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Session 6

Seismic design of concrete structures

SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS


BY SR-CF SYSTEM
- Methods and Effects of Shear Strengthening
by Carbon Fiber Sheets and CF-anchors Yasuo Jinno
Hideo Tsukagoshi
Shimizu Corporation
JAPAN
Keywords: strengthening, reinforced concrete wall, carbon fiber sheet, CF-anchor, shear

INTRODUCTION

The SR-CF system[1] is a method for retrofitting existing reinforced concrete buildings against
earthquakes by laminating carbon fiber sheets. The method improves the shear strengths of
independent columns[2], columns with side walls[3],[4], beams[5], and walls[6].
Strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with carbon fiber sheets is the best method for
retrofitting existing buildings since it features small and light materials, little noise and vibration, short
working periods, and no welding works. Carbon fiber sheets, very strong against tensile forces, are
little adhesive to concrete surfaces and prone to peeling from concrete when a force is applied. For
this reason, the method has been effective as long as the peeling-off is prevented, such as by
wrapping a carbon fiber sheet around an independent column and forming a hoop of carbon fiber.
On the other hand, the SR-CF system is effective to retrofit columns with side walls, beams, and
walls, around which hoops of carbon fiber sheets are difficult to form. The SR-CF system uses special
devices called the CF-anchors to join the carbon fiber sheets which are separated by side walls and to
fix carbon fiber sheets to reinforced concrete building frames. The use of the CF-anchor is the most
characteristic in this system.
This paper describes the shear strengthening of walls by the SR-CF system and shear tests on the
reinforced walls, and then proposes methods for assessing the shear resistance.

Fixing to the peripheral frame


Adhering to the carbon fiber sheet
Carbon fiber sheet
Carbon fiber sheet
Adhering to the carbon
fiber sheet
Penetrating the wall

Penetrating-type CF-anchor

Fixing-type CF-anchor

Strengthening a beam

Strengthening an
independent column

Strengthening a wall

Strengthening a column with a side wall

Fig 1

Outline of the SR-CF System

109

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

METHODS FOR STRENGTHENING A WALL

2.1 Outline of CF-anchors


Carbon fiber strands used in the SR-CF system
are strings of 2 to 3 mm in diameter consisting of
24,000 (called the "24K" strings) or 12,000 (called
the "12K" strings) carbon fibers, each of which is
several microns in diameter. The CF-anchor is a
bundle of such carbon fiber strands, and is
immersed into epoxy resin and hardened before
use as in carbon fiber sheets.
The CF-anchors may be classified into two
categories by the usage. One is penetrating type,
and another the fixing type. The penetrating
anchors are used for the shear strengthening of
columns with side walls. A bundle of carbon fiber
strands is passed through a hole drilled at the side
wall. The ends of the bundle are spread like a fan
and glued to the carbon fiber sheet pasted on the
column. The bundle joins the two ends of the
carbon fiber sheet, which was separated by the
side wall. Consequently, it is made possible to
envelop the column by the sheet.
The fixing-type CF-anchors are used for the
shear strengthening of walls. An end of the CFanchor bundle is spread like a fan and glued to a
carbon fiber sheet. The other end is inserted into a
hole drilled on the concrete wall and is fixed with
injected epoxy resin. The anchors fix the edges of
a carbon fiber sheet on a concrete wall.
2.2 Methods for strengthening walls
The SR-CF system strengthens walls by the
carbon fiber sheet diagonally glued on the surface
of the wall with its edges fixed to the peripheral
column, beam, and floor using CF-anchors. This
method gives the carbon fiber sheet the
performance of a tensile brace, and increases the
shear resistance of the wall.
The process of strengthening a wall using CFanchors is shown in Figure 2.
(1) Smoothen the surface of the concrete wall by
removing soft section. Drill holes for installing CFanchors on the peripheral frame (side columns,
beam, and the floor).
(2) Apply primers on the surface of concrete.
(3) Laminate carbon fiber sheets on the wall
surface. The fibers of the sheets should be
diagonally installed. Apply sheets so that the fibers
of each sheet are diagonal along the opposite
angle to each other. The two carbon fiber sheets
are counted as one layer. Laminate the necessary
numbers of layers.

