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Module 10: Piping and Tubing

Pressure Drop
PRESSURE DROP = working pressure differential b/t the gas meter outlet to the appliance
regulator inlet
Maximum allowable pressure drops
Natural Gas
Supply pressure of <7 w.c.
Supply pressure of 7 w.c. to 14 w.c.
Supply pressure of >14 w.c.
Supply pressure of <14 w.c.
Supply pressure of >14 w.c.

= 0.5 w.c. max pressure drop

= 1 w.c.
= manuf.'s instructions
= 1 w.c
= manuf.'s instructions

High Pressure Tests: before appliances are installed

-performed after piping system installed and before appliances have been connected
*if anything connected to system isn't rated for testing pressure, then it needs to be isolated or
removed (to prevent damage)
*must isolate system from the meter
1) Isolate piping system being tested
2) cap/plug all open ends
3) insert pressure gauge at one end
4) pressurize system w/ air/inert gas to the specified test pressure (in code book)
Three tests required by the code
1) High pressure test: prior to connecting appliances
2) Working pressure test/Dial test: connect appliances and see if any gas leaks out w/out burners
(testing for leaks from the gas meter outlet to the gas valve inlet of the appliance)
3) Soap test: to check working pressure of the final connection
(ensures that all components on valve train are pressure tight)
(checking for leaks after appliance gas valve)
-another way of testing for leaks (for systems <=14 w.c.) is to use a manometer and the gas
meter outlet test port
1) ensure appliances won't fire
2) turn gas off to meter
3) connect manometer to test port
4) slowly turn gas to meter back on
5) wait for pressure to stabilize
6) turn off gas to meter

7) check manometer to see if the pressure reading decreases (if decreases => there is a
High Pressure Test gauges
-requirements for pressure gauges are in code book
Purging of Gas
-all purging requirements are in the code book
-purging hoses w/ Dead Man's hoses are recommended
-typical valves on gas systems = 1/4 turn valves
-allows for opening and closing rapidly
-typical locations: utility gas meter; upstream of a new run but downstream of manifold; at the
drop to the gas appliance
-break points:
-break/weak point of valve is to be installed on same side of the appliances
-only valves stamped w/ #3.16 are for outdoor use
Pipe Sizing
-for systems w/ a supply pressure of <=2PSIG: tables include an allowance for a reasonable # of
-for systems w/ pressures >2PSIG: each fitting must be sized according to its equivalent length
of straight feet
Information requirements
1) Relative density of the gas (N.G. or Propane)
2) supply pressure
3) allowable pressure drop
4) total gas (BTU/hr) input for each appliance
5) length of piping
-BTU/hr is a heating value for an appliance
-CFH (cubic feet per hour; BTUs/1000) is a measurement of gas flow for an appliance
Different Types
I) One pressure zone:
1) Determine LMR
(gas meter outlet/regulator to appliance that is furthest away)
2) Determine total input of all appliances and convert to CFH
3) Determine gas type, material type, pressure, pressure drop
4) Select appropriate table
5) Using LMR, determine pipe sizes using the appliance CFHs they supply
II) Two pressure zones:
1) Calculate pipe sizes for all pipe in the first pressure zone (using the appropriate table)

2) Calculate pipe sizes for all pipe in the second pressure zone
III) Pressures greater than 2PSIG:
-these tables don't include fittings
-only include fittings which change the direction of the gas flow on the
longest-measured run
IV) Point Load Method:
1) Size the manifold using the LMR which includes tubing downstream of the manifold
2) Size the tubing: LMR is the length of each individual run of tubing

Module 11: Electricity

Units of Electrical Measurement
-watts are the unit of electrical power
1W = 3.43 BTU/hr
P = E x I (for DC only)
Electrical Measuring Instruments
-ammeters: connected in series w/ the power on
-voltmeters: connected in parallel w/ the power on
-ohmmeters: connected across the device or circuit w/ the power off
Components of an Electrical Circuit
1) Source (in wiring diagrams):
-high voltage (black/L1) = main disconnect
-low voltage (red/R) = transformer
2) Path: (the wiring)
3) Controllers: switches that control electron flow
*several different types:
a) manual controls:
require an operator
b) automatic controls:
change electrical current flow by sensing a pre-determined
c) operating controls:
govern the operation of an electrical or mechanical load
(i.e. thermostat closes, which causes a gas valve to energize)
-always shown in the normally open position
d) safety controls:
will open upon detecting an out of bounds condition
(i.e. flame roll-out switch; hi-limit)
-always shown in the normall closed position
4) Loads: components that change electrical current to mechanical or electrical energy
-bypassing a load will cause a short circuit => an over-current condition which will cause a
breaker or fuse to open
Electrical Devices
= automatically operated switches
-switches are closed by an electro-magnetic solenoid
-on schematic diagrams: the relay coil and the switch it operates are marked
= like a relay but can handle high currents (e.g. motors, compressors, pumps)

= used to change or transform voltage from one value to another
-don't work w/ DC (only w/ AC)
-rated by the amount of power the 2ndary winding can handle
-VA = volt amps (how much current a transformer can handle [the 2ndary side])
-if the gas valve is humming: the problem might be a low 2ndary voltage on transformer (would
have to be replaced)
-operation based upon principle of electromagnetism
Electrical Wire Insulation
-application determines type of insulation:
= non-metallic dry (in locations not exposed to moisture)
= non-metallic wet (can be used in damp locations)
unsheathed conductors
= only to be used in liquid-tight conduit
BX cable
= armoured cable (when running wire in steal stud/joist applications)
= watertight BX cable
Electrical Conductors
-gauge is measured in AWG (american wire gauge)
-the high the number, then thinner it is
-max. fuse sizes:
= 15A
= 20A
= 30A
-if a circuit is fused any higher, it may overheat and cause a fire
-as length of conductor increases
= resistance increases
-as diameter of conductor increases = resistance decreases
-as resistance through conductor increases = voltage drop along conductor increases
*so the larger the wire the less voltage drop there will be
Electrical Building Service
-voltage into a residential panel = 240/1/60 (240V, single phase, 60HZ)
-4 wires are fed to a panel:
-two hot wires
-one neutral wire
-one ground wire
-fuses and circuit breakers:
-purpose = protect circuit conductors
-fuses are one-time only
-time delay fuses are used for intermittent high loads (e.g. motor circuits)
LRA = lock rotor amps
= the amps required for something to start up
RLA = running load amps
= the amps required for something to run
-used in wet locations

