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INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TCNICO

Departamento de Engenharia Electrotcnica e de Computadores (DEEC)


rea Cientfica de Electrnica

ELECTRNICA GERAL
3Trabalho de Laboratrio

CONTROLADOR AUTOMTICO DE TEMPERATURA

2 Semestre 2012/13

Joo Costa Freire

Maio de 2013

Laboratrio de Electrnica Geral


CONTROLADOR AUTOMTICO DE TEMPERATURA

I. Objectivos
O objectivo do trabalho estudar alguns dos componentes e sub-circuitos de um Controlador
Automtico de Temperatura, assim como o seu desempenho em vrias condies.
Controladores de Temperatura so utilizados por exemplo em sistemas que exijam o
funcionamento a temperatura constante, como acontece com alguns equipamentos
electrnicos, e processos de produo industrial.
Como s se dispe de sistema de aquecimento, o controlador s funciona para temperaturas
superiores ambiente. O controlador aplicado na caracterizao de uma termistncia
(resistncia de valor dependente da temperatura do seu corpo) e no estudo das propriedades
trmicas de uma resistncia. O controlador testado com diversos tipos de realimentao:
negativa em operao analgica e tudo ou nada (ON/OFF); e realimentao positiva (ON/OFF
com histerese).
II. Esquema de blocos
Na Figura II.1 apresenta-se um esquema de blocos do controlador.
VDC

T
sensor

RTer

RDET

Isotrmico

Acoplamento
trmico

vT

Amplificador de erro

Indicador de
operao

ON/OFF ON/OFF
histerese
vout
vout

vF

vin

vout

vin V
DC

-VDC

Selector do sinal
de erro I1/I2

Termmetro
LCD

ANALOG

vin

Termmetro
de dcadas
2 bits

Sinal de
referncia VR

Figura II.1 Esquema de blocos do controlador de temperatura.

Este constitudo por dois blocos principais e trs auxiliares (medidores e indicador de
operao). Os dois blocos principais so o bloco Isotrmico (a tracejado) e o bloco
Amplificador de Erro (a cheio grosso) que comanda o aquecimento da resistncia RDET (DET
dispositivo em estudo) do bloco Isotrmico. Os outros dois elementos do bloco isotrmico
-1-

so: uma Termistncia, resistncia dependente da temperatura; e um Sensor de Temperatura


que um conversor de temperatura em tenso elctrica. Os blocos auxiliares (a cheio fino)
so dois termmetros e um indicador de operao. Um dos termmetros, o com um mostrador
de cristais lquidos (LCD), na realidade um voltmetro digital com um ADC de dupla rampa
e circuitos excitadores do mostrador. O outro um ADC paralelo que excita 4 dodos
emissores de luz (LEDs Light Emitting Diodes) consoante a palavra digital de 2 bits (22 = 4
possveis valores) de sada. O indicador de operao composto por dois LEDs, um vermelho
que acende quando se est a aquecer a resistncia RDET e um verde que acende quando a
resistncia est a arrefecer.
III. Descrio e introduo ao clculo analtico
De seguida vai-se efectuar uma descrio detalhada e um estudo analtico dos diferentes
blocos.
a) Bloco Isotrmico composto por uma resistncia RDET, uma Termistncia RTer e um
sensor de temperatura, independentes do ponto de vista elctrico mas ligados termicamente
por um dissipador (chapa metlica de lato) a que esto ligados com uma cola boa condutora
do calor.
A resistncia RDET uma resistncia de potncia (47 / 5W) que ao permitir dissipar at 5W
servir de elemento aquecedor dos restantes componentes do bloco a ela ligados
mecanicamente por umas pequenas chapas metlicas e cola boa condutora do calor. A
capacidade de dissipar de um componente elctrico ou electrnico caracterizada pela sua
resistncia trmica (na literatura ou Rth) que definida como a relao entre a potncia
mdia dissipada Pd e a elevao de temperatura:
Rth = (TR Ta) / Pd

