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Pnonounce

Pe

lr

ntrcrly

in FnENcir
.h"

PnonouNcE lr
Penf

crly

in FnENCk
by Christopher Kendris, Ph.D.
Dipl6m6, Institut de Phon6tique

Universit6 de Paris (en Sorbonne)

Formerly Assista nt Professor


DePartment of French
State University of New York at Albany

NA
rEfiil.it-lNiK

BARRON'S EDUCATIONAL SERIES, INC.

For my wife Yolanda, my two sons.Alex and


Ted, my daughter-in-law Tina, and my four
grandsons Bryaln, Daniel, Matthew and Andrew

Conre rurs

with love
Inc'
O Copyright 1994 by Barron's Educational Series'

Introduction

vi

Abbreviations Used in This Book


The French Alphabet

ix
ix

Plnr Ore: Thr Yowrls


Unit

A1l rights reserved.

any form by pho-

may be reproduced in
or any other means' or incorxerography,
tostat, microfilm,

2
3

owner.

No

pirt of this book

or
porated into any information retrieval system, electronic
mechanical, without the written permission of the copyright

5
All inquiries should

be addressed to:

250 Wireless Boulevard

Hauppauge, NY 11788

International Standard Book No' 04120-16556


Library of Congress Catalog Card No'

9
10
1l

9*4387

Kendris, ChristoPher
Pronounce it perfectly in French / by Christopher Kendris'
p. cm. - (Pronounce it perfecdy in -) ^^ ^
ISBN 0120S03&6 (book & tape
ISBN GS1ZOIO5F6 (book)'

bY

foreip

speakers, 2. French

language-Textbooks for foreign speater--Englisb-

II. Series.
PC2137.K46 l99t
448.3'421-{c20

STATES@AilfnICA
4567 sffi98765432r

PRINTED IN I.]NNED

I. Title.
93.44387

CIP

o
J
B

l8
76

80
91

93
101.

III

174

rurd hrotrriol
La Liaison
L'Enchainement, l'6lision, e muet

123

The Consonants:

Plnr Thner: \Vond Prrrenrs

Library of Congress Cataloging-ia-Publication Data

l. Fiench language-Pronunciation

The Three Semi-vowels


The Four Nasal Vowels

Plnr Two: Tke Corsoranrs


6
The Consonants: I
7
The Consonants: II

Barron's Educationai Series, Inc'

package)

The Vowels a, e,i, o, u, I


The Vowels with Accent Marks
The Most Common Single, Double,
and Triple Vowels in Combinations
and Clusters in a Word

L'Intonation

Apperdix
Pronunciation Guide
Vocabulary

1n
130
136

r39

t4t
t42

lntroduction
This book and the tlvo cassettes that come with it are organized and presented simply and clearly for persons who want
to improle their pronunciation of French. The program can
be used in middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities either independently, in class, or in a language lab-

It can also be used by students under a teacher's.


supervision in grade 5 and up in elementary schools so they
oratory,

can have an early start

in lood French pronunciation.

Travelers, business people, persons in government sewice, in

the military, and others who want to learn to pronounce


French properly and make themselves understood will also
find this program valuable for self-instruction.
It would be ideal to use the book and cassettes at the same
time. However, this program has been designed so that you
can use the book and cassettes separately. You do not need to

rely on the book while listening to the tape when driving


your car or using your Walkman while jogging, walking, or
exercising. You will profit from either the book or cassettes,
or both at the same time.
If you follow the book and the two cassettes from beginning
to end, spending approximately twenty minutes a day, you will
improve your French pronunciation so much that you will
be amazed and delighted! The key is to practice, practice,
practice.
musical qualities. It

has melody

The French language has


when spoken properly because ofthe abundant use ofpure
vowels, semi-vowels, and nasal v-oweis pronounced in words in
al'ariety of ways. The language is never spoken in a monotone
because it lends itself naturally to rh;'thm, intonation (a rise
and fall of the voice), liaisons, enchainements (linkingwhich is not the same thing as a liaison), elision, and other
qualities that many languages do not have. They are all

on the tapes, and if you let yourself go, doing your best to imitate the pronunciation on the tapes-even if you must exag_
gerate to perfect your imitation-you will be happy with the
results you achieve.

I would suggest that you start at the beginning of the book


with the basics and notjump around here and there (unless
it's for review or reinforcement) because there is a gradual
progression in the program from simple sounds to the more
challenging ones. The book begins with the pronunciation of
the letters ofthe French alphabet because, after all, they are

used in the words you pronounce and you must be acquainted

with them so you can see how their sounds change when
used in words. After that, the vowels are introduced. you will
learn how to pronounce them when they have no accent
marks in different positions within a word, and how they
change in pronunciation when they do have accent marks.
You will have plenty of practice in pronouncing simple words
and commonly used phrases.

The units in this book are arranged sptematically from the


most simple and basic sounds of vowels and consonants to the
most common single, double, and triple vowels in combina_
tions and clusters with or without consonants within a word

or at the end of a word. One French word in particular that


has alwap intrigued me is oeufs (eggs), which produces only
one vowel sound when pronounced.
Subsequently, you are guided in the pronunciation of
words in groups, phrases, clauses, and sentences. Take a few
minutes and turn to the Contents to become familiar with it.
Fan the pages of the book and see for yourself that you will
have plenty of practice listening and speaking when you use
the two cassettes.

explained and illustrated in this book and on the cassette


tapes. If you listen carefully to the authentic French spoken

vl

vil

When I give English rvords as examples that contain sounds


similar to French, be aware that they are onl,v approximate
because the English language does not contain many of the
French sounds. For example, when pronouncing a round,
closed o in French, it should not contain a ar sound tacked on
to it as it does in English. We say, for example, Oh, so go!
with a zu sound. In French you must avoid such a zu sound by
not bringing your lips together. Another frequently used
French sound is the vowel u, as in tu, du, lu, pu, plus, and
many others. This sound does not exist in English either' It is
close to the zsound in the English words cuteNtd/albutwithout the zl sound. This, too, is explained and illustrated when
you come to the pronunciation of the French u. Listen carefully to these French sounds and many others on your tape
and try to imitate them. Occasionally, drawings are included
in the book to illustrate the proper position of the lips and
tongue to help you produce the sounds as accurately as possible.

There are many different kinds of French pronunciation in


the regions of France and in other French-speaking countries,
just as there are different ways of pronouncing English in different parts of the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and
other countries of the world. There are also different levels of
pronunciation in France within regions; for example, there is
tatanguc po@laire (popular language often pronounced carelessly, as we sometimes pronounce English carelesslv and incorrectly) and la langue soignie, which is carefirl, accePtable
pronunciation. The pronunciation cfFrcrrdr remmended in
this book and on the casseue 4es b correcr' aorylile French'
have omitted anvthing abour Freoch Pronunciation
in this book that you think is imporranU Plcde write to the
publisher so it mry be inchrded in a fuure editi<m.
And now, learn hq to prucre Frtnth correctfy.

If I

Abbreviatiohs Used in This Book


m.
masculine
i*p. imperfect
f.
feminine
subj. subjunctive
s.
singular
part. participle
pl.
piural
fam. familiar
person
P.
pol. polite
lst,

2nd, first, second,

3rd

sub.

The French Alphabet


lntroducing the Sounds
Let's begin by pronouncing the letters of the French alpha_
bet. It is important to know the letters and how to pronounce
them because, after all, they are used in words you are learn_
ing to pronounce. You need to know the sounds of the letters
when someone spells a French word for you or if you have to
spell a word; for example, when you give your name to a
hotel clerk over the telephone to reserve a room. The 26 let:
ters are the same as in the English alphabet. When referring
to a French letter, each one is masculine; for example: rm

tmt/ones, anet.

Cfdno;tcr Xerdris'
il

so

Listen to the first 13 letters, A to M, and repeat each one


during the pauses.
Now listen to the remaining l3 letters, N to Z, and repeat
each one during the pauses.
Now listen to the speaker pronounce the French words
used to designate the letters W,y, Z. W is double v. y is i
grec. The word grec means Greek; in other words, t}le y is
called a Greek i. Z is zed, or zbde.
Rewind, listen and repeat as many times as you need to
practice for mastery of sounds of the letters of the French
alphabet.

And enjoy!

subject

rhird

Ph.D.

tx

Pnnr One

Tke Vowels

Unir Onr
.Vowels
Thr
A, E, t, o, U, y
lntroducing the Sounds
The letters of the French alphabet that represent vowel
sounds are a, e, i, o, u, y. The letter y is actually a variation of
the sound represented by the vowel i but is considered the
sixth vowel in the French language. In the Middle Ages and

the sixteenth century, ami and amie (friend) were written


and amiye. French kings signed their proclamations and
documents as Le Roy (the king) rather than Le Roi. (By the
way, did you know that the name Leroy means the king?)
Calligraphers in the Middle Ages considered it elegant to
write the vowel i as y in a fancy flourish when it was the last letter of a word.
as amy

The Vowela
The French letter a is pronounced somewhat like the o in
the English word bllipop.It is pronounced toward the front of
the mouth. The tip of the tongue touches the lower frsnt
teeth. The mouth is open. (See Figure l.)

,fltiliJ;.
Now listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French
words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

lo

Pnonource

lr Prnfrcrly

in Fnenck

Ulir,One: Thr Vowrts n, r, i, o, u, y

Extnnts

Erunpus

Vowele

The

The French letter e is pronouncEd somewhat like the ou


sound in the English word coul.d..

Extnnts
::i:i

In the following sentence the vowel i is used six times:


Mimi a mis ses amis d Miami.
Mirni
The

*iiiiiiii::ii::::l:LF.fji#[r'e:::{rittn.sJ:riiiiiii::iii:liiili::1::::iiiiil:i:i:ii:i:i:i:iiiiilii.ir,..ir:i:il;;.:..:i:i:,ii

lii:iiiffi::tll+:iiiiifi"'i;:tni,,'

i'fif

.:.:1i:i:ii::::i:l::::::::::iir..:::::il:i*il.i:i'i:i:i:.r.ii.i.r:iiiiiiiii:i:iiirii:,.

;;.'1.tu...i*...*,.r'nir*ra{-fj:i#rse{.fitrnff#f....sfl$B{fdtii:i.i:'r.:.,..i:i.irri...;,.rrii

i::.:.:.:ffiitlttt*irct*.fo,rcu1.rrursar.r{tnu,ln,*;litilii::iil.:.li.:t..........i........,i

d.ropped,

off herfriends in Miarni.

Vowelo

The French letter o is sometimes pronounced like the o in


the English word rose. Do not bring your lips together when
you pronounce o because you will produce a slight ar sound,
which is not desirable.
Exnnnes

The

Voweli

The French letter i is pronounced like ae in the English


word see. The lips and tongue must be in proper position.
Stretch the lips from side to side. The upper and lower front
teeth are not touching but are very close to each other. Press
the tip of the tongue hard against the lower fiont teeth. The
back of the tongue does not touch the roof of the mouth.
(See Figures 2 and 3.)

h
Figure 2. The vowel i.
(side view)

f
a*,i
L=

Fgrrc

And sometimes the French letter o is pronounced some_


thing like the a in the English word up with the jaw slightly

dropped.
--:1.

3- The vowel i.
(frorrt view)

Pnonoutct

lr

Utir One: Thr Vowls

Penfecrly in Fntrch

Exlnnrs

The Vowel

The

Pronounce the French letter u something like the sound of


u in the English word cute.Bwg be carefrrl! When you pronounce

the French u, do not bring your lips together because it will


come out with a slight ar sound as in the English word yort' To produce the French u sound, form your lips as you would to pro'
nounce the sound of o. With your lips in that position, pronounce
the sound of the French i as in the English word su'Tlte sounds
ofi and o were introduced earlier' (See Figure 4')

A, E, i, o, u,

Vowely

The French letter y is pronounced like the French vowel i


sound you learned earlier.

Erunnrs

It

At times, the vowel y is also a semi-vowel or semi-consonant.


is sometimes pronounced as the y in the English word

1as.

In French, that sound is known as le yod (which happens to


be the tenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet), as pronounced
in the words below. In the word pied, for example, the vowel
i followed by the vowel e produces the yod sound.

Extnnts
Figure 4.
The vowel u.

Utir Two
The Vowels wirh
Accenr Manks
lntroducing the Sounds e, e' 4

i,

C,

Urir Two: Tlre Vowel.s wirfi Accenr

Manks

Exennrs

I n::; ni::;l
I'
tT '- t'- g1**''-'*-.*r.r::::::i:

i:: ::::::::::i:::::::: :.:::::::::j: :::::::::::j:.:.::i.:::::::: ::::::::::

'E'i::..'i'.....',:i,i;::':::li:,:i:,,,,:,,., ,,ec.,f4,",,',,,,,,ii..

.'i.'##..i-'.i'1'.:.,ii,...:..tt'.'.,tii*fr;*t-l=l=,ii,,,i,,,,,,i.,i.i..'iiiii:i,,,.'.ii:,:,:,:,i''iii,:ii

The Accented Voweld


The accent grave on the vowel-i does not change the sound
of a. It is pronounced exactly the.same as a in la, ma, sa' ta
which you learned previously. The rnain reallrlinwhy d (at, to)
bears the accent mark is to distinguish its meaning, when
written, from the verb form a (nasl, rt-hictr is the third person
singular, present indicative of *re verb ryoir (to h@e)'
The accent grave is also used on the rcrd h (thae) to distinguish its meaning, when written, from the feminine singular definite article la Qlu).Tbey ate both pronounced the
same.

The accent grave is also used in the -*ord gi in the adverbial expression gir et lir (here an"d riazl to di*inguish its written
meaning from ga (that), which is a shonened form of the
word cela (that).
There is another French $/o1d thzt contains the accent
grave on the vowel a. It is d6ji (ahudtL as in the expression

::;..Sg$:.let.4g|'$i'..iii.ii.,.,..'ffrqlll'nei=n'tha,#om,,ffi'.;i,,.,,.....1,:,,.,:..,,

The Accented VowelE


The accent circonflexe on the vowel i changes the sound
of a. It is pronounced ah,towardthe back of the mouth. The
tip of the tongue touches the lower front teeth. The mouth is
open a little wider than when pronouncing ir or la above.
(See Figure 5.)

d-6jn-vu ( already sem).

These are the only four words in the French language


where the accent grave is used on the rcrd 3 L CL lirr and
d6jn. And, of course, on these compormd rcrds:vloilir (there
you see), as in voili rln taxi Ii$G! {tlwc's a taxi otta there!);

hold (hey

thzre; stop!);

degi et dpri ffro]

bc

a,rdfwn

Now listen carefully to all the examples' rcpear the French


words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation'

Figure 5.
The accented vowel 6.

tlwre)'

Exnnnes

10

Pnonounce

lr

Unir Two: Ths Vowsts wirft Accetr Manks

PenfecrLy in Fnench

In some words the accent circonflexe is'rrritten over a


s rvas rvritten
vowel to indicate that, in the past, the letter

11

Exnnnts

right after that vowel.


Exnnprgs

The Accented Vowel6


of e' It
The accent aigu on the vor*'el 6 changes the sound
careful!
be
dal'
*'ord
English
in the
is pronouncea oy,
ful sound as in
^
When you pronounce a1 do not add that little l
Itis pronounced
yrs. Tt 6 sound is ctosei, chpped, and shorL
"
lorver teeth are
and
upper
The
mouth'
toward the front of the
lolver front
the
touches
tongue
the
slightly apart. The tip of
(See
Figures
smiling'
if
as
tittle,
a
teetfr. fne hps are stretched
6 and 7.)

( ,.-----,,
l{z'---\ |/

OE\

The Accented Vowel d


The accent grave on the vowel i changes the sound of e. It
as in the English word egg.. It is an open vowel
sound pronounced toward the fiont of the mouth. The upper
and lower teeth are slightly apart. The tip of the rongue
lightly touches the lower front teeth. The lips are slightly
stretched, as if smiling. (See Figures 8 and 9.)
is

pronounced

Figure 8. The accented

Figure 9. The accented


vowel d. (front view)

vowel d. (side view)

Figure 6. The accented


vowel 6. (side view)

Figure 7. The accented


vor*el 6' (front view)

Exnnpus
:.:......:..ii.ir:iiiiii'i.i:i.ti.'.'.,..''...,,.'1.1:.....i'.'.:.:..:.'.....,....'..:.:..:.'.:..,1:.:.;...,...',,

1*:lli:i:i.i:i.:ii..ijliii....i.i.i.iii:i::.;ll.,...:.'.1:.'.:.:1...i1:.'.:.:.i.:.+;.;;l;;.;l...ll

iiiiLiiu,i

,ii

it

i'i .'i'..i....... . . i . . .'......,:.:'i.:.:..........,...i.:'.,: :.:.:...:.,.,.,:

:::

ili::.:i..:',.l.....

i:..i,iilill.l
:i

r,i,,il,ill:,iir,l:rlli::ii.

:.

...
:,

iiii.
irl.'i

i#t+.,.'.''..iii.r....i..ii.ii..,i:...'i.....i..i...........'.ji........'.'..i:...'.,..

12

Pnonouncr

lr Prnfecrly itr Fnench

Urir Two: The Vowels wirfi Accrnr

The Accented Vowel 6

nunciation

as

in the English rvord e4the

13

Extuptts

the sound
The accent circonflexe on the vowel 6 changes
of e. It is pronounced

Manks

sarne

pro-

.......titio6ft..,.,,,'r:...i.i:(narrNe:bf..a.Ff+fichj:i*Utomffiilel

,, ,.,,,,,,,,,.

as b above'

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review the accented vowels introduced in Unit Two.
Note: The examples used all appeared earlier in this unit
with their English translations. This time, however, they are
not listed.Just listen and repeat each word or group of words
after the speaker.
Now, rewind the tape and play the review again. This time,

do the following exercises


over a
In some words the accent circonllexe is written
written
was
s
letter
the
past'
the
in
vowel to indicate that,

right after that vowel.

so you can

fix in your mind the

vowels with accent marks and the sounds they represent.


With a pencil, complete the following words by writing the
vowel and its accent mark. Pronounce the word aloud as you
fill in each line. The answers are given in the box on page 14.
Exraase
1.

9
3.

4.

The Accented Vowel d


(iliaais)are placed
In some words, tlvo dots calledle trm
sepapronounced
be
must
it
that
on the vowel to show
as in
pronounced
b
E
The
iu
of
in
front
rately from the vowel
adjarwo
of
second
orcr
is
placed
It
the English word eg.
!l
t$/o seParate
cent vlwels, creating two seParate srtlables'
pronunciations.

i.

5.
6.

Q_

et

____.ge ;

d6j

-vu ; voil

hol

ch_teau; h_te ; p_te

b-b_; caf_ ; all ; hAt_ ;_t_


m_re ; p_re ; fr_re ; tr_s ; 6l_ve
b_te ; f_te ; for_t; pr_t
No-l;Isra_l

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


answers

in the box on page

14.

14

Pnoroulce

lr

PrnfecrlY

it

Fnrtch

Urir Two' Ths Vowrls wirft Accrtr

Manks

't5

-t

from the vowel in flont of it. The i is pronounced


ee as in
the English word, see. It is placed ov", the second
of tlvo

Answms

adjacent vowels, creating two separate syllables,


two separate

pronunciations.
Exennrs

lntroducing the Sounds

E 6, A'

Listen carefully to all the examples, rePeat the French


words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.
The Accented

Voweli

The accent circonflexe on the vor$el i does not change the


sound of i. It is pronounced exact\'the saYne as i in l\fimi a mis
ses amis el Miami that you learned earlier under the vowel i'

Exnants

The Accented Vowel 6


When the accent circonflexe is placed on the vowel
6, it
changes the sound of o. This u....rt mark
tells you to pro_
nounce the 6 well-rounded, like the o in the
English word, wer.
U"t careful! When you pronounce English do not bring
4
?:
y'our lips together because you will produ-ce
a slight za soundl
which is not desirable in French.
Extnptrs

The accent circonflexe is also r:sed orcr a vowel to indicate


that, in the past, the letter s ltas rrritten right after that I'owel.

Exnunts

The Accented Vowel

In some words, r**o dots called le fi,(il. (dicrais)are placed


on the vowel i to show that it musr be pronounced separately

In some words, the accent circonflexe


in the past, the letter

v-owel to show that,

after that vowel.

is written over the


s was written

right

16

Pnoloutce

lt

Unir Two; The Yowets wirh Accenr Mlnks

Pt

17

Note: The exdmples used are not listed below, but may
in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word

be found earlier

after the speaker.


Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of fifteen words

numbered 1 to 15. This time, with a pencil, circle what you


hear in each of the numbered groups below. This is a quiz on
sound differentiation.

