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HVDC

TRANSMISSION

H-HIGH
V-VOLTAGE
D-DIRECT
C-CURRENT

WHY HVDC ?
BULK POWER TRANSMISSION WITHLOWER LINE
LOSSES AS NO REACTIVE POWER TRANSFER TAKES PLACE
CONNECT TWO ASYNCHRONOUS SYSTEM.

PROVIDES SYSTEM STABILITY.


CONTROLABILITY OF POWER FLOW AT HIGH SPEED.
LESS RIGHT OF WAY FOR TRANSMISSION LINES.

NO CONTRIBUTION TO SHORT CIRCUIT LEVEL OF THE


AC BUS CONNECTED.
NO CHARGING CURRENT TO DIMINISH THE USEFUL
CAPACITY OF THE LINE.
DISTANCE IS NOT LIMITED BY STABILITY POINT OF
VIEW.

BREAKEVEN DISTANCE FOR HVDC


BREAKEVEN POINT FOR HVDC TRANSMISSION IS
ABOVE 700KMS
EXPENDITURE /
COST

BREAKEVEN
POINT

DC LINE COST

DC TERMINAL COST

AC LINE COST

AC TERMINAL COST
DISTANCE
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CONFIGURATION

NON CONTROLLABLE
VALVE
CONTROLLABLE
VALVE

NON CONTROLLABLE
VALVE GROUP
CONTROLLABLE
VALVE GROUP

TYPES OF CONVERTER BRIDGES

6-PULSE
CONVERTER
BRIDGE

12- PULSE
CONVERTER
BRIDGE / TWO
6PULSE
BRIDGES
CONNECTED IN
SERIES

Different types HVDC Converter Bridge Arrangements


BACK -TO-BACK

This is application where two AC systems to be connected


are physically in same substation and no transmission line
or cable is required.This is used for interconnection
between asynchronous Power System networks.

TRANSMISSION
BETWEEN TWO
SUBSTATION.

This is for bulk power transfer through dc line or cable from


one Substation to another which are geographically far
away from each other.

MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

More than two HVDC Substation, geographically separated


are connected to each other by same transmission line then
it is multiterminal system.

PARALLEL
MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

If one or more converters are connected at same voltage


level then system is parallel multiterminal.Here voltage
remains same but the current capacity increases.

SERIES
MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

If one or more converters are connected in series then


system is series multiterminal.Here voltage increases.

UNIT CONNECTION

This is scheme when generator is directly connected to the


converter transformer of the rectifier so that generated
power is directly fed into dc line

TYPES OF CONNECTIONS OF HVDC CONVERTER BRIDGE

MONOPOLAR GROUND CONNECTION

BIPOLAR CONNECTION
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MONOPOLAR METALLIC RETURN


POLE-1

MRTB

INVERTER

RECTIFIER
GRTS

POLE-2

RECTIFIER

INVERTER

POLE-1

MRTB

INVERTER

RECTIFIER
GRTS

POLE-2

RECTIFIER

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INVERTER

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

CHANDRAPUR PADHE HVDC


PROJECT
FEATURES:
A. BIPOLE PROJECT
B. TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE 500KV
C. POWER CARRYING CAPACITY 1500 MW OR 750MW
/POLE.
D. OVERLOAD CAPACITY :
1650 MW FOR 2HRS AMBIENT ABOVE 33C .
2200 MW FOR 5 SECS AMBIENT BELOW 33C .
E. TYPE OF THRISTOR VALVE QUARAPULE VALVE.
F. TYPE OF CONDUCTOR -QUARAPULE
CONDUCTOR/POLE.
G. NO.OF FILTERS/STATION-4NOS.
H. FILTER MVAR CAPACITY /STATION-800MVAR.
I. LINE LENGTH 753 KM.
J. INTERSTATION COMMUNICATION AND
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LD,KALWA THROUGH
OPTICAL FIBRE

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Static Ud/Id Characterstics


DC Voltage

Io(inv erter)

Io(rectifier)
DC Current

Current Margin

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12 pulse bridge with three phase transformer connected


DCCT

Smoothing
reactor

To control
system

DC voltage
divider

DCCT

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To
control
system

DC voltage
divider

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PRINCIPLE OF POWER TRANSFER BETWEEN TWO CONVERTER STATIONS

CURRENT
(I)
TRANSMISSION LINE

RESISTANCE (R)

V1

V2

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

P=V2*I

I=(V1-V2)/R
CURRENT
(I)

10V

TRANSMISSION LINE
RESISTANCE
(R=1OHMS)

9V

RECTIFIER

INVERTER

P=9*1=9W

I=(10-9)/1
=1AMP
CURRENT
(I)