(1)

onde TR e Ta so as temperaturas da resistncia e do meio ambiente que a rodeia,


respectivamente.
Termistncia uma resistncia varivel com a temperatura que pode ser usada, por exemplo,
para compensar as variaes trmicas de circuitos ou em sensores de temperatura.
A termistncia que vai ser ensaiada neste trabalho realizada com material cermico
semicondutor, cuja resistncia elctrica fortemente dependente da temperatura R(T).
Cermicas obtidas a partir de xidos metlicos com elevada resistividade (por exemplo de Fe,
Ni, Cr, Mn e Co), quando so misturadas com metais de valncia diferente, podem tornar-se
semiconductoras (cermicas semiconductoras). A sua condutividade elctrica segue muito
aproximadamente uma lei exponencial = 0 eB/T. Para alguns materiais, a constante B
-2-

positiva numa grande faixa de temperaturas abaixo da temperatura de Curie (PTC positive
temperature coefficient). Acima desta temperatura as propriedades podem mudar. Para outros
materiais a constante B pode ter um valor negativo (NTC negative temperature coefficient),
pelo menos numa certa faixa de temperaturas (Anexo 1).
temperatura nominal, T0, o valor da resistncia R(T0) = R0. Para pequenas variaes de
T = T - T0, em torno de T0, pode escrever-se o desenvolvimento em srie de Taylor de R(T):
= +

| +

+ = 1 + + +

(2)

As grandezas i so os coeficientes de temperatura da termistncia de ordem i.


H Termistncias cuja resistncia aumenta com a temperatura (PTC positive temperature
coefficient) ou diminui com a temperatura (NTC negative temperature coefficient).
Normalmente o 1 termo de (2) predomina e nestas condies uma PTC tem 1 > 0 e uma
NTC tem 1 < 0. De acordo com (2) o coeficiente 1 dada por:

(3)

A lei de variao da resistncia com a temperatura T, (expressa em Kelvin) pode ser escrita na
forma
R(T) = R(T0) exp [B(1/T 1/T0)]

(4)

em que R(T0) depende das dimenses e da condutividade do material de que feita a


termistncia, e B , normalmente, tambm uma constante que depende das propriedades da
cermica. Em geral a temperatura T0 = 298,15 K = 25 C. O valor nominal, R(T0), pode ser
dado com as tolerncias de fabrico que so normalmente usadas nas resistncia vulgares, por
exemplo 1% a 20%. A expresso anterior relativamente rigorosa, como se pode comprovar
experimentalmente, sendo usual ter-se um desvio de 0,3 C, na temperatura que conduz ao
valor da resistncia previsto pela equao (4) numa ampla faixa de variao da temperatura da
termistncia (0 a 50 C, por exemplo).
Como j se referiu uma termistncia pode ser usada como sensor de temperatura, no
entanto, no presente trabalho usa-se um sensor integrado monoltico, que uma alternativa.
Usa-se o circuito integrado LM335 (Anexo 2) que fornece directamente uma tenso
proporcional temperatura, vT = 0,01 T, onde T a temperatura em Kelvin.
O sensor LM335 utiliza junes semiconductoras como sensores de temperatura. A relao
entre a tenso vD e a corrente iD, duma juno semicondutora dada por
iD = IS [exp (vD / VT) 1] com VT = K T / q

(5)

onde IS a corrente inversa de saturao da juno e VT a chamada tenso trmica, que


depende da temperatura absoluta T, da constante de Boltzmann K e da carga do electro q
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(K / q = 8,6169.10-5 VK-1, ou VT = 25,85 mV temperatura de 300K). A corrente IS tambm


depende da temperatura pelo que o LM335 utiliza como sensor duas junes para anular esta
dependncia (Figura III.1).

Figura III.1. Esquema simplificado do sensor de temperatura LM355

Da malha que engloba a tenso de sada vT e o divisor potenciomtrico constitudo pelas


resistncias R1 e 2nR1, obtm-se
vT = vBE1 vBE10 + vT [2nR1 / (R1 + 2nR1)]

(6)

O curto-circuito virtual imposto pela entrada do AO impe, como se ilustra na figura 2, que
IC1 = IC10 = I / 2. Ento, aplicando a equao (5) s duas junes base-emissor tem-se
vBE1 vBE10 VT ln (IS10 / IS1)

(7)

onde se considerou IC1 = IC10 >> IS1, IS10. Considerando Q10 = m Q1, isto , que a rea da
juno base-emissor de Q10 m vezes maior do que a do transstor Q1, tendo em ateno (6) e
(7), pode-se escrever
vT = VT (1 + 2n) ln(m)

(8)

No LM355 tem-se n = 24,7 e m = 10 pelo que (8) toma a forma


vT = 0,01 T = 2,7351+0,01 Tc [Volt]

(9)

sendo Tc a temperatura em graus centgrados.


