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Mechanical Vibration 2 Marks questions with answer

What is meant by vibrations?


Vibrationreferstomechanicaloscillationsaboutanequilibriumpoint.Theoscillationsmaybe
periodicsuchasthemotionofapendulumorrandomsuchasthemovementofatireonagravelroad.
Vibrationisoccasionallydesirable.Forexamplethemotionofatuningfork,thereedinawoodwind
instrumentorharmonica,ortheconeofaloudspeakerisdesirablevibration,necessaryforthecorrect
functioningofthevariousdevices.
Define Force vibration.
Forcedvibrationiswhenanalternatingforceormotionisappliedtoamechanicalsystem.Examples
ofthistypeofvibrationincludeashakingwashingmachiningduetoanimbalance,transportation
vibration(causedbytruckengine,springs,road,etc),orthevibrationofabuildinganearthquake.
Inforcedvibrationthefrequencyofthevibrationisdependentonthefrequencycontentoftheforceor
motionapplied,butthemagnitudeofthevibrationisstronglydependentonthebehaviourofthe
mechanicalsystem.
Whatismeantbylogarithmicdecrement?
Logarithmicdecrementmethodisusedtomeasuredampingintimedomain.Inthismethod,thefree
vibrationdisplacementamplitudehistoryofasystemtoanimpulseismeasuredandrecorded.
Logarithmicdecrementisthenaturallogarithmicvalueoftheratiooftwoadjacentpeakvaluesof
displacementinfreedecayvibration.
Definetransmissibility.
Transmissibilityisatermthatisatermthatisusedtodescribetheresponseofavibrationisolation
system.Literally,transmissibilityistheratioofdisplacementofanisolatedsystemtotheinput
displacement.Itisusedtodescribetheeffectivenessofavibrationisolationsystem.Transmissibility
varieswithfrequency.
Whatisdryfrictiondamper?
Thedryfrictiondamperconsistsofashockabsorbingmasswithaflexiblelinkwiththeframe,dry
frictionshoescoupledtothemass,andanexpansionspringtoprovidethenecessaryamountofdry
friction.Thedamperisdesignedtoreducenormalpressureonthecontactsurfaceswhenthereisa
changeindirectionoftheabsorbingmassbyincorporatinganinertiamasswhichhasaflexiblelink
withtheshoes.Duringoscillationinasystem,inertiamassundergoesvariousaccelerationsandthe
greatertheaccelerationontheinertiamassthesmalleristheeffortwithwhichshoesarepressed
againstthefrictionsurfaces.Withasufficientlyrigidlinktheaccelerationoftheinertiamassis
virtuallyequaltotheaccelerationoftheabsorbingmasswhichmeansthatwithmaximumacceleration
oftheabsorbingmassthedryfrictionforcewillbetheleast.
Mentiontheusesofvibration.
Inthebranchofengineeringvibrationisusefulintheanalysis,design,construction,operationand
maintenanceofcomplexstructures.
WhatisRayleighsmethod,writeitsapplications.
Itisamethodusedforcalculatingapproximatenaturalfrequenciesforavibratingsystemassuminga
deflectedshapeandbalancingkineticandstrainenergies.
What is the critical speed of shaft?
Theangularspeedatwhicharotatingshaftbecomesdynamicallyunstablewithlargelateral
amplitudes,duetoresonancewiththenaturalfrequenciesoflateralvibrationoftheshaftiscalledas
thecriticalspeedofshaft.
Define continuous beam.
Abeamhavingmorethantwosupportsiscalledascontinuousbeam.
What is meant by natural vibration?
Naturalvibrationreferstomechanicaloscillationsaboutanequilibriumpoint.Theoscillationsmaybe
periodicsuchasthemotionofapendulumorrandomsuchasthemovementofatireonagravelroad.
Define Resonance.
Resonanceisthetendencyofasystemtooscillateatmaximumamplitudeatacertainfrequency.This

