Você está na página 1de 44

Tartalomjegyzk

Lecture I. .................................................................................................................................................. 4
What is Grammar? .............................................................................................................................. 4
Approaches: Descriptive vs. Prescriptive ................................................................................... 4
Language Variation (G&Q).......................................................................................................... 5
Words and Word Classes..................................................................................................................... 6
Types of Grammatical Units ....................................................................................................... 6
Families of Words ....................................................................................................................... 7
Structure of Words: Morphology ............................................................................................... 7
Sequences of Words ................................................................................................................... 8
Lexical Words, Function Words, and Inserts across Registers ................................................... 8
Function Words ................................................................................................................................. 11
Determiners .............................................................................................................................. 11
Pronouns................................................................................................................................... 11
Auxiliary verbs .......................................................................................................................... 11
Prepositions .............................................................................................................................. 11
Adverbial particles .................................................................................................................... 12
Conjunctions, Subordinators .................................................................................................... 12
Special Classes of Words .......................................................................................................... 14
Lecture II. ............................................................................................................................................... 15
A First Look At Phrase Structure........................................................................................................ 15
Characteristics of Phrases......................................................................................................... 15
Types of Phrases ....................................................................................................................... 15
Types of Phrases vs. Syntactic Roles of Phrases ....................................................................... 16
Clause patterns .................................................................................................................................. 16
Subject Predicatives vs. Object Predicatives ............................................................................ 16
Obligatory vs. Optional Adverbials ........................................................................................... 17
Terms ................................................................................................................................................. 17
Lecture III. .............................................................................................................................................. 18
Kinds of Variation in the Structure of Verb Phrases .......................................................................... 18
Tense vs. Time ................................................................................................................................... 18
Past and Present Across Registers..................................................................................................... 19
Use of the Simple Past .............................................................................................................. 20
Basic Uses of The Past Progressive ........................................................................................... 20
Whats the Difference?............................................................................................................. 21
Perfects.............................................................................................................................................. 21
Present Perfect - Uses .............................................................................................................. 21

Present Perfect Progressive - Uses ........................................................................................... 22


Past Perfect - Uses .................................................................................................................... 22
Correct or Not? ......................................................................................................................... 22
Whats the difference? ............................................................................................................. 23
Aspect across Registers, Aspect across Dialects................................................................................ 23
Referring to the Future...................................................................................................................... 24
Uses of Will ............................................................................................................................... 24
Uses of Going To ....................................................................................................................... 24
Be To, Be About To, Be On The Point Of, Be Due To ................................................................ 24
Progressive Uses of Will ........................................................................................................... 24
Perfective Will (Simple and Progressive) .................................................................................. 25
Hope, Expect, Think, Believe .................................................................................................... 25
Practice .............................................................................................................................................. 25
Whats The Difference? ............................................................................................................ 25
Referring to the Future in Time Clauses and Conditional Clauses ........................................... 25
Translate Into English ............................................................................................................... 25
Revision, Which Tense/Aspect Is It? ......................................................................................... 26
Terminology....................................................................................................................................... 27
Lecture IV............................................................................................................................................... 28
The Primary Verbs Be, Have, Do........................................................................................................ 28
Be as a Copula........................................................................................................................... 28
Be as an Auxiliary ...................................................................................................................... 28
Have as a Main Verb ................................................................................................................. 28
Auxiliary Have ........................................................................................................................... 28
Do as a Main Verb .................................................................................................................... 28
Do as an Auxiliary Verb ............................................................................................................. 29
Copular Verbs .................................................................................................................................... 29
Current Copular Verbs .............................................................................................................. 29
Current Copular Verbs .............................................................................................................. 29
Result Copular Verbs ................................................................................................................ 29
Central Modals and Semi-Modals ..................................................................................................... 30
Characteristics of Central Modals ............................................................................................ 30
Characteristics of Semi-Modals ................................................................................................ 30
Can vs. Be Able To .................................................................................................................... 30
Could vs. Was/Were Able To .................................................................................................... 30
Could vs. Was/Were Allowed To .............................................................................................. 31
Must and Have To..................................................................................................................... 31
Have To and Have Got To ......................................................................................................... 32

Will, Would and Used To .......................................................................................................... 32


Would vs. Used To .................................................................................................................... 33
Need and Dont Need To .......................................................................................................... 33
Neednt and Dont Need To...................................................................................................... 34
Neednt and Dont Have To ...................................................................................................... 34
Practice .............................................................................................................................................. 34
Correct or Not? ......................................................................................................................... 34
Explain the Use of the Modal ................................................................................................... 34
Translate the Following Sentences into English ....................................................................... 35
Explain the Difference .............................................................................................................. 35
Lecture V................................................................................................................................................ 36
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 36
Personal (Intrinsic) vs. Logical (Extrinsic) Meaning .................................................................. 36
Central Modals across Registers............................................................................................... 37
Semi-Modals and Modals across Registers .............................................................................. 37
The Permission/Possibility/Ability Modals ........................................................................................ 37
May, Might and Could In Conversation .................................................................................... 38
Might and Could Referring to the Past ..................................................................................... 38
May, Might and Could In Conversation .................................................................................... 38
Perfect Forms of May, Might, Could ........................................................................................ 39
Perfect Progressive May/Might ................................................................................................ 39
Contrastive Uses of May/Might................................................................................................ 39
The Obligation/Necessity Modals And Semi-Modals ........................................................................ 40
Frequency of Obligation/Necessity Modals with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Meanings ................. 40
Must Across Registers .............................................................................................................. 40
Should and Ought To ................................................................................................................ 40
Obligation Modals in Questions ............................................................................................... 41
Perfect Forms of Should/Ought To ........................................................................................... 41
Should/Ought To vs. Had Better............................................................................................... 41
Practice .............................................................................................................................................. 42
Whats the Difference?............................................................................................................. 42
Negate the Sentences............................................................................................................... 42
Paraphrase Using a Modal ........................................................................................................ 43
Translate Into English ............................................................................................................... 43
Terminology....................................................................................................................................... 44

Lecture I.
(LSGSWE pp1-54, SGEL pp1-23)

WHAT IS GRAMMAR?
The systematic study and description of a language
A set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures (morphology) of a
language, usually intended as an aid to the learning of that language
(NORDQUIST, 2012)
Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of
how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others
use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression
available in English. And it can help everyone not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything,
for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.
(David Crystal, "In word and deed," TES Teacher, April 30, 2004)
It is necessary to know grammar, and it is better to write grammatically than not, but it is well to
remember that grammar is common speech formulated. Usage is the only test.
(William Somerset Maugham, The Summing Up, 1938)
Approaches: Descriptive vs. Prescriptive
Descriptive grammar (definition #1) refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by
speakers and writers.
Prescriptive grammar (definition #2) refers to the structure of a language as certain people think
it should be used.
Both kinds of grammar are concerned with rules but in different ways.
Specialists in descriptive grammar (called linguists) study the rules or patterns that underlie our use
of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
On the other hand, prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) lay out rules about
what they believe to be the correct or incorrect use of language.

What descriptive grammarians say


Do not to be overly concerned with matters of correctness: language isn't good or bad; it
simply is. As the history of the glamorous word grammar demonstrates, the English language is
a living system of communication, a continually evolving affair. Within a generation or two,
words and phrases come into fashion and fall out again. Over centuries, word endings and
entire sentence structures can change or disappear.
What prescriptive grammarians say
Use the straightforward rules of grammar to avoid making errors. The rules may be oversimplified at times, but they are meant to keep us out of trouble the kind of trouble that may
distract or even confuse our readers.

Language Variation (G&Q)


Region: AME, BRE, IRE, ETC.
Social group: age, gender, social class
Field of discourse: news, law, academic, etc.
Medium: written-spoken
Attitude (style): formal-informal

Standard vs. Non-Standard


1. They were by the pub what we stayed in. (CONV)
2. I ain't done nothing. (CONV)
3. 'There ain't nothing we can do.' (FICT)
4. I could give you figures that would shock you. (FICT)
5. This chapter is devoted to a discussion of various flow processes which occur in open systems.
(ACAD)
Confusing Informal Style with Ungrammaticality
I.

A. It is clear whom they had in mind.


B. It's clear who they had in mind.

II.