O sensor LM335 tem um invlucro de plstico, semelhante ao de um transstor vulgar, como
o que representado na Figura III.2a). Os 3 terminais so dois de alimentao e um de ajuste
da sensibilidade do sensor. Na Figura III.2b), apresenta-se o circuito tpico de aplicao do
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sensor LM335 que se representa, simbolicamente, como um dodo regulador de tenso, mas
cuja tenso de regulao proporcional temperatura do seu circuito (9). O dimensionamento
do circuito simples, sendo apenas necessrio garantir valores para Vsupply e Rbias tais que a
corrente IZ, que alimenta o circuito integrado, seja superior a 0,5 mA (Anexo 2).

Figura III.2. Sensor de temperatura LM355: (a) encapsulamento; (b) circuito simblico de aplicao

b) Bloco Amplificador de Erro um amplificador diferena que tambm pode funcionar


como um comparador de janela, introduzindo uma realimentao positiva ou como um
comparador em malha aberta retirando ambas as realimentaes.
A Figura III.3 apresenta o esquema elctrico do amplificador de erro e a sua ligao aos
Blocos Isotrmico e o Indicador de Operao.

RTer
RDET

vT

Figura III.3. Amplificador de erro

No ncleo do amplificador est inserido um AO, o A1 que um circuito integrado monoltico


A741 (Anexo 3), e um transstor bipolar BD137, o T1 (Anexo 4), em montagem de emissor
-5-

comum, portanto inversor. Chama-se a ateno que o BD137 um transstor de potncia


(12,5W) e apresenta um F = hFE baixo.
Quando nenhum dos interruptores I1 e I2 accionado (esto em aberto: OFF), a nica
realimentao existente no circuito da Figura 4 atravs da ligao trmica entre a resistncia
RDET e o sensor de temperatura S1 que gera a tenso vT aplicada na entrada negativa () do A1
atravs da resistncia R21. Se vT < VR o amplificador A1 satura positivamente (vC VDC) pelo
que o T1 satura (iB1 (VDC vBE1on) / R4 iC1 RDET > VCC VCE1sat), levando a resistncia
RDET a dissipar uma potncia PDET iC1 (VCC VCE1sat). Deste modo RDET vai aquecer at uma
temperatura TR acima da temperatura ambiente dada pela equao (1). Se vT > VR o
amplificador A1 satura negativamente (vC VDC) e o T1 corta. O dodo D1 entra na conduo
com iD1 (VDC vD1ON) / R4) limitando vBE1 a VD1on , evitando a disrupo da juno BE de
T1, que no suportaria uma tenso igual a VDC. Nestas condies, RDET deixa de ser
percorrida por corrente e arrefece tendencialmente at temperatura ambiente. Em
conformidade, com a tenso VR possvel controlar a temperatura de RDET que estabilizar
em torno do ponto em que VR = vT. A este modo de operao do amplificador de erro chamarse- ON/OFF.
Se o interruptor I1 for accionado (ON), introduz-se uma realimentao positiva no conjunto
A1 + T1 (Figura III.3). Note-se que o ramo de I1 est ligado ao terminal () do A1 mas T1
inversor e est englobado dentro da malha de realimentao I1-RP. Deste modo, o conjunto A1
+ T1 funciona como um comparador com histerese (Schmidt Trigger). O circuito tender a
estabilizara temperatura de RDET em torno de valores equidistantes do correspondente a vT =
VR de acordo com a abertura da janela de histerese. A este modo de operao do amplificador
de erro chamar-se- ON/OFF histerese.
Se o interruptor I2 for accionado (ON), colocando-se I1 em aberto (OFF) introduz-se uma
realimentao negativa no amplificador A1 (Figura III.3). Note-se que o ramo de I2 e RN est
ligado entre o terminal () e a sada do A1 ficando T1 fora da malha de realimentao. Deste
modo reduz-se drasticamente o ganho do amplificador de erro passando a existir claramente
uma zona em que opera linearmente, variando notoriamente vF nesta zona entre VCC e VCE1sat.
A este modo de operao do amplificador de erro chamar-se- ANALOG j que h uma zona
de variao linear entre ON e OFF.
c) Blocos auxiliares Os trs blocos auxiliares do indicao de se o controlador est a
aquecer ou arrefecer a RDET (Indicador de Operao) e da temperatura a que ela est
(Termmetros). O esquema do Indicador de Operao est representado no circuito da Figura