-senses current flow to ground: GFCI will open circuit when current to ground exceeds rating
-senses minute current to ground (5mA)
Bonding Electrical Circuits
Bonding Conductor = a conductor which connects non-current carrying parts of electrical
equipment, raceways, enclosures, etc. to the system's grounding conductor
-meant to avoid build up of electrical charge in something (like a gas line)
Grounding condutor = a permanent + continuous conductive path to the earth:
Wiring Diagrams
Pictorial diagrams: show where wires and components are physically located
Connection diagrams: show where wires are connected
(used for initial wiring and tracing wiring)
Ladder or schematic diagrams: shows how the circuit works and what components do
(switches on left, load on right)
Switching Action

location where the signal enters the switch

number of possible paths for the signal to follow

Drawing 1: Switching action

Drawing 2: switching action


Drawing 3: some symbols

+ some more symbols

Module 12: Mechanical and Electrical Controls

Integrated Control Module
Order of operation:
ID motor (first load that gets power)
Pressure switch on ID motor closes
HSI (on for pre-set amt of time)
gas valve opens
flame rod proves flame (sends signal to board)
after a set amt of time, blower comes on
Warm Air Furnace Controls
1) Thermostat

automatic operating control (normally open)

temperature changes (usually in a room)
closes or opens based on temperature settings
gas valve and ignition control (so it is in series w/ the gas valve and ignition
-usually in 24V circuit
-have a heat anticipator that is in series w/ the load (gas valve): heat anticipator is a resistance
heater that fools thermostat into opening sooner => this moderates the temperature swing in a
R (red)
= 24V power
Y (yellow)
= 24V power for cooling
W (white)
= 24V power for heating
G (green)
= 24V power for fan
C (common)

2) High Limit

automatic safety control (normally closed)

temp. of air surrounding heat exchanger
bimetal spiral, if heated, will open switch
gas valve; if the hi-limit opens, power will be shut off to gas valve

-can be wired into 24 or 120V side

-usually set to open at 200 degrees F
3) Fan Control

automatic operating controls (normally open)

temp. of air surrounding heat exchanger
same as hi limit
operation of blower motor/furnace fan

-can be wired into 24 (if using a relay) or 120V side

-will turn on at 140 degrees F; will turn off at 90 degrees F
4) Door Switch

automatic safety control (normally closed)

presence of fan access panel (the lower door)
if fan access panel is closed, the door switch is closed
operation of furnace fan

5) Flame Rollout Switch

automatic safety control (normally closed)
directly senses presence of heat; indirectly senses flame rollout from combustion
chamber or draft motor failure (flue gases venting out back through heat
sensing element causes switch to open
the gas valve
6) Induced Draft Pressure Switch
automatic safety control (normally open)
negative pressure developed by induced fan motor
pressure sensing element closes when induced fan motor is on and there is no
spillage from the vent
the gas valve
7) Air Flow Sensing switch
automatic safety control (normally open)
closes when the pressure setting is reached
depends on application (e.g. humidifier, electronic air cleaner, etc.)
Hot water Boilers
1) Aquastat

automatic operating control (normally open)

water temp. of boiler
switch closes when boiler water temp. falls below present temp. setting
main gas valve or water pump

2) Low Water cut off

automatic safety control (normally closed)
water level in boiler
float in the control senses water level; if water level drops, float switch will open
circuit to gas valve
main gas valve
-only a licensed plumber or steam fitter can change these
3) Water flow switch
automatic safety control (normally open)
water flow developed by system pump
paddle activated by water movement -> switch is then closed
main gas valve
-a functional closed switch should give a reading of 0V when tested w/ a voltmeter
Flame Control Systems
Types of Pilots
-pilot = flame which has two functions:
1) ignite main burner safely
2) generate electricity by which thermocouple/thermopile proves presence of pilot
-three types of pilot ignition systems
1) continuous pilot: stays lit during off cycle and during intermittent firing of main
2) intermittent pilot: pilot that stays on during firing cycle only
3) interrupted pilot: pilot that is shut off after main burner is iignited for short time
-thermocouple = electricity generating device consisting of two dissimilar metals joined at two
junctions (hot junction and cold junction)
*heating a junction will produce a small DC voltage
-diff. in temp b/t the two junctions determines the amount of voltage
-common in atmospheric burners
-typical thermocouple will produce 20 to 30mV DC current
= enough voltage to keep the solenoid of the pilotstat energized
-if a thermocouple stops receiving a flame, the voltage it produces will become too small to energize
the pilotstat
-screwed into pilotstat coil
-should be tightened 1/4 turn past finger tight
Thermopile (Powerpile)
-thermopile = collection of thermocouples in series
-voltage generated = 750mV
-used in fireplaces + pool heaters
Testing Thermocouples and Thermopiles

Heat up the thermocouple and measure the voltage

...on open circuit: 20 to 30mV = good thermocouple
...on closed circuit: 10 to 15mV = good thermocouple (pilotstat coil using some current)
Heat up thermopile and measure voltage
...on open circuit: >540mV = good thermocouple
Pilot Drop Out Test
find the minimum voltage produced by the thermocouple that will still energize
the pilotstat
-at this voltage, pilot should be able to ignite main burner w/in 1 second
-usually b/t 2 to 4mV
Flame Failure Response Test
to ensure pilotstat will drop out w/in sufficient amount of time after pilot flame
goes out
-maximum amt of time is 90s
Expected Readings in Thermopile mV System
Open circuit test:
Closed circuit test: 600mV
(thermostat open)
Closed circuit test: 400-450mV
(thermostat closed)
Pilot Flame Rules
1) locate pilot where it is easily observable
2) mount pilot burner rigidly
3) pilot flame mustn't impinge on burner or heat exchanger
4) must have enough air supply
5) must be protected from ignition and extinguishing of main burner
6) not subject to drafts
7) locate thermocouple so it is properly w/in pilot flame
= 3/8 to 1/2 ; over tip of thermocouple
Pilot Problems
Lazy yellow flame
waving blue flame
small blue flame
noisy lifting blowing flame
hard sharp flame
mostly blue and steady

= orifice too bag

= excessive draft at pilot location
= low gas pressure
= high gas pressure
= orifice too small

Flame Rectification
(measured in mA)
-converts AC to DC w/ use of flame rectification
-current from spark igniter travels through the flame -> to the ground -> to the control module
*the control module detects a DC voltage, which proves that the flame is lit


Blower Motor
-if the filter is clogged, the amperage draw will decrease
*b/c it is doing less work (b/c there is less air resistance meeting it when it spins)