110

(1) Smoothen the surface of the wall


Drill holes on the peripheral columns, beam,
and floor for inserting CF-anchors

(2) Apply primers on the surface of the wall

(3) Adhere carbon fiber sheets on the


surface of the wall

(4) Bundle CF strands to prepare a


CF-anchor
(5) Insert the CF-anchor that is
immersed with epoxy resin into a
hole

(6) Spread the CF strands and adhere to the


carbon fiber sheet

CF-anchors

Fig.2

Process of strengthening walls

Session 6

Seismic design of concrete structures

(4) Prepare CF-anchors by bundling the same


amount of carbon fiber strands as those contained
in the carbon fiber sheets. (For example, a carbon
fiber sheet of 300 g/m2 in fiber area weight
contains carbon fibers that are almost equivalent
to 19 "24K" strands per a width of 100 mm. To fix
two layers of such carbon fiber sheets by
spreading the end of a CF-anchor to a width of
200 mm, the CF-anchor should be prepared by
bundling 19 x (200 / 100) x 2 = 76 strands.)
(5) Immerse the upper halves of the CF-anchors
into epoxy resin, and insert the ends into the holes
drilled on the columns and beam.
(6) Apply epoxy resin on the edges of the carbon
fiber sheets, spread the remaining halves of the
CF-anchors like fans, and paste the anchors to the
sheets by immersing epoxy resin. The central line
of each fan should be along the direction of fibers
of a carbon fiber sheet. Since the carbon fiber
sheets are diagonally applied along the two
different opposite angles, divide the CF-anchors
into two groups from the center of the beam, and
spread and paste the anchors to the direction of
the opposite corner. The CF-anchors for fixing the
sheets to a column are similarly fixed by changing
the directions at the center of the column.

Columns:2 layers of CF sheets


Wall:1 layer of CF sheet for both
the face and back surfaces
470 kN

Axial lo ad
of 470 kN
Lateral load

1200

300

1800
100

300
300

R=20

Column
Wall

300

Longitudinal reinforcement of
columns : 8-19
Hoops of columns
: 4-@100
Wall reinforcement
:4-@200 double for both vertical
and horizontal directions

2 layers of CF sheets
Finishing mortar ( WM-series)
1 layer of CF sheets
A CF-anchor is embedded for a depth
of 150 mm, and is adhered to the
sheets for a length of 200 mm.

20100 20

Adhering length=200mm

Series 1 (for WM-D-CI)


CF sheets installed on the wall
CF-anchors

590 kN

TEST PROGRAM

Lateral load

CF-anchors

Lateral load

The bending shear resistance of wall specimens,


that were reinforced by the SR-CF system, was
tested to examine the shear strengthening effect
of the SR-CF system on existing reinforced
concrete walls.
Table 1 shows the specimens, and Table 2
shows the properties of the materials used. The
experimental parameter was the method for
strengthening walls. Series 2 tests were
conducted by changing the number of carbon fiber
sheet layers, the angle of installing carbon fiber
sheets, and the kind of carbon fiber sheets. In
Series 1 tests, the authors also examined wall
specimens on which the carbon fiber sheets were
installed horizontally and vertically. The carbon
fiber sheets used in the experiments were mainly
PAN sheets and partly carbon fiber sheets of large
Young s modulus.
Figure 3 shows the rebar arrangement and the
methods for strengthening the walls, and the
loading configuration. Each specimen was a wall
with columns at both sides. In Series 1 tests, the
thickness of the walls at the sections to be tested
was 100 mm, the internal height was 1,200 mm,

111

590 kN

Lateral load

Angle of CF sheet

300

2700

900

300

CF-anchors
2 layers of CF sheets
300

100
300

Column
Wall

R=20

Longitudinal reinforcement of
columns : 8-19
Hoops of columns
: 4-@100
Wall reinforcement
:4-@150 double for both vertical
and horizontal directions
2 layers of CF sheets
CF sheets are installed along the two
opposite angles (the figure shows
installation of 2 layers for each angle).
Penetrating CF-anchor

100 200

Fixing CF-anchor

Series 2 (for No.2)

Fig.3 Configuration of specimens


and strengthening methods

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

Table 1 List of specimens


Series Specimen

Strengthening of columns

Strengthening of the wall

W-N
No strengthening
W-B-C1 Vertically and horizontally Front:1 layer, rear:1 layer
WM-N
No strengthening
WM-D-C1
Diagonally
Front:1 layer, rear:1 layer
No.1
No strengthening
No.2
Diagonally
Front:2 layers
No.3
Diagonally
Front:4 layers
No.4
Diagonally
Front:3 layers, rear:3 layers
No.5
Diagonally
Front:4 layers
(2 layers of PAN sheets and 2 layers of pitch sheets)
45 degrees
No.6
Front:4 layers
(2 layers of PAN sheets and 2 layers of pitch sheets)
No.7
Diagonally
Front:4 layers
No.8
Diagonally
Front:2 layers, rear:2 layers