The Accented Vowel 0


not change the
The accent circonflexe on ttre von-el fr does
as u in du' tu'
same
the
sound of u. It is pronounced exactlv
It is used priu'
rot'el
su, which you learned earlier und'er tJre
spelled
rvords
nto
,nu.ity to distinguish the meaning benteen
identicallY.

Extuptts

Exenctsr

fit

fut

12. ile

ilot

ig"

13. h6ro

h6roisme

lu

14. ddme

dipl6me

15. dfi

de

1. la

lu

6. de

2. me

ma

7. hdte hat6

3.

sa

se

8. 6g6

4. te

tu

9.

5. port porte

10.

le

du

pr6t prGte

11,

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


answers

Axswrns

The Accented Vowel d


the accerrt grave
There is only one French word thar conains

onthevowelu.Itiswrittenasirtodisdnguishismeaning,

accent mark'
when written, from another rvord Hithout that
word too'
English
the
They are both pronounced like oo in

Practice for MasterY


The speaker will now reviet'66

lernainin$ vowels with


accent marks that concludes this unit-

in the box below.

Unir Thnee
The Mosr CoMMoN Sinqle,
Double, and TniPle Vowels

.ffi
,o*'

Urir Thnre, Yowst Combirnriots atd Clusrens

.ry

in Combitariols nnd
Clusrens il n rtond

The Clusters

19

dil, aille, aittent

Pronounce a as in the French word la. The vowel i before


ll is pronounced like y as in the English word yas. But do
not pronounce e or ent.

I or

Ennprcs

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel a
Listen carefully to all the examples, rePeat the French
words after the speaker' then listen for the confirmation'
The Combination

The Cluster

aile

Pronounce ai like ein the English word egg'. pronounce the


l, but not the e. It sounds like the French word elle.

ai

Pronounce ai like ay in the English n'ord ra1'

Extnnt

Extuptts

The Cluster

aine

Pronounce aine like enin the English word. tm.

The Cluster

aient

Pronounce aient like ein the Engtish uord

Exnnnrs

g'

Exnnnts

The Cluster

aire

This cluster sounds like the English word. air.

20

Pnotoutce

lr

Uirir Thnee: Vowsl Combiruarions aNd Clusrens

Ptnfecrty in Fntnch

The Cluster atnme

Exttwptts

;nniversaire
tte) Aiaionnaire
. ordinaire

extraordinaire

The Combinations ais,

Pronounce a as in the French r,vord la. The m is pronounced but not the e. It sounds like the omin the English

anniversary

(11)

dictionary
ordinary
extraordinary

name

T'om.

Extmnts

ait, ait, aix

These combinadons are all pt'onut:::'

word

21

rc liire z in the English

a.qg.

The Cluster aoe?f

Exuvtptts

,, iiangis.
Jg vals
,, ,ji,paiteii

'

'

,ll parlait::
ette

English word

l'm goir:g
] was ta!k':e
,l waulci aix

in the English word


so

i'it ubus ptait


(b),p;ix

he was ialk,::E
'she wo.r,c i;;<

toot.

The Combination as

lf 5eerns
please

Pronounce a but not

s.

peace

Exannrs

The aix in certain place tt;-t:--t.


English prehx ex, as in exlnt:t'..".

--::ced like the


',.......

lf,ii.i.,,.,,,i,ii..lii
fl:e,):ir:{i:l6$

Exnnptrs

t,bAtfas

:iii:i:iri:i:.:,l:rP'E5:.:l

eiiinc
] ne salS

,,,

rt4,6r'i1t' *alking)

p*s

not tto neuaib a,vetb)

trt,t,'l'dalhoi,'khaw
l Degas,,,,," ",'(Fibnth,'anist):
d$ar

,..:.:.].l.j.]1:Eld

'lilait',,,'1""''

'

'iil.l).i..em,b
{l.a}.i..Pa$iii
..i.i.',',',i....:j'

: ,,,,
.,,,,,,,
'' ,:,, ' ".
;A*jiL'i#ei);: '..

:ydu:haie,u,,,

tUi.idi
tu.,'....'....
i.i.iii:i.i.i.i...i

too.

It

is

it sounds like ool in the

,mlk
,

parleiiit

il Parait

oo

also correct to pronounce the

French
,

, je par'teiais

(lel,iail, , , "
:

Pronounce this cluster like

but

: rnais

22

lr

Pnonounce

Penfecrty

il

ltd

Unir Tkneri Vowel Gombitariols

Fnench

Pronounce the s in the following word:

Clusrrns

Exrnctst

r.

ffi]:::::::::i]]]:::::::::::i...:].:.1]]::::]:::::i:::i::::]:::::::::]]:]::|:i::::::::::::::li]:]|:|::::::::::i]::i|l|:ii]ii

j.

j'ri

2. mais
3.

mais

j'irai

j'irais

The Combinations au, aatd, aut, aux

4. je parlerai

je parlerais

These combinations are all pronounced like oin the English


word oan. But, be carefirl! \4rhen pronouncing the vowel o, do

5.e

au

not bring your lips together

bnaur

rou rtill produce a

6.

zu

sound, which is not desirable in FrenchB,

Exnnnrc
,.l:.....i..'.:.i;*ui.'.'.

I i.

..

.,.,
... . . i.

i.i i '.ii'lri. i.

23

le cheval

les chevaux

lesjournaux

lejournal

I'aile

le lait

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


in the box below.

''

answers

i,,,,,,(le),:taf::4u,,:tait,,',,,,,,.,,
,

ffiuu,:

:,,,,,::::i,,:,
.

rr,r

::.Cbstdff

:::

:,

::

i:'

::,,

''lll,,.,.,,'
::::,,:,:::,:::::,'h*ffi::::::::::::: :: : :::'
::,:::

..,.,.:

::::

:,::

:,:

.::.'.:,:::,.:i1::niti

...., 1..,.;i1 1f..

:::::

:::::r:,..';.

e.rrtCh**:.

::

..

..

: :''..',

:.

:.

.,lll:

.'ti]'...'....',..,*Ux:..:,::.:,,.......'...... .....

i.,

:,iiii,,iiell..tneJ*-iiiii: :ir:

;'

l......(ld+)..iqu.inr8T.,,,,,,,,,

i]''.ff...nrx*

Answrns

.:

::

ry
itillWy
a

olF
atffill" stikl}t*

fprs

Practice in eontext
Now, Iisten to a shor-t dialogue in which several combinations

xi+*"ffi

or clusters containing the vowel a are used. During the pauses,


repeat each passage after the speaker.

Practice for Masterlr

Maman:Je vais au cin6ma.Je

rentrerai tard.

The speaker will nor,r' rn'ierr dl frc dnnmirns and clusters featuring the vowel eNote: These examfles, nfrich r ma hd tgom' appeared
rud or group
earlier in this unit- Just lisen md rr+a d
ofwords after the speaferNow, rewind the tape andilflryfultr'dclhtwords
or groups of words nr.rmbecd I bEtTfuh'niiiniF. xfut apencil,
circle what you hear in each of &c mmmm[rurtrl] gruTx below.
This is aquiz on sounddiffermimim"

Mom: I'm going to the

I'll

Papa: Et le travail que tu fais?

moaies.

be bach late.

Dad,:

And what about the umk

you re doing?

Maman:Je le finirai plus tard.

Mom:

Papa:

-Dad,: I'd, go to the moaies too but

mais

J'irais au cin6ma aussi

je travaille

dans la cuisine.

J'ai le rosbif aux champignons


et les ailes de poulet dans le four.

,]

I
I

I'llfinish it later.

rn wmking in thz kitchen. I hnte tht


roast beef with rnushrooms and the
chiefun uings in the ouen.

24

Pnoroulcr

lr Prnftcrly

Unir Thnrr: Vowrl Combiurions atd Clusrens

in Fnench

Maman: Oh, j'adore les ailes

Motn: Oh,

loae ehichcn

uings!

de poulet!

Dad:Ihnmt, Iknozo.

Papa:Je sais,je sais.


Maman: Amuse-toi dans la cui-

sine, ch6ri. A plus tard!

Morn: Haue Jun in the hi,tchzn,


d,arling! See you later!

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel e (l)
Listen carefully to all the Jxamples, repeat the French
words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

The Combina.tion

ect

Pronounce e like ein the English word ag. Pronounce c like


k and pronounce the t.

Exnnnrs

tbfrett::::

:.Correft.....-

O,tfectE,li'.=@
-]-lneof

fgct'r=

indirec{
infect
intellect

,f

: ::,,:r

='. ,,,

"',,intOf fgit',.,.:',

These two combinations are both pronounced like o in


the English word. ater. But, be carefirl! When pronouncing the
vowel o, do not bring your lips together because you should
avoid the ru sound in French.

:::=
li

;.:::::::,,::=:',

indirect
stinking, filthy

intellect
selbct 1...==ri..te-l'ct u-.:.,r ,--===,

The Combinations eau, ea.rx

25

.i:

Do not pronounce ct in these words:

Exnmms

==

;-'

'tt'

,...=.t=..

===

The Combinations 6e, 6es


These two combinations are pronounced ay as in the
English word da1. But, be careful! Do not pronounce the
slight } sound when you pronounce ay. And do not pronounce the final s.
Exnnnrs
{la) fi] F.,
fla) fe
{l) id6c
ttelii.F4L,
{les)

di Ci

(le) cbnte dC fdbs

(teil idees
(les) lyies

ftiry',:lr rt 'r:

#.",.

f?r:?a:Ii=...c$.4

djrf hE
.,..,--1

ta{

rd=

1if:

trigfi:=dtoa*

26

Pnotounct

lr Prnftcrly

:muriu.:iU*trrgt:tagi:aui:itiner.llui

gtr.e;a..at..il,*ina ,'.,,.
ioni::;rlceC th=e er:iei:i

Unir Tknse: Vowrl Combitariols ald Clusrsns

in Fnench
,'|Mar\went,to ;,,,,
.,,tn:e rnoviesil
',i,,'

ue,!ii',;ai d,' ] a

,,i
in

t:

i:i:::i(li};i::PrGillci::li:ii:l;:::;
]:::qiAI

j:r:boutil:le:.i.

(sJ:.i.d

q.

iillstii..ii..

,.iicarnpc;ililds

tliesrl:.:.ef$[!ft

The Combination
Pronounce ei like

ti:l::::::::::::::::i:::s4:arsEitf

ei
e

in the English word

27

$i.'.,',',.,

;:;

egg.

Fief f e,i.Cdf,n,a:if

.16,

Exnmnts

The

Cf

usters elle, elles

In these two clusters, pronounce the first e like e in


the English word 6all plus the / sound. Do not pronounce
the final s.
Exnmms

The Clusters eil, eils, eille, eilles


Pronounce them all like e in the English word egg plus
slight 1, sound as in the English word yas. Do not pronounce
the final s.
i

Exnnnts

Practice for Mastery


I

The speaker will now review all the combinations and clusters featuring the vowel e.

28

Pnorourcg

lr Penfrcrly itr Fnrnck

Urir Thner: Vowrt Combirlriors and Clusrens

Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared

Practice irt Gontext

in this unit. Just listen and repeat each word or groups of

Now, listen to a dialogue in which several combinations and


clusters containing the vowel e are used. During the pauses,
repeat each phrase or sentence after the speaker.

words after the speaker.


Now, revrind the tape and leplay the review of six words or
groups of words numbered I to 6.'.This time, with a pencil, circle whatyou hear in each of the numbered groups below. This
is a quiz on sound differentiation.

Exnast
l'eau

elles

le couteau

le gAteau

les bateaux

l'orteil

les corbeilles

.'. les orteils


4. la
5.

peine

le marteau

6. le

lyc6e

Anabelle: EIle est alle

la

Anabellz: Shc wmt to chapel.

Madeleine: Et Mireille?

Oi

Madcleine: And, Mireille? l\here

est-elle?

la veine

pleine

les marteaux

le couteau

les lyc6es

les eaux

is she?

Anabelle: Mireille est all6e

Anabelle: Mireille uent to

Marseille.

Marseilk.

Madeleine: Elle est

i Mar-

Mad,eleine: She's

Anabelle: Et nous?

Oi

Anabelle: And. what about tn?


V\hne are we going?

allons-

nous?

Madeleine: A]lons boire unc

Answrns
lieAUr'i

In the following words, if ct is pronounced, circle rcs. If

it

NO

3.

YES

NO

I rleqrect

infect

Introducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel e (ll)
Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French
words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

Exractst

YES

eat somc cakzs!

.*....#..ery'

is not, circle tto.

1. cor.rect

ofuater and

quelques giteaux!

-f.4i11.r

:,r"i:::.n*
F,.,gati i&u

Madcbine: Let's go drink a bottle

bouteille d'eau et manger

:::j::::::::l:::i:::iii::::]::l::::l.::::i

in Marseille?

Watluch!

seille? Quelle veine!

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


in the box below.

YES

NO

YES

NO

I
rt
I

Auswrns

Madeleine: Were is beautiful


Giselle?

chapelle.

answers

aspect

Mad,elcine : Hello, Anabellz

Anabelle: Hello, Mad,eleine!

Madeleine: Ori est la belle

les eaux

Madeleine: Bonjour, Anabelle!


Anabelle: Boqiour, Madeleine!

Giselle?

l.

29

t!
!

i'
,t

The Cluster emme


Pronounce the hrst e like
sound.

in the English word

egg

+ tn

30

Pnorource

!r Penfecrly in Fnrnch

Extnnts

Urir Thnre' Vowel Combirlrions rrd Clusrqns

31

Extnpus

Pronounce emme like am in the English word family in


this word:
. ... fle)..fcmm

i,i.i,'.#rma,l:..,.,.,.''..

,.'. .'..'.,.

The Cluster enne

At other times ent

is a nasal vowel. See

Unit Five.

Pronounce the first e like ein the English tvord ,rrl + n sound.

The Combination
Exnnnts

er

a verb is pronounced like ay in the


English word day. But, be carefull Do not pronounce the
slight y sound when you pronounce a).

The er infinitive form of

Exnwnts

If the vowel i precedes enne, pronounce a slight 1'sound


in the English word yes plus the ere sound. This produces the sound of the English lvord _rcn- Rerierl- rhe yod
sound in Unit One.
as

If the vowel i precedes er, pronounce a slight y sound as in


the English word yzs plus this er sound. Review the yod sound
in Unit One.
Exnnnts

The Combination

ent

\A,tren this combination is


nounce it.

verb form endinq, do nor pro-

32

Pnotoutcr

lr

Unir Thnrs: Yowrl Combirariors ard Clusrrns

Penfrcrl.y in Fnertck

33

,tfl!.r,r.r.

iflxl
.ie -n:l*rti er,,,,,, :....

ie'Perdciei:.:::::

to tft
.

a nk,...... ...

'to:*r

'

ciate

In many words that are not ei inhnitive endings, er at the


end of a word sounds like the English word air.

The Combination dre


This combination sounds like the English word, air.

Exuwprcs

Exnnnrs

If the vowel i precedes bre, pronounce


If the vowel i precedes er, pronounce
the English word
in Unit One.

yes

a slight y sound as

in

plus this er sound. Review the yod sound

in the English word

yes

a slight y sound as

plus the bre sound, as you did in hier.

Review the yod sound in Unit One.

Extnnrs
Exnnnrc

a word,

it

is pronounced like

erin the

The Cluster erre


Pronounce this cluster like the English word air.
Extuptts
,,,,,

;,

fi g, fi,

Ioamiiiiii;.iiia

h.def.iliei':,,tit:l

,,,,,,,,PEl.tlNi,ld:Il.d.......................,.'....','..iiiiiii.i,.',..,,,,,i.
::.::i: r..::i::::::::.i:::: ::::::::::::::::::::,:i:.:.::,:::::.::.:::::::::::i..::::.:::.:
,:,,,',,:wf.i..'...............................'..:......'.............,,.,'..,.'

34

Pnorource

lr

Unir Thnrs: Vowrl Combiurions lnd Clusrrns

Prnfecrty in Fnetck

The Combination es
As averb form, pronounce
Do not pronounce the s.

es

Exnnns

like

iin

the English word egt

.l

i.
!
I

i
L

In the following words, pronounce es like ay in the English


word day. But, be careful! Do not pronounce the slight y

35

The accent?graye iswritten on es in the above term to distinguish it from the French verb form es, znd p.s., present
tense of the verb 6te/ to Dz. See tu es above. Also, the bs in this
term stands for en les, which means in the; in other words, the
degree is a Master of Arts in (the) Letters. The e of en and the s
of les combine to form bs.
In proper names, the is is also pronounced like ess as in the
English word essa1.

Exnnnrs

sound when you pronounce a1. And do not pronounce the s.

The Combination ess


Pronounce ess like the English word
beginning of a word.

ace

when it is at the

The Combination ds
This combination is pronounced like ein the English word
Do not pronounce the s.

egg'.

Extnnrs
::::::::::::::::::::':::::::::::::::::::::::.'':'jjj::::::::::::::''j:::::

:::::,:::::',,:,:::UgSll:l':::::::::i......i.if;;*::ffie':'ffi1
::::::::::j:i::::ii:iiiiti:::f,ff:i:::::,:,:,:,:':,:,l,;,:,l,:,l':i:il,l,l,l,l,i

The Combinations est, est-ce, c'est, est-ce gue,

qu'est-ce que
In all these combinations, pronounce the verb form est like

ein the English word

Pronounce the s in bs here:


i

r.fffe$1:l::i

i.i ii

ii'i,r,,,i

i i i

i,i

i,iiii.i,,

i,,j:r,.,::.:tri.,,.:,r.,iii.r:':r::::

i::::':i'.

'i':,[4a51ri$fji651d,i1,t,.
::::::::::::i.:: ji.::.::::::::::::,ij,r.ttttl#l!lj|,-f

:,i:::::

egg.

36

Pnonounce

lr

Ulir Tknre' Vowsl Corubinlriols ald Clusrens

Penfecrly in Fnetch

Exenpus

Exeaast

ftow).

37

3. dendbre

dernier

8. est-ce que

qu'est-ce que

4, tu as

tu

9. chercher

je cherche

5.

de

des

es

10.

me

mes

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


answers in the box below.

When you pronounce


mean somedring else.

and t in est and in ouest, the words

,,='ffi,.*.r

htswens

Extnnts

Practice in Context
Now, listen to a dialogue in which several combinations and
clusters containing the vowel e are used. During the pauses,
repeat each phrase or sentence after the speaker.

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now continue to review additional combinations and clusters featuring the vowel e.
Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen, repeat each word or groups of
words after the speaker.
Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of ten words or
groups of words numbered I to 10. This time, with a pencil,
circle what you hear in each of the ten numbered groups
below. This is a quiz on sound differentiation.
Exmasp
1. la

2.

gemme la chienne

laflemme lafemme

6. fer

fibre

7.

est{e

est

La femme: Bonjour, Monsieur


BonniEre.

L'homme: Bonjour, Madame


Detienne

Woman: Hello,

Man: HeIh,

Mr. Bonniire.

Mrl

Detienne.

La femme: Est-ce que le chou

Woman: Is the eabbage fresh?

est frais?

L'homme: Oui, madame, il est

Man: Ya, madam" it

is aery

frah.

Wovnan: Super!

Is it

uery

trds frais.

La femme: Super! Est-il tris


cher?

expensiue?

L'homme: Non, pas trds cher.

Man: No, not ua)

La femme: Avez-vous

Wornan: Hate you any Bnr,ssek

choux de Bruxelles?

des

sprouts?

expensiae.

38

Pnorource

lr Penfrcrly in Fnenck

L'homme: Oui, madame.

39

Man: Yu, madam.

La femme: Est-ce que les

pommes de 'terre sont trds

Urir Tlnrp: Vowsl Conrbirariors ard Clusrrns

Woman: Are the potatoes uery


expensiae?

chEres?

L'homme: Non, madame, pas

-Man:

trEs chBres.

'exftensiue.

La femme: Oh, je ne sais pas.


Mon pBre pr6fdre les pommes
de terre mais mon mari ne les
aime pas. Ma mdre pr6fBre les
choux. C'est un dilemme!

'

L'homme: Et vous? Qu'est-ce

La femme: Je prdf8re les

Womnn: Oh, I don't hnow. My


fathn prefns potatoes but mJ husband doesn't lifu thzn. My moth.er

The conjunction et is pronounced like ay in the English


word day. Be careful! Do not pronounce the slight ) sound
when you pronounce a).

fuefers cabbages. It's a dil.emmn,!

Man: And

yu?

What

d,o

you

prefn?

que vous pr6f6rez?


asperges

No, madam, not uer)

la parisienne.

Woman:

I prefer

asparagus,

Parisian style.

The Cluster

ette

Pronounce the first e like ain the English word zgg'plus the
t sound.

L'homme:.|e n'en ai pas.

Man:

La femme: Alors, au revoir,

Womnn: Well. Ihen, goodb1e. sir.

d,on't haue any.

monsieur.