Module 13: Building as a System

Gas technicians must be aware of:
1) building envelope
2) external environment
3) actions of mechanical systems
4) actions of occupants
Building Envelope
-building envelope = separates the inside of the building fromt he outside
*comprises: -foundation and floor slabs
-windows and doors
*many different components:
1) skin: (the outside) made of wood, bricks, concrete
-protects underlying materials
-maintains building integrity
-reduces heat loss and heat gain
2) vapour barriers: plastics sheets laid on the inside/warm side of insulation
-retard the flow of moisture in vapour form to outside
= will maintain proper lvls of humidity inside the house
-if vapour barrier not continuous = relative humidity will decrease in winter
= 6mm plastic installed on warm side
3) insulation: usually made of fibreglass or rock
-poor conductor of heat, so will retard flow of heat from inside to outside
-poorly insulated house will increase heating fuel consumption
Types of Building Construction
-three types of building construction in ON:
1) Balloon Frame: a continuous wall cavity from the ground floor to the attic
-fibre insulation usually added by vlowing it into attic or wall cavity
2) Double/solid Brick: uses a double layer of brick instead of stud framing and brick sin
-insulation is usually rigid boards of fibreglass
3) Platform: (most common now) each floor built as separate platform
-tendency for air leakage at the headers
-several factors that impact upon Building as a System:
-occupant lifestyle
-mechanical systems
-external environment
Occupant Lifestyle:
-people/animals/plants w/in building

-when occupant load increases => relative humidity w/in building increases
-actions that affect building systems:
-cooking and food prep.
-contaminants generated by occupants (CO, perspiration, breathing, exercise)
Mechanical Impact:
-all equipment and appliances in the building
-water heaters
-wood stoves
-air cleaners
-central vacs
-natural draft appliances
-air changers (HRVs, ERVs)
-impact from mechanical equip. can be severe: gas tech.s must take combustion and
ventilation air into account
External Environment:
-building location matters:
-if home is in path of strong prevailing winds = cooling effect in the winter
-shade trees can have same effect in summer
-exposure to solar radiation can have same effect in summer and winter
Minimizing negative impact:
-above factors will impact on quantity and quality of:
-air flow
-heat/moisture will always flow from area of high concentration to low concentration
-buildings are constructed to keep conditioned area from escaping to the outside
= helps keep energy costs to a minimum
= helps keep occupant comfort at a maximum
-need appropriate amount of moisture
-enough moisture for benefit of occupants, furniture, and building construction
-too much moisture = moulds and mildew
*reasons for excess moisture:
-new construction materials
-open sump pits
-poor air barriers
-too little moisture will cause:
-wood to dry and crack
-make air dry and might lead to respiratory illnesses
-exfiltration: movement of air from inside to outside
-infiltration: movement of air from outside to inside

Sources of Heat Loss:

-buildings must be insulated to retard flow of heat and moisture
-airflow can increase heat loss up to 30%
-heat loss sources:
-walls (where majority of heat loss is from)
-windows and doors
-heat gain sources:
-most effective ways to reduce heat loss = seal air leaks
-around windows, doors, baseplats and headers, foundations, electrical outlets
and ceiling lights
Relative Humidity
-relative humidity = ratio of actual amount of water vapour pressure in air compared to what vapour
pressure would be if the air was totally saturated
saturation = point at which condensation occurs
Humidity balance:
exhaust fans
furnace operation
natural air change

seasonal storage
drying firewood
wet basement
construction moisture
-warm air holds more water vapour than cold air (takes more water vapour to saturate the same amount
of air
*so: relative humidity decreases when air is heated (e.g. by a furnace)
(b/c amt of water is the same, but air molecules are further spaced apart)
-cold air = molecules are more dense
-heated air = molecules less dense = more room for water vapour
-methods of decreasing relative humidity
-A/C dehumidifies conditioned air
-increase air flow through building
-use HRV to exhaust warm moist air + bring in cooler, drier air
-in winter, if vapour barrier is continuous, then relative humidity should stay the same
-ventilation air: fresh air required by all building occupants
= introduction of outside air to replace exhausted air or to dilute indoor air
-older houses made of looser construction satisfied ventilation req.s w/out any specific measures
(fresh air entered house through cracks in building envelope)
-newer houses are tighter = so they require a specific amount of air to be introduced by

mechanical ventilation
-ventilation also the best way to remove odours from a house
Heat Recovery Ventilators
-HRVs = mechanical heat exchangers
-warm moist air exhausted from inside of building is cycled out while cooler, dry, fresh air is
cycled in
-heat exchanger in the HRV transfers heat from inside exhausting air to the cooler incoming air
(reduces cost of supplying ventilation air and re-heating it in the furnace
-usually have two speeds:
1) low speed for continuous ventil.
2) high speed for exhausting inside air when it is outside of comfort range
*this speed controlled by humidistat
-if humidity level climbs above comfort range, high speed option will become energized
-can have their own dedicated ductwork, or can be hooked into return air side of furnace ducting
-regular filters: purposes is to protect, furnace components, heat exchangers, and A/C coils from effect
of heavy particle pollution
= arrestance
-dust spot efficiency = measurement of filter's efficiency at picking particles of dust at various size
-filters clean air w/ three methods:
1) Impingement:
-dust particles strike filter media and are stopped
2) Straining:
-dust particles stopped if they are larger than space between the fibres
3) Electrostatic Precipitation:
-dust particles given an electrical charge which is opposite to that of the filter material
= dust particles are attracted to filter media
Building Pressure
-air flows from area of high pressure to low pressure
-when air is heated in winter by furnace = it will expand
= will put building under positive pressure
-air will flow through openings and cracks
-building under negative pressure: cause outside air to be drawn into structure
-a building can experience both positive and negative pressure at the same time
e.g. mechanical ventil. system may be oversupplying one area of the house, while lack of
make-up air in basement can cause a negative pressure
-several means by which building pressure is changed:
1) Stack Effect:
-warm air rises in a building, finding its way through cracks in the building envelope
-may cause negative pressure in basement and starve gas-fired appliances located in the
2) Mechanical or Natural Ventilation Effect:
-exhausting building air can lead to negative pressure w/in building
-air will enter building to equalize the pressure: it will do this through path of least

= in many cases: venting system of appliances: will disrupt these appliances from
venting properly
*mechanical ventilation = most common cause of negative pressure in a house
3) Duct Effect:
-improperly designed or installed HVAC systems can cause air to leak out of ducts and
short cycle
= can lead to poor occupant comfort and removal of combustion air from
appliance rooms
4) Wind Effect:
-positive pressure building up on windward side
-negative pressure building up on leeward side
5) Flue Effect:
-venting systems are usually easiest way for air to enter and exit a building
-natural draft systems can be susceptible to spillage of flue gases into house
-most common cause of spillage = negative pressure in building created by mechanical exhaust systems
*caused by downdraft down chimney
-causes of downdraft:
1) improper vent locations
2) negative air pressure condition w/in house
3) strong prevailing winds
-causes of spillage:
1) blocked vent
2) down draft
3) negative pressure in house
Combustion Air Sizing
-gas tech. must consider several things when installing a gas-fired appliance:
1) BTU input
2) Construction type: tight or loose
3) method of venting flue products: draft controlled or no draft controlled
-for inputs greater than 400 000 BTU: appliances must use outside air for combustion and ventilation