Table 2

2 layers
2 layers

With finishing mortar

2 layers

No CF-anchors

Mechanical properties of materials

(a) Concrete

Series 1
Series 2

Notes

(b) Rebar

No.1
No.2
No.3
No.4
No.5
No.6
No.7
No.8

Compressive strength Tensile strength


(MPa)
(MPa)
27.9
2.38
25.6
2.49
2.52
26.3
2.19
24.7
2.65
28.6
2.30
30.5
2.43
26.0
2.85
29.5
2.86
30.5

Yield strength
(MPa)
Series 1 4
474
19
330
Series 2 4
438
19
344

Tensile strength
(MPa)
519
450
498
539

(d) Carbon fiber strand

Type of CF strand Density Tensile strength Size amount


(%)
(MPa)
(kg/m 3 )
PAN type (24K)
1800
4500
0.2

(c) Carbon fiber sheet

Type of CF sheet Fiber weight Design thickness Tensile strength


(MPa)
(g/m 2 )
(mm)
PAN type
Pitch type

300
300

0.167
0.142

3480
2640

and the internal length was 1,800 mm. The side column was 300 mm x 300 mm in section. The Series
2 specimens were walls of 100 mm in thickness, 900 mm in internal height, and 2,700 mm in internal
length with side columns of 300 mm x 300 mm in section. Fundamentally, the specimens were models
of walls in buildings that have been designed according to the Japanese Building Code before 1971,
and used round bars as reinforcement. The ratio of shear reinforcing bar of the columns was 0.084%,
and the ratio of wall reinforcement was 1.26%. To ensure shear failure in the walls, the walls were
designed to be flexurally strengthened by increasing the longitudinal reinforcement in columns.

TEST RESULTS

Table 3 shows the results of the experiments. Figure 5 shows the final failure states of Specimen
No.1, which was not strengthened, and Specimen No.2, which was strengthened. Load-deformation
curves are shown in Figure 4. All of the Series 2 specimens showed the ultimate strength and failed in
shear at drift angles of around 1/200 rad. All specimens showed sharp drops in load after the fracture.
In Specimen No.1, which was not reinforced, the wall and columns failed in shear as one body.

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Session 6

Seismic design of concrete structures

0.0

-3.0
-6

0
30
60
Horizontal deformation (mm)

1.0
0.0

-2.0
-30

WM-D-C1
(2 layers)
0
30
60
Horizontal deformation (mm)

-6

0
6
12
18
Horizontal deformation (mm)

No.8
(4 layers)
0
6
12
18
Horizontal deformation (mm)

3.0

0.0

-3.0
-6

0.0

-3.0

3.0
Lateral Load (MN)

No.2
(2 layers)
18
0
6
12
Horizontal deformation (mm)

0.0
No.4
(6 layers)
-3.0
-6

18
0
6
12
Horizontal deformation (mm)

Fig.4 Load-deformation curves

Strain (10 -6 )

Specimen No.1, drift angle of 1/400 rad

+1/1200
+1/800
+1/400
+1/200
+1/100

4000
2000
0
-2000

Specimen No.1, final state of failure

Strain (10 -6 )

6000
4000
2000
0

Specimen No.2, drift angle of 1/400 rad

-2000
4000

Specimen No.2, final state of failure


(Specimen No.2 was observed from the back surface,
which was not strengthened)

Fig.5

Strain (10 -6 )

Lateral Load (MN)

2.0

-1.0

No.1
(no strengthening)

Lateral Load (MN)

-2.0
-30

WM-N
(no strengthening)

0.0

Lateral Load (MN)

1.0

-1.0

3.0

3.0
Lateral Load (MN)

Lateral Load (MN)

2.0

113

0
-2000
-1100

Fig.6

Crack patterns

2000

-550
0
550
Location (mm)

1100

Strain distribution on carbon fiber sheet

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress


Table 3

Specimen
W-N
W-B-C1
WM-N
WM-D-C
No.1
No.2
No.3
No.4
No.5
No.6
No.7
No.8

Test

results

Shear force at each drift angle (kN)