frequencyisknownasthesystemsnaturalfrequencyofvibration,resonantfrequency,or
eigenfrequency.
Mention important types of free vibrations.
Typeoffreevibrationare,pullingachildbackonaswingandthenlettinggoorhittingatuningfork
andlettingitring.
What is meant by viscous damping.
Amethodofconvertingmechanicalvibrationalenergyofabodyintoheatenergy,inwhichapistonis
attachedtoasupportiscalledviscousdamping.
Define vibration isolation.
Vibrationisolation,instructures,ofthosevibrationsormotionsthatareclassifiedasmechanical
vibrationinvolvesthecontrolofthesupportingstructure,theplacementandarrangementofisolators,
andcontroloftheinternalconstructionoftheequipmenttobeprotected.
What is an accelerometer and what is its use?
Anaccelerometerisadeviceformeasuringacceleration.Anaccelerometerinherentlymeasuresits
ownmotion(locomotion),incontrasttoadevicebasedonremotesensing.Oneapplicationfor
accelerometerisspecificallyconfiguredforuseingravimetry.
Define influence coefficients.
Itisdefinedasactionrequiredfororduetounitacceleration.Itisusedforderivingtheequationsof
motionforavibratingsystem.Therearetwotypesofinfluencecoefficientstiffnessinfluence
coefficientandtheflexibilityinfluencecoefficient.
What is continuous system?
Acontinuoussystemhasinfinitedegreeoffreedomhenceinfinitenumberofnaturalfrequencies.
Thesesystemshavetheirinertiaandstiffnesspropertiesdistributedinacontinuousway.
Whatarethreeelementarypartofavibratingsystem?
1.Massofthebody
2.Elasticityofavailablespring.
3.Dashpotwhichisfordomping
Whatislogarithmicdecrement?
Logarithmicdecrementisthelogarithmicratioofanytwoconsecutiveamplitudesonthesamesideof
themainpositionitisameasureofdecayofamplitudeofthevibratingsystemitisdenotedby
Definethetermmagnificationfactor.
Magnificationfactorormagnifierisdefinedastheratioofamplitudeofvibrationtotheamplitudeof
zerofrequencydeflection.
Howcanwemakeasystemtovibrateinoneofitsnaturalmade?
Themotionwhereeverypointthesystemexecutesharmonicmotionwithoneofisnaturalfrequencies
ofthesystem,iscalledtheprincipalmodeofvibration,theamplitudeforoneofthemassesistakenas
unitytheprincipalmodeissaidtobenormalmodeofvibration.
WhatisbasicassumptionisderivingDunkerlaysformula?
1.Dunkerlaysformulaisapplicabletoauniformdiametershaftcarryingseveralloads.
2.Thismethodcanalsoaccountforf\selfweightoftheshift.
Howdoesacontinuoussystemdifferfromadiscretesysteminthenatureofitsequationof
motion?
Continuoussystemisequivalenttoaninfiniteelementsofmassesconcentratedatdifferentpoints.The
equationofthecontinuoussystemsarederivedontheassumptionthatthebodiesarehomogeneous&
isotropic&thattheyobeyHookeslawwithintheelasticlimit.
Whatatevariousmethodsavailableforvibrationcontrol?
1.RemovingtheCausesofvibration.
2.Puttingthescreenifnoiseistheobjection
3.Placingthemachineryonpropertypeofisolators
4.Shockabsorbers
5.Dynamicvibrationabsorbers.
Whatarevibrometer?
Avibrometerisaninstrumenttomeasurethedisplacementofavibratingmachinepartgenerallythe