Module 14: Domestic and Non-Vented Appliances

-use flexible metal connectors: allows appliance to be moved for cleaning and servicing w/out
disconnecting the gas supply
-conditions for using them:
1) must not exceed 6ft
2) when used to connect appliance to rigid piping, a shutoff valve must be installed in the piping
immediately upstream of the flexible connector
Heat Transfer Methods
1) Convection: heat transfer through a fluid (air or water)
-two methods of convection heating in ovens:
1) natural convection:
-warm air rises and cool air descends
-in standard, natural convection oven: hottest area is at top of the oven, no
matter where burner is located
2) forced convection oven:
-heat produced by burner is circulated evenly throughout the oven by a
2) Conduction: heat transfer from particle to particle (through direct contact)
eg. pot of water on the stove
3) Radiation: heat transfer by means of heat rays emitted from a heat source
e.g. an overhead broiler burner
1) Standing Pilot
= has a continuously lit pilot
-three designs:
-one pilot for each burner
-one pilot for two burners
-one pilot for all four burners
-Flash tube:
= runs from top burner ignition port to the pilot flame to provide a direct path for
ignition flame
-when burner valve is turned on, gas flows through burner ignition port, through
the flash tube (which draws in air behind it and mixes with the gas)
-pilot sets of the air gas mixture, which flashes back to the burner and
ignites all the burner ports
-improper ignition:
-too much air in mixture = when flash tube fails to light burner and there is no
flame at the end of the burner
-too little air in the mixture/too much gas = if there is a flame at the end of the
flash burner but the burneer will not light off the pilot
2) Electrical igniter
-uses a spark generation device
Domestic Clothes Dryers
Moisture Exhaust Ducts:

-must be exhausted to the outdoors

-must be non-combustible or certified
-not to be connected into venting
-don't use sheet metal screws (lint will get stuck) = use duct tape
(page 14-10)
Ignition Systems:
-three types:
1) Constant pilot
2) Glow-coil (an HSI; operates under 120V AC)
3) Glo-sil (operates under 120V AC)
1) Constant pilot:
-pilot remains on all the time
2) Glow coil system:
= resistance wire mounted on a ceramic block
-mounted to a step-down transformer mounted to valve body
-when power applied, it glows and produces enough heat to light the
-as soon as dryer timer is set to a heat setting, pilot valve is energized
*the warp switch: (will de-energize pilot valve)
-acts as a safety device to break circuit to the glow coil and
pilot valve when a malfunction occurs:
-main burner doesn't light due to interrupted gas supply
-pilot fails to light
-pilot flame is faulty and not generating enough heat to cause pilot
switch to operate
-composed of bimetal arm that bends when heated (heat comes from the
resistance heaters)
-if left in circuit, warm switch will open after three or four minutes
-normally: pilot ignites and pilot switch swings to other circuit,
removing resistance heater from the circuit before the warp switch
can react
3) Glo-sil burner
= designed to be hotter and much faster
-run on 120V
Briquettes and lava rock:
-gas flame heats surface of the lava rocks, which radiate heat to cook the food
-too many lava rocks = may cause premature burner burn-out
-lamps are equipped with mantles that provide light
*purpose = convert bunsen flame to luminous flame and thus give more light
-two basic types of mantles:
1) soft mantles

2) pre-formed hard mantles

Module 15: Gas Metres, Pressure Regulators and Relief

Natural Gas and Propane Regulators
Functions of a Gas Regulator
1) reduce and maintain constant downstream pressure
2) provide a means by which pressure to the appliance can be adjusted
3) provide a more smooth, even flow (e.g. w/ a zone or appliance regulator)
Operating Forces of a Gas Regulator
1) Measuring element (DIAPHRAGM): measures the downstream/outlet pressure
= measures downstream/outlet pressure
2) Restricting element (ORIFICE): increases or decreases gas flow
= restricts flow of gas into regulator
3) Loading element (SPRING): used to set the operating pressure
= determines operating pressure
*closing force = the downstream/outlet gas pressure

-controls the volume of gas entering the chamber
*two jobs:
1) sets working pressure
2) opening force = overcomes pressure on gas side to open seat
-can adjust in order to set different working pressures
-separates the bottom part from the top
4) Vent: allows gas to escape in case of overpressure downstream of the regulator
-allows top of the diaphragm to breath
-all regulator vents have to be facing down
-allow for displacement of air above measuring element (diaphragm) so it can
-allows gas to escape in case of diaphragm rupture or downstream overpressure
-allow for installation of a leak-limiting orifice in some regulators
5) Leak Limiting Orifices:
-vent limiting orifice:
-normally a #78 drill size
-will allow one cubic foot of gas per hour to pass
6) Surge Limiting Device:
(for when too much gas enters the regulator)
-used in special applications that require regulator to be slow opening
-position of the ball restricts flow of air from top of chamber
-static pressure = lock-up pressure = shut-off pressure
= the regulator shuts off at this pressure
-the pressure under which downstream pressure will stabilize after the burner shuts
(should not exceed 20% of operating pressure)
Service regulator: regulator at end of utility's pipeline that reduces supply pressure to working
(may also describe second stage regulator in a propane system)
Appliance regulator: reduces building line pressure to the manifold pressure of the appliance
System regulator / low-pressure regulator / zone regulator: the regulator b/t the service and the
appliance regulator
First stage regulator / high-pressure regulator: reduces tank pressure down to supply line
pressure on a propane system (0-375 PSIG down to 10PSIG)
Second stage regulator / medium pressure regulator: reduces supply line pressure to building
line pressure

Twin stage regulator: regulator that combines a first stage and second stage in one
-example where system regulators are handy:
-if need 300' of gas pipe to feed 3m BTUs at 14 w.c. => requires 4 pipe
*but at 5PSIG => requires only 1.5 pipe
= so run pipe at 5PSIG and introduce a service regulator just upstream of the appliances
Two Stage Propane Regulators
-required on all permanent installations
-max. first stage pressure = 10PSIG
-first stage regulator eliminates fluctuating supply pressure (b/c pressure in the tank
changes w/ temperature)
-allows for small supply lines b/t tank and building
Creeping regulator = gas being passed at regulator valve seat when leak test being done w/
Converting Natural Gas to L.P.G Regulator
1) change orifice
2) change spring
3) set manifold pressure
4) change rating plate
Gas Meters
1) Bellows:
2) Rotary-type:
3) Orifice-type:
4) Turbine:

domestic and commercial installations

used for commercial and industrial applications
used to measure large volumes
used to measure large volumes

Meter Construction:
-castings can be made from: tin, pressed steel, cast iron, aluminum
-interior parts are often synthetic or plastic
-bellows meters don't require lubrication
-some rotary meters require lube
Domestic Bellows Meter:
-outlets come in different sizes:
1 outlet
= 225 000 BTU output max
1.25 outlet = 400 000 BTU output max
1.5 outlet
= 800 000 BTU output max
-anything above 800 000BTU = need a new meter
-max. allowable pressure drop = 1/2 w.c.
1) positive displacement meter
-measures actual volume of gas
-force that operates the meter = diff. b/t the pressure of the gas at the meter inlet and the
pressure at the outlet acting upon the diaphragms or chambers