A. Kim and I saw the accident.


B. * Kim and me saw the accident.

WORDS AND WORD CLASSES


Types of Grammatical Units
1 sentence
If I wash up all this stuff somebody else can dry it.
2 clauses
If I wash up all this stuff / somebody else can dry it.
7 phrases
If / I / wash up / all this stuff / somebody else / can dry / it.
12 words
If / I / wash / up / all / this / stuff / somebody / else / can / dry / it.
13 morphemes
If I wash up all this stuff some/body else can dry it.
The Description of Units
In terms of structure
o

Morphological structure: bases, affixes

Syntactic structure: heads, modifiers, complements, specifiers

In terms of role
o

Subject, predicative, object (direct, indirect)

In terms of meaning
o

Adverbs of time, place, manner

Verbs of action, state, sensation, etc.

In terms of use (discourse function)


o

Frequency in different registers, factors influencing use in speech and

Writing

Different Senses of the Word Word


Orthographic words: these are the words that we are familiar with in written language, where
they are separated by spaces. For example, they wrote us a letter contains five distinct
orthographic words.
Grammatical words: a word falls into one grammatical word class (or 'part of speech') or
another. Leaves (pl. N or sing. V)
Lexemes: this is a set of grammatical words which share the same basic meaning, similar forms,
and the same word class. For example, leave, leaves, left, and leaving are all members of the
verb lexeme leave. This is the meaning of 'word' that is employed in dictionaries.
Types vs. Tokens
The birds and the deer and who knows what else.
10 separate word tokens, but only 8 word types
(and and the occur twice)

Families of Words
Lexical words
nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
open classes
they often have a complex internal structure and can be composed of several parts: e.g.
unfriendliness = un +friend + li + ness.
can be heads of phrases: e.g. the noun completion is the head (or main word) of the noun phrase
[the completion of the task]
Function words
prepositions, coordinators, auxiliary verbs, and pronouns
They usually indicate meaning relationships and help us to interpret units containing lexical
words, by showing how the units are related to each other.
few types, many tokens
closed classes
Inserts
Inserts are found mainly in spoken language.
Inserts do not form an integral part of a syntactic structure, but tend to be inserted freely in a
text.
They are often marked off by a break in intonation in speech, or by a punctuation mark in
writing: e.g. well, we made it.
They generally carry emotional, interpersonal and discoursal meanings, such as oh, ah, wow,
used to express a speaker's emotional response to a situation, or yeah, no, okay used to
signal a response to what has just been said.
Inserts are generally simple in form, though they often have an atypical pronunciation (e.g. hm,
uh-huh, ugh, yeah).
Structure of Words: Morphology
Simple vs. Complex words (single stem vs. More than one parts)
Inflection
Lexical words can take inflectional suffixes to signal meanings and roles which are important to
their word class, function words (except for pronouns) are invariable

Nouns

boy

plural (boys), genitive (boy's, boys')

Verbs
participle

write

singular present tense (writes), past tense (wrote), past


(written), ing-participle (writing)

Adjectives

dark

comparative (darker), superlative (darkest)

Adverbs

soon

comparative (sooner), superlative (soonest)

Derivation
involves adding an affix (prefix or suffix) to the stem
creates new nouns, adjectives, adverbs (with or w/o category change)
applies before inflection
less productive than inflection
o

industri + al, industri + al + ize, industri + al + iz + ation

Compounding
compound word contain more than one stem
o

noun +noun: chair + man, girl +friend

verb + noun: cook + book, guess + work

adjective + noun: blue + bird, flat +fish

noun + adjective: head + long, water + tight

Sequences of Words
A multi-word unit is a sequence of orthographic words which functions like a single grammatical
unit: e.g. the preposition on top of or the adverb of course.
An idiom is a multi-word unit with a meaning that cannot be predicted from the meanings of its
constituent words. A typical example is a verb expression like fall in love or make up (one's)
mind.
A collocation is the relationship between two or more independent words which commonly
appear together (or co-occur). E.g. broad accent, broad agreement, broad daylight, broad
grin, broad shoulders, etc.; but!!! Wide appeal, wide area, wide experience, wide interests,
wide margin, etc.
Lexical bundle: more than two words frequently co-occurring, e.g. I don't think and would you
mind.
Lexical Words, Function Words, and Inserts across Registers
A: Is that the time?
B: Yeah, it's twenty minutes to four.
A: Oh my clock is slow, yeah.
B: Do you want us to just go out there and come back and pick you guys up?
A: Uh huh.
C: Yeah.
A: You can go if you want to, Ill, I think Ill <. . .>
D: He really doesn't trust me, does he?
C: That's right, how 'bout I pin you?
D: Okay. Oh, let me tell you something.
B: Do you, do you want to go by yourself?
D: No, no, no. You'll feel better and we'll be following you.
A: Will you feel better?
D: It doesn't.
C: I need three safety pins, you had one in your pocket.
B: Uh huh.

Work on the dismantling of a nuclear reprocessing plant at sellafielcda used


A leak of radioactivity yesterday. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. said the
radioactivity reached the air through a chimney stack which was still in use.
But spokesman Bob Phillips said it was not an incident which required
reporting to the government. He dismissed protests from friends of the
earth as 'scaremongering'. However, Dr Patrick Green, friends of the earth
radiation campaigner, said: 'BNF has a scandalous track record of playing
down incidents at first, and only admitting their seriousness later.' Three
months ago BNF confirmed that a leak of radioactive plutonium solution
had been reclassified as 'a serious incident'.
Lexical words
To decide what class a word belongs to, it is useful to apply tests of three kinds:

Morphological: what forms does a word have (e.g in terms of stems and affixes)?

Syntactic: what syntactic roles does a word play in phrases or other higher units?

Semantic: what type(s) of meaning does a word convey?

Nouns

Morphological characteristics
o

nouns have inflectional suffixes for plural number (except for uncountable nouns), and
for genitive case

they are often complex (singer, bombshell, friendship)

Syntactic characteristics
o

nouns can occur as the head of a noun phrase: [a new book about the cold war], [the
ugliest person you've ever seen]

common vs. proper nouns (the latter are rarely modified)

Semantic characteristics
o

Nouns commonly refer to concrete, physical entities (people, objects, substances): e.g.
book, friend, iron. They can also denote abstract entities, such as qualities and states:
e.g. freedom, wish, friendship.

(Lexical) verbs

Morphological characteristics
o

Lexical verbs have different forms signalling tense (present and past), aspect (perfect,
progressive), and voice (active and passive).

Multi-word verbs and derived verbs: bring up, rely on, look forward to, hyphenate,
itemize, soften.

Syntactic characteristics
o

most frequently occur on their own

Also occur in the final or main verb position of verb phrases: [has written] a letter; [will
be writing] tomorrow.

Semantic characteristics
o

Denote actions, processes, and states of affairs that happen or exist in time.

Adjectives

Morphological characteristics
o

can take the inflectional suffixes -er (comparative) and -est (superlative)

derived adjectives: acceptable, forgetful, influential

compound adjectives: color-blind, home-made, ice-cold

Syntactic characteristics
o

Adjectives can occur as the head of an adjective phrase: [very dark], [eager to help],
[guilty of a serious crime].

Modifier: tomorrow could be [a sunny day].

Predicative: It's nice and warm in here. It's sunny.

Semantic characteristics
o

adjectives describe the qualities of people, things, and abstractions

Adverbs

Morphological characteristics
o

many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the suffix -ly (derived adverbs)

can be converted from adjectives w/o derivation

a few adverbs allow comparative and superlative forms like those for adjectives: soon -+
sooner + soonest; fast +faster + fastest

Syntactic characteristics
o

They occur as head of adverb phrases: [very noisily], [more slowly than i had expected].

Adverbs, with or without their own modifiers, are often used as modifiers of an
adjective or another adverb: really old, very soon.

They can act as adverbials in the clause: Ill see you again soon.

Semantic characteristics
o

adverbs most often express the degree of a following adjective or adverb

as adverbials, they can have emotional, interpersonal and textual meaning

Determining word class I. ing forms

Verbs ending in -ing can act as the main verb of a verb phrase, and may be followed by a
noun or an adjective (underlined here): e.g. is eating lunch; becoming misty overnight.

