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U T I L I Z ATI O N O F M AK AB U H AY P L AN T

IN THE PRODUCTION OF
H AN D S AN I T I Z E R

A Research Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of
Tr e c e M a r t i r e s C i t y N a t i o n a l H i g h S c h o o l
Tre c e M a r t i r e s , C a v i t e

In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements in
Research II

S h a i r a J . Au s t r i a
Apr il Jhoy Parilla
Jude Michael Boholano

June 2013

INTRODUCTION

A h a nd sa ni ti ze r o r ha n d a n ti sep ti c i s a su p pl e me n t o r a l te rna ti ve to
h a nd wa sh i n g wi th soa p a n d wa te r. Vari ou s pre p a ra ti o n s a re a va i l ab l e ,
i n cl u d in g ge l , fo a m, a n d l iq u i d so l u tio n s. Th e acti ve i ng re di e n t i n h a nd
sa ni ti ze rs ma y be iso p ro p a no l , e tha n o l , n -p ro p a no l , o r po vi d on e -i od i ne .
In a cti ve i ng re d ie n ts in a l coh o l ru b s t yp i ca l l y i n cl u de a th i cke n i ng ag e n t su ch
a s p o l ya cr yl i c a ci d fo r al co h ol ge l s, h um e cta n ts su ch a s g l yce ri ne fo r l iq u id
ru b s, p ro p yl e n e gl yc o l , an d e ssen ti a l oi l s o f p l an ts. Al co h o l ba se d h a nd
sa ni ti ze rs a re m ore e ffe cti ve a t ki ll i ng m icro o rg a ni sm s th a n soa p s an d do n o t
d r y o u t ha n d s mu ch .
P ro d u ci n g ha n d sa n i ti ze r fro m a n u n po p u la r a nd u n no ti ce a bl e pl a n t bu t
wi l l g i ve yo u the sa me qu a li t y, wo u l d b e a ni ce a n d o ne o f th e b ea u ti fu l a cti o n .
On e o f wh i ch i s ma ki n g ha n d sa n i ti ze rs fro m Tin o sp o ra ru mp h ii Bo e rl o r mo st
co mmo nl y kn o wn a s Ma ka b u ha y pl a n t.
Ma ka bu h a y i s a vi n e fo un d th ro u gh o u t the Phi l ip p in e s. It con ta i n s a
b i tte r p ri n ci pl e , co lu mb i ne , tra ce s o f a n a l kal o id a nd a gl u co si d e , b e rb e ri ne .
Th e Fi l ip i n o s an d Ma l a y i n ge n e ral co n sid e r thi s vi n e a s a u ni ve rsa l me di ci ne .
Th e na me i n Tag a l og m ea n s to g i ve l i fe . It i s comm on l y u se d fo r stom a ch
tro u b le , in d i ge sti o n , d i a rrh e a , an d u l ce rs. It i s kno wn a s a fe b ri fu ge , a nd is
sa id to h a ve a n ti -ma la ria p ro pe rti e s. R e ce n t stu d i e s i n the Ph il i p pi n e s ha ve
fo u n d i t u se fu l a s an i n se cti ci d e fo r ri ce cro p s. N o t fo r p re g n an t wo m en , as
ca n ca u se ab o rti on s.
It i s b el i e ve d to h a ve an ti mi crob i a l , p a ra si ti ca l , a nd p re vi ou sl y u n kno wn
p h a rm aco l og i cal a cti on s h e n ce , i ts wi d e sp rea d u se i n tro p i cal u l ce r, fe ve r,
d ig e sti ve di so rde rs, de rma to se s, a s an emm en a g og u e , an ti ma l a ri a l , an d
ca rmi na ti ve .
H an d sa ni ti ze rs ma de from Tin o sp o ra ru mp h ii Bo e rl a re e xce ll e n t
su b sti tu te fo r al co ho l s i n sa ni ti ze rs b e cau se th i s un n o ti ce d p l an t can be use d
a s th e an ti b a cte ri a l ag e n ts. An d b y u sin g th i s we mi gh t d i sco ve r mo re u se s o f
th i s u n iq u e p la n t.
U sin g Ma ka bu h a y p la n t in maki n g san i ti ze rs wi l l ma ke th i s p la n t po p ul a r.
Th i s m a y h e lp o the r fa rm e rs to p ro du ce th i s ki n d o f p l an t an d ma y se l l i t to
o th e rs be ca u se i t h a s m an y u se s. Th i s p ro d u ct ma y al so he l p co n sum e rs
b e cau se i t is a lo w co st pro d u ct. It is much ch e ap e r tha n o th e r sa n i ti ze rs bu t
wi l l a l so sh o w th e sa me re sul ts .