1/800 (rad)
910
998
908
1363
1108
1363
1407
1586
1606
1419
1464
1465

1/400 (rad)
1255
1321
1247
1733
1551
1903
1938
2152
2096
2074
1920
1942

1/200 (rad)
1584
1577
1511
1851
2091
2439
2488
2798
2623
2421
2419
2602

Maximum load
(MPa)
1584
1577
1511
1851
2175
2439
2488
2798
2623
2421
2419
2602

Qcf *
(MPa)
66
485
352
386
600
544
523
369
390

* : Qcf denotes the difference in shear force between the specimens with/without
strengthening at a drift angle of 1/400 rad

On the other hand, the columns of the reinforced specimens showed no external change when the wall
sections failed and maintained a shear strength that was equivalent to a resistance of up to a
deformation angle of 1/25 rad.
All of the specimens that were strengthened with diagonally installed carbon fiber sheets showed
maximum resistance values larger than the non-reinforced specimen. The shear resistance was more
significantly increased in specimens with higher degrees of strengthening.
On the other hand, Specimen W-C1-B of Series 1, to which carbon fiber sheets were vertically and
horizontally applied, showed no increase in resistance compared to the non-reinforced specimen W-N.
Figure 6 shows the strain distribution on carbon fiber sheets laminated on the wall surface of
Specimen No.2. The CF-anchors were glued to the carbon fiber sheets by changing the directions at
the centers of the beam and the columns. Therefore, the direction of the CF-anchor fibers agreed with
the direction of the sheet fibers at a half of the carbon fiber sheets on the wall. However, the strain on
the carbon fiber sheets was uniformly distributed regardless of the directions of CF-anchors.
In all Specimens Nos. 2 to 8, the strain on the carbon fiber sheets on columns did no reach
200x10-6 before they were fractured. Therefore, the strengthening of the columns does not affect the
shear resistance of walls.

DISCUSSION

5.1 Estimation of ultimate strength


To estimate the shear force that acts on the carbon fiber sheets, the authors assumed that the walls
deformed as shown in Figure 7. The authors ignored bending deformation and assumed that shear
deformation was dominant and the walls deformed into parallelograms. The carbon fiber sheets,
diagonally laminated on the walls, were regarded as tensile braces installed along existing walls.
Assuming that the strain on the carbon fiber sheets is uniform over the entire wall surface, the shear
force working on the sheets is expressed with Equation (1). The tensile force of the carbon fiber sheets
is transmitted to the upper and lower beams and the columns on both sides. The horizontal component
of the force that is transmitted to the upper beam is the imposed shear force.
The value of cf and Ecf are different from material test values, and should be determined from
experiments.

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Session 6

Seismic design of concrete structures


Qcf = Ltcfcfsincos
cf = Ecf(/h)sincos

(1)
(2)

where,
Qcf: shear force imposed on the carbon fiber sheets,
L: internal length of the wall (1,800 mm for Series 1 and 2,700 mm for Series 2),
h: height of the wall (1,200 mm for Series 1 and 900 mm for Series 2),
tcf: thickness of the carbon fiber sheets
cf: apparent strength of the carbon fiber sheets
Ecf: apparent Young s modulus of the carbon fiber sheets,
: horizontal deformation at the top of the wall, and
: offset angle of the carbon fiber sheets
(sin=0.555 and cos=0.832 for Series 1, and sin=0.316 and cos=0.949 for Series 2).
Figure 8 shows changes in apparent stress of the carbon fiber sheets. Regarding the difference in
load during deformation between strengthened specimens (Nos. 2, 8, and 4) and non-strengthened
specimen (No.1) as the horizontal shear force Qcf working on the carbon fiber sheets, cf value was
determined using Equations (1) and (2) as plotted on the Y axis.

1600
Experimental stress values of
carbon fiber sheets (MPa)

Strain of CF sheets cf
Elastic modulus Ecf
h

1200

800

400

0
0.0

Assumed deformation of a wall


and strain of carbon fiber (CF) sheets
Fixed to the beam
dLsintcfEcfcf

dL

Fig.8

Fixed to the column


dLsintcfEcfcf

Shear force at each drift angle Q(kN)

dLsin

Fixed to the column


dLsintcfEcfcf
Fixed to the beam
dLsintcfEcfcf
Force equilibrium of CF sheet

Fig.7

No.2 (2 layers)
No.8 (4 layers)
No.4 (6 layers)
Equation(2)
(Ecf=230GPa)