12

RECTIFIER

I=(12-9)/1
=3AMP

TRANSMISSION LINE
RESISTANCE
(R=1OHMS)

9V

INVERTER

P=9*3=27W
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DC CT
DC LINE
ISOLATOR

DC BUS
ARRESTOR

DC FILTER

CONVERTER
TRANSFORMER

AC FILTER

DC VOLTAGE
DIVIDER

CONVERTER
BREAKER

NBS

AC SIDE
VALVE
HALL
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DC SIDE

AC SIDE

VALVE HALL

DC SIDE

A) AC FILTERS

A)THYRISTOR VALVES

A)DC FILTERS

B) CONVERTER
BREAKERS

B)DC BUS ARRESTORS

B)DC BREAKER
(METALLIC RETURN
TRANSFER BREAKER,
GROUND RETURN
TRANSFER
SWITCH,NEUTRAL BUS
SWITCH)

C) MEASURING
EQUIPMENTS

C)VALVE COOLING
SYSTEM

C) SMOOTHING
REACTOR

D) CONVERTER
TRANSFORMERS

D)DC CTs, DC VOLTAGE


DIVIDERS.
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AC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
AC Side mainly Constitutes of
1)Ac filters: They serve two purpose
A) They offer low impedance path to the harmonics which travel on AC side
generated during the conversion process.
B)Filters constitutes of R,L&C .These filter caters part of capacitive MVAR to the AC
Bus which helps in boosting the system voltage.
Harmonics Generated are:
i)Harmonics of the order of h=2 to 5 due to voltage imbalance caused by firing
angle and transformer commutation inductance.
ii)h=Kn1 order Harmonics are generated on AC side of Converter where K is a
value dependent on 6 or 12 pulse Bridge and n=1,2,
Switching of the Ac filters through Circuits Breakers are done by
Reactive Voltage Controller depending on the DC power flow through
the link.

(a)
(b)
Single Tuned Filter
HP-12
HP-3

(c)
Double Tuned Filter
HP-24/36
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AC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
2) Converter breakers: Breakers generally SF6 are used for catering AC
supply to the Converter Transformer. In Bipolar Projects sometimes
it is required that only one Converter Breaker caters load to both
poles depending on the type of Bus bar arrangements .In such cases
Converter Breakers of high current carrying capacity are employed s.
Also Circuit Breakers are employed for Switching in and out of the
AC Filters.
3) Measuring Equipments: Equipments like CVTs are installed for
measurement of bus voltages which useful in for control of power
on HVDC link. CTs installed in AC yard as well as Filter area are
employed for protection of AC Bus and Filters respectively.
4) Converter Transformers: This is one of the key equipments in HVDC
link.AC supply is fed to the Converter through the transformer .As
the name suggests the transformer is connected to the converter.
The secondary or the valve winding of the Transformer is directly
connected to valve through either wall mounted bushing or the
bushings of the transformer are protruding inside the valve hall and
are connected to the valve. The secondary of the converter
transformer is carrying AC as well as DC valve current through it. The
transformers may be of following type in case of 12- pulse
converters:a) 3phase
i) 3phase 3 winding transformer 1 unit/pole.
ii) 3phase 2 winding transformer 2 units/pole.
b) 1 phase
i) 1phase 3 winding transformer 3units/pole.
ii)1phase 2winding transformer 6units/pole.

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CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

2A

3A

PRIMARY
WINDING

SECONDARY
WINDING 2

SECONDARY
WINDING 1

2B

B1

3B

B2

1PHASE THREE WINDING CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

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CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

12 -PULSE CONVERTER FED BY THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

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VALVE HALL EQUIPMENTS


1) Thyristor Valves: Thyristor valves are heart of HVDC .These valves
are air insulated , water cooled and suspended in controlled
enviroment. Previously the thyristor valves where erected on
ground but nowadays they are suspended to meet the seismic
requirements. The 12-pulse bridge consist of 3 nos. quadruple valve.
Each quadruple valve is connected to one phase. One valve consists
of no. of thyristors connected in series depending on the rating of
the thyristor. Each thyristor is equipped with damping circuit for
dv/dt protection, series connected reactor for di/dt protection for
group of thyristor and thyristor control unit for the firing as well as
for status monitoring of thyristor .
Configuration for Chandrapur Padghe project:
3 nos. Quadruple valve
1 valve consist of 16 modules
1 module consist of 6 thyristors
1 valve consist of 96 thyristors
Each phase quadruple valve consist of 384 thyristor
One pole converter consist of 1152 thyristor
Series connected thyristor
Fine Water cooled valves.
Each thyristor of blocking voltage 7kv ,1700amp DC.