Extnms

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel e (lll)
Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French
words after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

The Combination

When at the end of a word, pronounce et like


English word eB'. Do not pronounce the t.
Exnnpus

The Combination eu

ef
e

in the

The word eu, meaning had, is the past participle of avoir (to
j'ai eu des nouvelles (I have had, som.e natts). It is pr<>
nounced like the French vowel u. Review the sound of the
vowel u in Unit One.
haue), as in

When at the end of a word, the combination eu is pronounced something like the z in the English word pudding.

Extnnrc

>

40

Pnorourcs

lr Prnfrcrty ir

Fnrrcft

Unir Tknce' Vowel Combirariors nld Ctusrens

41

Exnaptes

Exnuprcs

t.
I

\A/hen the vowel combination eu at the end of aword is followed by the consonant s plus e, which z's pronounced, the
sound of eu is the same as in the preceding list of words.
Note that the s has a z sound.

Exnnnrs

The Cfusters

euil, euils, euille, euilles

These four clusters are all pronounced the same. Pronounce


eu as in heure plus the y sound as in the English word yas.
Exnmprcs

\A/hen the vowel combination eu is followed by a consonant


that is pronounced other thanthe s or z sound, pronounce eu
something like z in the English word cud.

Af]:'l,ahei|4tttt'

doom+p;1

1,'

:''

..

"'.

.............

." .i: : : . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . .

42

Pnorource

lr Prnfrcrly

in Fnench

t:::,1:l:l:iit::l::tl:::::::::::::,:::,:l::::t::::lt:t:::i::::l::i:t:::i::lilt:t::::ii:::,:i:i:::

Unir Thnee: Vowrl CombiNArioNs lnd Clusrens

43

Exrnase

::::iii{ilgflii:tFiulsutl$ii.i:i::ii:liiilj:i:
i:::::::ilif

1.;,1.1'1,f

lali::fulilil:::::ii:i:l:ii,:ii.ilii:iil:i:il

1. et

7. bt6

bleu

te|;.;;norteffi

2. sommeil

sommet

8. deux

des

3. nerveux

nerveuse

9.

su

ceux

4. chevaux

cheveux

10. neveu

neuve

5. feuille

feux

11.

6. veuf

veuve

12. peu

$lle:.:;.

.::l.,tp$i,:+eu.Hlle*::.;:.:::;:::;:1:::1:::1:::

i:i::itle!)::::Hortefieuilles

The Combination ez
This combination is pronotrnced like ay as in the English
word, day. Be careful! Do not pronounce the siight y sound
when you pronounce dl.
Exennrs

j.t

j'ai

pu

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


answers in the box below.
Answrns

:::::.:::::::::::::::::::5;:::neffeuse:::::::::::::::::i::':9;i:::eeUX::,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,',',,,:.',,.,
::.:

:::::::.:::::::::::::if.:::criev'tlx:::::::::::::::::::.I:ut:::neHve::i.:::.:.:..

::.:::::::::

::j:j :.:.::::
:::::::.::.::::::::::::: r:z:..::peu:::::::::..
: ::::
::.: i.::
rf.::::::..r.:::.::::..r.r.rrrrr
[,2::.rbellrr,,r ', ,:.:
::::::::::::::::::::::tli::vur::::

Practice in Context
Practice for Mastery
The speaker will now continue to review additional combinations and clusters featuring the vowel e. This is the conclusion of that section.
Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word or groups
ofwords after the speaker.
Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of twelve words

or groups of words numbered 1 to 12. This time, with a pencil, circle what you hear in each of the numbered groups
below. This is a quiz on sound differentiation.

Now, listen to a monologue in which several combinations

and clusters containing the vowel e are used. During the


pauses, repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.
Je peux r6citer I'alphabet
comme le perroquetde Madame
Claudette.

Le perroquet s'appelle

I can reci.te the alphabet like Mrs.


Claudette's perrot.
The

panot's narne

is

Asparagts.

Asperge.

II est bleu,jaune, et vert.

He is blue, yellou, and grem.

Il a le nez grand.

He has a big

nose.

lr

Pnonource

Prnfecrty in fnrrch

Madame Claudette a le nez

Unir Thnpr: Vowrl Combiuriors atd Clusrens

Mrs. Clnufutte has a srnall

nose.

petit.
Elle est trds vieille.

: .::j:::: : :: ::::::::::::::::::::
wife+ he.is ffjting,r,,
,he
I:am,,::::..'.,,::::::::::

Sfu is aery old.

Elle est veuve, vous savez.

'

Elle parle peu.

"

Elle est toujours seule chez


elle avec Asperge.

Il est heureux et elle

She is a widou, you knou.

o:

::

sh, totk, littt".


She is alzoays alone at home

45

jhe: :/a:dg: :5rie

:::

isr

reading:

::

aith

Asparagus.

He is hapfo and she i,s happ1.

est

heureuse.

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel i

Pronounce the x like s in these two words:

Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French words


or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

The Combinations

id, ie, ies, is, it,

i*

iz

These are all pronounced


I

ee

as

in the English word

sze.

The Combinations ied, ieds, ier, iers


These are all pronounced like the English word yay. The
vowel i produces a yod sound because it is followed by the

Emmpus

vowel e. Review Unit Onc.

I
t

Ennpus

i;i;;;i;(ta}i;;E$Wtgntriul.;.1...;.;.

I
I

'.i'i'.,{F}.i.'nae,9{$tlc.j.r.:i.iii.i.........
E.$igi.r.:.,.,.,ir.:.,.,.,.l

i:l.'..i(FI.i.iP6IF
I
I

;iririri{Ftiliuie

::::l:::l:l:lll:;:::iii::ii;iji:i:ili;i:l:i:::l:iliit:l:

::::::(te):.papier.::::::::::::pbper, :::::..'.'.'

....f tgei.lUoucHe.rie,tr.r...r.:.rr:...
..'.f

le5)i j..p$tlis$lf

is$ilti::.r.t.r.,.t.i.

In hier (yesterday) i is pronounced like y in the English


word yas plus the sound of the English word air. Do not pronounce the h.

ti:.nlei)....b$uFn.oer.ies.'...
tititiitt::::i:i:::i:j:i::l'

f.ti$ii:.i.iii.i.ii:.:.,.l.....:...:.:.,.,.:.,.,.l.,.,.:.

.i.'..l.'.l(lil...s$is.iii.i.i..i,ii.'i,j.'.i.i.i.i.i.....j...,.i...'.,.
..:i:.

:::::::::::::::: ''',.:..'..:::::::...'.,::..:,r,, .,.,

jif

tali;is:r"iqifisil:i:l:::i.i.i.i.i:i:l.
,,:., iii'iii$;,6[i5.;;,,,,i

j:ii:

jli:i.i:i'i.

,,,,, ,,

.i.l.i.l.;.'.i.;ili;.;i;.;iii;;;!;iS';'i.it:i;iii;t;l;;;i;t;t.i.:.:iii...ii..i.,.i.;

:.:,:,:1:':.:.:,t.:,:ii::,t:l:::::i:l:Btli:ipliOnOfl

Llgg:

,",,t',i:pAdt:':,1',Am::lf

d-ttlg

tll i.:.in.:{hi$i $/sidii..{!b}. j.li*.i.:.iir.ii.

46

Pnorouruce

lr

Penfrcrty

ir

Fnench

Exmnts

Unir Tknrt, Vowet Combinlriols and

Clusrrns

47

The Combin iltfons i l,^i ls

In these two combinations, pronounce the vowel i plus


the sound of l. Do not pronounce the s. They both sound
something like the English word eel, except that the French
consonant I is not pronounced exactly like the English /. See
the consonant I in Unit Seven.
Exnmnts

The Cluster idme


Pronounce this cluster like y in the English word yrs plus the
in the English lvord eggplus the m sound. This produces
a sound like yern.
e as

Exnams
In le fils (soz) and les fils (sozs) pronounce the

pronounce the l. Both sound like

but do not

y'ess.

The Clusters idre, idres


Pronounce these like y in the English word yzs plus the
sound of the English word air. These two clusters sound like
the French lvord hier that you learned earlier.
Exnnpus

In the following tlvo words, pronounce s like z plus the i


sound. But do not pronounce the I or the final s. They both
sound something like tru-zee.

Do the same for the following two words. They both sound
something like ootee.

48

Pnoilouncg

lr

Penfecrly in Fnencfi

f-

Unir Tknee, Vol*et Combirurions and Gl.usrens 49

ll
'I

Ennpus

7'

,::i:i:ii:i:i:i'flil::outil:i:i::lil:ii:i:i:i.iii.:.i.:.iifirbil.:.:.:.:.:.

::;:::::::1il-it:l:tuti:'3::il:::::::::::::::it:i:i;t""ql:::i:

In the following two words,dolnot pronounce I or s. The


endings til and tils both sou.nd llke tee.

Practice for Mastery


The Clusters

The speaker will now review all the combinations and clusters featuring the vowel i.

ille, illes

these two clusters, pronounce the vowel i as in the


English word see plus the I sound as in the English word 1es.

In

Exnnpus
i::.::... :.::.::...::i:.i::::.::.::::.:

..iqflli.,cf d

:,,,.:

i,,:::::::,.,: ..:. :::.:.:.::.:..:

i't!i...i......i.'.i.,iiii.i'......lii'fcdffi

.ill

:tr:ilil.liiiil-Iii:::i:.::::i::.:::: :::::i::rir:r:r:r::,i::r

Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared earlier in this unit. Just listen and repeat each word
or groups ofwords after the speaker.
Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of fourteen
words or groups of words numbered 1 to 14. This time, with
a pencil, circle whatyou hear in each of the numbered grouPs
below. This is a quiz on sound differentiation.
Exmast
1. je

dis

jeudi

2. deuxibme douzibme
J.

In the following two words, pronounce i plus single l. They


both sound like aec.l.

4.
5.
6.

i:l:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::i:r:::l::r:::::::::::::r:

li:::::::::::{u}:i

1;;11{lexl.

viil!,ii'i

:CtlV:.:::.::::::::l

{rillci:

rt.ftCI5:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:

gentil
gentille
premier premibre
leriz
leprix
il lit
le lit
le cahier hier

Cf

usters ique, iques

These two clusters sound like

le nez

9. le fil

le fils

fiIle la ville
je lis
joli
11.
12. les iles les cils
13. dernier dernibre
14. il dit
elle dit
10. la

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


in the box on page 50.

answers

The

8. le nid

aefr.

50

Pnotoutce

lr

Penfecrty in Fnenck

Urir

Thnee' Vowrl Combinariols

rraid on Jribn ffsltritippel

Auswras
Il

est si

gentili Comment va-t-il?

Fifi: Il est i la maison.

I1

Mimi: Et
est si

ta

fille Monique? Elle

Fifi: Elle est all6e acheter une

paire de souliers gris. Et toi,


Mimi, ot) vas-tu?

In the following words, if the last letter of the word is pronounced, circle yns. If it is not. circle No.

Fif.: He's at
in

gentille!

Mimi:Je rais acheter du riz.


Le prix du riz ces jours-ci! Oh!
C'est terriblel
Fifi: Oh, je sais! C'est la vie!

51

Mimi: l\hne is your son Philip?


He is so nice! Hmt is he?

lit

dans le lit.

atd Clusrrns

home. He's reading

bed.

Mimi: And your

d,aughter

Monique? Shc is so nice!

Fifi: She went to buy a pair of


gray shoes. And you, Mi,mi, uhne
are yu going?
Mimi: I

irc.
day! Oh! h's

m going lo hu1 somc

The priee of rice these

terriblz!
Fifz: Oh,

I hnou! That's

li.fe!

Exrnasr

1. le nid

\.ES

NO

5. il

\IES

NO

2. le lis

\.ES

NO

6. ils

ltsS

NO

3. le lit

YES

NO

7.

le

I'ES

NO

4. gris

I'ES

NO

8.

le fils

\T,S

NO

fil

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel o (l)
Listen carefirlly to all the examples, repeat *re French words
or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the conlirmation.

The Cluster oerT

Answens

Pronounce this cluster like the u in the English ttord cuil


plus the y sound in the English word yes. When pronouncing
it, thrust the lips a bit forward.

LlLt.if,.,*r1,....1,...r.,.ia':..$..:.::.1.:....:::':::i,.l

Practice in Context

Exnnnrc

Now, Iisten to a dialogue in which several combinations and


clusters containing the vowel i are used. During the pauses,
repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.
Mimi: Bor{our, Fifi!

Mimi: Hello, Fifi!

Fifi: Bonjour, Mimi!

Fifi: Helln, Mimi!

Mimi: Ori vas-tu?

Mimi:

Fifi: Je vais en ville. J'ai des


courses d faire dans les boutiques.Je vais
la pAtisserie.

la boucherie et

Whzre are you going?

Fifi: I'm going d,mtntuxn. I haae


sorne shopping to d.o in the little
shops. I'm going to the butchn shop
and to thc pastry shop.

The Cfusters oeu, oeux, oeud, oeuds


Pronounce these chxters like eux in les cheveux, which you
learned earlier under the combination eu. Thrust the lips a

bit forward.

52

Pnotoutcs

lr

PrnfecrLy in Fnetck

Extnprcs

Urir Tknss; Vowel Combinlriots lnd Clusrsns

53

Exmnrc

The Cluster

oeuf

Pronounce this cluster like euf in neuf and veuf, which you
Iearned earlier under the combination eu. Pronounce the f.
Thrust the lips a bit forward while pronouncing it.
Extnprcs

The Cluster

oeuvre

This cluster is pronounced like oeu in oeuf (which you


learned earlier). Pronounce the v and the r sounds but not
the e.
Extnptrs

::1:::j:j:::::l:]:::::egg!:!:tltl!:tlt'tlt:t:t:t:!:,:,:

i:.:,:,:,:::,:l:::::::i$s.8.,#.,9*,:,:,:l:

In the plural, les oeufs (eggs) and les boeufs (pl. of beef;
oxen) the

is not pronounced. Also note that the pronuncia-

tion of oeu changes to the sound of eux in deux, feux,


chevetrx which you learned earlier under the combination eu.
\4lhile pronouncing this sound, the lips are slightly forward but
closer together than when you pronounce the singular oeuf.

Do not pronounce the

f in chef d'oeuwe. It

sounds like
ez combination. The f in chef is pronounced when the word means
boss or chief, as in chef de cuisine, head, cooh in a hitchen.
shay as

in chez, which you learned earlier under the

The Combinations

oix, oua

oi, oid,

oidt

oie, oigL ois, oit,

These are all pronounced zla like in the Englishword watt.

The Cluster

oegr

Pronounce this cluster like zr in the English word. curl. ln


fact, it sounds very much like czdwithout the /sound. \Arhen
pronouncing it, thrust your lips forward a little.

Exnnprcs

Pnoroutce

54

lr Prnfrcrly
:ern e

i.i..:i..:.:.tF}ii.56llFjei.i.......ti:i.i

Unir Thnse Vowtt Combitlrions nnd Ctusrens

in Fnrnch
n,ih,g l', e v e,ni

55

nE piq.fui

.law::::t.':::::::::
,.......,,, r,r
.::.::::.:::...
.:. :: :::tt:ttl
,

l::::l:l:i:li(tali::lloi':':i:il';.:.i.:.:.:.::ii:i:i:l::
:i'i.::i:l:if !at:,:f.!.:::.i.i.i.i.i.i.i.:..i:ti.i:.:
:riir;:l:::;:qe.}::::idi:i:i:i:::i:lii:i::::i:i:i:iji:l:

l.i....l.i-l-l-''-.i..'i

i :i::i:]:::

:i

,fi#;..,.:::::.:.:..,.
..ii...i.:.:.i.rlPronbiBfl

i'i:....i'i.,i'.,

:.

:.::::::.i:.:....

c0,,.lnq.i.l.ii.n...$Ei!.i,l.

fffi$[911.11:l1:

iiiil"-ii:iiii:i:i.:

,,,,, .. .: ,,:

l.,....:.:.:$1.4):::.ndire.:.:.:':,:,,,,.,,,,

.Pof,,.

....;....i..tleli.iqoiieau',.i.,.

,1eek ........'i.i

..

,,, ,

:r::r......'.

,,,,,.i:

reeux.
'i.i..i.([e$)',',bff

i.l.nffi,iil:iii#i:il;i

lilllllllilrililii:::::l:

:::::.:.:.i:i:i:liFai:isdltl::b0lll,,,$u,ll,hd:':0xa0llVr:::r:r:r:

:::::: like:ihre hamb::Pailot"

the:

::::::

The Clusters omme, ommes

,,,,,,,,,;,,;,,,,,c,r[m,inol6$,1SI,,extiad,4d;inai:te;;:inr,r:

':::Agatha Christiels,,ntystery.,
novels; See the comblnation oi
.:.a.i.j.:,i.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:liii,,.,',.,.,i.,i.].].i.l.,.,..:.:,:,:l:,iiilil:.:.:.:.1

.qG}...$rsi

iiiii.i..i,..j...'.j'i.''...............'i

.(tbli.iFb'insi.......:i....ri..i.....'.,...i.i...i.i
i:::[!rI:::ti5:l:::i:::::::::i:i::lj:iiil:iii:lii:::::l:;:i:ili::

4EI.''fdie.................,.'...,.'.........'.',',.,,...

{la}i:.so!.....iij.....i.

...i.i...i,trt;.,i..'i...i..l

f l'':':ds!:$:.:.:.:.j.i.iiiii.i.i........,:,.i:i:i:
qd}...fti$....i....i.'...i.'.i.:.i.,.,i..j.ii.i...i....'i'

([e],ir:Prr,rl:i:Hire|::f

diis

([e}:i:uamii.ereri*uisri:
(!ali:i:muili:ll:l:l:l:::l:l:l;l:l:l:l:l:l;lli;l::::::

: ::,::far-lhe1:on,i:,,

,totd

:. ., i| :,

:::iiiii:::i:

tweight':,

,
.9ddi", ,......... '

,,,,,,,,'

:i::,

rrrrr

,,rr::

FI....Roi.$...ii..i.ii...i.r.r...ii:i'i,i.'.i.i.i..'.'i

...........i.i..i.iiei.idof
...i.

.i.i.i.iiii..ie..cf

.*.i....ir...rir.j.'.ii.............l

ois..i.iii.iii.i.i.i.i....i.i.i.j.i.

..i:i.i]...i...i.i.i.e.i.buis..i.......i.i...l.l.i.ii.......:.j.
,.,..,.:.,.:.:.:.:.i...t16i9,.,,,..,....................,.,.,.

Exnnnts

,.:'

..ltvetl,......,',.......i,' ..iiiiiiiiii,i.iii,,

.silk ,........

:::: :::::: :::...:......:.


::::::::::: :
.: ll:lllllll
.::
: ?!: .. :.:.
,,lln(1erj..
"tttt,tt,::. :::::::::.:.: : .
::a:l ls:r:::: ::::::::::::

. .,. ..i,iii.iii...i.
tlrnb,,, ,,,,,,, ::'::::::
.lasf,tirnCi.i..ii..., .'i........:,' '
tmonth,,
.:'
.,
F6 .. ,..'..... ::'.'..............
tfr'jt: ,:: ":::::,rr;

,,rime.'......

,.:.: ...,:,

,,f|ist

'

..

::::

:..::::...'.

,::,::,

... .......,, i...


:t,di!hk;1,'aim;,,dtiAking,;,,,::,
. :::::::::
,lSe:e;',I,amt'eelhgt,:.,
..1.bblieve,

::::

The Cluster

.11r:,:.:.:7t.1\i::.:a:-!:

!i:i.li::,1!l:

omne

This is pronounced unasin the English wotd ton. The m


is not pronounced, but the n is pronounced.

Exnnnt

camz.

,i

.,

',iii

,' .

ii!iiiiii.!i..

These are both pronounced umas in the English word

!i::!:!!i

55

Pnorouncr

tr

Penfecrtv in Fnenck

The Combination one


This is pronounced na

Unir Tknce: Yowet Combinlriols lnd Clusrens

Ennprcs
as

57

,r

in the English word,fun.

ii

i:i

gatilt
f( gi,

uf

Exnnms

Ii
Ioffi

"qfi'$

t::,:::::.

::mfJC.!1r:.iiffit:itl

tY.1:.:i......

The Combination os
When this combination is the ending of a word, it is normally pronounced o like op above.

The Cluster onne

Extnnts

This is pronounced an as in the English word, bun.


Exnnprcs

In the word l'os (bone) in the singular, pronounce os as


The Combination op
When this combination is the ending of a word, it is normally pronounced o as in the English word oaer. Buq be careful! Do not bring the lips together in order to avoicl pro.
nouncing that slight tu sound.

the English word

rzs. However, in the plural, les os (bones), os


is pronounced like o in the English word ouer without that
slight za sound. In the plural, les os sounds exactly like les eaux
(waters), which you learned earlier under the eau, eaux combinations. Pronounce the s in les as z so it sounds like lay-zo.