S ta tem e nt of the Pr oble m


Th i s stu d y wi l l tr y to a n s we r the fo ll o wi n g q ue sti o n s:
1 . W hat a re the p h ysi ca l ch a ra cte ri sti cs o f th e h an d san i ti ze r from th e
e xtra cte d so lu ti o n fro m ma ka b u ha y pl a n t?
2 . W hat is th e le ve l o f acce p ta bi l i t y o f th e p ro d u ct?
3 . H o w much is the pro d u ctio n co st?
Ob je c ti ve s of the Stud y
Th i s stu d y wi l l a im to de te rmi ne :
1 . Th e ph ys i cal ch a ra cte ri sti cs o f th e ha n d sa n i ti ze r fro m th e e xtra cte d
so lu ti o n from Ma ka b u ha y p la n t i n te rm s o f co n si sten c y, co l o r, o do r a n d
vo la ti l i t y.
2 . Th e l e ve l o f a cce p ta b il i t y o f th e p ro du ct.
3 . Th e p ro du cti o n co st o f Ma ka b u h a y san i ti ze r.
S ig nific a nc e of the Stud y
Th e re a re so ma n y pl a n ts in th e wo rl d bu t mo st o f the m a re no t ye t
kn o wn a n d sti ll re ma i n s u nd i sco ve ra b le . Sti ll , th e re a re ma n y di sco ve re d
d i se a se s be ca u se o f d i ffe ren t ba cte ri a fo u n d on ou r su rro un d in g s. U sin g th i s
fa ct , in i ti a te d th e re sea rch e rs to de vel o p an a n ti se p ti c. A ge rm ki ll i ng l iq u i d
th a t ma y he l p p eo p l e to sa n i ti ze the i r h a nd s an d a vo id tran sfe rri n g o f b a cte ria .
S o we com e u p on d oi n g a sa ni ti ze r ou t o f Ma ka b uh a y pl a n t. Th i s ma y a l so
a g ai n he l p fa rm ers b e cau se a s th e Ma ka b u h a y p l an t be cam e kn o wn so as th e
n e ed fo r i t. An d al so i t ma y h e lp o u r d e a r co n sum e rs i n al l ag e s in ma ki n g
th e i r se l ve s cl e a n a n d a wa y fro m g e rm s an d vi ru se s.
Thi s p rod u ct wi l l be
m ad e fro m Ma ka bu h a y pl a n t. A pl a n t th a t i s cu l ti va te d i n so me o r a l l o f th e
i sla n d s o f the Phi l ip p in e s.
H yp othe s is of the Stud y
There is no significant difference on the three treatments made to
p r o d u c e t h e M a k a b u h a y S a n i t i z e r.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study will deal on producing a hand sanitizer out of Makabuhay
plants extract. The plant parts to be used will be the leaves and the stem.

The alcohol in sanitizers will be replaced by the extract from Makabuhay


plant and will be given a new scent. The product will be evaluated in terms
o f c o n s i s t e n c y, c o l o r a n d o d o r.

D e f i n i t i o n o f Ter m s

Makabuhay plant is a shrub that grows in tropical climates valued


for its anti-bacterial characteristic.
A l o e Ver a - i t w i l l g i v e t h e m o i s t u r i z i n g e f f e c t o f t h e s a n i t i z e r.
S a n i t i z e r a d i s i n f e c t a n t o r a s t e r i l i z e r. T h i s w i l l b e t h e p r o d u c t o f
t h i s s t u d y.
Makabuhay Sanitizer the sanitizer that will be produced from the
Makabuhay plant.
Fermentation the process by which yeast reacts with sugar in justice
to create ethanol and carbon dioxide as by product.
Distillate- the product of distillation process where ethanol is one of
the constituents.
Sugar- used to facilitate yeast action.
Ye a s t f u n g u s t h a t c a u s e s f e r m e n t a t i o n .
Consistency the degree of thickness or smoothness of the
M a k a b u h a y s a n i t i z e r.
C o l o r t h e v i s u a l p e r p e t u a l p r o p e r t y o f t h e M a k a b u h a y s a n i t i z e r.
O d o r t h e s m e l l o f t h e M a k a b u h a y s a n i t i z e r.