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VALVE HALL EQUIPMENTS


2) Fine Water Cooling system For Converter Valves:

Dissipation of losses in the form of heat from Thyristor


Valves.
Fine water / Demineralised water used for heat dissipation.
Few percent of water routed through water treatment
circuit.
Temperature, Conductivity and leakage is monitored.

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DC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
DC Side mainly constitutes:
1)DC filters:-The harmonics generated on DC side are of the order of h=kn where
k=6 or 12 depending on the type of converter 6 or 12 pulse. These harmonics
result in current harmonic in DC line. As no. of harmonics increases the
amplitude of the harmonics decreases.
2)DC Switches/Breakers :- DC side Switches are basically High speed isolator
which connect the neutral bus to earth electrode line or metallic return path or
station ground .They divert/isolate the dc current in event of any fault on DC
side. They do not perform the function of current breaking. There are 4 types of
DC Switches:
A) Neutral Bus Switch (NBS): This DC Switch performs the function of connecting
the the converter to the neutral bus. In event of any fault on the neutral bus the
NBS isolates the neutral bus and the converter after the operation of respective
protection.
B) Neutral Bus Grounding Switch (NBGS): This Switch provides path for local /
station grounding in event of breakdown on electrode line or any maintenance
on electrode line or on Metallic return transfer breaker during bipolar balanced
condition .
C)Metallic return transfer Breaker (MRTB):-This Switch is used to commutate
the current from ground return path to metallic return path. In this type of
transfer .The current that is commutated from Ground path to metallic path is
near about 70 t0 80 percent of pole current due to difference in the resistance
offered by these two paths. Hence Special Arrangement is adopted for current
quenching from Ground to metallic path which shown in figure on page 21.
D) Ground return transfer Switch (GRTS) :The GRTS is used to commutate
current from metallic return to ground return The maximum DC current that is to
be commutated in this case is only 20 to 30 percent.

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DC SIDE EQUIPMENTS

BREAKER
CONT ACT S

SPARK GAP
CAPACIT OR

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NON-LINEAR
RESIST OR

Arrangement for MRTB


3) DC Smoothing Reactor: Smoothing Reactor is the first equipment
connected in series on DC side i.e. HV side .As the name suggest it is for
Smooth ripple free DC and also limits the sudden change in DC current during
fault on DC line or DC bus. The reactor are generally air insulated or oil filled
smoothing reactor. At low DC voltage air insulated smoothing reactor are used
but for high voltage oil insulated smoothing reactor is used.
Specification of Smoothing reactors in Chapad Project:
Inductance (L): 365mH
Rated Voltage : 500KV DC
Rated current 1700 amp DC

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DC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
4) DC MEASURING DEVICES: Unlike AC side , measurement are also to be carried
out on DC side of voltage and current. Following are used to carry out the
measurement :
A)DC Voltage Divider:-This is used to carry out the measurement of DC voltage
on Line side and neutral side. As shown in figure voltage Across H-L is
transmitted upto control room via screened cable where another small Voltage
divider is installed .The final voltage received from line side Divider is for 500kv is
5v DC and for neutral side the ratio is for 50kv it is 2v DC. Accordingly from the
measured dc voltage the actual voltage on line is fed to control system .
HV

R1

F
R2

.
.
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DC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
B) DC CT(Zero Flux CT): On Ac side the Current measured is carried out by AC
Current Transformer, but the measurement of DC current is not possible with
normal CT.Hence DC CT is used for the measurement of current on DC side . DC
CT is a DC Current Transducer or it is also called Zero Flux CT. This Transducer
just like normal CT only difference is that an electronic circuit is connected in the
secondary circuit which detects the static field / flux developed by the DC
current flowing in the primary. This circuit gives input to the Power Amplifier
which injects current in the secondary .This secondary current nullifies the field /
flux produced by the primary and the output is in the form of voltage drop
measured across a resistor in secondary ckt.
Measurement Ratio of DC CT is 1500A / 2V.
I1

I2

Pow er
Amplifier
Magnetic
feild
detection
circuit

Output
Amplifier
K

U2=k*I2
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Quadruple Converter Valves

Quadruple
valve

Single valve

Double valve

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EARTH ELECTRODE STATION


Electrode Station:ELECTRODE BURIED INSIDE EARTH

ELECTRODE
LINE

ELECTRODE STATION

In HVDC system the terminal which is formed to be a neutral is not


grounded locally. The reason behind this is that the DC corrodes and
destroys the metal structures , earthmats,etc. very fast. Hence the earthing
in done in earth electrode station geographically away from the converter
station in a remote place in the periphery of 20 -30 kms .The current
flowing through earth electrode line reaches to the electrode station from
where it takes the path to the earth through various electrodes which are
buried inside the earth about 3 to 3 mtrs deep.

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THANK YOU

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