2) temperature compensated (means they are for outside use)

Functions of a Gas Meter:
1) measure consumption
2) leak test a piping system
3) measure input to an appliance (clocking the meter)
(3600) x (dial #) x (35.31) x (# BTUs per cycle)
# of sec.s per revolution

(3600) x (dial #) x (# BTUs per cycle)

# of sec.s per revolution

Propane Containers
Standard set by:

Transport Canada

Boiler and Pressure Vessels Act


10 years from date of



Pounds of water

US water gallons

Relief Valve Pressure:

375 PSIG


-largest propane cylinders manufactured = 1000lb.s

-cylinders stamped w/ date of manuf. on collar
-on construction sites: 3 N.G. cylinders can be manifolded together
-propane containers on mobile vehicles: have to be mounted on the A-frame

Module 16: Domestic Gas Fired Refridgerators

Principles of Absorption
-gas fired refridgerators and A/C units based on principle of absorption
*this depends on principle of two chemicals have an affinity/attraction for each other
-refridgerant is attracted to the absorbent
*this forces refridgerant to move throughout the absorption system
(sometimes pumps or gravity are used to do this)
Main Elements of an Absorption System
1) Evaporator
= where the refrigerant evaporates from a liquid to a vapour
...thus taking heat from the surrounding area and cooling it
2) Absorber
= where the absorbent is found
-attached to evaporator by piping
-absorbent attracts refrigerant from evaporator and mixes w/ it
3) Generator (12V DC or 120V AC or propane)
= where absorbent/refrigerant mixture is separate
-as refridgerant/absorbent mixture becomes stronger, absorber can't attract as much
-to finish cooling process, refrigerant has to be separated from absorbent
-heat via a gas burner is added in the generator
-refrigerant is distilled out of the solution and moves to the condenser
-absorbent returns to absorber in a weaker solution that can attract more refrigerant
4) Condenser
= refrigerant condenses back to a liquid
-heat is given off
-refrigerant travels back to the evaporator where process begins again
Capacity Control of Absorption Systems
1) capacity of an absorption system can be regulated by controlling operation of the heat source
in the generator
2) regulating strength of absorbent/refrigerant solution => control ability of absorbent to attract
refrigerant vapour out of evaporator
3) rate of evaporation of refrigerant = determines the amount of refrigeration that occurs
Sequence of Operation of a Gas-Fired Domestic Refrigerator
(where absorbent is water and refrigerant is ammonia+hydrogen [R717])
1) heat applied to cooling unit at the GENERATOR
-ammonia vapour and weak ammonia liquid solution (which contains water)
2) ammonia vapour rises through vapour pipe and into CONDENSER

3) weak ammonia solution (containing water) is diverted to the top of the ABSORBER
4) any small amount of weak ammonia solution that enters vapour pipe flows
into ammonia pipe via gravity (it is lower)
5) ammonia in CONDENSER is cooled into a liquid
6) ammonia liquid enters evaporator that contains hydrogen vapour
7) as liquid ammonia contacts the hydrogen => ammonia begins to vapourize
8) ammonia and hydrogen flow down to return pipe
9) hydrogen and ammonia separated in ABSORBER in conjunction w/ weak
ammonia solution present in the weak ammonia pipe
10) ammonia vapour attracted into the ammonia hydroxide solution in ABSORBER
11) hydrogen rises into EVAPORATOR

Module 17: Conversion Burners

Oil Burners
How they work:
-as liquid oil passes through orifice = oil vapourizes
(how much oil is dispersed through orifice + the angle of spray is marked on orifice)
-when converting: can remove fill pipe, but can't touch venting
-oil chambers contain a ceramic chamber that heats up and radiates heat back out to ensure all
oil droplets get burnt
=> want to prevent liquid oil building up in bottom on chamber
-by product of oil burning = soot
-barometric dampers are used to adjust draft
-placed downstream of chamber in the flue
Firing rates:
1US gallon of #2 light oil = 140 000BTUs
*so a nozzle size of 0.5 will produce (140k x 0.5) = 70 000BTUs
Type of Burners:
1) Atmospheric burners:
-operates on natural draft from chimney or venting system to receive enoug combustion
air through unit
-inshot vs. upshot:
-inshot usually used w/ appliances converted from oil-fired
-upshot burners usually used w/ appliances converted from coal
Combustion triangle: oxygen (air) + fuel (gas) + ignition
Products of combustion:
1) CO2
2) H20
3) Light
4) Heat
Excess air:
=> needed to ensure that all molecules of fuel are burned (they all need to contact air)
-introduced as part of primary and secondary air (so a lot of excess air passes through
-too much excess air = reduced efficiency (it just vents out the flue)
-percentage of excess air can be measured in flue gas as unburned oxygen
Stoichiometric/Perfect Combustion:
ultimate percentage of CO2 = the percentage of CO2 in the flue gases if perfect
combustion takes place
-assumes all oxygen in air supplied is used in burning gas

One cubic foot of oxygen will produce

...cubic feet of CO2
...cubic feet of water vapour
...cubic feet of nitrogen
...ultimate CO2



Recommended CO2 readings for oil to N.G. conversions:

= 7 to 8.5%
Recommended CO2 readings for oil to L.P.G. conversions:
= 9 to 9.9%
Gross Stack Temperature
-actual temp. of flue gases affected by:
1) selection of burner
2) burner adjustment design of furnace/boiler
3) neutral pressure point
4) firing rate of orifice
5) manifold pressure
6) GST has direct effect on efficiency
Net Stack Temp.
= difference b/t gross stack temp. and ambiet temperature surrounding appliance
Draft Controls
-double-acting barometric draft controls:
= suitable for N.G. conversion burner installations
-only barometric draft control suitable for oil = single-acting

Module 18: Water Heaters, Combo Systems, Potable

Water Heating Systems
Water Heater Components
Temperature Control
-uses rod and tube control (w/ copper as sensing element)
-rod made of steel = low co-efficient of thermal expansion
-tube made of copper = high co-efficient of thermal expansion
-temp. dial settings:
= 160 degrees F
= 140 degrees F
= 120 degrees F
Unitrol (the large controller on the tank)
= senses temperature
-combines functions of:
1) temp. control
2) E.C.O (like a hi-limit)
-located inside the rod and tube
-if water gets too hot => will open permanently and has to be replaced
3) main gas valve
4) pilot gas valve
5) gas regulator
Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve (T and P)
-protects tank from excessive temp. + pressure
-pressure valve is spring loaded and usually automatically self-resealing
*if tank relieves on temp. -> fusible plug must be replaced
-pressure relief valve set to relieve at 150PSI
-fusible plug melts at 210 degrees F
-relief opening => near top of tank
*opening must be between 2 pipe diameters and 12' from floor
Dip Tube
= entry tube for cold water refill
-tube that goes from cold water inlet on top of tank and delivers water to bottom of tank
-hot water exits through outlet pipe on top of tank
= sacrificial element which prevents interior of the tank from corroding
-positive electrode which oxidizes
-should be changed when 3/8 thick
-change when water gets a rotten smell
-lime forms in tanks b/c heated water is less dense and heavy minerals in it sink to bottom
-to de-lime a tank = use muratic acid mixed w/ water
-lime affects heat transfer