Model for calculating the shear force


imposed on carbon fiber sheets

3000

2.0
3.0
4.0
Drift angle (10 -3 rad)

5.0

6.0

Changes in apparent stress of


carbon fiber sheets

Q = 2138 + 0.842Ltcfsincos
(R= 0.9845)

2000
(R= 0.9539)
Q = 1610 + 0.680Ltcfsincos
1000

Fig.9

115

1.0

Shear force at 1/400 rad


Shear force at 1/200 rad
(No.1,2,8,4)
No.7(No CF-anchors)
No.3(4 layers on one side only)

0.0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
Thickness of carbon fiber sheets tcf (mm)

Relationship between shear force and


amount of strengthening

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress


The figure also shows values calculated by substituting Ecf = 230 GPa in Equation (2), which
represent a state of complete detachment of the carbon fiber sheets from the concrete surface. When
the deformation was small, the apparent rigidity of the carbon fiber sheets was high, and the apparent
strain was larger than the value calculated using Ecf = 230 GPa. The difference is likely attributable to
the adhesion of the carbon fiber sheets to the concrete surface. As the deformation progressed, the
apparent strain of the carbon fiber sheets approximated the calculated values since the sheets were
increasingly peeled off from the concrete surface.
Figure 9 shows the experimental shear forces at drift angles of 1/400 and 1/200 rad as a function of
the amount of carbon fiber sheets, and the linear regression equations as well. The factor of the
second term corresponds to the apparent strength of the carbon fiber sheets cf of Equation (1).cf
was 680 MPa at a drift angle of 1/400 rad, and 842 MPa at 1/200 rad.
Generally, the drift angle at the ultimate strength for the potential shear failure mode is reportedly
about 1/250 rad [7]. However, the authors used the strength at a drift angle of 1/400 to calculate the
ultimate strength of the walls since cf may remain almost constant after a drift angle of 1/400 rad as
shown in Figure 8 (No.2), and the equations ignore bending deformation. Therefore,

is used for Equation (1).


The ultimate strength of a wall is determined as
the sum of the yielding strength of the wall before
strengthening and the shear force Qcf that is
imposed to the carbon fiber sheets, as derived by
Equation (1). The yielding strength of the nonstrengthened wall is the smaller of its flexural and
shear strengths (Any equation is available as long
as the one can appropriately estimate the
strength). Since this strengthening system does
not improve the structural characteristics of
existing walls but forms braces of carbon fiber
sheets along the walls,
Qcf values are
determined using Equation (1) regardless of
failure modes.
It should be noted that strengthening of a wall
with shear failure mode using this system may
increase the shear strength to exceed its flexural
strength, but this system does not necessarily
convert the shear failure mode into flexural failure
mode. Since carbon fiber sheets and CF-anchors
suffer brittle failure, laminated carbon fiber sheets
on flexural failure mode walls may cause sudden
drops in strength due to Qcf values when the
carbon fiber sheets fail. Therefore, this system
should only be implemented to strengthen shear
failure mode walls, and the strengthening design
should be preferable to strength resistant type
structures.
Figure 10 compares the Qcf values calculated
using Equation (1) and experimental values. The
experimental values are the difference between the
shear strength values of the strengthened and nonstrengthened specimens. Figure 10(a) shows
experimental Qcf values from the shear strength

116

Experimental Qcf values at 1/400rad (kN)

(3)
800

600

400
Series 1
Series 2
4 layers on one side
Pitch fiber
No CF-anchors
cal=exp

200

0
0
200
400
600
800
Qcf values calculated from cf=680MPa (kN)

(a) Qcf estimated for 1/400 rad


Experimental Qcf values at 1/200rad (kN)

cf = 680 (MPa)

800

600

400

200

0
0
200
400
600
800
Qcf values calculated from cf=680MPa (kN)