Nouns ending in -ing can sometimes have a plural form (e.g. paintings), and can usually be a
head noun after a determiner: e.g. [the banning of some chemicals], [her dancing].

Adjectives ending in -ing can appear before a noun, and can also occur after verbs such as be
and become: e.g. the travelling public; it was (very) confusing.

They are very often gradable, and can be preceded by degree adverbs such as very, so, and
too: very forgiving, so interesting, too boring.

Living standards (n+n) vs. living creatures (a+n), dancing classes (n+n) vs. the dancing children
(a+n), working conditions vs. a working mother

FUNCTION WORDS
Determiners

precede the noun, act as specifiers of nps


o

definite article (the)

indefinite article(a, an)

demonstrative determiners (this, that, these, those)

possessive determiners (my, your, her)

quantifiers (every, some, etc.)

Pronouns

fill in the position of a whole np

require another element for their interpretation


o

personal (I, you, he, etc.)

demonstrative (this, that, etc.)

reflexive (myself, yourself, etc.)

reciprocal (each other)

possessive (mine, yours)

indefinite (somebody, all)

relative (who, whom, which, that)

interrogative (what, who)

Auxiliary verbs

they are added to a main verb to help build verb phrases

auxiliary verbs precede the main or lexical verb in a verb phrase


o

primary auxiliaries (be, have, do) show how the main verb is to be understood
have for perfect aspect
be for progressive aspect and passive voice
do for negative statements and in questions

modal auxiliaries express possibility, necessity, prediction and volition, there are 9 of
them:
Will
can
shall
may
must
Would
could
should
might

Prepositions

Linking words that introduce prepositional phrases

The prepositional complement following a preposition is generally a noun phrase (he'll go


[with one of the kids].)

Prepositions can be linked to a preceding verb, such as rely on and confide in. These multiword units are referred to as prepositional verbs

Complex prepositions

multi-word units which have a meaning that cannot be derived from the meaning of the
parts
Ending in

Examples

As

such as

For

as for, except for

From

apart from

Of

because of, instead of, out of, regardless of

To

according to, due to, owing to

three-word prepositions (p+n+p)


Ending in

Examples

Of

by means of, in spite of, on account of, on top of

To

in addition to, with regard to

As

as far as, as well as

Adverbial particles

a small group of words with a core meaning of motion


About, across, along, around, aside*, away*,
back*, by, down, forth*, home*, in,
off; on, out, over, past, round, through, under, up

they are used to build phrasal verbs, in which they follow verbs, and are closely bound to
them in meaning

they are also used to build extended prepositional phrases, where a particle precedes the
preposition.
We were going back to the hotel when it happened

Conjunctions, Subordinators
Coordinators (also called coordinating conjunctions)
And, but, and or
[Mother] and [I] saw it. (CONV)
[I don't want to speak too soon], but [I think I have been fairly consistent this season]. (NEWS)
Correlative coordinators
Both [x] and [y], either [x] or [y]
Not (only) [x] but (also) [y], neither [x] nor [y]

Subordinators (or subordinating conjunctions)


Are linking words that introduce clauses known as dependent clauses-clauses which cannot stand
alone without another clause, called the main clause:
You can hold her [if you want]. (CONV)
[[As they watched,] a flash of fire appeared.] (FICT)
[A flash of fire appeared [as they watched.]]
Subordinators can introduce:

Adverbial clauses (after, because, although)

Degree clauses (as, than)

Nominal clauses (if, that, whether)

Complex subordinators
Ending in

Examples

As

as long as, as soon as

That

given (that), on condition (that), provided (that), except (that), in that, in


order that, so (that), such (that)

Misc.

As if, as though, even if, even though

Function word classes in use

Special Classes of Words


Wh-words
What do they want?
The kind of person [who needs emotional space]
I don't know [what i would have done without her].
They could not improve upon that, [whatever they might say].
Single Word Classes

existential there

the negator not

the infinitive marker to

Numerals

Cardinals
1,2,3,4, etc.

Ordinals
First, second, third, fourth, etc.

Word-Class Ambiguities

He kept whistling at all the girls.

Determiner

Is that all Ive got dad?

Pronoun

Don't get all mucky.

Adverb

She had never asked him that before.

Adverb

He was there before her.

Preposition

Theyd started leaving before I arrived.

Subordinator

Steele kicked an early penalty goal.

Adjective

He has also kicked a penalty goal early in the match.

Adverb

There was a hell of a fight.

Noun

Theyre too big to fight.

Verb

He plans to narrow his focus to certain markets.

Verb

Current review programs are too narrow.

Adjective

This was the beginning of his life as a cultivator.

Preposition

As they watched, a flash of fire appeared.

Subordinator

You can open the outside window.

Adjective

Hes gone outside.

Adverb

Its sitting outside your house.

Preposition

Lecture II.
(LSGSWE pp102-135, SGEL pp24-34)

A FIRST LOOK AT PHRASE STRUCTURE


Characteristics of Phrases

Words make up phrases, which behave like units.

A phrase can consist of either one word or more than one word.

Phrases can be identified by substitution and movement tests.

Differences in phrase structure show up in differences of meaning.

Phrases can be embedded (i.e. one phrase can be part of the structure of another phrase).

1.

[the opposition] [demands] [a representative government].


[it] [demands] [something]

2. a

[they] [passed] [the table [with [the two men]]].

2. b

[they] [passed] [the table] [with [the two men]].

Types of Phrases

The books [about the war]

NP => (DET) N (PP)

May read [the book]

VP => (AUX) V (NP)

Quite certain [about the answer]

AP => (DEG) A (PP)

Almost in [the house]

PP => (DEG) P (NP)


XP => (SPEC) X (COMPLEMENT)
XP => (SPEC) X (VALENCY)

The main classes of phrases are: noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, adverb phrase,
and prepositional phrase.
The classes can be identified by their meaning, structure, and syntactic role.
Each of these phrases has a head from the corresponding word class: e.g. noun phrases
usually have a noun as their head.
The frequency of longer and more complex phrases varies from one register to another,
increasing from conversation, to fiction, to news writing, to academic prose

Types of Phrases vs. Syntactic Roles of Phrases


Subject

Verb

Object

[Mommy]
[The kitty]

[loves]
[loves]

[the kitty].
[mommy].

CLAUSE PATTERNS
Intransitive pattern:
Sarah and Michael disappeared.
Subject (S) + Verb Phrase (V)
Monotransitive pattern:
She changed her dress.
Subject (S) +Verb Phrase (V) +Direct Object (Do)
Copular patterns:
The Swiss cheese has gone bad.
Marc was in the bathroom.
Subject (S) +Verb Phrase (V) +Subject Predicative (Sp)
Subject (S) +Verb Phrase (V) +Adverbial (A)
Ditransitive pattern:
You gave her the wrong kind of egg.
Subject (S) +Verb Phrase (V) + Indirect Object (Io) + Direct Object (Do)
Complex transitive patterns:
That makes me so mad.
Theyre sending us to Disneyland.
Subject (S) + Verb Phrase (V) +Direct Object (Do) +Object Predicative (Op)
Subject (S) + Verb Phrase (V) +Direct Object (Do) +Adverbial (A)
Subject Predicatives vs. Object Predicatives
Subject predicatives

Immediately follow the VP

The main verb has to be a copular verb (be, seem, become, get, turn,etc.)

His skin was very dark.


She seemed in great shape.
Object predicatives

Immediately follow the direct object

The main verb is a complex transitive verb (make, find, consider, name)

I cant get this bottle open.


I found myself out of breath.

Obligatory vs. Optional Adverbials


Obligatory adverbials
Your toast is on the table. S+V+A
The pleasant summer lasted well into march. S+V+A
She placed the baby on a blanket in the living room. S+V+DO+A
I treated her badly, very badly. S+V+DO+A
Optional adverbials
I only bought one today. S+(A)+V+DO+(A)
I was here, with uncle nick, thirty years ago. S+V+A+(A)+(A)
They therefore benefit considerably from periodic submergence. S+(A)+V+(A)+(A)

TERMS
1.