-6-

III.3 j que tem como entrada a tenso da sada do amplificador de erro vF. Nas Figuras III.4 e
III.5 apresenta-se os componentes dos dois Termmetros.
O Indicador de Operao composto por dois LEDs e duas resistncias (DV, DE, R6 e R7).
Note-se que quando T1 est ON se tem vF = VCEsat e o LED encarnado DE est aceso e o verde
DV est apagado; quando T1 est OFF a tenso vF = VCC e o LED encarnado DE est apagado
e o verde DV est aceso. O conjunto DE e DV, e respectivas resistncias srie de limitao da
corrente (R6 e R7) constituem o indicador de operao (aquecimento DE ON e arrefecimento
DV ON).
vO
vF
VCC

R9

(a)

(b)

Figura III.4 Conversor de graus Kelvin em Centgrados e Termmetro de Dcadas

Pretende-se que os termmetros dem indicao da temperatura em graus centgrados, no


entanto o sensor de temperatura fornece uma tenso proporcional temperatura em graus
Kelvin. Deste modo preciso introduzir na placa do controlador um conversor K-C. Esta
funo realizada por um amplificador somador baseado numa montagem inversora com um
amplificador operacional (A2) que o CI A741, idntico ao A1.
O Termmetro de dcadas tem como entrada a tenso de sada do conversor K-C (vO) e
compara-a com tenses obtidas a partir da tenso de alimentao negativa e do divisor
resistivo composto pelas resistncias R12 a R15 e R20. As sadas dos 4 comparadores vo
fazendo acender os 4 LEDs D3 a D6 de 10C em 10C (Termmetro de dcadas) cuja corrente
limitada pelas resistncias em srie R16 a R19. Os comparadores so realizados com quatro
AOs, A3 a A6, includos no CI LM324 que um AO qudruplo alimentado por +VCC e 0
(Anexo 5). A configurao deste termmetro corresponde a um conversor AD paralelo ou
flash de 2 bits (2N = 4 estados possveis de sada).
O Termmetro LCD, como o seu nome indica, contm um mostrador LCD que baseado no
circuito integrado ICL7106, tem 4 algarismo sendo o mais significativo apenas binrio (0 ou
1). Este circuito contm um conversor AD do tipo dupla rampa, e os circuitos de excitao do
mostrador LCD. A aplicao directa do ICL7106 (Anexo 6) como voltmetro digital,
convertendo tenses at 200 mV numa palavra digital. Assim o circuito conversor K-C que o
-7-

vai excitar directamente (vO da Figura III.3 aplicado na entrada +IN- no topo da Figura
III.4) tem que ser dimensionado de modo a ter no mximo 200 mV, equivalentes a 200 C.
Deste modo a leitura do mostrador LCD dar directamente o valor da temperatura.

Figura III.4 Termmetro com mostrador LCD com indicao at s dcimas de grau centgrado
(LSB least significant bit): Circuito Integrado ICL7106

Para se ter uma tenso de alimentao do sensor trmico (LM335) estvel utilizado um
regulador de tenso de +9V integrado 78L09. Os dois ltimos algarismos do nome do CI
indicam a tenso de sada (Anexo 7).
Para a execuo do trabalho experimental dispor-se- ainda de uma pequena ventoinha, do
tipo das existentes em muito equipamento electrnico, para arrefecer os componentes que
funcionam dissipando maior potncia (normalmente os dos andares de sada de excitadores de
perifricos), no caso do controlador para arrefecer a resistncia RDET.
IV. Anlise Terica
Na Figura IV.1 apresenta-se o esquema global do controlador de Temperatura e na Tabela
IV.1 o valor ou tipo dos seus componentes. Note-se que R5 = RDET. As respostas s alneas
apresentadas nesta seco devem ser includas no relatrio final mantendo-se os seus ttulos.
a) Amplificador de Erro A placa do controlador alimentada com +VCC e VCC, sendo
VCC = 12 V, embora alguns circuitos sejam s alimentados por +VCC e 0. O sensor de
temperatura obedece relao (9) (Anexo 2), A1 alimentado com VCC e tem um ganho de
200.000 (Anexo 3). Em todos os clculos que efectuar admita que temperatura ambiente de
20C (valor inicial em repouso).
a1) Tenso de Referncia - Calcule o valor que deve ter RA (potencimetro montado como
restato) para que se tenha o controlador a impor uma temperatura de 45C na resistncia R5
(RDET). O potencimetro linear, isto , a resistncia proporcional ao ngulo de rotao.