In the following word, pronounce os like the English word

ns.

58

Pnoroulcr

lr

Prnfecrty in Fnencft

Unir Thnre: Vowet CombiilArioils

lrd

Clusrrns

59

-_________-In the followifig word. t is pronounced and o sounds like


zr

in the English word buL

The Cluster osse


When this cluster is at the .n.iihg of aword, it is normally
pronounced like the English word ru.

The Combination
Extunrs

6t

This combination sounds exactly like ot above.

The word gosse sounds like the English name Gru. But
osse in the followingword is pronounced osas in the English

word

ftosl.

The Cluster

otte

This cluster is pronounced like alin the English word but.


Exnneus

The Combination

ot

When this combination is at the ending of a word, it is


normally pronounced oas in the English word auer. When pronouncing o, make sure you don't tack on that zo sound.

Exmnts

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review all the combinations and clusters featuring the vowel o.
Note: These examples, which are notlisted below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word or groups
ofwords after the speaker.

50

Pnonoutce

lr

penfecrtv in Fntrck

Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of twentywords

or groups of words numbered l to 20. This time, with


a penjl, circfl what you hear in each of rhe numbered groups
below. This is a quiz on sound differentiation.

Unir Thnet: Vowel Conbimriots ltrd Clusrens


,"
' p ..:...
'jr.,

Exnast '

l.

. .t

Exenase
1. oeil

aile

11.

2. nez

noeqd

12. homme

aime

3. les boeufs

le boerif

13. sonn6

sonne

4. coeur

ciar

t4. dos

des

5. veau

voeu

15. gFos

gfosse

6. I'oeuf

les oeufs

16. canot

cano6

7. sur

soeuf

17. sot

sotte

8. oeuwe

ouvTe

18.

flotte

flot

9. moi

mes

19.

trop

tres

10. peur

poire

20. I'oeil

froid

frais

'

boeuf

YES

NO

5. froid

Yf,.S NO

2. coew

YES

NO

6. soeur

YES

NO

3. oeufs

ITS

NO

7. flot

YXS

NO

4. voeux

YXS

NO

8. sommes

Yf,S

NO

Answrns

Practice in Context
Now, listen to a monologue in which several combinationr
and clusters containing the vowel o are used. During thr
pauses, repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.
Je suis dans un bisuot appel6
Au clwf d'oruvre.

les yeux

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the

answers in the box below-

J'ai soif.
Je bois un caf6

Il

Auswcas

est

noir.

trop sucr6.

L'homme derriBre le comp


toir est gros.

Il

a les bras gros et les mains

I am in a small mti callzdAtthe


Masterpiece.

m thirsry.

m ilrinking blach cofiee.

It

is t@ fiueet.

The man behind the counter

it

hig-

He has big arms and big haruh.

grosses.

Je

lui demande un oeuf dur,

du poirre et du sel.

In the following words, if the last consonant of the word


pronounced, circle yrs. If it is not, circle No.

is

I
sotnz

ask

himfor a hatul-boiled ery"

pffier

and, some sah.

Il me regarde d'un oeil lioid

et il demande i sa femme s'il v a


des oeufs durs.

He hoks at me with a cold eye


and lv ashs his uife if thne are atry
hardhoiled ryl

Elle r6pond qu'il n'y en a plus


en 4iustant une petite couronne
de petits oeillets sur la tte.

Slu anstercthatthne amnl an1


maeuhib ad,justinga hnb oun of
small camations on herlead.

62

Pnonoutce

!r penfrcrly it

Elle est bizarre.


Je bois mon caf6

Fnench
Sh.e

is strange.

, I

noir,je mets

drinh my black coffee, I plau


three francs on the uunter, and I

trois francs sur le comptoir, et

je pars.

leaue-

:'

..
,1

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel o (tt)
Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French words

or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

The Combinations

ou, oit

These two combinations are pronounced oo as in the


English word soon. The accent gnave on i in ori is written to
distinguish its meaning from the word ou. That is the only
word in the French language that contains this accent mark
on the vowel u.
Exnmptts

Urir Tknes: Vowel Combirlrions


The Combihations oue, outs,

ANd ClusrERs

63

aup, otts, ouL oAL

oux
These are all pronounced

Eannts

oo as

in the English word

soon.

64

Pnonoulcr

lr Prqftg{y ir

Urir Tkner: Vowet Conbilariots ltd Ctusrens

Fnenck

65

Exlnotr.s' *

In
The Clusters ouitte,

following two words, pronounce the s.

ouilles

These clusters are both pronounced

in the English word

t-Ile

oo

plus the y sound as

yar.

Practice for Mastery

Eannes

The speaker will now continue to review additional combinations and clusters featuring the vowel o. This is the conclusion of that section.
Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word or groups
ofwords after the speaker.

The Combinations our, aurd, ouni, ourds


These are all pronounced, ooras in the Englishword
Do not pronounce the final s.

poor.

Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of ten words
numbered 1 to 10. This time, with a pencil, circle what you
hear in each of the numbered groups below. This is a quiz on
sound differentiation.

56

Pnolouncr

lr

Psnfecrly in fnerch

Urir Thnrr: Vowel Combirnrions nrd Clusrens

67

rt:

Exmasr

Le serveur: Bonstrir. Qu'est-

l cou coude
2. jour j,r".
3. sous su
4. tu
tout

6. Iourd3

lourde

/.

Pu

pouls

8. bc

boue

9._touticoup toutd,uncoup

Waiter: Good euening.


you wish to mder?

Madame: Pour moi, j'aimerais


ie rago0t. Et toi, mon amour?

Andyoq ry

Monsieur: J'aimerais aussi le


rago0t. Et un plat de nouilles au
beurre. Y a-t-il du chou-fleur?

Sir: I'd. lthe the stao ako. And a


platz of hurbretl nuillzs. Is thae any
caukflmun?

Le serveur: Mais oui, mon-

Rewind and check youi a-nswers before looking at the


answers in the box below.

Madam: Fm mt,

I'il

d.o

lihe thz stau.

loue?

Waiter: Of caurse, sir.

sieur.

moi un plat de chou-fleur au

Sir: Good" thm, bringmz a plnte


of cauliflower cooked with grated

gratin.

chcese.

Morxieun Bon, alo6, apportez-

Answres

Wat

ce que vous d6sirez commander?

Le serveur: C'est tout, mon-

Waiter: Is that

a$ sir?

sieur?

Monsieur: Non. J'adore le


raourt.Yen a-t-il?
Le serveur: Mais oui, monsieur. Nous avons du yaourt,

In the following words, if the last consonant of the word is


pronounced, circle yES. If it is not, circle No.
Exrnase

l.

sous

YES

NO

5. amour

YES

NO

2. yaourt

YES

NO

6. pouls

YES

NO

3. four

YXS

NO

7. 6poux

YES

NO

4. vous

NS

NO

8. oun

YES

NO

Answrns

Monsieur: Bon, alors, du


laourt

aussi. Et comme dessert,

un plat de petits.fours. Et puis,


apportez-moi...
MadameJe crois que cela sui
manges
trop, tu deviendras gros comme
un ours!

fit, mon amour. Si tu

Sir: No.

lwe ygurL. Is there

any?
Wai.ter: Of murse,

sir. We haue

,ogmSir: Good., tltcn, sune rogurt tuo.


AruIfor tlavrt, aplate of littlz glazzd
cahcs. And thm, bringmc...

Madam: I belieue that is sufficimt, ny kne. If you eat too much,

yut'll

becomc

Jat as a bear!

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel u
Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French words
or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

Practice in Context

The Clusters ueit,

Now, listen to a dialogue in which several combinations and


clusters containing the vowel o are used. During the pauses,
repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.

These four clusters all sound the same. Pronounce eu as in


the French word heure that you learned earlier under the

ueit, ueitte, ueitles

68

Pnonounce

lr

Penfecrty in Fnrnch

Urir Thnret Yowrl Gonbitlriors and Glusrens

combination eu. Itsounds something like the ain the English


word curl. Then add the slight y sound in the word 1as.

Now, rewind thetapg and replay the review of six words or


groups of words numbred I to 6. This time, with a pencil, circle what you hear in each of the numbered groups below. This

As a matter of fact" these four clustJn sound the same as euil,


euils, euille, euilles that you learned previously, but note that
eu is reversed to ue. The two vorg,eJs are reversed because of the
consonant c, which is pronouncbd like k before the vowel u.
Review the clusters euil, euib, euille, euilles in the section
under the combination eu. You will see that the consonant c
does not precede them. But.in these four clusters, the conso

is a

69

quiz on sound differentiation.

Exenast

l.

nant c causes eu to change to tie.

Exmnes

accueil

recueil

2. cueilleur

cueilleuse

3. cueille

accueils

4. cueillir

cueilles

5. je cueille

j'accueille

6, tu accueilles

tu accueilles?

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


answers

in the box below.

Answms

Practice in Context
Now, listen to a monologue in which several combinations
and clusters containing the vowel u are used. During the
pauses, repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review the combinations and clusters
featuring the vowel u.
Notel These examples, which are not listed below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word or groups
ofwords after the speaker.

Avez-vous jamais t6 accueilli


aimablement? C'est bon. Avezrous jamais 6t6 accueilli froidement? Ce n'est pas bon! Chaque
fois que je vais chez mes amis, ils
m'accueillent chaleureusement.
Ih me font toqiours bon accueil...
Je vois que vous cueillez des roses.

Arez-vous cueilli toutes les roses


qui sont dans ce vase? Cueillez,
cueillez les roses de la vie!

Haoe you e<ter been welcomed


h gnd. Haueyou euer been
webonud cold,lg? It's not good! Each

kindfr?
time

ga to my fri.ends' homes, thel

uekome me uarmly. Theg always


gizn mz a good wehomt...

see

ywfu

gathoingsoncmses. Dirllou fuh all


the roses that are in this uase?
Gathn, gathn the

mses of

life!

70

Pnolounce

lr

Penfecrly in Fnelch

Unir Tfinset Vowrl Combiruariols ald Clusrens

71

jj

lntroducing the Sounds Featuring


the Vowel y
I isten carefully to all tt're .xamples, repeat the French words
or phrases after the speaker; then listen for the confirmation.

The

. "i
Combinations aye, ?!es

Pronounce both like ein the English word bellplus a slight


in the English word 1es.

y sound as

The Combin atlilrt eyez


Pronounce ayez like ayer above.

Extnnts
yoy paf;ryouaft p'ay'!t1q, ,
I vou5 payez ,
I vous:balayCt ""' ydi sieei, y'o:u 4,,1e sweep,fn'g
i vous,,beECyez yau stutter,' 11ot4,,qre'stutteling
I vous,essayet you'iry:tyotutare,ttryiqg
i que Vous,ayez: iiiijty,i'o,u niy heve' | , '
'

,,,

111,

t'u,,,

',,,

Exnnnts

The Combination ays


Pronounce ay like a1 in the English word pq plus the
ee as in the English word see. Do not pronounce the s.
The French word pays sounds very much like the English

Note that verbs ending in ayer may change the y to i before


mute (silent) e or may keep the y, as in the two verb forms

sound

above from the verb payer Qo pay). When y changes to i, the


yod sound disappears and aie or aies are both pronounced

word

like ein the English word

.:.,..i

#1i#i*.i1,.,l

bell.

payee.

Exnnnts

lii+irtr

::j,:,:.::ruiipa!es:i!:l,!iiiiiiii.'iffi {

The Combination

ayer

Pronounce ay like a1 in the English word. pa,y plus a slight


yod sound plus a as in the English word ate. Here, the vowel
e is not a mute (silent) e because it goes with er.

The Combination

ey

Pronounce ey like a in the English word

egg.

Extnpus

Ennnts

The Combination

oyer

Pronounce oy like wain th.e English wotd uattplus


yod sound plus the a sound in ate.

slight

72

Pnonounce

tr Penfecrty

iN FnrNck

Exnuptts

Unir Thnee: Vowcl Combitariots ard Clusrens

73

Extnptts

The Cluster

yeux

The y in this cluster is pronounced like the y in the English


word 1'as plus the sound of z in the English word pudding as
in eux in the French word peux, which you learned earlier
under the combination eu.

The Combination

oyet

Exnnpus

Pronounce oyez like oyer above.

Exnnrtts

The Combination

The Combination

syer

Pronounce uy like the English you eatwithout the t sound


plus a slighr yod sound plus the usuai ay sound..

Exeunts

Pronounce y like the y in yes plus sound of z in zp plus d


sound. As you learned in this unit and in previous ones, le yod
is the French word for the semi-vowel sound of y in yes.

The Combination

Pronounce ya like 1a in the English word. galt.

you

Pronounce you like the English word 1ou. Do not bring the
lips together after the oo sound because that would produce
a slight zu sound.
Exu,itptts

The Combination ya

yod

74

Pnonouncr

lr

pcnfecrly in Fnench

Unir Tknrr:. Vowsl Combirlrions

' 1:

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review 4ll the combinations and clus.
ters featuring the vowel y. ,'
Note: These examples, whigh are not listed below, appeared
earlier in this unit.Just li_stlf, and repeat each word. oi groups
ofwords after the speaker.
Now, rewind m. Lpeina replay the review of six words or
groups of words number,eil 1 to 6. This time, with a pencil, circle what you hear in each'of the numbered groups below This
is a quiz on sound differentiarion.
Exenase
1.

je paye

2. Pays

jepaie
payez

4. youyou

yo-yo

5. joyeux

joyeuse

Answms
l:ffiF,u*'r:itl:i
.:ii:i

Practice in Context
Now, listen to a dialogue in which several combinations and
clusters containing the vowel y are used. During the pauses,
repeat each sentence or phrase after the speaker.
Madame: Maya! Maya! eue

genoux!

Maya: Ne voyez-vous pas,


Madame Yvette?Je commence

nettoyer le foyer.

Madam: Maya! Maya! Wat are


you doing? And. on your knees!

Maya: Don't you


YaetteT

.frler.

In

ai demand6 d'aller chez

le

see, Mad,amc
beginning to clzan tlu

Clusrens

75

Madarn: W1 are yu cleaning


thzfoyrnuo? I askzd,yurto go to thz
bakn to pq him uhat I oue.

boulanger pour lui payer ce que

je dois.
Maya:J'ai laiss6 tomber le pot
de yaourt!

Il

est

partout!

Madame: Essuyez la table


le nettoyage, allez

aussi. Aprds

chercher les billets d l'agence de


voyages pour mon voyage en
Yougoslavie. Et essayez de ne pas
prendre trop de temps.

Madame: Quelle bonne!

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the

:ir,ev4

vorx le foyer nrainienant?Je vous

Maya: Oui, madame. Tout de


suite. J'irai i bicyclette.

answers in the box below.

faites'vous? Et

'S

nladame'f $ffip6d"n ettoy ez-

lrd

Maya:

droplnd, thz pot ofyogurt!

It's netyuhere!
Mad,am: Wipe thz tabb too. Afin
clzaning up, go get the tickets at the
traxel agency for nry trip to
Yugoslaaia. And try not to tahe too
much time.

Maya:

Yes, madam.

Right antay

I'lI go on my bicycle.
Madam: What a maid,!

.Unir Foun
Tke Tknee Semi-vowels

Urir Foun'

The

Tknrr Semi-Vowrls

77

Ermms

lntroducing the Sounds


Listen carefully to ail th..*#.rpl.r, repeat
the French words
or phrases after the speaker;then listen for
the confirmation.

There are three semi-vorvel sounds in French,


They are
also known as semi-consorlants. They are:

l.

the yod sound that you learned in previous


sections in

a variety of spellings.

Exnunts

Pronounce the

t in huit. But do not pronounce the t if

the word that follows begins with a consonant.

Note that u

2. u + i produces a sound similar to the sound of you


eat
(the tis not pronounced). But be careful!
Do not round
your lips when you say youbecause you
will produce a zu
sound.

+y

produces the same sound.

3. There are times when ou produces a zu sound.


Extnpus

::: :::.:::::::::L(1U158,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Eo&l,tje' ,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,:::::::::::::::::i::::::::::::::

76

i.:.:::.::i'i::::

78

Pnonounce

lr

penfecrl.y in F*ench

Urir Foun: Ths Thnee Serui-Vowets 79

.d

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review all rhe examples featuring
the semi-vowel

sounds.

'

"

Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared


earlier in this unit.Just tisten aid,*epeat each word o. g.orlp,
of words after the speaker. - .^

Now, rewind the tape and rgplay the review of eight word.s
numbered I to 8. This time, wiih a pencil, circle whatyou hear
in each of the numbered groups below. This is a quiz on
sound differentiation.
Exmctst

vieille

5. nuit

huit

2. lui

Louis

6. louer

luire

J. Suls

suisse

7. lesjeux

les yeux

4. oeil

huile

8. appuyer

appeler

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the

answers in the box below.

Arswras

Practice in Context
Now, listen to a monologue in which sevbral words are
used containing semi-vowel sounds. During the pauses, repeat

each sentence or phrase after the speaker.


Je suis Louise Luisant.

J'habite une vieille maison


depuis dix-huit ans avec mon

ifut#Fyg,*.l;

Nous avons, tous les der.rx, les


cheveux gris.
J'aime faire la cuisine avec de

am Louise Luisant.

I'ue

fm

been

lfuing in an old house


with rny husband,

eighteen years

Loui.s.

haue gtay Ees; his eyes are bhtc.

We both

hau gray hair.

lihe to cooh with oliae oi'|.

I'huile d'olive.
Aprds le diner, nous aimons
jouer aux cartes.

Afn

d,innn, ue ktu n plny eards.

De temps en temps, notre

From time to time, our grend'

petite-fille louise nous rend visite


et nous adorons la voirjouer avec
sesjouets.

d.aughter Louise ai.sits us and ue


lou to see hn plq with her tois.

Qpand.je lui demande si elle

1. veille

mari Louis,

J'ai les yeux Sri.;


bleus.

aime ses.iouets, elle rdpond, l'Oui,

oui."

When
to1s, she

if shc likes
'Yes, 1a."

ask her

anntnq

hn

Uruir Fivr

UNir Fivs: Tke Foun Nlsnl Vowets

lo.@

Tkr Foun Nasal Vowels

81

First Nasals\bwel Sound


Exnnpus

lntroducing the Sounds


Listen carefully to uff in:. examples, repeat the French
words or phrases after-the speaker, then listen for the
confirmation
There are four nasal vowel sounds in French. At one time,
there were more than foui, but through the centuries some
of them have disappeared from use. One of the four is rarely
used in the city of Paris and its environs as well as in the western part of France. It has been replaced by one of the remaining three. In other regions of France, however, it is still in use.
This will be noted when we come to it.
Ordinarily, an oral vowel is nasalized when it is followed by
m or n in the same ryllablz. An oral vowel is pronounced only
through the mouth, which you learned in preceding units. A
nasal vowel, however, is pronounced through the nose and
through the mouth at the same timeby pushing the breath up
the nose and out of the mouth. To form a nasal vowel, you
must first position your lips for is equivalent oral vowel, then
nasalize it. The position must be precise to obtain the correct
sound.

.il.i.:.:..i.i.,ii:'i..,i,'.i.'iii.'iiiiiii..,:..i..i.ii.il

The nasal vowel sound in the spellings un and um is the one


that is rarely used in Paris and in the western region of France.
It is now pronounced like the nasal vowel sound in the
spellings in or im. See the word vin under the Third Nasal
Vowel Sound on page 84.
Review the sound of the oral vowel eu in leur, fleur, bon'
heur, peur under the combination eu in Unit Three. You
must position the lips properly to pronounce the oral vowel
eu in those rvords, someH'hat like the rzwhen you pronounce
the English word curl. The lips are parted and thrust slightly
forward. Then, nasalize the eu sound. It will produce the
nasal vowel sound of un or um. (See Figure 10')

In the examples that follow, the oral vowels and nasal vowin bold t1pe. The oral vowels do not contain m or n after
them but the nasal vowels do. First, position the lips for the oral
vowel sound given in each example, then nasalize it.
els are

OralVowel Sound

Figure

1G.

The Nasal Vowel Sound of un, um.

Exnnptt

OralVowel Sound
Exnmpu

80

82

Pnonounce

lr Peirfrcrly in Fnrnch

Urir Five: The Foun N,lsll Vowets

Second Nasal Vowel Sound

French words, andbthers;'are in Unit Three under omme and


orn'nes. Rewind your cassette tape and listen to them again.

Extuptts

There are some words that contain the vowel o plus double
n but are not nasalized either because the words are of one syllable and end in a mute (silent) e; for example, bonne,

donne, tonne. The sound of onne in those three words is


like the sound of un in the English wotds bun, done, ton.
Those three French words, and others, are in Unit Three
under onne. Rewind your cassette tape and listen to them
again. For practice, first pronounce bon, then bonnel don,
then donne; ton, then tonne.