R E V I E W O F R E L ATE D L I T E R ATU R E

Makabuhay Plant
Makabuhay is a climbing, dioeciously vine reaching a height of 4 to
1 0 m e t e r s . S t e m s a r e u p t o 1 c e n t i m e t e r t h i c k a n d s o m e w h a t f l e s h y, w i t h
scattered protuberances. Leaves are thin, ovate, 6-12 centimeters long,
and 7 to 12 centimeters wide, with pointed and truncate or somewhat
heart-shaped based, smooth and shining. Petioles are 3.5 to 6 centimeters
long. Racemes are solitary or in pairs arising from axils of fallen leaves,
p a l e g r e e n , s l e n d e r, 1 0 t o 2 0 c e n t i m e t e r s l o n g . F l o w e r s a r e p a l e g r e e n .
Fruit 8 millimeters long, in long clusters.
C l a s s i f i e d i n Ayu r v e d i c m e d i c i n e a s a r a s a ya n a h e r b , m e a n i n g
" c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e n u t r i e n t " i n S a n s k r i t , c o n s i d e r e d t o e n h a n c e l o n g e v i t y,
promote intelligence and prevent disease. Propagated by stem cuttings or
seeds. Support needed for climbing. It is distributed in and in nearby
countries and mostly in the Philippines.
It has new clerodane diterpene, B2 , and known diterpenes B1,
tinotufolin D (B5) and vitexilactone (B3). B2 was found to have antifungal
a c t i v i t y a g a i n s t A s p e r g i l l u s n i g e r a n d T. m e n t a g r o p h y t e s , a n d a n t i b a c t e r i a l
a c t i v i t y a g a i n s t P. a e r u g i n o s a a n d B a c i l l u s s u b t i l i s .

A l o e Ver a
Aloe, genus of plants with more than 150 species, most native to
S o u t h Af r i c a . T h e y u s u a l l y h a v e s h o r t s t e m s , f l e s h y, l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s
crowded in rosettes at the end of the stem, and red or yellow tubular
flowers in dense clusters. Species vary in height from several centimeters
to more than 9 m (30 ft); they are widel y cultivated as garden and tub
plants. Several species are commercially important as the source of the
aloes used in medicine.Aloes belong to the family Liliaceae.
A soothing, moisturizing extract made from the leaves of a species of
aloe.
.

Sanitizer
A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a supplement or alternative to
h a n d w a s h i n g w i t h s o a p a n d w a t e r. Var i o u s p r e p a r a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e ,
including gel, foam, and liquid solutions. The active ingredient in hand
sanitizers may be isopropanol, ethanol, n-propanol, or povidone-iodine.
Inactive ingredients in alcohol rubs typically include a thickening agent
s u c h a s p o l ya c r y l i c a c i d f o r a l c o h o l g e l s , h u m e c t a n t s s u c h a s g l yc e r i n f o r
l i q u i d r u b s , p r o p yl e n e g l y c o l , a n d e s s e n t i a l o i l s o f p l a n t s . Al c o h o l b a s e d
hand sanitizers are more effective at killing microorganisms than soaps
and do not dry out hands as much.
Common non-alcohol, rinse-free hand sanitizers use either small
concentrations
of
the
nitrogenous
cationic
surface-acting
agent
benzalkonium chloride, the chlorinated aromatic compound triclosan, or
p o v i d o n e - i o d i n e . S o m e p r o d u c t s c l a i m t o k i l l m i c r o o r g a n i s m s n a t u r a l l y,
a l t h o u g h t h e s e c l a i m s a r e n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n a n y F D A m o n o g r a p h . Al l
hand sanitizer products require National Drug Code designation in United
States and natural product number designation in Canada.