-8-

Sendo assim e admitindo que o potencimetro permite uma rotao mxima de 270, qual a
rotao a partir de 0 que deve efectuar? Considere que VCC2 = VCC = 12V.
Refere-se, a ttulo de informao adicional, que h potencimetros logartmicos, em que
portanto log(R) que proporcional ao ngulo de rotao, e no R como no caso dos
potencimetros usados na placa do controlador.
a2) ON/OFF - Para a situao descrita na alnea anterior, e os interruptores I1 e I2 abertos,
calcule a corrente que inicialmente vai comear a aquecer a resistncia R5 e a respectiva
potncia de dissipada. Explique o funcionamento do amplificador de erro nesta situao.
Caracterize o T1 apenas pela sua tenso VBEon e F (ou hFE) que pode obter do catlogo
(Anexo 4). Utilize como valor de referncia a corrente mxima iCmax, que prev T1 faz
percorrer R5.
a3) ON/OFF com histerese - Repita a alnea anterior mas agora com o interruptor I1 fechado
e mantendo I2 aberto.
a4) Analog - Repita a alnea a2) mas agora com o interruptor I2 fechado e I1 aberto.
a5) Comparao - Comente as diferenas encontradas na operao do amplificador de erro
nas 3 alneas anteriores.

RTer

Figura IV.1 Esquema global do Controlador de Temperatura

-9-

b) Termmetros Continue a considerar as condies enunciadas na alnea a).


b1) Conversor K-C - Explique o funcionamento do conversor K-C calculando a funo de
transferncia vO(VT,VCC). Admita, mais uma vez tal como em a), que o potencimetro RB
est na posio correspondente a uma temperatura de 45C em R5.
Tabela IV.1 Valor dos componentes do Controlador de Temperatura

b2) Termmetro LCD ou de Dcadas - Explique o funcionamento do Termmetro LCD (se


o seu grupo mpar) ou do Termmetro de Dcadas (se o seu grupo par) dando especial
ateno ao funcionamento dos conversores AD e calculando o seu erro mximo de
quantificao e resoluo. No caso do Termmetro de Dcadas calcule a corrente mxima nos
LEDs.
c) Regulador de Tenso Para alimentar o sensor de temperatura S1, usa-se o regulador de
tenso 78L09. Copie para o seu relatrio o esquema global do regulador disponvel no
catlogo (Anexo 7) e comparando-o com os reguladores que estudou (captulo sobre circuitos
de potncia). Identifique o seu tipo e assinale no esquema, colocando dentro de molduras
(formato sua escolhe), o componente ou componentes que considera serem os equivalentes
aos do esquema simplificado que estudou.
V. Realizao Experimental
Na realizao experimental, sempre que medir temperaturas (ex: Tmax e Tmin), mea e registe
tambm os correspondentes valores da tenso de sada do amplificador de erro VF (ex: VFmax e
VFmin, Figura IV.1). Registe tambm o estado dos LEDs DE e DV.
a) Identificao dos Componentes do Controlador de Temperatura
Na Figura V.1 apresenta-se uma fotografia da placa do controlador a utilizar nesta parte
experimental.
Tente identificar os componentes e os terminais de contacto que so acessveis do exterior.
Caso ajude, preencha uma tabela no relatrio. Em toda a parte experimental deve ter em
ateno no s a Figura V.1 mas tambm o esquema global da Figura IV.1.