Review the oral sound of the combination eau, which


sounds like o the English word oaer. Other examples are
bateau and chapeau. They are listed under the combinations
eau and eaux in Unit Three. You must position the lips prop
erly to pronounce the sound of the oral vowel o in those
words. Review the vowel o in Unit One. With the lips in that
position, nasalize the o. It will produce the nasal vowel sound
of on or om. For practice, first pronounce beauo then pronounce bon. (See Figure 11.)

The combination on is nasalized, as in bon and mon above,


but when the vowel e is after it, that final e denasalizes on, as

in monotone (monotonous),
Let's divide the word monotone into syllables so you can
understand why mon and ton are not nasalized in this word:
mo-no-tone. As you can see, we cannot say that a vowel is
always nasal when followed by m or n. It depends on how the
syllables are divided and whether m or n goes with the vowel
in front of it or after it. The final e in monotone denasalizes
ton. Review the French words under the combination one in
Unit Three where monotone and other French words are
listed.

OralVowel Sound
Exnnnes

Figure 11.
The Nasal Vowel Sound of on, om.
There are some words that contain the vowel o plus double
m but are notnasalized, because the words are of one syllable
and end in a mute (silent) e or silent s; for example, pornme

(a$le), pommes

(apples). The

pronunciation of omme and

ommes sounds like umin the English word umbrella. Those nvo

83

Pnoruoutce

lr

Penfecrly in Fnencft

Ulir'Five: The Foun Nlsn[ Vowtts

85

-f

Third Nasal Vowel Sound

The vowel i, wfiich;,is"*lways in this nasal vowel group,


makes this nasal vowel sound distinctively different from the
other three nasal sounds. If the vowel i were not in this nasal
vowel combination, the nasal sound would be entirely dif-

Emnptrs

ferent. It would sound more like the Fourth Nasal Vowel


Sound, which is discussed on the following page.

This is the nasal sound that has absorbed the nasal vowel
sound of the spellings un and um in paris and its environs and
in the western part of France, which was mentioned previorxly
under the First Nasal Vowel Sound.
This nasal vowel contains a variety of spellings, as you can
in the above list of examples. To produce the nasal vowel
sound of in, aitn, ain, iml ein, you must first properly pronounce the oral vowel combination ais that you learned in
Unit Three.

For practice, pronounce vais, then vin


fais, then fin and faim
mais, then main
sais, then sein and simple
Make sure you do not pronounce the consonants n or m
when pronouncing the nasal vowel groups.

Of course, there are exceptions:

see

You must position your lips properly to pronounce the


oral vowel combination ais, like the sound of ein the English
word eg'. The lips are parted and stretched from side to side,
as if smiling. Then, nasalize the aissound. (See Figure lZ.)

These two words contain the nasal vowel combination ien,


which is not in the same order as ein that was explained ear-

lier. The nasal combination en in bien and rien normally


produces a different nasal sound that is given in the Fourth
Nasal Vowel Sound, as discussed on the following page.
Nevertheless, ien in bien and rien are pronounced the same

in this Third Nasal Vowel Sound


group. In the south of France you will hear bien and rien
pronounced as in the Fourth Nasal Vowel Sound group
because of the en.
Two other exceptions are these:
as the other words above

i.::: 1.-i t i 2- j

'''':&ii1T+,Jn

In these tlvo words, the nasal vowel combination en falls into


Figure 12.
The nasal vowel sound of in, aim, ain, im, ein

the Fourth Nasal Vowel Sound, but they are pronounced


like the words in this Third Nasal Vowel Sound group.

86

Pnoruounce

lr

penfecrty

it

'

Fnsrch

OralVowel Sound

Unir Five, The Foun Nasll

Vowels

87

f-i

Extnprcs

Fourth Nasal Vowel Sound

Figure 13,
The nasal vowel sound of an, am, en, em

Exlnnrs

Note that the word content (hapb, contmt) contains tlvo different nasal sounds (on and en). However, the ending ent in
verb forms of the third person plural is never pronounced as
a nasal sound. Compare the sound of these:

But:
'.:.::::::
:::::

::

::!:!c

:.:.::.::::

i:.::::: :.: . i::::::::::::: :

..eg{t*Fnt,,teurs,,

:'::: :::':

::'

rna!heufsl

t]t:t:::t:;:::i:::i:::::::t:i::i::j::::::::::::::::::::l:::,:::::i:::1:::::::::::i::::::l::t:t:::i::::::

i:i:i:i:iri*ael+:iar'e:.:fe{xng:t::l:i::::i::
,,e,rf
..i.:.:.:.:ffi

.lf,ttl$ifotffi

ng$,i.:..:.:

Note also that the word la banane (banana) contains the


nasal vowel spelling an twice. However, they are not nasalized
because if you divide the word into syllables, you will see that
an is not a nasal group: ba-na-ne.

Note that en is nor nasal in the word ennemi


pronounced aE en-nve.

(enemy).

lt

is

Review the sound of the open oral vowel i contained in


words listed in Unit One. you must position the lips properly

to pronounce the open oral vowel i in those words, as you


would when you say AhlThen nasalize it. (See Figure 13.)

Finally, to sum up the four different nasal vowel sounds in


French, pronounce the following phrase that contains all
four:

i.iiii:ii"aiiHffi:.1*ih:':g!nhr.i.:iiiiii.i:.:.iii:.le.:.giaailri#.foffi.,,#1nu.,....,.,,..,...'..........:.:.:.'.'..'r.i..',

88

Pno'rource

Practice for

lr

penfecrtv

ir

Urir Fivt' Tht Foun Nlsll Vowels

Fnsrck
. "t

Mastery

The speaker will now review aU the.r,fords containing the

four

nasal vowels.

Note: These examples, which'are rlot listed below, appeared


earlier in this unit.Jusr lisren and ibfoeat each word after the

Excaast

1. cent

sans

SAME NOT

SAME

Now, rewind the tape and replay the review of eighteen


words numbered I to 18. This tiaie, r,r'ith a pencil, circle what
you hear in each of the numbered
$oups below. This is a quiz
on sound differentiation.

2. da..

dont

SAME NOT

SAME

3. vient

vent

SAMN NOT

SAME

4.

sein

SAME NOT

SAME

5. vin

vingt

SAME NOT

SAME

6. chant

champs

SAME NOT

SAME

sans

1. un

an

10. don

daim

7. fin

fairn

SAME NOT

SAME

2. bon

bonoe

11. on

tm

8. rm

on

SAME NOT

SAME

3. vent

Yin

12. sans

saint

9. blanc

blond

SAME NOT

SAME

4. bLond

blanc

13, nom

nain

10. dent

dans

SAME NOT

SAME

5. vin

vient

14. dinde

dindon

6. mon

main

15. cent

sein

/.

romain

16. faim

font

8. bien

bain

17. ton

temps

9. vient

viennent

18. dans

dont

roman

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the

answers in the box below^


Answrns

Now, pronou$i.*gfot a the two words in each group in


the following list. if the nasal vowel sound is the same for
both words, circle seun. If it is not the same, circle Nor seun'

speaker.

Exeacpt

89

'.{

Now, testyourself again before looking at the answers in the

box below.
Answms

Unir Six
ONSONANTs: I

i./r

'

i" n,l

lntroducing the Sounds


Listen carefully to all fte examples, repeat the French words
or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation'
Most French consonants are pronounced like those in
English. Consonants that are part of a single, double, or
triple vowel group are pronounced differently or not at all'
Refresh your memory by reviewing Units Three and Four in
the book and on your cassette.

A consonant is pronounced at the beginning of a word,


within a word, next to another consonant' or before a vowel'
The following tlvo words illustrate all four positions when a
consonant is normallY Pronounced:

Extnnts

The Consonant

Pronounce this consonant like the English D, but it is not


explosive as it sometimes is in English. Note that it is pronounced as a p when before s.
Extnpus

,,,ffi
93

94

Pnotoutce

lr

Penfecrly in Fnrnch

Unir Six: Tke Consonnnrs' I

95

The Consonant c
The consonant c plus a, o, u, or ou bas the sound ofk.
Exnwptes

When c is before e, i, or y it has the sound of s

Exnnnts

The Consonant c
This consonant is pronounced k when it is the last letter of
a word.

Htunrs

The Consonant g
The consonant g has the sound of s. The mark under the
c is called une c6dille (ced,illa). Actually, it is the lower half of
the letter s, which tells you to pronounce it as s. The g is
used only before a, o, or u when normally c has the sound of
k,

as

you learned above.

Exnnnts

In the following words c is not pronounced when it is the


last letter of a word.

96

Pnonounce

lr

Unir Six: The Cotsolatrs: I

PrnfecrLy in,Fsenck

However, the final c is pronounced k in porc and 6pic in


the following word.

Note, also, that the final c of a masculine singular a{ective


changes to que in the feminihe form because the k sound
must be retained.

Exnnnes

Extunes

The Consonants ch
sft.

i..:Publ.ic.....:.:.'....:.j.i.j::.::'.Ptrbfic:;Cndfiy.ii.i.i.,:,:,i..iii...'..iiii'i'i;i.'.::'..t:..,,..:.:l...:.

tu;blifiub:r'r,rrii::r,;:r,,.,,,,b;ufifrc,,sale:..i.:':';:.i::...':':i:i:::::

.;:;;;;

Finally, note that c in these words has a hard g sound


the English word ga.

The Consonants cc
Pronounce cc as k when followed by a, o, u, or ou.

ii

as

97

The consonants ch plus a vowel are generally pronounced


as in the English word shop.

Extnnes

i:ii

in

In the following words ch has the sound of k in front of a


vowel because they are derived from the Greek language and
the sound of k is retained:

Eannrs

::::1::::i::i::::ii:i::::::r:i:r::::r::::i::ii:i::::::i,:::::::i::i;;:::::::::::::::::::::!ri:::::l:::::l;r::::;r:l

i*riiixii:ilii::iiiiiii:iiiiii+iiiili;i

il#il---ffii..+il.r:++*x
Pronounce cc

as

ks when followed by e or i.

The Consonant

Pronounce d iike the English d. It is generally not pronounced when at the end ofword.

98

Pnotoulce

lr Prnfrcrlv il

Tke

Cotsolatrs: I

LIKE

LIKE K

LIKE

LIKE

LIKE

LIKE K

recevoir

LIKE

LIKE K

le gargon

LIKE

LIKE K

8. le cur6

LIKE

LIKE K

9. le cas

I-IKI

LIKE K

le cou

LIKE

LIKE K

Urir Six:

Fnenck

'$

Exmnts

3.

, ',
: F':!i;,

ea

',ta

4. le cin6ma
5. nous
6.

The final d is pronoun..d inf'his word,

Review Units Three and Forir where d appears in combinations with vowels, such as aud, id, ied, and others.
When a word enrls in d it is pronounced as t, connecting it
with the word after it if that word begins with a vowel or
silent h:

10.

99

pfonongons

Ii

Testyourself again before looking at the answem in the box


below.

lrcrcns

Eannrs

-iu*i*l*$$ffi
iiiii iii$

,,,,,
.....

Now, pronounce aloud the words in this list. If the final c


b pronounced like k, circle ves' If it is not pronounced at all,

:i.h6rfirnb..,.,.r.r'r.r,r'r:r,:.r.,b'.l :gl
iU,n,,,$far,ttr:',*****,,,,,,,,,,,,';;,i:i:io:

.6:ii:rmrl

iiiii:If

tEirid.h4il6::.:.;.:.:.,..... . . . .,.,.:.:it#i
Jeipeilg;.,.,.,,,.,,i,,,,',,,.,.li4l

circle No.

$i:]ttrei|,|,|:|:|:iiiiiiiiiii
fr::i:1i1eii'lF,itl:ii:llFi::::::::::::i:liiii::i::iiiii

Ercnust

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review all the words containing consonants in the above section.
Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared

earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat eacfr word after the
speaker.
Now, pronounce aloud the words in the following list. If the
consonant c is pronounced like the sound of s, circle rrrn s.
If c is pronounced like the sound of k, circle LrKE K.

1. avec

YES

NO

4. le parc

l'ES

NO

9 le

ItrS

NO

5. le banc

I'ES

NO

YES

NO

6. le bec

YES

NO

J.

porc

le pic

Testyourself again before looking at the answers in the box


below.
htsweas

Finally, pronounce aloud the words in this list. If ch is pro


nounced like sh, circle sh. If like k, circle k.

Extnasr

1. le colis

I-IKE

LIKE K

2. cela

LIKE

LIKE K

100

Pnotourcr

lr

Sevenffi
TftGf,S*|NsoNANrs: ll

Penfecrty irv.Fnrncfi

"

t-.
t
I
I

Exmasr

chat
2. le chaos

sh

sh

3. le chocolat

sh

1. le

sh
,5. le choeur sh
r$' 6. lechou sh

"' '

.,4F.la chanson

Unir

'"1d

k
k
k

Testyourself again before l,ooking at the answers in the box


below.

trrtroducing the Sounds


Listen carefully to all the examples, repeat the French
words or phrases after the speaker, then listen for the confirmation.

Answeas
ii:.:....riil,il;l;l'.f#:ri:tll*iiiiiki:i:iii.i.ifiiiitH...,ii4l:i..$hi'i'i:iii#t:i.iik.iii......nr..$fr,i.',,:':i:iiiii

The Consonant

The consonant f is generally pronounced in any position

ofa word.
ErutnEs

Do not pronounce the f in the following words:

101

102

Pnorource

lr

.' Ulii'Sevsn'

PenfecrLy in Fryrnck

\Alhen the word neuf is followed by a word beginning with


a vowel or silent h, the f is pronoungtd like a v.

Extnrrcs

Ths Consolanrs:

ll

103

- d.... ,,
, { - },i*.:'^

;:::::i:iill:i:$it::txe'ufi.:h:Ufa$.i.;.i.iiii;ii:i.;t;i;..:lt1:1$ffie,.b|ulgtftiii';.:.i.'t......;.:.:.i.:.i.l.i.i.i:.ii.i:

The Consonant

Pronounce g + a, o or u like gin the English words game, go,


gunx.

The consonant h is never pronounced'


Extuptts

Exnmnss

..'llfffi.ffiffi'.

The Consonant h

*..l.

ffiF#..il#$l''.......'.l..lll

iiii....iiii.....

'i''..i..
Pronounce g + e, i or y like s in the English words measure
and leisure, or like the z in seizure. Do not pronounce it d,g as
in the Englishword fudge.

Extnnts

The letter h is aspirate in the following words' An aspirate


h is one that is pronounced, as in the English wotd' hello'Do
not pronoun.. t i.t French even though it is designated as
aspirate.

:'1

i--l'ffii$HEi;i:i;

lllll:lffilil

$fil.l.li1+il:liili'.l.l.l.l.lil.l.ii:ii
r

The Consonants gn
zy

This is pronounced like niinthe English word, onimrorllke


in the English word. canyon.

Nouns beginning with the aspirate h require the definite


article le or la rather than I' in front of them:

1A1

Pnonorrrce

ir

FenfEcrly ini

Fsrercck

Urir Srvrn; Tht Corusoururs:

ll

105

Exnmnts
Exnmprcs

A word beginning r.r4th aspirate h is designated as *h

or'h

or ch in a French dictionan. A liaison is never made r+,ith a


word beginning wirh aspirare h. See La l_iaison in Unit N-ine.

The Consonants

The Consonantj

Extnpus

Pronounce
leisutz,

like the s in the English words


or like the zin seizure,

measure and

Enmnes

t,

Double ll is usually pronounced like the single l.

::::::::':'::':::::::::::'::''':::'':::::'::
elle,, ::::::::,: ,:she;:,hel,i, ,,iiii: :::: ,;;;;;i' ' ,,:,,
' ....beautiful (f,.s;). ......" .,...,.. ' iiii"
, ,,.,,,,,,,b.!lfb :i'.''
i..i.

:: :::::i ':'::'
:
:: ' .:::: :
,,,::::,,,: ,la|gelioom,,,,,.
(la) sellb ,,,,,,,. ,,,.!rddle ' " , ',,,,,,,,, ,,,,;' 'ii'
rnlll*,

,,,,,,

one fho,'i|iaiA

:: (la),Sblfe

\{}ren I or ll

:::.:

:,:::

is

in a cluster with vowels, the sound of 1is pro-

duced, in the English words yes and yellozu. Review the clusters ail, aile, aille, aillent, eilo eils, eille, eilleso euil, euils,
euille, euilles, ille, illes, and others, in Unit Three.
as

The Consonant

The consonant f is pronounced properly rvhen the tip of


.
the tongue is placed iightly againsi rhe inside of the two
upper ftont teeth. In English, hou,ever, ne tend to pronounce
the consonant f way back in the mouth with the tip of
tire
tongue touching the paiate, the roof of the mourh.

The Consonants

rt, n

These two consonants are pronounced as in English.


However, at times, the vowel in front of them in the same syllabl,eisnasalized, as in bon, mon, non, nom, bombe, important,
in which case the m and n are not pronounced. Review The
Four Nasal Vowels in Unit Five.

f06

Uruir Stvrru; The Consonnnrs'

PaoNouncs 6r FenFscrtv iru FnEncl*

Tke Consoalant

ll

147

Do not pronounc6 P iP these rvords:

Tiris consonant is nct explosive like the English p rvhen


nronounced.

(le),

are0unrfl

,co,rnPte,,

:...:::cohPtg'r
Exemprcs

:(l;:I:i:io miptd:b;i

:!i-a.,,',,",,,,,,,,,',',',btioun f ing
ta,,,te,,1r11,,,,,.1,,:,:;,,t,.,;,:.

(le) dompteui
(la) dompteuse
(le) corps

(,ia)pipe ' :fi*u,,.


p6,t'qgqge :::,because
:
, pcur . , .. :::.: for, ,:l
5r

dompter

:dad, p9p
papa ,i
. payer , , ,;, to pai,"

(le)

Do not pronounce

,fo,,co,un,t

tamai.tr"rl.;i,'I
tdmet,{1,S,)"

oocly,

In this word, p is not pronounced but t

is:

when it is the last letter of a French

lqord.
But in this'word, both p and t are pronounced:

Ex*wpt-ts
flii4r:i

.t.!e},.totl$......................,

bfsfi/'::::ii::i:i::]i::]:]:]:]i::
:]:

:]:ri:ir!::]|:i |:i:ij|.

nx:uahiii:?aen:,ita'ttlfl

..,...,..',..'i,.....AaaUt***

t::l:::tt)::::,

too,,mutfi l:,.,fao.lgmAnt

t,'1,1111;;;1,1,;,1,ftL6,..,P.t;;,:1.1;1;,;;11,;;;,1;i;,,,1;

The Consonants Ph

But do pronounce p in this expression:

The French consonants ph are pronounced like the English ph'

rr.opi l+op,ro itl (in interjellion,,.,.. ::"""


to express,a,n abqupt,,actlcn),.:
: ,,:,
..

The final p is pronounced in English words used in the


French language.
Exnnptts
,1.i6,

tdt

,,,

, (le) be:bo,* ''.


' ' :,stop,: i ;' ;'

','

' (le),s-hop '' ' ,' ,

,
,; ,,,

,, ,(la|'mus;goe pop

.,: : :

, 'b;ab

'.
;.

Exnnptrs

Philip" ,,
photo

Philippe
(la):photo
tl'il ptrotograptrie

p'haiogra'phl

The Consonants Ps
At the beginning of

word ps is pronounced ps'

beboP:

stop

ishop :::i

Exnnptrs

,:

:,

(ia)

,.pop,,musli,,,,

pstchotogie,

,:,

psvchialogy

psychol,og:ique "' psythologiaal

(la)

psychiaiiib ,,

piyihiatrY:,

108

Pnotoulcs

lr

Urir Srvet, Tlre Colsollnrs: ll

Penfecrly in,fRenctr

TheConsonantq+rr

109

Exnnprcs

The combination q + u producgq.4he sound of k.

Enuptes

Review the pronunciation of infinitives ending in er and


words ending in er or bre under those combinations in Unit

The Consonant

Three.

There are three ways to pronounce the r in French but we

will concentrate on the Parisian r that you hear on your cassette tape. It is also known as the dorsal r because it is articulated with the dorsum of the tongue. The dorsum is the
outer surface of the tongue. Press the tip of the tongue gently against the lower front reeth. Raise the tongue toward the
soft palate and let the air from your throat softly vibrate the
uvula, as ifyou are about to gargle (see Figure 14).

The Consonant s
The consonant

s is

pronounced like the English

in sif'

Extmpres

The final s in a word is not pronounced'

Extnnts

Figure 14,
The consonant r

For words that contain final s pronounced, review Unit


Three.
When a single s is preceded and followed by a vowel,
sounds like a z.

it

110

Pnonoutce

lr

PenfecrLy

il

Urir Sevet, The Colsonarrs:

Fnench

ll

111

Enmnes
d6sert

1. porsson

poison

4.