Descriptive grammar vs. Prescriptive


grammar
2. Standard vs. Non-standard
3. ungrammaticality/well-formedness
4. Orthographic words vs. Grammatical words
vs. Lexemes
5. Types vs. tokens
6. Lexical words vs. Functionwords
7. Inserts
8. Simple vs. Complex words
9. Inflection vs. Derivation
10. multi-word units vs. idioms vs. Lexical
bundles

11. Adverbial particles


12. Coordinators(also called coordinating
conjunctions) vs. Subordinators (or
subordinating conjunctions)
13. valency
14. Intransitive
15. Monotransitive
16. Copular patterns
17. Ditransitive
18. Complextransitive
19. Subject predicatives vs. Object predicatives
20. Obligatory adverbials vs. Optional
adverbials

Lecture III.
(LSGSWE pp148-166, SGEL pp47-60)

KINDS OF VARIATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF VERB PHRASES

Tense:
o
o

Aspect:
o
o
o
o

Unmarked (sees)
With modal verb (will/can/might see)

Negation:
o
o

Active (sees)
Passive (is seen)

Modality:
o
o

Unmarked (also called simple aspect) (sees)


Perfect (has seen)
Progressive (is seeing)
Perfect progressive (has been seeing)

Voice:
o
o

Present (sees)
Past (saw)

Positive (sees)
Negative (doesn't see)

Finite clause type (also called 'mood'):


o
o
o

Declarative (you saw)


Interrogative (did you see?)
Imperative/subjunctive (see)

TENSE VS. TIME

Tense: grammatical notion

Time: semantic notion


There is no future tense in English!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

But there are several ways of expressing future time (simple present, pr. Progressive, will, about to,
etc.)
Present tense referring to past time:

I wanted just a small box. He wasn't satisfied with it - he goes and makes a big one as well.
(CONV)

And the daughter comes home from school one day and says, mum i want to be like you. And
the mum goes, okay dear. (Historic present)

Past tense referring to present time:

Did you want to see me now?

I was wondering if you could . (Politeness)

Timothy, it's time you got married. (Hypothetical/subjunctive)

PAST AND PRESENT ACROSS REGISTERS


A: Ive done this thing today, Ive to come up with, Ill do this afternoon, Im quite proud of it.
B: What do you do at Dudley Allen then?
A: What the school?
B: Yeah. Do you A: No Im, Im only on the PTA. <PTA = parent-teacher association>
B: You're just on the PTA.
A: That's it. (CONV)
A fault tree analysis reveals the logical connections existing between an undesired event in a technical
system and component systems which lead to it. In the case of safety analyses for process plants, the
undesired event usually is a fire <. . .> (ACAD)
Hurriedly draining her cup, she frowned at marge, who had hardly touched the coffee that she just
had to have before travelling any, farther. (FICT.)

Verbs that usually occur in particular tenses

Verbs that occur in the present tense over 80 per cent of the time:

Bet, doubt, know, matter, mean, mind, reckon, suppose, think (mental verbs)

Verbs that occur in the present tense over 70 per cent of the time:

Care, differ, fancy, imply, tend, want (mental or logical states)

Verbs that occur in the past tense over 80 per cent of the time:

Exclaim, eye, glance, grin, nod, pause, shrug, sigh, smile (activity verbs)
Remark, reply, whisper (communication verbs)

Verbs that occur in the past tense over 70 per cent of the time:

Bend, bow, lean, light, park, seat, set off shake, stare, turn away, wave, wrap
Use of the Simple Past

I visited my grandparents on Sunday.

When did you learn to drive a car?

How did you pass the TOEFL exam?

Where have you been?


I have been to the cinema.
Did you enjoy the film you were watching?

I went to that grammar school for 4 years.

I stayed there for a week.

Sheila always drank her tea with sugar.

There have been times when i wished myself safely home in bed.

She is not so active as she was.

I always knew you were my friend.

Its time we all took a rest.

Did you want to see me now?

Basic Uses of The Past Progressive

Continuing unfinished action in the past:


I looked out the window and saw that it was raining.
Whenever I visited him, he was working in the garden.

Interrupted action:
While I was getting ready for bed, the doorbell rang.

Background descriptions:
I looked into the busy street: people were pushing along, cars were hooting.

Two events happening at the same time:


While Jim was painting outside, Sarah was decorating the rooms.

Additional uses of the past progressive

They started producing the car in 1946 and were still producing it 30 years later. (Emphasis)

It was becoming more and more difficult to concentrate.

Her performances were getting better and better. (Changing situation/increasing difficulty)

At school he was always/forever/continually getting into trouble. (Annoyance/Exaggeration)

Whats the Difference?

It was getting darker.


It got darker.

When I arrived he was calling you on the phone.


When I arrived he called you on the phone.

I was talking to Tom the other day.


I talked to Tom yesterday.

What were you doing before you came here?


What did you do before you came here?

What were you doing in my room?


What did you do in my room?

From four to six Jim was washing the car.


From four to six Jim washed the car.

He was leaving that night.


He left that night.

He was always visiting his parents at weekends.


He always visited his parents at weekends.

PERFECTS
Present Perfect - Uses

Use it to refer to events connected to the present, without a definite past time (but with just,
yet, recently, already)
Someone has (just) stolen my bike!

To refer to an item of news / new information (the event might have happened a long time
ago, but it has relevance to the present)
Archaeologists have discovered an old palace in London.
Noone has proven that aliens exist.

Achievements
United have scored three goals, and theres thirty minutes left.
He has painted some of the best portraits of recent years.

State/repeated action up to the present (esp. with since and for)


Ive worked here for 20 years.
Ive cooked dinner every night for 10 years!

Present Perfect Progressive - Uses

Use it to explain a present situation


Ive been washing the car thats why my clothes are wet.

To emphasize the length of an activity


Ive been working on this project all day.

For a repeated activity but!!!! Without mentioning the number of times it has occurred
Hes been bugging me ever since we dated.

With how long questions


How long have you been having nightmares?

With mean, think, and consider


Ive been meaning to tell you
Ive been considering buying a yacht

Past Perfect - Uses

Refers to events in the past which happened before other events, usually when there is no
time expression to make this clear:
He felt tired because hed been working hard all morning.
By the time we got to the cinema, the film had started.

Common after mental verbs, e.g. realize, remember, know, understand:


When I got there I realized I had left my wallet at home.

Common in reported speech


He said hed been there before.

Only use past perfect when absolutely necessary! When we describe a series of events in
sequence, we use the simple past

Correct or Not?

I was talking to tom several times.

John was washing both cars.

Hes had a lot of bad luck recently.

It is three years since I saw bill.

It is three years since I have seen bill.

It is two years since he has left the country.

Jane has been calling you all morning.

She has been calling you three times.

He refused to go before he had seen all the pictures.

Before I had finished talking he smacked me in the face.

By six oclock he had been repairing the engine.

Whats the difference?

Shes lived in rome for a long time. - She lived in rome for a long time.

He has been sleeping for 10 hours. - He has slept for 10 hours.


(expect, hope, learn, lie, live, work, rain, sit)

Ive polished the car. - Ive been polishing the car.

What have you done with the knife? - What have you been doing with the knife?

When he had seen the pictures he said he was ready to leave. - When he saw the pictures he
said he was ready to leave.

ASPECT ACROSS REGISTERS

Nothing's happening over here. (AM CONV)

Oh yeah, but he's roaming around on the range? ( AM CONV)

One time, I saw a seal. The seal was begging. ( AM CONV)

ASPECT ACROSS DIALECTS

AME vs. BRE

Hey, did you read through this yet? - Have you read it yet?

No not yet i didn't. I didn't get a chance. - I haven't sold it yet.

We already gave him a down payment. - Theyve given me that already.

The ceremony took place in the main state department lobby next to the honor roll of
American diplomats who gave their lives in the line of duty. (AME NEWS)

She praised the gallantry, determination and sense of duty of the servicemen and women
who had given their lives for their country. (BRE NEWS)

Omission of the perfect aspect marker (has/have) IN BRE


I got loads left something
Else I got here is peanut butter pie.
Difference BW got and gotten in AME:
This friend of mine has (got) a vault in his house. (Possession)
And we still haven't gotten knobs on the doors. (Acquisition)

REFERRING TO THE FUTURE (REMEMBER THERES NO FUTURE TENSE!!!)