- 10 -

b) Ensaio Preliminar do Controlador


b1) Rode completamente o potencimetro RA, que est montado como restato, para a
esquerda, no sentido directo (sentido contrrio ao dos ponteiros do relgio). Verifique se
corresponde a RA mximo (22k) ou mnimo (0). Em que condio colocou o amplificador
de erro a operar?
+Vcc

nc I2 I1

-Vcc

RA

R5

Dv

A741

M3
ICL7106

De

D1

RTER

LM335

T
G

H
4 Dv

M
C
RB

BD139

D
A741

F
M

LM324

E
Figura V.1 Placa experimental do Controlador de Temperatura

Preto - alvolos para ligar bananas; Encarnado - Resistncias, LEDs e dodo; Azul CIs e Transstor Bipolar

Ligue um voltmetro digital de tenso contnua (M1 Figura IV.1) aos terminais E e M
(massa) do mdulo para medir vO.
Ligue as duas fontes de alimentao de tenso contnua por forma a ter duas tenses
contnuas +VCC e VCC com massa M comum (VCC = 12 V). Para o efeito use uma fonte de
alimentao DC dupla, coloque as duas fontes independentes e ligue o terminal () de uma
delas ao terminal (+) da outra e estes dois massa de uma delas. Ligue as fontes aos
terminais respectivos da placa do controlador.
b2) Ajuste com uma chave de parafusos o potencimetro RB, que est montado como
restato, de modo a ler no voltmetro (vO) o valor +2,7315 V. Em que condio colocou o
conversor K - C a operar?
b3) Ligue o sensor S1 ao conversor K - C (ligar os terminais C e D atravs de um fio
condutor com bananas de 3 mm) e a partir da medio da tenso vO, registe o valor da
temperatura ambiente de R5. Lembre-se da anlise que efectuou em IV.b1). Neste momento
o voltmetro M1 e o mostrador LCD devem indicar o mesmo valor (a temperatura de R5).
Comente esta afirmao.
- 11 -

Ligue o voltmetro digital e o osciloscpio aos terminais F e M do controlador, para


observar a tenso vF.
Desligue os interruptores I1 e I2. Os interruptores so formados por 4 agulhas e um jumper
(cavaleiro) para enfiar em 2 agulhas adjacentes. Para o efeito coloque o jumper na posio
NC (no conectado 2 agulhas da esquerda). Tenha tambm a ventoinha V (Figura IV.1)
desligada.
b4) Rode o potencimetro RA para o seu valor mximo (no sentido retrgrado). R5 comear
a ser aquecida (LED VE aceso). O controlador vai estabilizar a temperatura entre um valor
mximo e um mnimo, Tmax e Tmin. Registe estes valores (lidos no Termmetro LCD) e os
correspondentes valores vFmax e vFmin. Poder acontecer que com RA no mximo a tenso VR
seja de tal modo elevada que o sensor no consiga gerar uma tenso igual; rode ento RA
ligeiramente no sentido contrrio dos ponteiros de relgio, at o controlador conseguir
reproduzir VT = VR. Coloque no relatrio um comentrio sobre o que observou relativamente
a esta questo. Tenha em ateno a anlise efectuada em IV.a).
c) Medida das Caractersticas Trmicas de R5 e RTer
c1) A partir da potncia elctrica fornecida e da temperatura mxima atingida por R5, calcule
o valor da resistncia trmica de R5, Rth5.
Ligue um ohmmetro aos 2 terminais T da termistncia NTC existente no mdulo. Preparese para registar simultaneamente valores da temperatura em R5 (e portanto em RTer) lidos em
M3 (Termmetro LCD), valores de intervalo de tempo, em segundos lidos num relgio, e
valores da resistncia RTer medidos no Ohmmetro.
c2) Rode rpida e completamente o potencimetro RA no sentido directo. O controlador entra
no modo de arrefecimento natural de R5. Crie uma tabela com os valores das 3 grandezas
referidas anteriormente (tempo, temperatura, resistncia), obtidos para diferentes
temperaturas afastadas de cerca de 5 C, medida que R5 arrefece. Se for mais cmodo registe
os valores de temperatura tirados a intervalos de tempo regulares.
c3) Trace o grfico log RTer(1/T) a partir da tabela criada em c2).
c4) Determine a lei de variao de RTer, calculando os coeficientes da expresso (4), BTer e
RTer(25C).
d) Ensaio do Controlador no Modo Linear (Analog)
Desligue a ventoinha. Ligue o interruptor I2, colocando o jumper na posio I2 (2 agulhas
do meio) reduzindo assim o ganho do amplificador de erro.
Rode o potencimetro RA para meio da escala e tente que o controlador estabilize a uma
temperatura perto de 45 C. Tenha em ateno os clculos que efectuou em IV.a1).
- 12 -