-how to tell if tank is limed = popping, gurgling, crackling sound

Flammable Vapour Sensor
= senses anything flammable around tank and shuts off the tank
-works through resistance (so can't be bypassed)
-placed near bottom of tank (so don't paint floor)
Mixing Valve
-used on commercial water heats and automatic washers
-used where more than one temp. of water is needed
-allows cold water to be mixed with hot water to achieve a desired temp.
Direct Fire Water Heaters (Underfired Storage Tank)
= most common type of water heater
-the flue acts as the heat exchanger
-spiral baffle placed in flue to act as heat transfer
-important components:
T and P


Water Tank Principles

Two Types of Heat Transfer
1) conduction via flue
2) convection via heat at bottom moving up through the liquid (when burner is off)
-temp. of water in tank:
150 degrees F at top
140 degrees F at bottom
Legionnaire's Disease
= bacterial growth in warm water
-must keep tank water temp above 140 degrees F to kill off bacteria
Expansion Tanks
-dip tube water can warm up and expand => wants to go up through cold water inlet
-use expansion tanks to prevent this and buildup of pressure
-only use lead free solder for potable water
Hissing sound when filling up water tank
-when first filling up tank => lots of cold water
-if the burner is turned on you might hear a hissing sound
-this is condensing water falling onto the burner
= normal; not a problem
Stack Effect
-short draws of hot water caused by any hot water leak

(tank will allow small drips of cold water to replace the hot water)
= a little water drips down dip tube
-so unitrol only on intermittently
*result = cold at bottom, warm throughout
Instantaneous Water Heaters
-cannot run out of hot water at their designed flow rate
-require sufficient water supply for proper operation
-important components:



Twinned Water Heaters

= two storage type tanks connected in parallel
*requires inlet and outlet piping having equal resistance in order to draw equally from each tank
Types of Water Heater Systems
1) Direct Vent
-vents to outside + tanks combustion air from outside
-can be used in a bathroom
2) Power Vented Water Heater (not high efficiency)
-exhaust fan starts and is proven before burner ignition
3) High Efficiency Water Heaters
(like a high efficiency furnace)
-important componets:
-spiral heat exchanger
-vents downwards (sometimes?)


Closed-loop Combination System

System Components
Check valves
= used to prevent anti-syphoning (allows water to only flow in one direction)
Mixing valve
= used to bring hot water temp. down to 120 degrees F
Expansion or Cushion tank
= allows for thermal expansion in cold water line
(so installed on cold water line)
-ferrous metals not allowed in potable water application
-max. allowable length of pipe for return and supply = 50'
-can't use chemicals
-three-way valve may be used as a diverter on a return line
*are sized to match flow requirements of heating unit in the system
-temp. sensors measure:
-supply fluid temp.
-return fluid temp.
-mixed fluid temp.
-indoor air

-outdoor air
*are mounted:
-in wells
-directly to metal pipes
-according to manuf.'s recommendations
-fluid flow controlled by pressure bypass valve or shunt pump
-max. allowable velocity of fluid in supply and return lines less than 2 = 4ft/sec.
-min. size and type of water heater recommended for a combo. system
= 40 gallon high recovery gas-fired water heater
= 40 gallon high efficiency gas-fired water heater
Circulating Pumps
= to overcome resistance in system caused by pipings and fittings, etc.
Head pressure = ability of the pump to overcome resistance
-how to size pump?
= use head pressure and water flow rate

Module 19: Forced Warm Air Heating Systems

Condensing Furnaces
-condensate lines run to open drains
-average flue temp. = 80 to 120 degrees F
-methods to determine if heat exchanger is cracked
1) visual
2) smoke bomb
3) flue gas analyzer
-High boy vs. Low boy
High boy
= supply air on top; return air on bottom
Low boy
= supply air on top; return air on top
-temp rise = diff. in temp b/t supply and return air
-have two heat exchangers: primary and secondary
-type of heat transfer mainly used by forced warm air furnace = convection
Stage furnaces
Single-stage: all BTUs are fired at once
Two-stage: have two stages of heat
1) low fire: ~2/3 of total BTU input
2) high fire: all BTUs are fired
*this is controlled by the circuit board
Modulating furnaces
= contains a special modulating gas valve
-operates in increments depending on what has to be heated
(BTUs climb slowly)
Fan Control
-two ways to control:
1) Time on
2) Time off
= controlled by the circuit board
Random Stuff
-avg. CFM/ton for an A/C
= 400CFM
-avg. CFM/ton for heat pump
= 450CFM
-if replacing an old inefficient (60%) furnace with a newer efficient one (80%), how to determine the
size (BTU input)?
= perform a heat loss calculation
-vents must terminate at least 6' from a mechanical air supply
Types of Warm Air Furnaces
1) Upflow (Highboy)
-stands vertically
-needs head room

-return air at bottom; supply air at top

-designed for first floor w/ ducts in attic OR basement w/ ductwork under first floor joists
2) Downflow or Counterflow
-return air through the top; supply air at bottom
-ductwork may be in concrete floor or in crawlspace
3) Horizontal
-positioned horizontally on its side
-installed in crawlspaces, attics, or suspended from floor joists
-return air in one end; supply air out the other
4) Low boy
-approx. 4ft high
-used primarily in basements w/ low headroom
-ductwork under the first floor
-both return and supply air at the top
1) Gas Valve Train and Burner
-gas valve (main, pilot, combo.)
2) Heat exchanger
-proper airflow (temp. rise) is required
*too much airflow = products of combustion will condense
*too little airflow = stress on heat exchanger
-normal temp. rise = 40 to 70 degrees F
-poor combustion = corrosion of heat exchanger
Sensible Heat (cubic feet per minute)

BTU (output)
1.1 x Temp. rise

3) Fan switch
-automatically turns blower off and on
-delays blower fan operation to heat the heat exchanger and prevent nuisance drafts
-delays blower fan termination to cool heat exchanger and dissipate heat
-switch is temp. controlled or time delayed
4) Limit switch
-normally closed safety switch
-when detects overheat situation = will open and de-energize main gas valve
-can be in combo w/ fan limit switch