I Frangois

Frangoise

5. russe

coussin

6.

J.

cousin

lise

dessert
ruse
lisse

Rewind and check your answers before looking at the


ans\{ers in the box below.
Answms

The Consonants ss
The double consonants ss are pronounced like

ss

Extmms

',.iii..,ll- iJ;

.,...'.,...ziiiliiaoq"t-.,,,.'..',

in the

English tvord possible.

''..,-iipbiii

"l. iii
,tUJ;

iu*n

--

.,,''...41r.acsert.,...,.:;...,:.,..:..f91.'1$,.i'....,:
.,

Now, pronounce aloud the words in the following list' If the


consonant g is pronounced like the hard g in the English

word g4 circle A. If the g is pronounced iike s in the English


words measure, bisure, and occasion, circle B.
Exenast

1. le gant

2. le g6ant
3. le eilet

Practice for Mastery

AB
AB
AB

4.

Andr6 Gide

5. la gomme
6. le guide

AB
AB
AB

Testyourself again before looking at the answers in the box


below.

The speaker will now review all the words containing consonants in the above section.

Auswms

Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared


earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word after the

Pronounce aloud the words in the following list' If the


consonant p is pronounced, circle rns. If it is not pronounced,

speaker.

NoW rewind the tape and replay the review of six groups of
words numbered I to 6. This time, with a pencil, circle what
you hear in each of the numbered groups below. This is a quiz
on sound differentiation.

circle No.

112

Fnonounce

lr

Penf

rcrly

thir Seven, Tte Corrsolltrs: ll 113


,;, o I ""#
Lill is reading tlw booh i'n bed.
Lily lit le tivre d{h$illg;rr*
!#
'
+-

in F.nenck

Exrnasr

lecpup
2. la coupe
1.

3.

No
yES No
\.ES

,,

1,.,"p-pt"r
f.

.allez,

hop!

beaucoup ros No '.'.f; trop

\rES No
\.ES No

yss

No

Testyourself again before lQoking at the answers in the box


below.
Answens

Pronounce aloud the words in this list. If the consonant r


If it is not pronounced, circle No.

is pronounced, circle yES.

Exmast
1. hier

1IES NO

4. la

2. aller

YES

NO

3. cher

YES

NO

rue

YES

NO

5.

donner

\tsS

NO

6.

I'hiver

ItsS

NO

Testyourself again before looking at the answers in the box


below.
Auswms

:::::d:::::i

Practice in Context
Now, listen to the speakers pronounce.four statemeqts
drilling certain consonant sounds. During the pauses, repeat
each sentence after the speaker imitating the intonation, rise

and fall of the voice, and rhythm.

Da.d. did you Pa1 a lnt fm Your

Papa, as-tu pay6'6eaucoup


pour ta pipe?

PiPe?

Voigtu le ver vert qui vavers


le verre vert?

tward tlu green

Ie

chasseur, sachant chasser

sans son chien, cbassera seul.

Do you see tlu green wmm going

hnmtinghmt to hunt
dog will hunt alonz.

The huntcr,

uithout

his

glnss?

Urir Eiqhr: The Cotsorulrs'

tJ.nir Eiqhr

The Consonanrs:
,

-"

lll

lll

115

Do not p.onogrfue,$g:ein these words of one syllable:

u'

lntrodricing the Sourfds,'


.."&'

Listen carefully to all the'efamples, repeat the French


words or phrases after the'speaker, then listen for the confirmation.
.:!

The Consonant

Review in Unit Three words ending in ect as well as these


words where the finai t is pronounced:

The French consonant t is pronounced like the English t

Exnnms
:|:|:|:|i|i|!]|:|:|:|:

bialffjsldfi:l

.i.ii-"
uuu
.

K<:

Pronounce the t like s in these word endings: -tion, {ial, -tiel,


tie, -tieuxr -tieuse.

:,::::: ::::::::::::'

i9,F[rfllel]r;,,,:

Normally, t is not pronounced when it is the last letter of


a word:

The Consonants
\A/hen a word is of one syllable, the t is generally pronounced:

The combination th is pronounced like the English r' In the


French language, there is no fft sound as in the English words
thin or this.
Exnmpus

114

th

116

Pnoruourcr

lr

Unir Eiqkr: Thc Consollnrs:

PrnfecrLy iu Fnench

lll

117

"c1

The Consonant

!r-;.rrr", ;.^

The consonantx is pronounced Aswhen a consonantfollows it.

Exnnms

The Consonant

.',
The French consonant v is pronounced like the English

u.

Exttunrs

Pronounce x like

gz

when

vowel precedes and follows it.

Exnnprcs

The Consonant

When x is the last letter of a word, it is not pronounced.

Pronounce the French consonant w like the English


Exenpus

words borrowed from the English language.

Exnmms

In the English word uagon, the French w is pronounced v.

Review in Unit Three the combination aix when x is pronounced. Note that the final x in le pla6ntx/ phoenix is pro-

Exnunts

nounced.
Pronounce x like z when there is a vowel after it.
l

118

Pno*ource

lr

Unir Eichr
::: ''F '

Pcnfecrly in,Firnch

Extupus

Exnnprcs

When x is the first lettet


nounced

plus vowel,

f,.-'-,-

-.

The

Corsollnrs'

lll

119

,;,

it is pro-

gz.

Exnnnts

Review the combination ez in Unit Three.

Practice for Mastery

i:i::lli:ltie}iixsn'nhbui*:.i:.ijiiiiiiii:i:i:xeniop'fi"b'rn:l::iiiii:ii:i:i::i:i:ii:i:iiiriii;::,::liiiiiiiii:ri:ii.i:.:;::::ii:'ii

r..;''iiif!*I.xg1agffittriu.:1ii11,..,1i....xaiogipht.i.,....ti.,........ii..i..,.,'..iiiii:.:.:.:...:liiii.:'.li::.:....

When referring to an unknown person as)l pronounce xas


which is the word for the letter x of the French alphabet.

eehs,

speaker.

Exnnnrs

.i..il#ffiffiillliiii'iiffillilri:i:i:i:i:l:l:lll:l:iiiiiiiilr:i:il

The speaker will now review words containing consonants


in the above section.
Note: These examples, which are notlisted belou appeared
earlier in this unit.Just listen and repeat each word after the

i:i:i:iiiiii

ili

Pronounce aloud the words in the following list' If t at the


end of the word is pronounced, circle vns. If it is not pronounced, circle No.

ii::::ll:i

Exrnasr

The Consonant z
The French consonant z is pronounced like the English
Exnnnes

z.

5. instant

YES NO

YE,S NO

6. petit

\.ES

NO

3. net

\.ES

NO

7. huit

YES

NO

4. il est

l'ES

NO

8. il finit

YES

NO

1. sept

YES

2. et

NO

Testyourself again before looking at the answers in the box


below.
Atswrns
Do not pronounce the z in words ending in ez.
Pronounce aloud the words in this list. If t is pronounced
as ! circle T. If it is pronounced as sn circle S.

120

Pnotounce

lr

Penfscrl.y in ,Enenck

..,'t'
f
'i

Exenast

l.

partiel

2.

I'iddd

3. ambitieux

',,

dinutieuse

".r,5;:Prononciation T

'i',.,S: u

.4"

ae*ocratie

Answens

-'";.1-, .;

Pnnr Tknet

Wond PnrrrRNs
Pronounce aloud the words in this list. If w is pronounced
ra, circle W. If it is pronounced like the
English u, circle V.

like the English


Exenasr

1. leweek+nd
2. lewagon
3, le western
Arswens

WV
WV
WV

::::::::{::r:::r:::i*}.::::::::::::r::di:::::ir{:I
::

:::rEirrr':fIr':::.i i:.4r'1i: y:

4. Ie wagon-restaurant
5. les WC
6. le wagon-couchettes

WV
WV

wv

l:a:ar:i.:::'t:,:.:l:li:
:i::::::

iiiii

lirrr,rV'r.r.r:rl

$li:iv'iiii

Finally, pronounce aloud the words in this list. If x is pronounced fu, circle fu. If it is pronounced gz, circle gz.
Exenast

excellent

2. Itexercice
3. lexylophone
Atswms

&tg
hsg
ksg

4. Itexamen

5. expert

'

6. lax6rographie

g
hsg
tug
&s

ANd lnronArioN

'{
,r:'+

Unir Nile
La Linison

-J

t:, ,,/''

;
..

f,#

lntroducing the Sounds


Listen carefully to atl the examples and repeat the French
words or phrases after the speaker.
When a word ends in a consonant that is normally notptonounced, a liaison is made by pronouncing the consonant if
the word that follows begins with a vowel or silent h.
Les enfants sont_all6s ir l'6cole sans argent.
The children

wmt to school without monq-

In making the liaison, the consonant that is pronounced


becomes part of the syllable at the beginning of the word
that follows. If the consonant is s, it is pronounced as z. In
other words, in the above example, when pronouncing s in les
as z, the sound goes with en in enfants. ks is still pronounced
as laybt*tlre z sound of s in les is pronounced withtheword
enfants, so that it sounds like this:
lay zmfants.

A liaison is not always made whenever a word ends in a consonant and the word that follows begins with a vowel or silent
h, There are times when a liaison is required, when it is rec-

ommended, and when it is prohibited.

Required liaison
Between a personal subject pronoun and the verb.

123

lii
'ii't
ii'

124

Pnouource

-t--

!r Fenfecrty iu Fnrnrcir

'..:sr::

Exnnnes

deux:ac<idents
::::::

'

Y....,1

rnes::amrs
:..'.:: \;a : ,iii.

,:

is the

Bet$een a preceding direct object pronoun referring to persons or things and the verb:

Betrveen a determinant (for exarnptre, les, des, aux, ces) or

an adjective (for example, grandso petits, tout, deux, mes,


nos, vos, leurs) and the noun or adjective:

:,!H::t::::::::,::t:t,:,:

aiu

irhie'i5rudeht$i...i.i'.rii:.....i..i.
SO:m

e f fle

n dS

:::::

.: : ::

,.,

.i.l:i:iiiii:",:1:*het:l:*akiaUi.$.i1i6iiCIhiil;::
.' .' "'' '....
fhese:frceji : i:

rcg:i:i:ihfhfeE
r':::.:.: g:.:::.:ri::r:::::r':
!,es

Siend

U!

om nr

e-s

:,,

:,,,,,,t h,e,: g-1 e' a

t I rw9f,

.:

a:,ccide:nlfs, ,:,,,

.:,
,

,,,,,,

*r.!iit,idi,,

,,i,iii

.,>-illl

With the inverted subiect and verb in the interrogative:


:"Whtat:is,'she'iayin'g?
:::::

::lllllll:

. : .:::::

.::

,;.;.;i;'OUe...F*eh$i$,.:.'.'.'....................;.1met;..*.,nU...#*tl*0.21,'....
.,.tii.i.i...tllditeiit.t{i.ii$...pitofiCIu,nced.i.aS, !,,,Rev.iqw,

'the ConsonantSi..ir]
.,..

.iiPforl6u.ncsd.

With the pronoun y (there, to it, in it):

tortltl!l{:ait};:::a:tilth.rld*rs.,.i...i.,.i.,.i...i.iil....

ii.i.i.i.j:i.l,N.0t*'''th8t.,i*..i.is

,...,

a;g.es

With the pronoun en (of them, some of them):

:,:,:i:::,:::::::::::,:.:::

g:li.$ss.ii:::i:::.::

of.,al

i,

.Quedit.eile?.,
::::::::
:..:
.:::. v

:t::::i,:,:

... ,....i'
,:...
",,,,,
ou:r.aneeitafs:,
yo*ri ouiin,"ii,.iiii;''tr:
voS:affairesiii,
i,,,,,i
,,r:Vr ,,,.,.,
.,,,,,,. i,ii
,6l6ves
lcuiS
aniiens\.7:::::: .. :::::. th e i r,,fo r mi rt p i pi I sr'',,t',
' ,ii,,..,

::::::.

lCs:::dtudlbnts..
. :tt: :: :t::l:
. !2
de$:i::ie i$ili:i:i:ili:i::l:l'l;lll:l

littld chlldryn::, ',:::,


two

,,,,,,,:

,
aftcQtres,,,'
:nos
:.
v::.::.
it

125

:l:::::

des petrtijnfa"{s,
de tOUli9e
iii

Between a preceding personal pronoun when


direct or indirect object of the verb:

Lilison

Unir Nint' La

,,,,,,,

,,..,

!he ConSbnahl'

:, '::::::,

d.i.i{J.i.Uatt.Sixt:i:'l':

:::

oue.;airiitgr?,,,,i,i,,wititii1irita,,a;|i;::iaili:
Vienneng]lr?,,, ,

,'

.Aririhey,conihE,? ,,,,:,:

.,:.

.....i
,,,,,

..

,:,,,,:

126

Pnonounce

lr

Unir Nire' Ln Lilisorc '127

PrnfscrLy in Fnench
.ri

After a preposition of one syllable:

With man;' iocudo4s (a-group of words) or compound

rvords:

deiitdm.nts,,:,:,a:irfem.Bs
:::':::|::::::::]:::::::::::::|::::j:lt:]:i:l*,t1]::: ]::]::::i::1::::::t:]::ii|i:
]]

m(}t
'i....v

::::
,a,,m(}E::::
....::.::::::

r.

,fiffi

i.i:fl

tWA f. A,

n?ei.ifio.i:ifffi F

D y.

INO f C'.tttt,,tl

::::)::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::'::::'::::::::::::::::::::|::::::::::::::::::::':::

tta:,:,,fih;).:;,th1er.:|tlrhi.ted;

vl,SiaivlS

face. f(}

fac,,r

]::lt::::::i::':]:,:.:t:.l::.:i'i:i:t:ii.:ili:il:l:

:hEtfet:5

,::

:::::::ii::i:l:t:i:il,:::i::i:.:::::.

nd:r

beittei::

With adverbs of one syllable dnd adverbs of negation:

Recommended liaison
With quand and dont:
Exnwnrs
,,tWlt,Efl ,a n,,! S Sp d K In $,;,,,:
,;;af ,wh i ch,;h e has, nbed':

:::::

Behgeen the verb and a noun or complementary adjective:

:EIOtii*.l.S61filfte$j,r.:,a!tr.is.i:.:.:i:ii.ii:i',ttt,tttt:tt:::tttt:tl].Uet:dttid:t:frtl4.ln

,'....ll.st::::irnFo$ii:bile:::::::,.:',,,,lf.iS,r'rnpASSr'blei

S.ttt

E!:letiii$ont:;t;i;fiUrdju5e$ii:r:l:::::,:::,:,:,:::,:::::t*rc,
,,A:rE:1haP.P .,
:::::::::::::::..::. :v: :: :: ::: ::

With impersonal il est or c'est:

::

.i..:::::: ..i.

'

::,ii..

Between the helping verb in the chird person singular or


plural and the past participle in a compound tense:

128

Pnonounce

lr

penfecrty irvFnrnch

Unir Nire: Ln

Liaison 129

f,..:

Prohibited liaison
A liaison is not made (when yrdimally itwould be) if there
is a significant pause betweerrboth elements while speaking:

Now, pronounce t'foud the phrases in the following list


nurnbered 1 to 14. If a liaison is made, circle yns. If a liaison
is not made, circle No.

Exmc$t

With the conjunction

efi,,"

With the final consonant of a noun in the singular:

1. nous allons

YES

NO

8. les haricots

I'E,S NO

2. vous 6tes

I'ES

NO

f. ilsysont

l'ES

NO

3. fu ont

TTS

NO

10. elle est all6e

YES

NO

4. nous avons

ITS

NO

11. Quedit-il?

1T,S NO

5. lui et elle

YES

NO

12. les horsd'oeuwe T'ES NO

O. ftats-Unis

TT,S

NO

13.

Allez-y!

I'E,S NO

\.ES

NO

t4.

rm nez 6norme

1T,S NO

7. Tuparles

assez,

Testyourself again before looking at the answers in the box

With the

-es ending of a verb

in the second person

singu_

lar, present indicative and present subjunctive:

below.
Auswras

If the word that follows begins with an aspirate h:

Practice in Context
Nolr', listen to a short narration in which several liaisons are
made. During the pauses, repeat each sentence or phrase
after the speaker imitating the intonation, rise and fall of
the voice, and rhythm.

Practice for Mastery


The speaker will now review words, phrases, and sentences

in the above section.

Note: These examples, which are not listed below, appeared


earlier in this unit.Jrxt listen and repeat after the speaker dur_
ing the pauses, paylng careful attention to liaisons that are
made or not made.

Nous avons des amis qui


sont all6s au-r ftats-Unis. Ils ont
laiss6 leurs deux enfans chez
nous. Aujourd'hui mon mari et
moi nous allons avec leurs enfants nous amuser et accueiilir
les oiseaux dans un parc.

somefrimdsuhoumt to
Thq lcft thzir tuo
chill,rm at ow hune. Tbd,ay my hu.sband and I are goinguith th,eir children to have fun and welcomz the
We haae

the United States.

birds

in a park.

', Uruir Trru

L'Enckn?nEMENr,

['slision;J

MUET

,l':*&'

Unir Terr L'Enckainemervr, ['e1isioru, e MUEr 13'l


Exnnptes

l'atni d'Anne
.I.j i* d'*lbert.
lraltnl?ii,

lntroducing the SouriAi


Listen carefully to all the,examples and repeat the French

I'ho,mm;
l'h6tel ,
ira|r.:'
Js..l i,

Je.miappellE

Jei*;'

:::''r:

G'est:vfii-

L'Enchainement
When a word ends in a consonant that is normally pronounced, an enchainement is made by linking the consonant to forrn a syllable with the word that follows if it begins
with a vowel or silent h.
Exnnptr

lrnm-draidint,,,.,, bldent

ve

The consonant r in amotrr is always pronounced. The word


that follows begins with a vowel. In this group, pronounce the
r in amour not as part of the word amour, but rather with the
a in ardent. It sounds like this: amou-rardent.

'

Ce,n'.iiiFas*ai,
Js.

Anne's fnend\m.)

'

.lhave
I
I hayg,i{r,,,,,.
My nami'JiJahn.

It's'tr.ue.

',,,

t'm -listening td iou:

:,.,.
Jq'h1el " 1: ::

,aclordlng

t$a+ g:.gLEe'lt=:'Qslbct:Ge gu.itdit?

ehougt:r'.money.

Norqgtelle

Wheh

::::

ttit ieune.-l" ,
i*soutd.dC

,i'
i,i-

Itls nat true.

t.16corrta.

d!B-fsr ,

,,,

Al b e rt's, {r.i ea d, (t .)'

the enemy
the man
the hote{

,:...,1

,.

words or phrases after the splat e..

.'.

.,

ail.l',...,

t don'

.,

'iive

'."':t':

What is he saying?

she,

'

.WASyOVngt-":'' .,
,,a Etil,tam o r foW,,,,:'''

Exceptions: First of all, do not assume that an elision is


made with all words that end in e or a. Study the most common ones in the above list.
o Do not make an elision with the numbers 8 or

L'Elision
An 6lision (elision) is made when the final e or a of a word
omitted and an apostrophe is added, if the word that follows
begins with a vowel or silent h. In doing so, a syllable is

1.

Ennprcs

is

formed with the beginning of the word that follows. The


most commonly used words that make up an 6lision are: le,
je, meo te, se, de, ce, ne, que, and words ending in que.

la,

May I I
te onze mai
the eighih day
le huitime jour
la,fruitiArn+,+qi1--..,.': ,. :.:.the.,eighth..r1i t
le onziime gargon
the eteventh boy
I*-rzr?.4-. jerr.n-C. He'1,:'the,elvent-E;'gkl

o Drop the vowel i of si (t') only in front of il

(thil.
130

(h.e,

it) andils

'132 Pnotoulcr lr

Penfrcrty

irv

Unir Ter: !-'Ercluitremenr, l'elisiott, e MUEr 133

Fnrnck

.j

o Do not mdhd4n;blision with the pronouns le or la when


they are attached to the verb in the command (imperative form) and followed by a word beginning with a

Extnnrs

vowel.

Extnprcs
, .:r-.:

.'

Prononcez-le

et

ironounce it and

&*,ivez.leauisir .,'-:tt

vous.

PrCnei-la a*ec
Note that when si means

so,

there is never elision:

But there is an elision with le or la in front of y:


Ir

i::iii:ii:Eltei::$tii:x$!::i:intfi6rEcste:!l:ii:iiiiiii:::i:i:::::::sfie:iii$::$or:iltHo

#iliiiiii:iiiii:ii:i:;i.i:'

Do not make an elision if the word that follows begins


with an aspirate h. Review the letter h in Unit Seven.

#L;1,;;56,-rr ,r:
it with
,yoi.