d1) Registe os valores mximos e mnimos da temperatura estabilizada, obtidos no regime


de controlo linear.
d2) Sem mexer no potencimetro RA, ligue a ventoinha, para arrefecer R5, e determine os
novos valores mximo e mnimo da temperatura estabilizada. Observe, atravs dos LEDs
DE e DV (modo de operao), do Termmetro LCD (temperatura de R5) e do osciloscpio
(tenso vF), o comportamento do controlador de temperatura. Comente as alteraes
verificadas, relativamente ao modo de funcionamento do controlador em V.b).
A partir de agora mantenha sempre o voltmetro digital e o osciloscpio ligados aos
terminais F e M do controlador.
e) Ensaio do Controlador com histerese
e1) Desligue a ventoinha. Mantenha I2 ligado. Registe o valor mximo e o mnimo da
temperatura estabilizada em torno de 45 C.
Ligue o interruptor I1 e desligue I2, colocando o jumper na posio I1 (2 agulhas da
direita), introduzindo realimentao positiva no controlador.
e2) Registe o valor mximo e o mnimo da temperatura estabilizada.
e3) Comente os resultados obtidos nas alneas e1) e e2).
VI. Concluses e crticas
O que aprendeu com este trabalho? Tea comentrios execuo do trabalho e proponha
alteraes que no seu entender o tornaro mais til e aliciante.

Lista de Anexos
Anexo 1: Termstor, Extracto do Catlogo da Semitec
Anexo 2: Sensor de Temperatura: LM335
Anexo 3: Amplificador Operacional: A741
Anexo 4: Transstor Bipolar de potncia: BD137
Anexo 5: Amplificador Operacional Qudruplo: LM324
Anexo 6: Voltmetro Digital LCD: ICL7106
Anexo 7: Regulador de Tenso: 78L09

- 13 -

PRODUCT CATALOG

CAT. No.129E

Where: Ra is the resistance at absolute temperature T1


Rb is the resistance at absolute temperature T2
B is a constant which depends on the
material of the thermistor
Unless otherwise specified,all values of B are
determined from measurements made at 258C and
858C.
The temperature coefficient of resistance
a is expressed in the follow ing equation:
a52 B2 3100 (%/ 8C)
T

1 21
T1 T2

Ra5Rb exp B

100k

10k

B:

Resistance(V)

"Thermistor" is the generic name given to


thermally sensitive resistors.
Negative temperature coefficient thermistor
is generally called as thermistor. Thermistor
is a semiconducting ceramic resistor
produced by sintering the materials at high
temperature and made mainly from metal
oxide.
Depending on the manufacturing method
and the structure, there are many shapes
and characteristics for various purposes
such as temperature measurement,
temperature compensation and etc.
The thermistor resistance values, unless
otherwise specified, are classified at a
standard temperature of 258C.
B constant is calculated from the resistance
values at 258C and 858C.

The resistance of a temperature is solely a function


of its absolute temperature. Since electrical power
being dissipated within a temperature might heat
above its ambient temperature and thereby reduce
its resistance, it is necessary to test for resistance
with temperature. The resistance so measured is
called RT, which means the resistance at essentially
zero-power.
The mathematical expression which relates the
resistance and the absolute temperature of
a thermistor is as follows:

36
50

THERMISTOR

Resistance -Temperature Characteristics

B:

50
33

B:

1k

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

00
34

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

Temperature(1/ Tx10 )

P
d 5D t (mW/ 8C)
P :Power(mW)
D t:Raise temperature(8C)

Thermal time constant


Thermal time constant (ta) is the time required by a
thermistor to change 63% of the difference between
its initial and final temperature. Measured with
thermistor suspended by its leads in specified
environment.

(%)

Dissipation factor
Dissipation factor (d) is power in milliwatts
required to raise thermistor temperature 18C.
Measured with thermistor suspended by its leads in
a specified environment.