(b) Qcf estimated for ultimate strength

Fig.10

Comparison between calculated


and experimental Qcf values

Session 6

Seismic design of concrete structures

during a drift angle of 1/400 rad, and Figure 10(b) derived the Qcf values from the shear strength
during a drift angle of 1/200 rad, when the ultimate strength was almost reached. Excluding specimens
that used pitch carbon fiber sheets, strengthened with 4 layers only at one side, or did not use CFanchors, the experimental data showed a good agreement with the calculated values.
5.2 Upper limit of strengthening
This system strengthens a wall by increasing the apparent rigidity of the laminated carbon fiber
sheets by gluing the carbon fiber sheets to the concrete surfaces of the wall. Laminating carbon fiber
sheets with over a certain number of layers does not increase the strengthening effect since such
lamination causes the carbon fiber sheets to detach from the concrete surfaces.
Specimen No. 4 with 3 layers at each side and 6 layers in total, was on the regression line as shown
in Figure 9, showing that 3 layers on one side or 6 layers in total is not the upper limit of strengthening.
On the other hand, Specimen No. 3, which had 4 layers on one side, showed the ultimate strength of
2.49 MN. This was significantly lower than the regression line although the total number of layers was
4, less than 6 as in No. 4. This suggests that the upper limit of strengthening exists between 3 and 4
layers of carbon fiber sheets per side of a wall.
Since the peeling of carbon fiber sheets from the concrete surface affects the upper limit of
strengthening, the upper limit is not a value converted into ratio of wall reinforcement but is given as a
function of the thickness of carbon fiber sheets. In this study, the upper limit of strengthening was
calculated using Equation (1) and as follows:
3 layers of 300 g/m2 sheets (design thickness: 0.501 mm) per side, or for both sides of a wall to be
strengthened;
6 layers of 300 g/m2 sheets (design thickness: 1.00 mm) in total.
5.3 Effects of CF-anchors
Figure 9 shows the experimental results of No. 7, which was laminated with carbon fiber sheets
using no CF-anchors, marked with dark circles (). At a drift angle of 1/400 rad, no difference in shear
strength was observed by the presence of CF-anchors. The carbon fiber sheets were effective in
retrofitting the walls. The effects of CF-anchors were not significant at drift angles of less than 1/400
rad. On the other hand, at a drift angle of 1/200 rad, the shear strength of No.7 was lower than that of
No. 4, showing the effects of CF-anchors to increase the strength at drift angles of over 1/400 rad.
Considering that walls are prone to failure near the peripheral frames, CF-anchors are more
necessary.

CONCLUSION

The authors proposed a method for shear strengthening reinforced concrete walls using carbon
fiber sheets and CF-anchors, and tested their effects. The authors obtained the following results:
(1) The shear strength of a wall is improved by diagonally laminating carbon fiber sheets and fixing the
edges to the peripheral frame with CF-anchors so that the carbon fiber sheets act as tensile braces.
The contribution of the carbon fiber sheets is calculated as:
Qcf = Ltcfcfsincos
(1)
where, cf = 680 MPa, and tcf < 0.5 mm for one side and 1.0 mm for two sides combined.
(2) CF-anchors are necessary to maintain the strengthening effect at drift angles of over 1/400 rad, at
which the peeling-off of the carbon fiber sheets from the concrete surface may be significant, and it
is also necessary even if failure may occur near the peripheral frame.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This report includes some of the results obtained in a project of the Petroleum Energy Center,
entitled "Development of pitch carbon fiber reinforcement materials for concrete structures."

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Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

REFERENCES
[1] SR-CF System Research AssociationDesign Guidelines for SR-CF System, Feb. 2002 (in
Japanese)
[2] Y.JinnoStructural Behaviors of Reinforced Concrete Columns Strengthened by Carbon Fiber
Blanket, 42nd International SAMPE Symposium, Vol.42, No.1, pp.117-124, May.1997,
[3] K.Masuo, S.Morita, Y.Jinno, H.WatanabeAdvanced Wrapping System with CF-anchor
-Seismic Strengthening of RC Columns with Wing Walls-, FRPRCS-5, Vol.1, pp.299-308May 2001
[4] Y.Matsuzaki, K.Nakano, H.Fukuyama, S.WatanabeAdvanced Wrapping System with CF-anchor
-Shear Strengthening of RC Columns with Spandrel Wall-, FRPRCS-5, Vol.2, pp.813-822May 2001
[5] Y.Jinno, H.Tsukagoshi, Y.YabeRC Beams with Slabs Strengthened by CF Sheets and Bundles
of CF Strands, FRPRCS-5, Vol.2, pp.981-988May 2001
[6] Y.Jinno, H.TsukagoshiStructural Properties of RC Walls Strengthened by Carbon Fiber Sheets
and CF-anchors, Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting -Architectural Institute of Japan,
Structures IV, pp.67-68, Sep.1999, (in Japanese)
[7] Japan Building Disaster Prevention AssociationRevised Edition, Standards for Evaluation of
Seismic Capacity and Comments for Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings, 2001 (in Japanese)

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