Module 20: Hydronic Heating Systems

-boilers must conform to the Biolers and Pressure Vessels Act (governed by TSSA)
Hydronic Heating Systems
-use hot water and/or steam to provide heat
*water is 10x more efficient than air in transferring heat
-also reduces pollutants from being re-circulated w/in conditioned space
-hilimits are set at 200 degrees F for hot water boilers
-low flue gas temp.s = cause condensation
-primary cause of sooting = incomplete combustion
Temperature and Pressure Ranges for Hot Water Boilers
Low Pressure boilers

Temp. Range
170 to 250 degrees F

<= 30PSI

Med. Pressure boilers

250 to 350 degrees F

30PSI to 150PSI

High Pressure boilers

350 degrees F and up

150PSI to 500PSI

-boilers used to supply water for commercial and industrial heating usually operate at 250
degrees F
Properties of Water
Latent heat = change of state but no change in temp.
Sensible heat = change in temp. but no change in state
ABVs (Automatic Bypass Valves)
*purpose = bring up temp. in the return line
*dumps some hot water in return line so its not too cold when it enters boiler
= most important valve in a heating system
Boiler Types
1) Steel Tube Boilers (Verticle Steel Boilers)
2) Copper-Fin Tube Boilers (Water Tube Boilers
3) Cast-Iron Section Boiler
1) Steel Tube/Verticle Steel
= Fire Tube Boilers
-fire is inside tubes and the water is outside the tubes, but around it
-take a long time to reach operating temp. + pressure upon initial startup
*but can deliver large quantities of steam or water for extended period of time
-sometimes have several fire passes:
e.g. First pass through a Morrison Tube, then second pass into fire tube
-turbulators = installed in fire tubes to turbulate flue gases (provide additional

resistance so more heat can be extracted

2) Copper-Fin Tube/Water Tube Boilers
-have tubes made of copper with fins around them
= increases surface area of tubes to transfer more heat
-water flows through tubes; flue gases are outside
*have very fast recovery time, but only delivers small quantities of heated water
3) Cast-Iron Boilers
-water heated in hollow cast-iron chambers
-chambers are connected together
-cavities b/t sections allow passage of hot combustion gases to heat water
-water flows through water jackets
-commonly used in residential and light commercial applic.s
1) Water Feed Station
*installed in fresh city water feed line to a system
-contains two main components:
1) pressure reducing valve: reduces city water mains pressure to system's
operating pressure
2) back flow preventer: like a check-valve that prevents system's non-potable
water from entering into building's city'water supply
2) Expansion/Cushion tank
-partially filled w/ air which acts a cushion (it can be compressed)
-heated water expands: expansion tank absorbs thermal expansion shock of water when
it is heated
3) Circulating Pump
-generally installed on hot water return line
*contains an impeller that is backward curved, which makes it easier to push
water rather than pull it
4) Balancing Valve
*purpose = balance water flow through each branch feeding the various heating zones
5) Air eliminators
-trapped air pockets (air-locks) will prevent water flowing through a closed loop
= air eliminators ensure air is eliminated from the system
-installed at highest point in the system and in the vertical rise
*installed in return line
6) Sight Glass
-allows you to see inside boiler tank
*if low on water = turn off gas
Pump Cavitation
*caused by inadequate liquid feed on the suction side of the pump
-might be caused by trapped air in the return side
= will cause pump to fail (air bubbles form in the liquid being pumped)
Pool Heaters
*are copper fin water tube boilers
-pool water ideally kept at pH of 7.5 (>7 = alkaline, <7 = acidic)
-chemicals are added to prevent growth of bacteria, algae and other organisms

(chlorine, bromine, algaecides)

-excess chemicals, water hardness, improper pH balance will cause
-salt deposits inside water tubes of boiler
-corrosion and premature wear and thinning of tube walls
-automatic chlorinators should always be installed downstream of the boiler so the chemicals are
diluted in the pool before water returns to the heater
-for spring pool heater start ups: have to watch for spiders in the pilot assembly and blower orifices
*can cause delayed ignition and flame roll-outs = dangerous to technician
-to start up: set aquastat temp to desired setting and let pool heater run until desired temp. is reached
-pressure switch acts as hi limit:
-if pool filter gets too dirty and restricts the flow of water to the boiler, the water pressure will
drop drastically
= will cause pressure switch to open and cut off power to gas valve
*bypass valve:
-in all boilers
-remains open
-prevents shock to the pool heater
-premature failure of pool heater tubes caused by:
1) excess chemicals
2) hard water
3) improper pH balance

Module 21: Space Heating and Decorative Appliances

Module 22: Venting Practices

Air Supply Req.s
-combustion air
-dilution air
-ventilation air
Information required to determine air supply req.s
1) Type of Appliance
Draft Controlled
-any appliance that requires
dilution air
(e.g. natural draft, barometric
damper, draft diverter,
draft hood)
2) Type of House
Tight House
-built after 1993
-complies w/ 8.2.1A or B

Not draft controlled

-appl.s that don't require dilution air
(e.g. med.-eff., power burner, etc.)

Loose house (normal construction)

-built before 1993

3) Total BTUs
Air supply requirements for > 400 000 BTUs
-if one appliance has no draft control and another does => determine them separately and add
Air Changers
(Heat Recovery Ventilator)

(Energy Recovery Ventilator)

-removes stale air from house and brings in

fresh air
-only recovers heat (doesn't recover heat from water
= only recovers sensible heat

-recover heat from water vapour

-one application: placed in apartment
laundry rooms to extract
latent heat from dryer ducts
-recovers both sensible and latent
-in winter: dry cold air in, warm
moist out
-heat is transfered via heat exchanger

*ON building code requires a minimum of 20 CFM for master bedroom

-comfortable relative humidity for humans = 40%

Air Conditioning facts

1 ton of A/C = 12 000 BTUs
=> the amt of heat required to melt 1 ton of ice (generally over 24hrs)
Vent Sizing
-when inspecting venting look for:
1) rotted parts
2) screws
3) correct size
-tables allow for two 90 degree elbows

= Type B double wall vent

-double wall vent connector
-one appliance


= Type B double wall vent

-single wall vent connector
-one appliance


= Type B double wall vent connector

-two or more appliances


= Type B single wall vent connector

-two or more appliances

-use tables C5, C6, C3, C4

-to find diameter of chimney liner => have to go to B-vent charts and reduce by 80%
-have to reduce B-vent tables by 10%
Supply Air
-effect of making supply air smaller
*air velocity increases
*air volume decreases
= noisy duct work
-effect of making supply air larger
*air velocity decreases
*air volume decreases
= will starve less proximate runs of air
Return Air
-if make return air smaller
*air velocity increases

*air volume decreases

*air will flow too fast over heat exchanger
-not enough heat will be absorbed
-heat exchanger will overheat
-if return air is too small => can take off blower door
------------------------------------------------------------------VENTING PRACTICES