Uses of Will

For an immediate decision


Anything to drink? Ill have a soda.
Factual predictions
Inflation will increase by 1% over the next year.
For an assumption
The phones ringing. Thatll be sue.
For offers/refusals
Ill carry that for you. They wont give me my money back.
Promises/threats
I promise I wont do it again. - Youll suffer for this!
For warnings
Be careful, youll hurt yourself.
In conditional clauses and time clauses.
If I see him Ill tell him to call you. When I get old, I will be bold.

Uses of Going To

For personal plans and intentions


Im going to stay in and watch a video. Hes bought a chainsaw, hes going to take care of
some business.
For appointments (very similar to present progressive)
Im going to see my dentist tomorrow morning. / I am seeing my dentist in the morning.
Prediction esp. When the cause of a possible event is present
Look at the colour of the sky! Its going to snow.
For decisions about the future
When I get my degree, Im going to apply for a job at M.I.T.
Events that were supposed to happen, but didnt (cf. Was to have ed)
The meeting was going to be held in October, but it was cancelled.

Be To, Be About To, Be On The Point Of, Be Due To

The conference is to take place in July.


There was to have been a second match, but it was cancelled.
I cant talk know. Im (just) about to meet my boss.
David is on the point of leaving the company. (FORMAL)
The train is due to arrive at any moment. (FORMAL)

Progressive Uses of Will

An event or state at a future point


This time next week, theyll be lying on the beach, drinking cocktails.
Events that have been arranged / or that are going to happen anyway
Roxette will be performing in Budapest in the summer.
Ill put in a word for you, Ill be meeting him tomorrow at the club.
Formal/polite requests
Will you be wanting anything else?
Neutral future
We will be cruising at 10,000 feet.

Perfective Will (Simple and Progressive)

Use for time looked back on from a future point


By the time the exam begins, Ill have forgotten everything.
By the end of the month, Ill have been working here for ten years.
To express an assumption
Youll have read the reading assignment, I assume.

Hope, Expect, Think, Believe

I dont think youll like this.


I dont believe Ill be late.
I hope you have a wonderful time / I hope youll have a wonderful TIME (No Difference).

PRACTICE
Whats The Difference?

Im leaving tonight I leave tonight. Ill leave tonight.


Look at those clouds! Its going to rain. - Itll probably rain later on in the afternoon.
Ill write to my boss and mention your application. - Ill be writing to my boss and Ill mention
your application.
(Ill write to mention it. Id write anyway, but Ill mention your
application too.)
Will you bring the piano in here? - Will you be bringing the piano in here?

Referring to the Future in Time Clauses and Conditional Clauses


Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrases in the
brackets!

Correct forms

Providing you (be back) by 8 o'clock you can go to the airport.

are back

You must come back even if they (not arrive).

havent arrived

Whether the plane (to be late) or not, they (get) a terrific welcome.

is late, will get

There (be) a lot of fans at the airport whenever the group (arrive).

will be, arrives

Don't worry - I (give) you your camera back when / after / as soon as/
immediately I (take) a photo!

will give, have taken

If you girls and boys (stop) pushing and shoving, we (be) a lot more
comfortable, (be we)?

will stop, will be,


wont we

If Sheila (not do) it, I (ask) Helen.

wont do it, will ask

I will be the first time I (speak) to a pop star.

have spoken

Translate Into English


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A miniszterelnk holnap megnyitja az j replteret.


Jack klcsnkrte a baltt. Ft fog aprtani.
Ha megnyomod ezt a gombot, az ajt kinylik.
Mit fogsz (szndkozol) csinlni, amikor megkapod a diplomdat?
Kapsz egy tbla csokoldt, ha j fi leszel.
Amikor megrkeznek, mg mindig a kertben fogunk dolgozni.
Ne hvd ket 7-kor, vacsorzni fognak.
A hnap vgre minden pnzedet el fogod klteni.
Vissza fogom adni a knyvedet, amint elolvastam
Jv ilyenkor mr tbb mint egy ve fog ennl a vllalatnl dolgozni.

Revision, Which Tense/Aspect Is It?

TERMINOLOGY

Verbs that refer to actions and events associated with a volitional activity: buy, go, take.

A cover term including both suffixes and prefixes.

The doer of an action: Dad bought that for us. This term is also used for the noun phrase
following a passive + by: Im influenced by all kinds of things.

A choice in the verb phrase that expresses time meanings, related to whether an action is
finished or still in progress: have eaten, was going.

The form of a word to which affixes are added: friendliness = the ____ friendly + the affix ness.

A verb that indicates that some person or thing brings about, or helps to bring about, a new
state of affairs: help, let, allow, require.

Verbs that refer to speaking and writing activities: tell, shout, write.

A phrase or clause that completes the meaning required by some other form. For example,
that clauses can be verb ______s: She said that she has changed.

The primary verb be occurring as a main verb: I am sorry.

Any verb that occurs with a ______ valency pattern, taking a subject predicative as
complement: He's American. It tastes different.

Verbs that express action or events.

A phrase or clause that is contained within a higher-level phrase or clause: [reduction [in the
risk [of death [from job-related accidents]]]].

A combination in which each word contributes its own meaning: He was afraid to look back.

The use of a verb phrase in the present tense to refer to an event that occurred in the past:
They went to some park and got an ice cream . . . So we get there . . .

A fixed expression with a meaning that cannot be determined from the individual parts: Kick
the bucket.

A clause element that follows verbs like give and tell, referring to the recipient of the action:
Dave gave me this stuff.

A valency pattern with no objects. She slept a lot.

A verb which does not use the regular ed inflection for past tense and/or past participle:
speak, spoke, spoken; send-sent-sent.

A phrase including the verb phrase and any other clause elements which follow the main
verb: My mother was born in Canada.

A verb that refers to mental states or activities: know, remember.

Lecture IV.
(LSGSWE pp135-148, SGEL pp34-40)

THE PRIMARY VERBS BE, HAVE, DO


The three primary verbs be, have, and do can serve as both main verbs and auxiliary verbs. They
differ, however, in their specific main and auxiliary functions.
Be as a Copula

Be as copula (a main verb), be is the most common copular verb in English.

It usually links the subject noun phrase with a subject predicative: Radio waves are useful.

It can also link the subject noun phrase with an obligatory adverbial: She was in her room a
lot.

Be as an Auxiliary

As an auxiliary verb, be marks progressive aspect and passive voice.

These two auxiliary uses of be can occur together in the same clause (the progressive
passive): A mutual investment fund for Eastern Europe is being launched today.

Have as a Main Verb

Have as a main verb is one of the most common lexical verbs in English.

It has a particularly wide range of meanings.


o

Showing physical possession (He has two cars)

Telling family connections (She has a husband and two children)

Describing eating or drinking (I had pizza for breakfast)

Linking a person/inanimate subject to an abstract quality (She is having fun / Linguistics


has other goals than this)

In the causative use have is a main verb!!! (Perhaps you should have your hair dyed)

It can be a complementary form of must, as a semi-modal have to

It occurs in a number of idiomatic phrases such as have a look, have a go, have a say in sg,
etc.

Auxiliary Have

As an auxiliary, have marks perfect aspect


o

Present have marks present perfect

Past tense had marks past perfect

Do as a Main Verb

As a main verb, do is a general transitive verb of action (e.g. do some work);

It can be ditransitive with an IO + DO (do me a favour);

It often combines with a noun phrase to form idiomatic expressions (e.g. do the dishes, it
does the job, so some good);

As a main verb, do can also function as a transitive pro-verb (I didnt do it, do that);

It can be an intransitive pro-verb, i.e. an alternative to ellipsis (e.g. I must have done.)

Do as an Auxiliary Verb

As an auxiliary verb, do is used in the do support construction for forming negation and
questions (e.g. Didnt you know?);

It also appears in question tags; (You like me, dont you?);

Auxiliary do is also used for emphatic meaning (e.g. Oh do shut up!; I do like descriptive
grammar).

COPULAR VERBS

Be is the most frequently used copular verb

Several verbs can function as either copular verbs or transitive/intransitive verbs:

Come true vs. Come from Hungary

Grow strong vs. Grow a beard

There are two main types:


o

Current copular verbs

Result copular verbs

Current Copular Verbs

State-of-existence:
o

to be,

to seem (to-complement clause, adjective, np, pp)

appear (to-complement clause, adjective)

remain, keep, stay (continuation verbs).