Fermentation
Fermentation is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases
and/or alcohol using yeast or bacteria. In its strictest sense, fermentation
is the absence of the electron transport chain and takes a reduced carbon
source, such as glucose, and makes products like lactic acid or acetate.
No oxidative phosphorylation is used, onl y substrate level phosphorylation,
w h i c h y i e l d s a m u c h l o w e r a m o u n t o f ATP. F e r m e n t a t i o n i s a l s o u s e d m u c h
more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth
m e d i u m . T h e s c i e n c e o f f e r m e n t a t i o n i s k n o w n a s z ym o l o g y.
Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of food
and beverages since the Neolithic. The process is often used to produce
w i n e ( s e e f e r m e n t a t i o n i n w i n e m a k i n g ) a n d b e e r, b u t f e r m e n t a t i o n i s a l s o
e m p l o ye d i n p r e s e r v a t i o n t o c r e a t e l a c t i c a c i d i n s o u r f o o d s s u c h a s
pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt (see fermentation in food
processing).
Fermentation is a form of anaerobic digestion that generates
adenosine
triphosphate
( ATP )
by the
process
of
substrate-level
p h o s p h o r y l a t i o n . T h e e n e r g y f o r g e n e r a t i n g ATP c o m e s f r o m t h e o x i d a t i o n

o f o r g a n i c c o m p o u n d s , s u c h a s c a r b o h yd r a t e s . I n c o n t r a s t , d u r i n g
respiration is where electrons are donated to an exogenous electron
a c c e p t o r, s u c h a s o x y g e n , v i a a n e l e c t r o n t r a n s p o r t c h a i n . F e r m e n t a t i o n i s
important
in
anaerobic
conditions
when
there
is
no
oxidative
phosphorylation
to
maintain
the
production
of
ATP
(adenosine
triphosphate).

Sugar
The most widel y used sugar for ethanol fermentation is blackstrap
molasses which contains about 35 40 wt% sucrose, 15 20 wt% invert
sugars such as glucose and fructose, and 28 35 wt% of non-sugar solids.
Blackstrap (syrup) is collected as a by-product of cane sugar manufacture.
T h e m o l a s s e s i s d i l u t e d t o a m a s h c o n t a i n i n g c a 1 0 2 0 w t % s u g a r. A f t e r
the pH of the mash is adjusted to about 4 5 with mineral acid, it is
inoculated with the yeast, and the fermentation is carried out nona s e p t i c a l l y a t 2 0 3 2 C f o r a b o u t 1 3 d a ys . T h e f e r m e n t e d b e e r, w h i c h
t yp i c a l l y c o n t a i n s c a 6 1 0 w t % e t h a n o l , i s t h e n s e t t o t h e p r o d u c t
recovery in purification section of the plant.

Starches
All potable alcohol and most fermentation industrial alcohol is
currently made principally from grains. Fermentation of starch from grain is
somewhat more complex than fermentation of sugars because starch must
first be converted to sugar and then to ethanol. Starch is converted
e n z ym a t i c a l l y t o g l u c o s e e i t h e r b y d i a s t a s e p r e s e n t s i n s p r o u t i n g g r a i n o r
b y fungal am ylase. The resulting dextrose is fermented to ethanol with the
aid of yeast producing CO 2 as co-product. A second co-product of
u n f e r m e n t e d s t a r c h , f i b e r, p r o t e i n a n d a s h k n o w n a s d i s t i l l e r s g r a i n ( a h i g h
protein cattle feed) is also produced.

Cellulosic Materials
Each step in the process of the conversion of cellulose to ethanol
proceeded with 100% yield; almost two-thirds of the mass would disappear
during the sequence, most of it as carbon dioxide in the fermentation of
glucose to ethanol. This amount of carbon dioxide leads to a disposal
p r o b l e m r a t h e r t h a n t o a r a w m a t e r i a l c r e d i t . An o t h e r p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e
a q u e o u s a c i d u s e d t o h yd r o l y z e t h e c e l l u l o s e i n w o o d t o g l u c o s e a n d o t h e r
simple sugars destroys much of the sugars in the process.

Distillation
Distillation is the process of heating a liquid until it boils, then
condensing and collecting the resultant hot vapors. Mankind has applied
the principles of distillation for thousands of years. Distillation was
p r o b a b l y f i r s t u s e d b y a n c i e n t Ar a b c h e m i s t s t o i s o l a t e p e r f u m e s . Ves s e l s
with a trough on the rim to collect distillate, called diqarus, date back to
3500 BC.
I n t h e m o d e r n o r g a n i c c h e m i s t r y l a b o r a t o r y, d i s t i l l a t i o n i s a p o w e r f u l
tool, both for the identification and the purification of organic compounds.
T h e b o i l i n g p o i n t o f a c o m p o u n d i s o n e o f t h e p h ys i c a l p r o p e r t i e s u s e d t o
identify it. Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a
non-volatile or less-volatile material. When different compounds in a
mixture have different boiling points, they separate into individual
components when the mixture is carefully distilled.

