.
One such example is the Aeryon Scout, created by Canadian company Aeryon
Labs, which is a small UAV that can quietly hover in place and use a camera to
observe people and objects on the ground.
The company claims that the machine played a key role in a drug bust in Central
America by providing visual surveillance of a Drug Traffickers compound deep in the
jungle (Aeryon won't reveal the country's name and other specifics).

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12. CONCLUSION

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Design and Development of Quad Copter

12. CONCLUSION

After a lot of hard work and research, we completed the project in March. After
completion of quadcopter, we immediately started to learn how to fly the quadcopter.

This process took a lot of time because it is not an easy job to fly the quadcopter. But
after a while we almost perfected the art of flying the quadcopter.

The simulator software available for laptop proved to be useful before taking actual
flight in order to prevent the damage to quadcopter. The final image of quadcopter is
shown below.
Hence, here we conclude our project report.

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13.REFERENCES

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LINKS
http://www.aeroquadstore.com/AeroQuad_Kits_s/40.htm
http://store.diydrones.com/category_s/28.htmhttp://store.scoutuav.com/products/prod
uct-category/scout-kits/

OTHER LINKS
[1] K. Munson. (1968). Helicopters and Other Rotorcraft Since 1907 [Online].
Available: http://aviastar.org/helicopters_eng/oemichen.php
[2] Gabriel Hoffmann. (2007, January 15) Schematic of reaction torques on each
motor of a quadrotor aircraft, due to spinning rotors [Online].
Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Quadrotor_yaw_torque.png
[3] FPVUK (2012) How do I go about it? [Online]
Available: http://fpvuk.org/what-is-fpv/what-do-i-need/
[4] Simon Sze. Chapter 13.6 inPhysics of semiconductor devices (3 ed.) John Wiley
and Sons, 2007.
[5] lorextechnology.com (2012) Understanding Digital and Analog Wireless
Technology [Online].
Available:http://www.lorextechnology.com/support/selfserve/Understanding+Digital+and+Analog+Wireless+Technology/3700043
[6] Rockwell Semiconductor Systems (1997) Single-Chip Video and Broadcast Audio
Capture for the PCI Bus[Online].
Available: http://www.ituner.com/spectra/Bt878.pdf
[7] Howard Shane. (2005, January 29) The BTTV HOWTO [Online]
Available:http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/otherformats/html_single/BTTV.html

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