Current Copular Verbs

Sensory perception
o

look, feel, sound, taste, smell

Result Copular Verbs

Identify an attribute that is the result of a process of change


o

Shell end up dead.

I grew sick.

He became angry.

The most frequently used ones are become, go, get

CENTRAL MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS


Characteristics of Central Modals

There are nine central modal verbs in English: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will,
would, and must;

They come in pairs, except for must;

They act as an auxiliary verb in verb phrases;

They precede the negative particle in not negation;

They precede the subject in yes-no questions;

They take a bare infinitive verb as the main verb in the verb phrase;

They express stance meanings (e.g. possibility, necessity, obligation);

In most dialects of English, only a single modal can be used in a verb phrase (but! In Southern
AME or Scottish English might could, might should can occur together).

Characteristics of Semi-Modals

They are also called 'periphrastic modals' or 'quasi-modals;

They are multiword constructions that function like modal verbs;

In spoken language they often have reduced forms (gotta, gonna, better);

They can co-occur with central modals (might have to, might be able to);

Central modals and semi-modals often complement each other.

Can vs. Be Able To

They often complement each other for grammatical reasons, cf.


I cant play football I havent been able to play football since my accident

If both are possible, able to often refers to physical ability/circumstances


I cant play chess vs. Im not able to play chess

Avoid Able To

When we talk about something that is happening as we speak: Watch me, mum; I can stand
on one leg. (Not... I'm able to stand on one leg.)

Before passives: DVDs can now be copied easily.

When the meaning is know how to: Can you cook?

Could vs. Was/Were Able To

If we talk about a single achievement, rather than a general ability in the past, we usually use be
able to rather than could. Compare: Sue could play the flute quite well. (or .. . Was able to ... ; a
general ability)

But!!!!!
She swam strongly and was able to cross the river easily.
Yesterday I got on the bus and was able to (managed to) find a seat.

Could Is More Natural

In negative sentences
I tried to get up but I couldnt move.

With sensory perception verbs and with mental verbs:


I could remember the crash, but nothing after that.
I could smell something burning.
All we could see was a big black cloud.

After almost, hardly, nearly, just


I could almost touch the ceiling.

Could vs. Was/Were Allowed To

To say that in the past someone had general permission to do something - that is, to do it at
any time - we can use either could or was/were allowed to;

However, to talk about permission for one particular past action, we use was/were allowed
to, but not could (cf. Could vs. Was/were able to):
Anyone could/was allowed to fish in the lake when the council owned it.
Although he didnt have a ticket, Ken was allowed to enter.

Must and Have To

We use must and must not in formal rules and regulations and in warnings;
Bookings must be made at least seven days before departure.
The government must not be allowed to appoint judges.

In spoken English we often use must and mustn't to propose a future arrangement, such as a
meeting or social event, without making detailed plans:
We must get together more often.
We mustn't leave it so long next time.

We can also use I must... To remind ourselves to do something:


I must phone Steve when I get home. I said Id call him last night, but I forgot.

To draw a conclusion about - something that happened in the past we use must + have + past
participle:
That's not Kates car. She must have borrowed it from her parents.

'Something happening at or around the time of speaking we use must be + -ing:


I can't hear anyone moving around upstairs. You must be imagining things.

For something that is likely to happen in the future we use must be going to or must be + ing:
I was wrong about the meeting being today. It must be happening next Friday.

To draw a conclusion about a present situation we use must be, or have (got) to be in
informal speech:
Their goalkeeper has got to be/must be at least two metres tall!...

In questions that hope for or expect a negative answer we prefer have (got) to, although in
formal contexts must is sometimes used:
Do we have to answer all the questions? (or have we got to ... ?; must we ... ? Is also possible
but rather formal)

We use have to in questions that imply a criticism. Must can also be used, although some
people think this is rather old-fashioned. We usually stress have and must in sentences like
this:
Do you have to play your trumpet here? It's deafening me! (or more formally must you play
?)

Have To and Have Got To

Sometimes we can use either have to or have got to

We use have to with frequency adverbs such as always, never, normally, rarely, sometimes,
etc:
I often have to work at the weekend to get everything done.

With the past simple we use had to especially in questions and negative sentences:
When did you have to give it back? (not When had you got to give it back?)
We didn't have to wait too long for an answer.

If have is contracted (e.g. Ive, he's, it'd) then we must include got:
The experiment has failed twice before, so it's got to work this time. (not ... So it's to work)

We don't use have got to with other modal verbs:


Employees will have to accept the new conditions or be dismissed. (not Employees will have
got to accept ... . )

Will, Would and Used To

All three can refer to characteristic behaviours or habits


Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.
At school she would always sit quietly and pay attention.

Will and would can refer to things that are or were always true:
Cold weather will kill certain plants.
During the war, people would eat all kinds of things that we don't eat now.

We don't use will or would in this way to talk about a particular occasion, negative wont and
wouldnt can be used this way:
I gave him a problem yesterday and he wouldnt solve it / * he would solve it

In speech, we can stress will or would to criticise people's characteristic behaviour or habits.
It often suggests that criticisms have been made before but ignored:
She just wont do the washing up when I ask her.
I was happy when Sam left. He would talk about people behind their backs.

We can also criticise a person directly or express disapproval of something they have done or
do regularly using will:
'I feel sick.' 'Well, if you will eat so much, Im not surprised.' (indicating disapproval)

Would vs. Used To

When we talk about repeated events in the past that don't happen now we can use either
would or used to + infinitive.

We can use would only if the time reference is clear.


I used to swim a lot. (not I would swim a lot)

But!!!
Whenever we went to my uncle's house, we would/used to play in the garden.

We can use used to but not would when we talk about past states that have changed:
The factory used to be over there.
Didn't you use to smoke at university?

We dont use either would or used to:


o

When we say how many times sg happened

How long sg took

If we refer to a specific time

We visited Switzerland four times during the 1970s.


She went to Jamaica last month.
Need and Dont Need To

We can use need as a lexical verb or as a modal (followed by a bare infinitive).

As a modal it doesn't change its tense and doesn't add '-s' for the third person singular.
I needed to leave early.
She's thirsty. She needs a drink.
You needn't speak so loudly. (= modal verb)

When it is a modal, need is most commonly used in negative sentences, often with verbs like
bother, concern , fear, panic, worry:
I've already cleaned the car so you needn't bother to do it.
I was very nervous before the interview, but I needn't have worried.

It is sometimes used in questions, but we prefer to use need as an lexical verb or have to:
Need you go so soon? vs. Do you need to go so soon?
Do you have to go so soon?

Need in affirmative sentences is archaic:


We need have no fear.
Nobody ever need know (FORMAL).
Nobody ever needs to know (CONV).

Neednt and Dont Need To

We can use either neednt or dont need to to give permissions


But!!!

Neednt refers to a particular event, dont need to is preferred when we talk about general
necessity:
You neednt cut the grass, Ill do it later vs. You dont need to be over 18 to drink in this pub.

Neednt and Dont Have To


As you worked late yesterday you needn't come in until 10.00 tomorrow morning.
We've been told that we don't have to be at work until 10.00 tomorrow.

(The speaker's decision vs. Reporting someone else's decision.)

PRACTICE
Correct or Not?
I was wondering if I could have tomorrow off.

yes

An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street.

yes

If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you
are late for our dates.

yes

Whats it matter?

nope (working class


style)

I got something nice for you.

yes (British)

She got him to dig away the snow.

yes

She had him to dig away the snow.

yes

He wasnt and I probably arent normally prepared for that kind of situation.

yes

We havent any money.

yes (Br)

The swimmer was tired, but she could eventually reach the shore.

nope (particular, so
was able to)

Explain the Use of the Modal


If you give all-night parties youll have the neighbours complaining.

they will complain

I wont have him sitting down to dinner in his raincoat.

I wont allow him

The chairman and the treasurer shall be elected annually.

this an obligation

When the alarm rings passengers will assemble at the boat stations.

obligation

Candidates may not bring textbooks into the examination room.

may not/cannot
- may not is Im telling you
- cannot: rules dont allow

If you would take a seat.

if no will

He would eat your banana. Yes, he would.

igen, kpes r

They shall not pass.

obligation

Translate the Following Sentences into English


gy volt, hogy vasrnap utazik el, de nem utazott el.