Module 23: Forced Air Add-On Devices

Air Filters and Cleaners
*three possibilities for air filtration:
1) Media filters (throw away)
(also called mechanical filters)
-made from fibreglass and positioned in air stream
2) Electrostatic air filters
-media filters that generate static charge from air flow
-static charge attracts particles to the medium
3) Electronic air cleaners
-use an external power source to generate a charge
-particles are attracted to charged plates rather than a media filter
1) Media filters
-become efficient when 25% plugged
-physically remove particles from air stream
-two types:
1) Hammock: surround fan; have a hammock shape
2) Slab filters: consist of layers of filter material held together by cardboard
-usually designed for one-time use
-advantages: initial cost and upkeep is low
-disadvantages: low efficiency on normal atmospheric dust
-replacing and cleaning filters
-should be inspected every month and cleaned when required
2) Electrostatic filters
-may replace media filters when more filtration is necessary
-most are washable and reusable
-adv.s: no electricity required and more efficient than media filters
-disadv.s: less efficient than electronic air cleaners
3) Electronic air cleaners
-have four main sections:
1) pre-filter: screens large particles
2) charging section: contains small-diameter wire through which high DC
voltage is passed from power pack (6 to 25 kV)
-this creates an electrostatic field
-as airborne particles pass through field they become positively or
negatively charged
3) collecting section: contains a series of parallel plates
-plates are alternately positively charged with direct current voltage of
-uncharged plates are grounded
-charged particles are attracted to the plates
4) power pack or voltage section:

-consists of step-up transformer and rectifier

A stage: step-up transformer increases 120V AC to 3000-3500V
AC at collector cells
-B stage: rectifier circuit converts this to 7500-8500V DC at
charging cells
-usually installed in return air plenum
-must filter entire return air stream
-should be installed upstream of any humidifier: don't want moisture from humidifier to
cause mineral and salt buildup in EAC
-EACs function only when blower is operating and air is in motion
-should be interlocked w/ blower circuit (so it only operates when blower
Ozone production:
-properly-functioning EACs will produce small amount of ozone
-strong ozone odour can indicate continuous arcing (caused by too-large EAC
being put in plenum -> some of it is not getting air)
-activated carbon filter must be installed downstream of EAC
-humidifiers = add water vapour to air in a building (to increase relative humidity)
*warm air holds more water than cold air, so relative humidity changes w/ the temp.
-an electric switch that controls operation of humidifer
-should be placed by the thermostat
-are run on 24V
-run off 24V side of circuit board
-run off 120V side w/ a step-down transformer
Types of Humidistats
1) Duct-mounted drum humidifiers / Power Humidifiers
-contain 24V ac motor and wheel or drum covered in foam
-when humidistat calls for humidity drum rotates through a water reservoir to saturate
the foam
-supply air travels across/through foam and picks up moisture
2) Spray humidifiers/Flow-Through Humidifiers (newer ones)
-use sprayed steam of water to wet the medium
-humidistat opens a solenoid, which opens a water valve
-allows water to flow through a nozel where it is sprayed on the medium
-then air travels over it
3) Plate humidifier
-essentially a plate of water in the return air w/ a float to regulate water input
*has no control mechanism
Testing Relative Humidity

-sling psychrometer measures air temp. using two thermometers: a wet bulb and a dry bulb
*as psychrometer is rotated quickly in air, moisture is evaporated from wet bulb
-when the temperature stabilizes on the two thermometers, readings are taken
-the readings are then compared to tables supplied w/ the device
Cooling coils
-measuring pressure drop across coil
*one way of checking system
= measured using a magnehelic gauge or manometer

Module 24: Air Handling Systems

-residential systems are considered low-pressure systems
Duct System
Functions of a Duct System
= supply conditioned air to parts of the house
-operates as a loop
Supply (discharge) air
= under positive pressure
-several different ways in which the system can be designed:
1) extended plenum
2) reducing plenum
3) perimeter loop
4) radial system
Return air side
= under negative pressure
-two types of returns:
1) central return: one return air grille is installed on each floor in a central
location (like a hallway)
2) individual return: have a return air grille in every room except kitchens,
bathrooms, or rooms w/out air supply
Duct Liners
= used to reduce sound and minimize heat transfer
-if installed inside duct => meant to reduce noise
-if installed outside duct => meant to reduce heat transfer
Flexible Duct connectors/Canvas Connectors
= used to reduce noise
-noise is transmitted through duct work from fans and blowers
-flexible connectors absorb vibration
-installed on both discharge and intake sides
Air Pressure Readings
1) Gauge pressure:
-amount by which pressure of air/fluid exceeds ambient atmospheric pressure
-used to express pressures inside a closed system
-expressed in PSIG (PSI gauge)
2) Absolute pressure:
-the level of pressure above a perfect vacuum
-is equal to gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure
-expressed in PSIA (PSI absolute)
14.7PSIA = 0PSIG
3) Static pressure (resistance to airflow):
= air pressure in a duct at right angles to the direction of flow
-as air moves along a duct, a static charge develops b/t surface of duct and surface of air

= slows the airflow

*residential static pressure should be 0.5w.c.
=> must take all these into account b/c when designing a duct system you want to ensure that
you get a certain volume and velocity of aird
4) external static pressure:
= resistance from outside the furnace casing (supply outlet) to the factory supplied filter
in an air-handling device
-you want the range at: 0.2w.c. to 0.5w.c.
5) internal static pressure:
= resistance to airflow inside the furnace casing (from return inlet to supply outlet)
Air flow and System Efficiency
Cooling Systems
-rule of thumb for cooling systems: for every ton of cooling, 400CFM of airflow is required
e.g.: a two ton cooling system requires 800CFM of air flow
*but: heat pumps require 450CFM per ton
Blower Motors
-direct-drive blower: blower motors are mounted inside the blower and are linked directly to the
squirrel cage
-belt-drive blower: belt drive motors are connected to the blower motor via a belt
-contain four bearings: two on the fan shaft and two on the motor
-drive pulley = motor pulley (is adjustable)
-driven pulley = blower pulley (is fixed)
Propeller Fans
= usually mounted over an outlet in the wall
-used for general ventilation in areas where large quantities of air need to be moved against low
static pressures
Centrifugal Blowers
-air is moved perpendicular to the shaft
-air enters through side casing and exits through a rectangular outlet
-can move large quantities of air at relatively high static pressure
Blower Speed, CFM, Horsepower, and Static Pressure
-direct relationship b/t speed of the blower and volume of air that it moves
-blower speed can be changed by changing the drive pulley
-some blower motors are equipped w/ adjustable pulleys
*adjusting these will modify the blower speed and therefore the volume of air that is
-increasing the diameter of the pulley = more amperage draw
-decreasing the diameter of the pulley = less amperage draw
Drive ratio
-in belt-driven blowers, the drive ratio = relationship b/t the motor pulley size and blower pulley
(Drive pulley size) x (Drive RPM) = (Driven pulley size) x (Driven RPM)