Take

I i:ir,:

MetsrlT=

Do not make an elision in the interrogative with inverted


subjectje and verb:

Exenpus

But when not inverted, make an elision in je:

Do not make an elision when there is a pause in speaking or if a phrase is set offby commas, a dash, or parentheses when written.

Do not make an elision with a in ga:

;,:..::-:.--::::l:::

:l

,ar:ii.v!_=de rrlp.t

That happens from time

G,n'.1mpsn.:.,':'",

to

:..,1::.

Exnums

Do not make an elision with the vowel i in qui:

...i.ii..El.liu:i:inl$t..ffii...uehueri.i'i.i:i:i:i'.i.i'ili.i'i.i.i.,Str"i.A;id..n6;f;.,.c$ffie...j.i..:.:.r.:.:......ii.ii....iij...i.l

::itrrr::;::;:n:::;;:if.:::L:;:::.::i:r:::::::.i:
::::;r:rr:;l-:::::r:.i::rl:l:I::i:.:i;i:::::::
i:i'i:i:i:ffiffiF.suc;:i:#ticlile;i:iili#::i:i::iii:l:::::::beffiare,,,iaria:,itrer,shaiiiiiii::ir
ii::ii::i;Glrul:,nis!fditi..pe$.j.lGi:i:i:.:.:i:ii:;.i':.:.;ili::i:i:i:i:i:i:i:iu

:t.jhdil1cii:thb

rrr'nEiiii:,:,,i,iiii:

time,

-=t1.Q.u,i,,.-.e-'..'
=.'.!,..f.tit==.-_j?=' ri l

-.,,

.ft

.,,

134

Pnorourcs

lr

Unir Ter': L'Ercklinemrrr, l'r1isior, e muET 135

Prnfecrl.-l;i1r Fnrlch

There is often an elision with the vowel u in the personal pronoun tu when it isplided in familiar conversation. Instead ol-safngi ..

."
Tu as bien mang6?

'{sf '

lianiii{Kr:i1=

r1,$$.:

W$

bc,.te-.It=
l

iour:

#'idIl&,i.tF.=&.eF=

,,

i 4illl' utY
you eatwel!?
oia Jivei:'es:,rEl':Y.i,i:s.i::=
ilri

,.

;*:7ed:

::t:tl.i:

r+sif,slffi$

ili*=:fe

f'+.+*

You will often hear:

I
i

a:.'

The

e muet

The e muet (silent e) occurs frequently in spoken French.


When a group of syllables contains three e muets, pronounce
one and do not pronounce the other two. Ifyou do not pro
nounce any of the three, there will remain three successive
consonants. In French, it would be awkward to pronounce
three consonants without separating a syllable with the vowel
e. In the following examples, the bar / through the vowel e
means it is not pronounced.

J,U

bJr -

::t i$l .

=-

fa.hF ilu

I
N

;,1
I

fil

It

Iiil
i'ri

.=."],.-:,, n9$ilil"!;:: onttth e in !a lf y-i[ o'sup:

""-ttl-,
silnF

0ressed tlie e in te, Vou we !q:=.l$ with'tliree'e-O.a. nts.in


a row t0 pronounce: l,l*,dnd d. That is avoided because the
statement would not be articulated properly in good French

Itrr
$lil

ilr

i,l

pronunCiation.J

Jd t

l#

donne. '

t am giving

it to you.

lnere;,S in ie and e in le aiC suppressed. lf you also suppressed


the e iri le, you would be left with three consonants in a row t0
pronodime: i, t, and l. That msst be avoided.l

, Jl vorrdrais
un{ liwe d# bet|rril;
s'il wls Frlait ,,,t

I would like
a pound of butte+tp/ease.

,il
I

Urir

Unir Elever:

Eteven

L'lruronnrioru

L'hrourion

3i

Sam

ple Answeto

i1..1.

-the Negative

Je.n=e..rnG:s-e1,E

Listen carefully to the speikers pronounce a series of statements illustrating how to modtftate your voice when asking a
question, making a statemelrt in the affirmative or negative,

how to sound out exclamations, and how to speak in the


imperative when telling sorneone to do or not to do something. During each pause, imitate the speaker's pronunciation,
rhythm, intonation, accentuation, rise and fall of the voice,
liaisons, elisions, nasal vowels, and suppressions of e muet.
Don't hesitate to let yourself go and imitate the speaker!

Sample Questions

biCn

pas,'r:

iujouid'hui.

/ dorlit feet 't

welltoday.

ie n'ai pas.,.., i , ./v"o;:l nitfed


ed#id,u:aubt j::::::::= lJke goinE
to the movies.
au iincma.
.F'h, il nr,ert pa$ , ,., /VCIi.rT3*6t" ....
ngtli{,ihuTe9;:.. .=:::::.;;,,,':: nine o'rlack''"
Nonn

11

Exclamatory Statements

scandaleux! Ift xandaloii!


lt's avvesome!
formidable!
That's cool!
Chouette alors!
gt commentl
Ard ho*t
A"a weather!
Wnat
temps!
Qrei -"urtis
Comme eite est Ueltet How beautifulshe is!

C'est

i;est
,Boniour!

Comrnent

Hellol How

are

you?

allez-vous?

Salut! Ca va?
Hi! How aii things?
Veux-tu aller au
-'-':::.l#r,6
fi oyfes v'tltft me z
:''i'i.i-dffi a,avet. 6si7i;:'
Est-il neu{ heures? ls it nine o'clock?
,

Sampte Answers in the Affirmative

lmperatives (Commands)

Tais-.l.vouEl

Okay, thankyoui.
Yes, l'd like very much
fio go to the movies

:',',',.-..:

::

i'il v.o

pta1,t:

disr"...,.

coffee with tieam,

r:r::'::::::::::::::-::::
:l:::=
:'ple'aie-i
i'' :il::

Retuln

,.

6crup-i,vcE-d...v,o*

N$allerpasl

it to me.

Itell you!

":tron't@thadl
:.i.g_Bi.".. t,

','

affaires!

:,,::::::::=

Criig.e a

.. .-i

fi'C fa ite-. pef ,=.--:la !.

136

Re.d*Ie-moi;

jg+

l.::.::::a::aa::a:a::.':',-:'

Be quiet!

ortez-mdlun=
af tr'*m*i ,,'=,:'-

.*

li:v,F@tw.a.i*

Mii

own

t,

buiine

ii,:"

$on'tgo there!

137

GOHe

Pronounced

Transcription
letterc

approximately
as in the

English

word

French

word

Sound

transcription

lollipop

la

la

ah

ah!

pas

Fah

aj

say

ay

could

ai
le

ee

see

ae-see

eh

egg

lcl
mbre

an

lu

lan

huit

ru-eet

nj

few
you eat
canyon

ligne

lze-ny

also

h6tel

otehl

oh

Pot

Poh

oo

oh!
too

or

of

ou
porte

port

sh

ship

chose

shohz

Puh

ur

pur:r

bonne
peux
peur

bun

uh

bun
pudding

yes

ilya

eel)a

)ay

Payer

?a))ay

yea
zero

z6ro

zay-roh

zh

measure

je

zhe

UH

srmg
song

atMe

Iz

mehr

oo

pw

NASALVOWELS

lm

UH

bon
hlep

EH

sang

bon
vin

AH

yonder

blanc

OH

141

VEH

VocrbuLrny 143

Vocabulary

rq$

africaine

"9.
ag6
aile

French-English

air

containr'it*i.n words you practiced as


examples in this book. All'Fiench rvords are followed by

albatros
all6

sound transcriptions to help yeu pronounce them when you


do not have your two cassettes.dth you. The transcription letters used are in the simple Pronunciation Guide on the preceding page.

aller

This vocabulary list

French

Words

Pronunciation

English Meanings

v&19. kvh^n

African

ahzli

age

*i.g

ehl
ehr

air

alba-truss
a-lay
a-lay

all6

a-lay up
a-loh

hop to
hello

alors

a-lor

dphabet

al-faieh

then; so
alphabet

ambassade

en-ba-sad

embassy

e,a-|ry-das

environment

tn-bee-sy-uhz

eniattl-dtts

ambitious
ambulance

a-nMe

friend

a-rnoor
AH

love, loves

bient6t

ir

la question

a foanloh
a lnkehs-tyeH

propos

apruloh
a-beh1

bee, bees

enzh

abeille, abeilles

to go
go!

ambiance
ambitieuse
ambulance
rrni, amie
annour, amours
an

a
a

albatross
gone past part. of aller

a.lat

allez!
allez, hop!

has (he, she, it)


at, to
see you soon
to the question
by the way

a
n

aged

ah-zhay

it! up vou go!

(m.,

f.)

year
angel

abricot

a-bree-koh

apricot

ange

absent

ap-sAH

absent (za)
absent (l)
absolutely
to overwhelm
to accept

anglophone

en-glu-fun

English*peaking

aon6e

a-nay

accis

ak-seh

access

anniversaire
antenne
aofrt
appeler

accident
accord

ak-see-dan

accident

epp6tit

a'pay-tee

a+ray-slay

accotrrir

a-koo-reer

app16cier
aPpuyer

afat+e1ay

yeaf
anniversary
antenna
August
to call
appetite
to appreciate
to lean, to press

artichaut

ar-tee-shoh

artichoke

as
as-hr...?

ahs

ace
have you...?

aspect

a-speh

aspect

assez

a-s4y

athlbte

at-l.eht

anr' autr

oh

enough
athlete
at the, to the

absente

ap-sAHt

absolument
accabler
accepter

apsul-an-men

a-kailay
ak+ehp-tay

accuser

a-kett-zay

agreement
to rush up, to nrn up to
reception, welcome
to welcome
to accuse

acier

ass)aj

steel

accueil

accueillir

a-hm

ak-u1
ah-u1eer

142

a-nee-uehr-sehr
AH-tehn
oo

(or)

oot

a+lat

a-ta!

1M

Pnoloutcr lr Penfrcrly ir

Enench

audehors

oh-de-m

aussit6t
automne'
avant

oh-see-toh

avec
aveu
aveugle
avis

**'
a-uuh '.:' i

-:

u-tun

on the outside
at 6hce, immediately
' u'autumn, fall

a4)AlI ..,.^r.. before


with
a-aehh ' t,''
a-augtz
a-aee

avoif

a,-auar

ayant

ehltn

.:-

avowal,confession

blind
opinion; notice
to have
having

bon

good
'.*

boqiour

bon-zhoor

candies; goodies
good day, hello

bonne

bonnet

bun
bun+h

good (l)
tronnet

bord

bm

edge

bosse

bus

hump

botte
boucherie

but
boosh-ree

boot; bunch
butcher shop

boue
boulangerie

boo

mud

bool-an-zh-rce
boo-tcek

bakery shop
small shop, boutique

bulletin

bonbons

bou-bon

baccalaur6at

ba-ka-lar-ay-a

Baccalaureate Degree

boutique

bain

bath
to sweep
banana

bulletin

bartl-tsH

banane

bnn
bal-ay1ay
ba-nan

banc

sa

that

bench

ca

b'Ett

sa-ay-ln

ba-toh

cart6

ha-fo,y

boh-koo

boat, boats
beautiful, handsome
much, many

gi et lit
cible

fine arts

h,a'yay

boh-zar

boybo,

cahier, cahiers
canot
capitaine
caractbre
carnet
carotte

ha-rak-tehr
har-neh

here and there


cable
coffee
notebook, notebooks
open boat
captain
character
small notebook

ha-ru,t

carrot

aas

hah

case

cath6drale

ha-tayd'raI

GE

se

cathedral
this

c&ilte

say-dce'y

crela

sla

cent
certaine

&4.lt1

cedilla
that
one hundred

sehr-tphn

certain

ctest

seh

it

cet
chanson
chant

seht

shtn

this
song
chant; singing

chaos

ha-oh

chaos

balayer

bateau,

bateaux

beau,beaux
beaucoup
beaux-arts
b6b6
bec

boh

b6gayer

baygaylay

baby
beak
to stammer, to stutter

belle

behl

beautitul

belle-soeur
bte
bicyclette

behl su.r

sister-in-law
beast

bien
bient6t

byan
btEH-toh

bicycle
well; fine
soon

blanc

bIAH

white

bl6

bln)
bluh

wheat
blue, blues

blond
boeuf

blan

blond

buf

beef; ox

boeufs

buh
honb

oxen; pl. oJbeef

bleu, bleus

bombe

behh

bpht
bee-see-kl.eht

bomb

(f)

kahbh

ha-noh
ha-pee-tehn

shen-soH

is, it's

146

Pnotoulcr

lr

chapeau
chapelle
chat

Penfecrly in Firrnch
sha-poh

hat--

chef

sha-pehl . *rhapel
sha
ct
sha-toh i:..r- . castle
shoh i
".$ hot
shehf

chef dtoeuwe

shay d.uaye'

masterPiece

shrnnndJelir
shrhr

railroad

chiteau'
chaud

sfsrnin de

chief, boss

fer

cher, chbre
chercher

..

cornrne

comptabilit6
compte
compter
c6ne
content

cheval

shual

chevaux
cheveux
chez
chez elles
chez le docteur
chez nous
chien
chienne

shaoh

horses

shauh

hair

shay

hm-aygra-fee

at the house
at their (l) house
at the doctor's ofiice
at our place
male dog
female dog
chemistry
shock
chocolate
chorus, choir
choreography

shoo

cabbage

chou-fleur
chr6tien

shoo-Jlur

cneusie

creux

chr6tienne
chute
cil, cils
cin6ma
citoyen
citoyenne

hray-tyehn

cauliflower
Christian (za)
Christian (f)

shatt

fall

cruel, cruelle

seel

see-hxa)EH

eyelash, eyelashes
cinema, movies
cirizen (m.)

see-twalehn

cirtzen (f.)

citrouille

see-troo)

pumpkin

crreilleur
cneilleuse
crreillir
cuidrne
cur6

coeur, coeufs

hur

shay-zehl

shayl

duk-tur

shay noo

shynn
shyehn

chimie

shz*mee

choc
chocolat
choeur
cho16graphie
chou

shuk
shu-hu-la

coiincidence

colis

hur

hraylynn

see-nay-na

heart, hearts
ku-nn+ee-deas coincidence
hu-lce
parcel, package

'^

as, like

kon-ta4ee-lce-tay accounting

koat
kou-tay
hohn
koH-tAH

account
to count
cone

content, happy
cor d'harrnonie km d,ar-mun+e French horn
cor de chasse km dc shass hunting horn

dear; expensive (m., f.)


to look for, to search
horse

shehr-shay

hutr"''

$-*'r'

Yocahulanv 147

corbeille
Gorps

koriehl
km
kor-ehkt
kus-toh
hoo
kood,
kao

correct
costaud
oou
coude
coq,
coup depied
Goupe
oourage
Gouronne
oousin
ousine
coussin
co0t

koo-run
korras
koo-zzen
koo-sut
koo

cnemeuse

kray-muhz

cr6meux

hray-muh
hnthz
kruh
hrua
kraa+hl

croix

koodpyay
konp

kooqazh

kulur

basket

body

correct
strong, robust man
neck
elbow

hit, blow
kick
large cup
courage
crown

cousin (rz.)
cousin (f,)
cushion
cost
creamy (f.)
creamy (m.)

hollow (f,)
hollow (rz.)
cross

cruel (m.,

f.)

kat-ray

gatherer, picker (m.)


gatherer, picker (f)
to gather, to pick
kitchen
priest

cycle

su4lz

cycle

cyclone

su-klohn

cyclone

kuluhz
ku-yeer
kaa-ee-reen

748

Paorcuxce

Ir

Peefecily in

F,+rench

dompteuse

dosluhz

don
donner

don

dos

d.oh

dot

dut

dome
to tame
tamer (m.)
tamer (f.)
grft
to give
back (ofaperson)
dowr-l

doux

doo

soft; sweet

douzaine
douzibme

doo-rehn

dozen

d.oo-zyehm

nvelfth

du

of the, from the

dt

dru
dru

dynastie

dee-nas-tee

dy.u.ty

eau, eaux

oh

water, waters

6cho

ay*oh

echo

ecureuil

ayktumtl

squirrel

egoiste
6lastique

eyu-eest

egotist

ay-las+eek

6lbve

ay-bhu
ehl

rubber band
pupil, student
she, her

d6me

daim
dans

de

debout
degh et delh

d6gott

-, , ;nrede leather
dna
d"4H .'. *- in
dE
"'r.''--. of, from
tle-boo ! *,$ sbnding
d.e+a-ay-dc-lq from here, from there
disgust
daygoo r,.

dc-m :'
d,ay-zha
day-zha-ual

dent
d6p6che

outside
already
alreadyseen
d,aymuk-ra-see democracy
tooth
d,tn
dispatch
day-peh^sh

d6p6chez-vousl

day'peh-shayaoo

hurryup!

depuis

d,epat-ee

deroier, derniers

dehr-nya1

srnce
last (m.s., pl.)

dernilre
des
d6sert
dessert
dessous
deuil

dclwmy+hr

dehors
d6jn
d-6jn-vu

d6mocratie

'i.Sq[ig1lt+

dompter
dompteur

"don-tay

daa-tur

dun-ay

(past

part. ofdevoir)

day
day-z*hr

last (ls.)
of the, from the
desert

day-whr

dessert

dt-soo

underneath

du)

mourning

deux

duh

deuxibme
devinette

duh-zyehm

two
second

dc-aee-neht

riddle

devoir
dict6e, dict6es

de-awa,r

dictionnaire

dzek+yun-ehr

ought to, should, must


dictation, dictations
dictionary

Dieu
dilemme
drpl6me
direct

dyuh

C'od

dce-lzhm

ellesapprennent ehl-zafrehn

they (f.)are learning

dcesh zhuh-eh

rhey (f.)arewriting
they (f.) are finishing
they (f,) have

ten
ten months

elles 6crivent
elles finissent
elles ont

ehl-zay&reat

disc;iockey

dilemma
diploma
direct
diskjockey

ellesparlent

ehlparl

embalras

AH+a.ra
AHIeer

dix
di*mois

doS

dcek-tay

d,ee-plohm

dce-rehkt
d,eess

mua
dua
dze

finger

elle
elle
elle
elle
elle
elle
elle
elle

croit

ehlknta

dit

ehl dce

est

ehl eh

finit

ehlfee-nee

lit

rr'appelle

ehl lee
ehl malehl

veut

ehl auh

empire

ehl fee-neess

ehl-zon

she believes
she says, she is saying
she is
she finishes
she reads
she is calling me
she wants

they (f.)are talking


embarrassment

empire

150

Pnorourcr

emploi
employer
en bas

enfer
ennemi
ennemi public
ennuyer
envoyef

6poux

tn-plwa

faim

fEH

hunger

,ttt-fehr ,'..'.
ehn+nee ! *! enemy

faire

fehr

to do, to make

ehn-mce

fauteuil
f6e, f6es

pat:blzeh public enemy


to annoy, to bore
AH-awa)ay':. to send
husband;spouse
afioo ''

du-nareel@

ayfrua ehr

test

essai

art-saY

essay

essayef

q-sq)ay

to try

essence

ay4AIIs

essence, gasoline

essuieglace

ays-atree

glas
a.)s-ar&e mEH

windshield wiper
hand towel

ays-eu-ee)ay

to wipe
is (he, she, it)

eh
ehst

era

east

est all6,/e

eht-alay

went (he,/she)

est+e Louise?

elu h.tea,

is

et

ay

6t6
6ternel

aytay

and
summer

6ther
6tiquette

ay-tehr
ay-teeieht

6tre
europ6enne
examen

eh-tre

excellent

ehks-aylta
ehk-seh
ehg-zen-pl

excis
exemple
exercice

ay-teh.r-rrchl

w-upay-ehn
ehg-za-mna

it Louise?

eternal
ether
etiquette; label
to be
European
exam, examination

excellent
excess

example

ehg-zehr-seess exercise

ehg-zees-tay

expertise

to exist
eh.ks-pehr-teez, expertise

extase

ehk-staz

extravagant

ehhs-tra-aagaa extravagant

exister

Vo"nbuln*y 151

emplo-yment, use

ea-plzualay, ,tp employ, to use


bottom
la-bah j -'it'the
-hell

6preuve
bre

essuie.main
essuyer
est
est

'

lr Penfrcrly in Fng3ch

ecstasy

fait
famille

fernrne,

fth

makes, does

fa-mee1

family
armchair

fohaul
foy

tuiry, fairies
woman, women

fneh-tre

window

femneS fo*

fendtre
fer
ferme
fete
feu, feux
feuille, feuilles
fier, fibre
fiI, fils
fille
fils, fils
fin
find
fli'che
flemme
fleur
flernre
flotte

foi
foie

fois
fontaine
for6t
fou, fous
four, fours
foyer

-frh,
felmn
feht

iron

fuh

fire, fires

ful

leaf, leaves

farm
feast, holiday

-fydo

proud

fol
fot

thread, threads

leas

son, sons

fEH

end

fe*nal

final

fl"luh

AITOW

fl"h*
Jhr
flu,
flut

flower
river

fua
fua

daughter

laziness

fleet
faith

fon-tchn

liver
time
fountain

fm+h

forest

foo

$azy

fom

oven, ovens

f.o)o)

hearth; foyer
fresh
French
French-speaking

fwa

frais

frth

hangais

fnn-seh

francophone

frta-ku{un

152

'