She was to have left... (to be to have


left=gy volt, hogy, de nem, have leave
=gy volt, hogy, de nem tudja mi lett)

ppen indulban vannak.

They are about to leave.

Sehol sem tallhat.

She cannot be found anywhere/is


nowhere to be found.

Ki a hibs?

Who's to blame?

Nagyon bosszantan viselkedik ma este.

..is being annoying...

Szereti a zent, s n is.

He likes music and so do I.

Ez a kisbaba nhny hten bell jrni tud majd.

...will be able to...

Vehetsz mg egy darab stemnyt.

You (shall/)can...

Egy szt sem rtettem abbl, amit mondott.

I couldnt understand a word...

Skciban nagyon meleg (is) lehet szeptemberben.

...it can be ...

Pter a balesete ta nem futballozhat.

...hasnt been able to/hasnt been allowed


to...

Otthon leszel valsznleg/elrelthatlag szombaton?

Are you likely to be home...?

Explain the Difference


1. He was to go.
He was to have gone.
2. Theres a man I want to see.
Theres a man I want to see.
3. It is a long way to York.
There is a long way still to go.

havent started the journey yet


youre on the journey

4. He had his hair cut.


He had cut his hair.
5. Had she got her baby at the clinic?
Did she have her baby at the clinic?
6. Do you have bad headaches?

had the baby with her


gave birth/had it with her
usually(?)/recently

Have you got a bad headache?

right now

Have you got bad headaches?

plural

Lecture V.
(LSGSWE pp174-185, SGEL pp60-69)

OVERVIEW

There are nine central modals in English: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would,
and must.
In addition, there are a number of semi-modals (e.g. be going to, have to);
These are sequences of words that function like modal verbs.
The main function of modals and semi-modals is to convey stance.
Four modals and semi-modals are used primarily to express time meanings: will, shall, and be
going to for future time, and used to for past time.
Modals fall into three major categories of meaning; each category combines personal
(intrinsic) meanings and logical (extrinsic) meanings.
The categories are: permission/possibility or ability; obligation/necessity, and
volition/prediction.

Personal (Intrinsic) vs. Logical (Extrinsic) Meaning

You can't mark without a scheme. You must make a scheme. (CONV)
Personal ability and obligation meanings, with human subject you and dynamic verbs mark
and make
Well, it must be somewhere in the office / it cant be in the office
Necessity meaning, with stative main verb be
We shall not attempt a detailed account of linguistic categories in this book, but will use as
far as possible those which are well enough known. (ACAD)
Personal volition or intention meanings, with human subject we and dynamic verbs attempt
and use
But in other cases his decisions will seem more radical.
Prediction meaning, with non-human subject (his decisions) and stative verb seem

Central Modals across Registers

Semi-Modals and Modals across Registers

THE PERMISSION/POSSIBILITY/ABILITY MODALS

The only problem may be that the compound is difficult to remove. (ACAD) The seeds from
the plant may grow up to 20 cms.

He might relent and show up unexpectedly but I doubt it.

I might paint the kitchen purple. (CONV)

An isolated system is an ideal system. It cannot be achieved in practice. (acad)

I can hear what she's saying to somebody. (CONV)

Well you can get cigarettes from there, can't you? (CONV)

May, Might and Could In Conversation

We use may, might or could to describe what is possible in particular situations. They are
common with be.
This may / might / could be the last time i ever see you

We often add well or just to emphasize possibility


You may / might / could well have the answer. (more likely)
Your plan may / might / could just work. (less likely)

We don't use may to ask questions about the possibility of something happening. Instead we
use, for example, could{n't) or the phrase be likely;
Could it be that you don't want to leave? (not May it be that you ... ?)
Are you likely to be in Spain again this summer? (not May you be in Spain ... ?)

It is possible to use might in this type of question, but it is rather formal:


Might they be persuaded to change their minds?

We can use may in formally asking for permission and offering help:
May I leave now? / May I help you?

Might and Could Referring to the Past

Might (not 'may') + bare infinitive is sometimes used to talk about what was typically the
case in the past. This is a formal or literary use:
During the war, the police might arrest you for criticising the king. (cf. Would)
Years ago children might be sent down mines at the age of six. (passive form)

We can also use could + bare infinitive in examples like this to talk about past ability:
During the war, the police could arrest you (the police were legally able to arrest you).

May, Might and Could In Conversation

We use might as well to express that there is no reason for not doing sg, usually expressing
disappointment or irony
Weve just missed the bus, we might as well walk.
- Have I told you my other halfs thinking of going for a PhD?
- Oh, you might as well do one as well then.

We use may not or might not for negative possibilities, could not is not used this way:
I may / might not be here tomorrow.

Negative could not expresses impossibility:


He couldnt be joking (vs. He may not be joking)

Perfect Forms of May, Might, Could

We use the perfect forms of may, might, could for possible events in the past:
Jack isnt here yet, he may/might/could have missed the train

In the negative, however, we only use may or might:


Jack isnt here yet, he may/might not have got our message.

Might have or could have is used for events whose outcome is known (but we are shocked
because sg nearly happened):
Why did you go there? You might/could have got yourself killed. vs. He may have got himself
killed by now (we dont know)

We use might have or could have to express annoyance:


You might have told me the class was cancelled (igazn mondhattad volna)

We use cant have or couldnt have when we are certain that something in the past was
impossible
Helen cant have / couldnt have taken the car. The keys are here.

Can have and couldnt have is frequently used with only and hardly to express a restrictive
(negative) meaning:
That could hardly have been an easy thing to do.
Judging by the pawprints, it can only have been a very large animal.

Perfect Progressive May/Might

We can use may/might have been + -ing to talk about possible situations or activities that
went on over a period of past time:
David didn't know where the ball was, but he thought his sister might have been playing with
it before she left for school.

Contrastive Uses of May/Might

When we say that a person or thing compensates to some extent for a limitation or
weakness by having another characteristic, we can use a pattern with may/might not + bare
infinitive ... But.. . Or may/might not have . Past participle ... But ... :
The painting may not be a masterpiece, but you've got to admit that the colours are striking.
She might not have danced very gracefully, but she had a lot of energy and enthusiasm.

THE OBLIGATION/NECESSITY MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS


Frequency of Obligation/Necessity Modals with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Meanings

Must Across Registers

Must expressing logical necessity in conversation:


Your mum must not care.
Your feet must feel wet now.

Must expressing personal obligation in academic prose:


I must now confess something which I kept back from you in chapter 3.

This is the sort of case in which judges must exercise the discretionary power described a
moment ago.

Should and Ought To

We can often use either should or ought to to talk about


o

Obligations and recommendations (intrinsic use, e.g. You should/ought to finish your
homework before you go out)

And probability (extrinsic use, e.g. It should/ought to be ready by now)

In general should is used more frequently than ought to

Ought to is used particularly in speech and most often to talk about obligation rather than
probability.

We prefer should when we say what an outside authority recommends:


The manual says that the computer should be disconnected from the power supply before the
cover is removed. (rather than ... Ought to be disconnected ... )

We use should (or would), not ought to, when we give advice with if i were you:
I should leave early tomorrow, if i were you. (or I would leave ... ; or Id leave ... )

We prefer should in questions, particularly wh-questions:


What should I do if I have any problems? Should I ring you at home?

Some people might use 'what ought I to do ... ?' And 'ought I to .. . ?', But this is rather
formal.

Obligation Modals in Questions

We can use should in questions that are offers or that request confirmation or advice:
Should I phone for a taxi for you?
Who should I pass the message to?

In sentences like these we can also use shall with a very similar meaning, and ought to is also
used in questions, although less commonly.

Perfect Forms of Should/Ought To

We use should/ought to + have + past participle to talk about something that didn't happen
in the past and we are sorry that it didn't:
We should/ought to have waited for the rain to stop. (Im sorry we didn't)

We often use this pattern to indicate some regret or criticism

The negative forms shouldnt/oughtnt to have are almost always used in this way.
(but! Thats a nice present. Oh, you shouldnt have)

We also use should/ought to + have + past participle to talk about an expectation that
something happened, has happened, or will happen:
If the flight was on time, he should/ought to have arrived in Bali early this morning.
The builders should/ought to have finished by the end of the week.