METHODOLOGY

Materials
5 kilogram of Makabuhay plant
300 mL water
1 bottle of fragrance scent
1 bottle aloe vera gel

Equipments
knife
3 sterilized jars
receiving flask
condenser
cheesecloth
thermometer
alcohol lamp
distilling flask
vials
chopping board
mortar and pestle
blender

Methods:
Gathering of Materials
The stem of the Makabuhay plant together with the leaves that will be
u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w i l l b e g a t h e r e d f r o m B r g y. S a n Ag u s t i n , Tr e c e M a r t i r e s
C i t y. T h e p l a n t m u s t b e f r e e f r o m d i s e a s e .

Cleaning
The stems and leaves of the Makabuhay plant should be washed to
avoid dirt from getting into the solution.

Extraction
The stems and leaves will be extracted by putting it on the cheese
cloth then will be pounded by the mortar and pestle to let the juice out.
T h e j u i c e w i l l b e p l a c e d o n a s t e r i l i z e d j a r.

Ad dit ion of Sugar


S u g a r s h o u l d b e a d d e d t o t h e j a r. T h e m i x t u r e w i l l b e s t i r r e d u s i n g
stirring rod until the sugar dissolves.

A c t i v a t i o n o f Yea s t
Yea s t w i t h a m o u n t o f 5 g w i l l b e a d d e d t o a 1 0 0 m L l u k e w a r m w a t e r.
T we n t y m i l l i l i t e r ( 2 0 m L ) o f t h e a c t i v a t e d y e a s t w i l l b e m i x e d i n t h e j a r.

Fermentation
Sterilized bottle will be covered with a black cloth and put in a bag
made of cheesecloth then will be kept in the dark room for twenty one (21)
days to protect from direct exposure to sunlight.

Distillation
The fermented solution had been used in the distillation process
which produced ethanol. When the solution reached its boiling point which
is 78 degree Celsius, the vapor would go through a condenser then a flask
collected the distillate which is alcohol.

Mixing of the Ingredients


T h e p r o d u c e d l i q u i d f r o m t h e p l a n t w i l l b e a d d e d t o Al o e Ver a g e l a n d
a s c e n t . I t w i l l b e m i x e d w i t h a b l e n d e r.

Experimental Design
Each treatment was replicated three times using
Randomized Design or CRD. The treatment will be as follows:

Complete

T1

7 0 % o f M a k a b u h a y Al c o h o l a n d 3 0 % Al o e Ver a

T2

6 0 % o f M a k a b u h a y Al c o h o l a n d 4 0 % Al o e Ver a

T3

5 0 % o f M a k a b u h a y Al c o h o l a n d 5 0 % Al o e Ver a

Scores will be subjected to comparison among treatments by getting


the means and determining which among the sample is the best in terms of
c o n s i s t e n c y, v o l a t i l i t y, o d o r a n d c o l o r.

Data Gathering
The produced product will be compared to other commercial sanitizer
i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c o n s i s t e n c y, c o l o r a n d t e x t u r e .

D a t a An a l y s i s
O n e - w a y An o v a f o r w i l l b e u s e d t o c o m p a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s i n t e r m s o f c o n s i s t e n c y, c o l o r, o d o r a n d
v o l a t i l i t y.

Evaluation Sheet

Direction: Evaluate the sanitizer according to its characteristics. Put


check mark on the following table.

Consistency
T1
T2
T3

Thick

Slightly Thick

Thin

Odor

Perceptible

Slightly
Perceptible

Not
Perceptible

Color
T1
T2
T3

Tr a n s p a r e n t

Cloudy

Opaque

Vol a t i l i t y
T1
T2
T3

Dries faster

Dries Fast

Dries slower

T1
T2
T3

G e n . Ac c e p t a b i l i t y
T1
T2
T3

Ac ce ptable

Slightly
Ac c e p t a b l e

N o t Ac c e p t a b l e

Bibliography

World Journal of Microbiolog y and Biotechnology (1990)


B i o t e c h n o l o g i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s Ab s t r a c t s
Microsoft Encarta
http:// w ww.o regon.gov .
h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / E t h yl a l c o h o l
http://enbritanica.org/fermentation