Pnonource

lr

frbre

ir

cold"

fram-azh
'

galop
gant
gargon
giteau, giteatrx
g6ant
genrme
genou, genoux
gentil, gentils
gentille
g6ographie
grlut
gonune
gosse
gofrt
gfam
grand amour
grand homme
grenouille
sr"
gros
grosse
guere
guetrle
goid.
gynnastique

few-ree

Vocrbuhny 153

FBerck

brother

"frth,
frwa

froid
fromage
fusil, firsils

Penfecrty

"tfreese

'rifle, rifles

q.*

ga-lnh,"

gallop

gAH

gar-soH

-.'
gahloh
zhay-ra
zhchm
zh-noo
zhant-tee
zhtn-tee1

boy

zhce-lah
gfin
gus
goo
gam

vest

cake, cakes

giant

gem
knee, knees
nice, kind (rn.s., pL)
nice, kind (f .)
zhay-ug-ra-fee geography

grAH-ta-moor

grAH-tum
gre-noo)
gee
goh
grohss
gehr
gul
geed

nrbbereraser
kid, youngster
taste

gram
great love
great man

frog
gray
big, bulky, stout (rn.)
big, bulky, stout (l)
war
mouth (of an animal)
guide

zfuem-nas-teek gymnastics

haricot vert

a-reehoh aehr

green bean

hAte

aht

hat6

ah-tay

haste
hastened, hurried

haut

oh

high; top

hauteur
havre

c
ir.^.: ..,ek-tur

h6roisme
h6ros
heure
heureuse

heureux
hideuse

ay-fu-eesm

hoDr

height
harbor, port
heroism

ay-roh

hero

ur

hour

ur-uhz
ur-uh

huppv (f.)
happy (m.)
hideous

ee4uhz
yehr

hier
hornrne,

'"- oo*

o-la

hornrnes ufn

yesterday
hey, there; stop!

man, men
hospital
out of, outside of
get out of here!
appetizers
out of service

h6pital

up-ee-tal

hors de
hors d'ici!
hors"dtoeunre
hors d'usage

m d.e
m dce-see
m-d,uwe

hospitalit6
hOte

uspee-tal-ee-tay hospitality
oht
host

hdtel

oh-tzhl

h6tesse

oh-tehss

hostess

houx
huile

oo

ew<el

holly
oil

huit

ateet

eight

huit mois

91tl-0 nLUa

eight months

huitiime
huitre

atatlehm

eighth

ax-eetr

oyster

ee-see

here
idea, ideas

rcl
id6e, id6es

il
il dit
iI doit
il 6crit
il est
il est content
il faut

or dtut-zazh

a-dat
eel
eel dce
eel

d,ua

nl

ay-hree

eelfoh

he, it
he says, he is saying
he must
he writes, he is writing

is (he, it)

eel eh
eel eh

hotel

hon-taa

he is content
it is necessary

154

Pnorource

lr

Penfecr[y

il

Vocnbuhny 155

Fnenck
$

il finit
il peut
il pleut
il veut
il vient

il y.
ile

ilot
ifs
ils 6coutent
ils ont
ils peuvent
ils s'amusent
ils se m6fient
ils sont
ils viennent

fee-nee he finishes
he carf
puh
utptuh ': iCfraining
eel tuh
, he wants
.;
he ts comlng
eel-a1+n
t *r"'' there is, there are
wlla
. . island
al
eel-oh : '. islet, small island (rc.s.)
." they (m.)
eel
ul-zay*oot - they are listening
theY have
eel-zon
they can
pua
ul

eel

al

eel-sa-meuz
eel-se-nay-fa

inconect
indirect
infect

sott
eel-vy*hn
rn-km-ehht
m4zer-ehkt
E+-fehkt

informatif
initial

u-nee-syal

intellect

eel

they are having fun


they mistrust
they are
they are coming

incorrect

indirect

stinking, filthY
an-form-a-teef informative

EH-tey-lehkt

initial
intellect

j'ai

zhay

j'ai chaud
j'ai faim
j'ai froid
j'ai soif

zhay shoh

I feel warm

zhay

I'm hungry

jaloux

zhal-oo

I feel cold
I'm thirsty
jealous

Janine

zha-neen

Janine

I have
fnn

je dois
je donne
je fais

jejoue
je lis
je m'appelle...
je ne sais pas
je paie
je paye
je peux
je sais
je suis
je t6l6phone
je vais
je vois
jeu,jeux
jeune
jeune fiIle
jockey

i*'*ffi:,tua

'"

zhe
zhe

dun
feh

zhe zhoo
zhe

ke

zhe ma-pehl
zhm-seh-pah
zhe peh
zhe

pehl

zhe

puh

zhe seh
zhe saa-ee
zhe

tay-layJun

zhe aeh
zhe

vua

zhuh
zhun

I
I
I
I
I

must
give, I am giving

do, I'm doing

play, I am playing
read, I am reading
my name is...

I don't know
I
I
I
I

pay, I am paying
pay, I am paying
can

know

Iam
I telephone
I go, I'm going
I

see, I am seeing
game, games

young

zhunfeel

g.l

zhuk+h

.jockey

joli,jolie

zhuhl-ee

pretty

joue

zhoo

jouer
jouet

zh-way
zh-weh

cheek
to play
toy

zhom
zhoor-noh

newspapers

zhualuh

joyful,joyous, merry

jo*
journaux
joyeux
Joyeux No6l

duy

zhwaluh nu-ehl

Merry Christmas

juillet

zh-at-ee1eh

jrP.

Jrlv

zhaQ

skirt

I drink, I am drinking

la
ln

la
la

zhe-sluhr-sh

I'm searching

lir-bas

la-bah

the (fs.); her,


there
over there

krua
zhe hu1

I believe
I gather, I pick
I say, I am saying

lait

lzh

milk

le

le

the (m.s.); him,

les

Iay

the (m.f., pl);tbem

zhay

fntta
zhay suaf

je

zhe

je bois
je cherche
je crois
je cueille
je di"

zhe

bua

zhz

zhe dce

it

it

f56

Pnorource

lettre, lettres

leur
licence

lieu

lr Prnftcrly h
leh-tre

hr
lze-sAns

'r

Iyuh

lilas
lis

lze-lah

lisse

leas

lit
lir

lze

lpes

lce

Vocrbuhny 157

Fnelch

.c sur
vaay

my sisters

na,y-sazn

message

m6thode
meubles

may-tud

method

mu-bk

furniture

mille

mcel

moi

fnua

one thousand
me

,rrroott

mois

bed

mon
monotone
monsieur

rnua
moH
mu-nu-tun

letter, letters
their; io them

.[t'""t .',

Degree

Place

"' t4''lilac
'" lilv

'
'',"
-',
-

is reading (he, she)

book, books

livre, livres

lze-are

loi
louer

Iua

law

l^ooy

to praise; to rent

loup
lourd, lourds
loyer

Ino

wolf

loor

heary

tua1ay

rent

lui
luire
lundi

l,eut+e

him, to him, to her

lzu+n

lyc6e, lyc6es

l*uo.)

lyc6enne

Ice-say-ehn

to shine
Monday
high school(s)
high school student

luu-dee

(grl)
my
Mrs., madam

ma
madame
main
mais
mais
malade
marteau

fna
ma,4am

massage

ma-sazh

massage

me
mec

fnz

merci

mchr-see

me, to me, myself


guy
thank you

mbre
mes

mes soeurs
message

mu-za-eeh

mosaic

rnoh

word

musique pop

m,ettt-zeek

naif

na+ef

nalve

nain

NEH

dwarf

naiive

na-eeu

naive

nerge
nerveuse

neh-zh

snow

nehr-uuhz
nehr-uuh
neht

nervous (f,)

nerveux

net
nettoyer

pup

pop music

newous (zr.)
clean, neat, tidy

neh-tualay

to clean

neuf

nuf
nua-AH
ne-auh
nay

nine
nine years

hand

but

neveu

m,&4es

corn

',ez

,na)

monotonous
mister, sir
mountain

mot

rneh

mehr

my

moH-ta-n)

MEH

m,ehh

me-syuh

month

montagne
mosaique

neuf ans

ma-lad
rnar-toh

i
-

nid

nephew
nose, noses

nee

nest

nuh

knot, knots

noir
noix

nuar
nua

nom
non

noH
noH

black
walnut, walnuts
name

mother

nord

nor

my

nos

noh
noo-)

sick,

ill

hammer

noeud,

noeuds

nouille,nouilles

no

north
our
noodle, noodles

158

Pnonounce

nous;

nous sonunes

noyef

nu
nuit
nu-pieds

lr

Vocrbutrny 159

Penfecrty in Fnelch
we; us
noo
we are
noo sum
nwa)a) '., tefdrown
naked
nan
rwuae ' .--"..night
newffaj t o1 barefoot

oeil

u)

oeillade

u1ad.

oeillet

uleh

glance;wink
carnation

oeuf
oeufs
oeulre

uf

FOO
"bb

.:"
n'-

. F';i,1.r1.

eYe

pacifique
paix

pa-we-feek

pacific; peaceful, quiet

Feh

peace

PAPA

Pa.Pa

papeterie
papier, papiers
paquet
parachute

pap-tree

pa-ra-shail

dad, pop
stationery shop
paper, papers
packet
parachute

Parc

Fa*

park

parce

par-ske

because

par+h1

similar
perfume

uh

eggs

u-are

u-we d,at

work
work ofart

oie

toa

goose

oignon
omelette
on

u-n)-OH
urn-lzht

onion

que
pareil, pareille
parfum
parle
parler
parlez!
partiel

omelet

OH

ont

OH

one, they
have (they)

of

or

gold

orchestre

or-kelw-*e
w-dce-nehr

orchestra

oeuvre

dtart

os

us

bone (fm pl.,

ou
ori

oo

or

oo

ouate
ouat6

uat

ouater
ouest

ua-tay
welut

where
padding; cotton wool
padded; quilted
to pad; to quilt

oui

roa,-tay

ear, ears
toe, toes
sae

les os)

pa*ch

par-fr,w

parl
par-lay
par-lay

speaks, is speaking
to talk, to speak

talk!

partial

partout

par-too

everywhere

Pas

Foh
pahaay

step; not

paht

pites
pitisserie

ordinary
computer

PaFtay

par-syehl

pat6

ordinaire
or4ze-na-tur
ordinateur
oreille, oreilles m+h1
or-teh1
orteil, orteils

pit6

Payer

Fq)av

pasta; pastes
pastry; pastry shop
to pay

Pays
Pa,'sage

Pay-u

country

pag-ee-zazh

pine

Fnte

pehn
pAHt

countryside
trouble, sorrow
slope

perdrix

pehr-dree

pire

pehr

pelroquet

pay-ru-kch
pehr-sun

PenSonne

pah-tees-ree

west

Petit
petite

ptee

wee

yes

IDeu

Fuh

ouns

oMs

outil, outils

oo-tee

bear, bears
tool, tools

pteet

Peur

Fur

photo

fu-toh
fuau-gra{ee

photographie

partridge
father

parrot
person
small (m.)
small (f)

little (in quantity)


fear
photo
photography

150

Pnonounce

lr Penfrcrly in FRErch

pic

peek

pick, pickaxe

pied, pieds

NryaY

foot,"feet

PiPe

Pee|

pleine
pleure

plehn

plut6t

'.
Pwa ,tt.,
puar
pwar-oh "',
Pwa

rather(somewhat)
weight

pua-zoH

poison

pua-sOH

fish

plur

'

platrtoh : ",j'

poids
poire
poireau
pois
poison
poisson
pornrne,

, -'ftP.

pofimes pum

pompier
porc

porc{pic
port

poHfinry
P0r
por-hay-pak

full

is crying (he, she)

pear

leek
pea, peas

Poh
poo-lzh
Poo

chicken
pulse

Pouf

poor

for

POuSSer

pousay

to push
to be able, can
lice

first (m.s., pl)

premlehr
Feh
Wh

first (ls.)

prOt-ir-porter

prehla-pm-tay ready-to-wearclothing

pr6te
pribre, pribres

preht

ready
ptayer, prayers

peeyhr

prun-oH-say

prononciation
Pfonon9ons
psychiatrie
pqychologie

psee-kul-uzh+e ps,vchologv

par

Pu

public
publique

pronounce!

prun-on-rya-syor pronunciation
pntnu-son let's pronounce
pseekla-tru psychiatry

pafib&

o/pouvoir
public (m.)
public (l)

what

peuilzek

quand
quand

Pot
poulet
pouls

pr6t

Pug-reh

porcupine

possible
pot, jug; potty

prbs

prononcez!

kehs-kc

pus<e-ble

premiire

program
progress

kcel

Fm-f"t

premier,
premiers

Programme
progrBs

qu'il pleuve

possible

POrr:(

Prlce; pnze

prug-ra.rn

qu'est-ce que

wallet

pouuwar
poo
Fetn)ay

$p@.,,'|,-

pork

Part

pouvoir

:.

fireman

portefeuille

Por

prix

past pcn't.

apple, apples

port
door

porte

Vocabutrnv 161

near
ready

elle...
i1...

pfua

let it rain

qui est lir?


qui r6pondra?

when she...
kan-te.el
when he...
kz
which, that, what
ke d,eet; aoo
what are you saying?
kehl
which, what
kehs-tyon
question
kee
who, whom
who is there?
kee eh Ia
kce ray-pon-dra who will reply?

que

que dite+vous?
quel, quelle
question

qui

ken-tehl

ragoOt

ra-goo

stew

raisin
raison
recevoir

reh-zstt

grape

reh-zon

re-se-auar

reason
to receive

16cit

ray-see

recitation

reeu

re-seu)

recueil
r6el, r6elle
remercier

re*u1
re-mchrslay

received
anthology, collection
real
to thank

re{oh

rest, repose

reh-speh

respect

repos
respect

ray+hl

762

Pnoloorce

lr Prnfecrly in Ftsnch

restaufant

rehs-to-rAH

r6veil, r6veils

rag-ueh1

rien
rire
/az

restaurant

-, . *awakening(s)
r,)-EH i.'.. nothing
reer ",',i':' . to laugh
ree
i. i,* rice
kitg
rwa _ -

shop
signal
simple

'rr6sry*
see-ny-al
sEH+le

shop
signal
simple
symp
six

sirop
six

see-roh

see

s70a

oneself
silk

seess

six months
sister, sisters

runt-AH i"

novel (literature)

rose
rouge

rohz

rose

six mois
soeur, soeulll
soi
soie

roozh

red

soif

waf

thirst

rue

rat

street

soir

sltar

ruse
n$lse

raln

ruse, trick
Russian

soiree
soleil, soleils

sucff-a,!

evening
evening; evening party

sommeil

sum+h1

txt'nmes
sommet
sonne

s'itm

sont

sOH

sont ail6(e)s
souris

soH-ta-ln!
soo-rec

mouse

soun

soo

under
stop

roi
romain
roman

rum-EH

Roman

'.'.

"'

reiltss

pkh

rnwa

sur
sw4

sul_eh,y

sun, suns
sleep
are (we)

s'il vous plait

sul

sa

SA

please
his, her, its

saint

SEH

saint

sais

seh

salle

sal

know (I)
large room

sarxt

SAH

without

scooter

skoo-tehr

stup

se

!ilr

sar

known

second
secondaire

se-goH

scooter
himself, herself
second (ra)

rtop

se

srd

seud

se-goHnlchr

secondary

sar-ee

se-pnd

$rper

seu-pehr

sein

SEH

sur

sehz

sel
s6lect
selle
sept
septembre

sehl

srrtout

sanr
seut
san-too

on

seize

second (f,)
breast
sixteen

suis

seconde

south
am (I)
super

aoo

sfir

sum<h
sun

top, summit
is ringing (he, she, it)
are (they)
went (they)

sure
above all, especially

sehl

salt
select
saddle

seht

seven

la

ta

your

sehp-tAH+re

September

table

sendce

sehr-ueess

service

sesi

say

seuil

su)

taylny-fun

table
you, to you, yourself
telegram
telephone

seul, seule

sul

his, her, its


doorstep, threshqld
alone

table
te
t6legramme
t6l6phone

terre

tehr

land

say-lehkt

tc

tay-la,ygrarn

164

Pnorourcs

lr Prnfecrly in F.Brnch

tes

taJ

tCte

teht

your
head
t
,,"te

th6

tay

th6itre

tq-ahlr,.,..,, ,, theater

thbme

tehm

th6orie
ticket

tayu-ree

.- r,7

tee-keh

'

theory
ticket
you

twa
twa

roof

tonne

tun

ton

t6t

toh

toucher

too-shay

early
to touch

tour

toor

tous
tous
toussef

too
too-say

all (pronoun)
to cough

tout

too

all

tout ir coup
tout d'un coup

touta koo

toux

too

trbs

treh

trbs bien

treh

suddenly
all of a sudden
cough
very
very well, very fine

tricot

tree*oh

knitted sweater

triste

treest

tristesse

treest-ehs

sad
sadness

trop
tu

troh
teu

tu as

tax-a

tu es
tu fais

tan-eh

tu paies
tu payes
tu t'es tu

tatt peh

tutoyer

tan-tua)ay

l"

tower (f),'turn (m.)


all (adj.)

toos

too-dun hoo

tatt

fonn

feh

pehl

tat) teh tax

,"r.rr*

rTN
nn bon vin

a, an, one
uH boq t)EH bL4H a good white wine
UH

blanc

theme

toi
toit

tart

Vocrbuhnv 165

too much, too many


you
you have
you are
you are doing
you Pay, you are paFng
you pay, you are PaFng
you kept silent
(to use the tu verb

form)

is going (he, she, it)


am going (I)

YA

aa

yais

aeh

veille
Veille de NoEl

tehl

veine

uehn

vendredi

aAH-dre-dce

Christmas Eve
vein; luck
Friday

Yent
vente publique

AAH

wind (air)

uent pattilcek
aehpre
aehr-mch1

vespers

vdpres

vermeil

veuf

aeh)

eve
de

Nu+hl

public sale
vermilion, bright red

veut

auf
tuh

veuve

aua

viande
vid6o
vie

ayHd

vieille
viennent
vient
vieux
ville, villes

ae.el

city, cities

Yir

AEH

wine

voeu, voeu:K

ouh

wish, wishes

voilir
volley

tua-|.a,
aul-eh

there you see


volley

YOS

uoh

your

YOUS

aoo

vous allez

aoo za-lay

YOUS aVeZ

vous balayez
vous b6ga.yez
vous employez

aee-d,ay-oh

widower
wants (he, she, it)
rvidow
meat
video

aee

life

a|-eh)

old

ay-ehn
ay-EH

are coming (they)


is coming (he, she, it)

q-uh

old

you
you
uoo za-aay
you
aoo bal-ay1ay
you
aoo bay-gaylay
you
uoo un-plwalay you

are going
have
sweep

stutter
employ, you use

166

Pnonounce

lr Prnfecrlv in fnench

vousenvoyez
vous essayez
vous nettoyez
'
vouspd,rliz
vous payez
vons

prononcez

vonsvoyez
vouvoyer

;,,:''' .

aoo

'#

i::i*'-@5'*

aoozAH-nua)a1. you.Send

za)-saJ)ay *ryou try' you_are trying


-

you clean
, you talk (speak)
aoo payldy:r,$ you pay' you are pa)'rng
aoo PrWQH-sa, you pronounce
aoo ilu&"}.a) you see' you are seelng
aoo-aualhq (to use thevousver!

uoo
aoo

neh-twalag
par-lpy,.',

form)
seen

wagon-couchettes aa-gon koo-shtht sleeping car (on a

train)
dining car (on

train)

wagon-restaurant

aag-oH rehs-trrArr

week4nd

weeh-ehn

western

uehs-tehrn

x6nophobie
x6rographie
xylophone

gzay-nu-fu-bee xenoPhobia

yaourt

ya-oor

yogurt

yeux

)uh

youp!

yoop

eyes (see lesyeux)


oh, boy! Wow! (excla-

youyou

yoo-)oo

mation ofjoy)
dinghy

zibre
zfro

zeh-br
za!-ro

zebra
zero

mlrtn
zoo

7EH-znH

crazy, "screwball"

7o

zoo

Zrfi!

zzttt

weekend
western (story, movie)

gzay-ru-gra-fee xerograPhY
gzee-lu-fun xylophone

--

Oh, shoot! Darn it!

f:.
'!r

il

:; .*.

i,r

;.{:.

L-.
i

.:i.=4

:--

=**