Should/Ought To vs. Had Better

We can use had better instead of should/ought to, especially in spoken English, to say that
we think it is a good idea to do something:
If youre not well, you'd better ask Ann to go instead. (or ... You should/ought to ... )

We don't use had better to talk about the past or to make general comments:
You should/ought to have caught a later train. (not You had better have caught ... )
I don't think parents should/ought to give their children sweets. (not I don't think parents had
better give their children sweets.)

We prefer had better if we want to express particular urgency and in demands and threats:
There's someone moving about downstairs. We'd better call the police, quickly.

Notice that the negative form is had better not.


He'd better not be late again or he'll be in trouble.

In question forms the subject comes after had, although many people avoid questions with
had better:
Hadn't we better get a taxi? (or Shouldn't we get ... ?)

PRACTICE
Whats the Difference?
I must do my homework.
I should do my homework.
I should be doing my homework.
I should go slowly here, it is a village area.
I have to go slowly here, it is a village area.
You couldve told me about the accident.
You shouldve told me about the accident.
You must see that film.
You should see that film.
You shouldnt have answered the phone. It may
have been my boss.
You shouldnt have answered the phone. It
might have been my boss.
You must shake hands with the guests.
You have to shake hands with the guests.
Something must be done to stop hooliganism.
Something has to be done to stop hooliganism.
I must take these pills.
I have to take these pills twice a day.
You neednt come to school earlier than usual.
You dont need to come to school earlier than
usual.
He neednt have left home at 6 a.m.
he couldnt have left home at 6 a.m.
I didnt have to give him my name.
You didnt have to give him my name.
You neednt have given him my name.
You shouldnt have given him my name.
He looks sad. He must talk to the headmaster.
He looks sad. He must be talking to the
headmaster.
Who did you go out with last night?
It had to be Sheila
It must have been Sheila.
He should have finished by now.
He will have finished by now.
Lets go fishing. It should/shouldnt/will/wont
be raining in the countryside.

Erssg szerint: should < must </= should be

I go with 100km/h
I go with 40km/h
nice
angry
must is stronger than should
got disconnected so they dont know whether it
was him or not
it wasn't the boss
decency
etiquette
I'll stop it
"waiting for God to do something"
must: only right now
twice: only have to can be used
szksgtelen
nem kell
left at 6
left later
no necessity, no action
no necessity, (no) action - depends on stress
no necessity, action
annoyed, no necessity, action
He must talk to him because hes sad.
He's talking with him right now thats why hes
sad.
no difference
less certain
uncertain
should is weird (you like fishing in the rain)
(kzben elvesztettem a fonalat xD)

Negate the Sentences


Whos knocking? - It must be Tom. (deduction)
He may be driving the car himself.
Someone has eaten my cake. It must have
been the children.

It cant be / couldnt be Tom.


He may not be driving the car himself.
It cant have been the children.

I had my id card so I was allowed to enter the


building yesterday.
You may park here.

I didnt have my id card, so I couldnt / wasnt


allowed to
You cant park here.

Paraphrase Using a Modal


Is Tom allowed to use the car?
Was Tom allowed to use the car?
He did not intend/refused to help.
He did intend/wanted to help.
It is possible for even expert drivers to make
mistakes.
It is possible that well never succeed.
It is possible that you are right.
I permit you to leave when you like.
You are permitted to leave when you like.
It is possible that she is not serious.
It is not possible that she is serious.
It is not possible that she was serious.
We were not allowed to smoke in the restaurant.
He was not able to drive a car.
They are allowed not to go swimming.
It is possible for you not to obey the order.
It is not possible for me not to obey her.
Is Tom allowed to use the car?

Can Tom use the car?


Could Tom use the car? (Question about
permission in the past)
He wouldnt help her.
Its not possible to use would in the affirmative
sentence.
Even expert drivers can make mistakes.
We may never succeed.
You may be right.
You may leave when you like.
You can leave when you like.
She may not be serious.
She cant be serious.
She couldnt have been serious.
We couldnt smoke in the restaurant.
He couldnt drive a car.
They may/could not go swimming. Emphasis on
not+ no contraction is possible
You can not obey the order. Emphasis on not+
no contraction is possible
I have to obey her. I cant not obey her.
Can Tom use the car?

Translate Into English


Skciban nagyon meleg (is) lehet
szeptemberben.
Lehet, hogy a knyvtrban van.
Eltnt a pnz. Ki vehette el?
Tams nem hozhatta fel a zongort egyedl.(ez
lehetetlen)
Ostoba voltl, hogy megprblkoztl a
felmszssal. Meg is halhattl volna.
Hogy mered/merted megvdolni az csmet?
Akkoriban fiatal hzasok voltak, minden reggel
vidman bredtek s elmentek egytt stlni.
Rgebben nem szerettem t, de azta
megszerettem.
Mg nem szoktam hozz ehhez az ghajlathoz.
Flsleges volt sorban llni.
Butasg volt sorban llni.
Nem kellett volna ajndkot hoznod.
Nem kellett volna pofon vgnod a hzigazdt.
A dikoknak nem be kell bejrniuk az
eladsokra.

Scotland can be very warm in September.


He could/ may/ might be in the library.
The money has disappeared. Who
couldve/mightve taken it?
Tom couldnt/cant have brought the piano
upstairs by himself.
You were stupid to try climbing up there. You
might have killed yourself.
How dare you accuse my brother / how did you
dare to accuse my brother?
Would vs. Used to
I used to dislike him/I didnt use to like him/I
usednt to like him (archaic), but I have grown to
like him (he has grown on me).
I havent got used to this climate yet.
You neednt have joined the line.
You shouldnt have joined the line.
Shouldnt have / neednt have
Shouldnt have
Neednt (speakers authority), dont need
to/dont have to (external obligation)

TERMINOLOGY
A type of auxiliary verb used to express logical or personal meanings: can,
should, might.
The expression of logical meaning or personal meaning through the use of
modal auxiliary verbs.
The smallest structural unit that has meaning, e.g. prefixes, suffixes, and
stems.
A construction with two or more negation markers: You've never seen
nothing like it.
A clause (or verb phrase) that has no tense and does not include a modal
verb: I want to be careful.
A cover term for nominal clause elements occurring after the main verb,
including direct ____ and indirect ____. ____s can usually become the subject
of a passive clause.
A clause element that occurs after the direct object and characterizes the
object: A jury found him guilty.
A term describing lexical words (verbs, nouns, adjectives, or adverbs),
signifying that it is not possible to list all the members of the class and that
new members are regularly added.
The verb used to construct negative or interrogative clauses: I will not allow
you to go there. Is she walking?
Another term for word class.
Verb construction that describes events or states taking place in the past, but
linked to a subsequent time, especially the present. It is formed with have +
past participle.
A multi-word verb consisting of a lexical verb plus adverbial particle: turn on
the television set.
A multi-word verb consisting of a lexical verb plus adverbial particle plus
reposition: look forward to.
The 'logical center' of a clause, consisting sometimes of a verb, and
sometimes of a copular verb plus predicate adjective. It determines what
elements occur as complements in the clause: I thought he was there. I'm
sure she will.
An adjective that occurs in the subject predicative position, following a
copular verb: He seems tired.
A clause element that characterizes the referent of some other clause
element, either the subject (subject ______) or the object (object _______)
One of the verbs be, have, and do, which can function as either auxiliary
verbs or main verbs.
A verb construction describing an event or state of affairs which is in progress
or continuing; formed with be + ing-participle: is staying, were flying.
A reduced interrogative clause added to the end of a declarative clause, used
to seek confirmation or agreement in conversation: This is a beautiful spot
isn't it?
The meaning classes of verbs, nouns, adjectives, or adverbs: e.g. activity
verbs, time adverbials.

Modal verb
Modality
Morpheme
Multiple negation
Non-finite clause/
-verb phrase
Object

Object predicative
Open class

Operator
Part of speech
Perfect aspect

Phrasal verb
Phrasalprepositional verb
Predicate

Predicative
adjective
Predicative
Primary verb
Progressive aspect
Question tag

Semantic
categories