instrumentnaturalfrequencyisdesignedtwiceasslowastheslowestvibrationrecorded.
Whatarecommontypeofdamping?
1)Viscousdamping2)dryfrictiondamping
3)structuraldamping4)sliporinterfacialdamping
Definespringstiffnessanddampingconstant.
Springstiffness(K):Itistheforcerequiredtoproduceunitdisplacementinthedirectionofapplied
forceitisexpressedinN/m.
K=F=N/m
S
Dampingcoefficient(C):Itisthedampingforceorresistanceforcedevelopedperunit
velocityofviscousefluiditisexpressedinNsec/m
C=F=N/m/sec
v
Whyisitimportanttofindthenaturalfrequencyofavibratingsystem?
Whenthefrequencyofexternallyexcitedsystemequaltonaturalfrequencyofvibrationsystemitget
failureduetoresonance.Sotoavoidtheresonanceatvibratingsystemnaturalfrequencymustbe
known.
Whathappenstotheresponseofanundampedsystematresonance?
Inundampedvibratingsystemthesystemgetvibratetillitsfrequencyreachestothenatural
frequency.Soitlikelycausetofailureofbody.Soifsystemishavingundampedvibrationitleadssto
failureofbodyorsystem.
WhatarePrincipalcoordinates?
Principalcoordinates:Thethreedirectionsinspacei.e.x,y,zdirectionareknownasthebasicor
principlecoordinatestheseareveryimportantindesigningofrobotsasitdecidethedegreeof
freedomforeveryaction.
Definetheflexibilityandstiffnessinfluencecoefficients.
Flexibility:Itisdefinesasthedesignthatcanadaptanychangewhenanyexternalchangeoccurs.
Stiffnessinfluencecoefficients:Itisdefinedaswhenthesystemisunconstrainedthestiffnessmatrix
ispositivesemidefinitehenceaconstantisusedtoshowthestiffnessofsystemisknowsasstiffness
influencecoefficientdenotedasK.
WhatisRayleighsPrinciple?
Rayleighprinciple:Itisstatedthatthedistributionofthepotentialandkineticenergiesof
conservation,elasticsysteminthefundamentalmodeofvibrationissuchthatthefrequencyis
minimum.
Howmanynaturalfrequenciesdoesacontinuoussystemhave?
Acontinuoussystemwhichisunderavibrationhaveonlyonenaturalfrequencywhichcreatethe
resonanceifthefrequencyofsystemmatcheswithnaturalfrequency.
Whatisthedifferencebetweenavibrationabsorberandavibrationisolator?
Differencebetweenavibrationabsorberandavibrationisolator:
Avibrationabsorberisadevicethatcanabsorbthevibrationandmakeitsintensitylowwhilean
isolatorisdevicethatcankeepapartthevibrationbetweentwosurfaceorsystemincontactinwhich
oneisvibratecontinuously.
WhatisanAccelerometer?
Aaccelerometerisdeviceoratransducerthatsensetheaccelerationofsystemandconvertinintoa
usefulsignalareknownasaccelerometer.
Whatarethecausesofvibration?
Unbalancedcentrifugalforcesinthesystem
Elasticnatureofthesystem
Externalexcitationappliedonthesystem
Windsmaycausevibrationsofcertainsystemssuchaselectricitylines,telephoneslinesetc.
Givetwoexampleseachofthebadandgoodeffectsofvibration
Badeffects
1.Properreadingsoftheinstrumentcannotbetaken
2.Manybuilding,structuresandbridgesmayfall

Goodeffects:
1.Usefulforthepropagationofsound
2.Vibratoryconveyors
3.Musicalinstruments
Definedegreeoffreedomofavibratingsystem
Theminimumnumberofindependentcoordinatesrequiredtospecifythemotionofasystematany
instantisknownasdegreesoffreedomofthesystem
Invibrationanalysis,canwealwaysdisregarddamping?
No
Canweidentifyanonlinearvibrationproblembylookingatitsgoverningdifferentialequation?
Yes
Whatisthedifferencebetweendeterministicandrandomvibration?Indeterministicthe
magnitudeofexcitationforceisknowbutinrandommagnitudeofexcitationisnotknown
Whatmethodsareavailablefoesolvingthegoverningequationsofavibrationproblem?
Rayleighmethod,energymethod,equilibriummethod
Howdoyouconnectseveralspringstoincreasetheoverallstiffness?
Byconnectspringsinseries
Whatisthedifferencebetweenharmonicmotionandperiodicmotion?
Themotionwhichrepeatitselfafteranequalintervaloftimewhileharmonicmotionisoneformof
theperiodicmotion.Alltheharmonicmotionsareperiodicinnaturewhiletheviceversaisnotalways
true.
Definetheterms:cycle,amplitude,phaseangle,frequency,periodandnaturalfrequency.