95
87
63

ta

2ta

3ta

5ta
Time (s)

HIGH PRECISION THERMISTOR

AT THERMISTOR

AT-11,AT-2

AT-4

The AT thermistor is a high-precision thermal


sensing device featuring extremely small
B-value tolerance and resistance.
When used as a temperature gauge, the AT
thermistor requires no adjustment between
the control circuit and the sensor.
This insures temperature precision of 60.38C.
Temperature indicators and control instruments
are now available for use with the thermistor.
Part number

102 AT-2
Shape
High-precision AT thermistor
Rated zero-power
Resistance at 258C 102 : 1 k

Resistance tolerance
Dimensions

660.2

Soldered

2.5460.25

0.3sq
TPE lead wire

Marking

3.0;4.0

2.9;3.3

Color code

0.25t Tin plated 42 Alloy leads


(0.35)

Epoxy
(0.7)

5 max.

AT-2S

561

15 max.

Resistance
tolerance 6

AT-11

600 1200

3
2
1
240 230220210

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ambient temperature 8C

8.561
1761.5

Interchange precision
2.4 max.

AT-2SS

2.5

4.0;4.5

Epoxy

2.5460.25

8.561

Temperature
precision 68C

0.5 Tin-Plated
42 Alloy

2.5460.25

Color code

Epoxy
0.7

0.25t Tin plated 42 Alloy leads


(0.35)

(0.6)

(0.7)

Tiebar cut

2.9;3.3

8.561

4.0 max.

1761.5

Color code

2.0

618C
1.5

60.78C
1.0

60.58C
0.5

(0.9)

3.8 max.

AT-2

240 230220210

1761.5

AT-3

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ambient temperature 8C

2.4 max.

3.8 max.
4.0 max.

8.561

1761.5

Color code
Epoxy
Tiebar cut
1.0

Specifications

0.5 Tin-Plated
42 Alloy

2.5max.

Epoxy

UL1685 AWG30
3

8max.
40;100

Shape2

Epoxy resin

4max.

HVFF 0.14sq

13max.
5

30

R25*1

B value*2

1.0kV61% 3100K61%
102AT-2
2.0kV61% 3182K61%
202AT-2
5.0kV61% 3324K61%
502AT-2
10.0kV61% 3435K61%
103AT-2
20.0kV61% 4013K61%
203AT-2
50.0kV63% 4060K61%
503AT-2
104AT-2 100.0kV61% 4665K61%
10.0kV61% 3435K61%
103AT-3
1.0kV61% 3100K61%
102AT-11
2.0kV61% 3182K61%
202AT-11
5.0kV61% 3324K61%
502AT-11
103AT-11 10.0kV61% 3435K61%
103AT-4
10.0kV61% 3435K61%
Shape1
103AT-4
10.0kV61% 3435K61%
Shape2
10.0kV61% 3435K61%
103AT-2S
103AT-2SS 10.0kV61% 3435K61%

2.5460.25

AT-4
Shape1

Part No

100;225

Unit mm

Dissipation factor Thermal time Rated power


constant (s)*3 at 258C (mW)
(mW/ 8C)
10
2
15
10
2
15
2
10
15
10
2
15
10
2
15
10
2
15
10
2
15
2
10
15
15
3
75
15
3
75
15
3
75
15
3
75

Color code

None

20

230;90

None

5
5

250;110
250;110

white
white

10

35

1
1

15
15

Other resistance is also available, please ask.


*1 R25 : Rated zero-power resistance value at 258C.
*2 B value : determined by rated zero-power resistance at 258C and 858C.
*3 Time when thermistor temperature reaches 63.2% of the temperature difference. The value is measured in the air.

Black
Red
Yellow
White
None
None
None
White
None
None
None
None

230;90

10

Operating temp.
range(8C)
250;90
250;90
250;110
250;110
250;110
250;110
250;110
250;110
250;90
250;90
250;105
250;105

AT-5 THERMISTOR

AT-5

AT-5 thermistor is available in taping.


Part number

103 AT- 5-TP


Taping
Shape
High-precision AT thermistor
Rated zero-power
resistance at 258C

Dimensions
AT-5
Epoxy

f0.5 Tin plated CP leads

361

Specifications
661

Part No

R25

103AT-5

10.0kV61%

3061

2.461

3.561

2.560.5

103AT

B value

Rated power
constant (s) 3 at 258C (mW)

2 Dissipation factor Thermal time

(mW/ 8C)

3435K61%

2.5

15

10

Operating temp.
range(8C)
250;110

Other resistance is also available, please ask.


*1 R25 : Rated zero-power resistance value at 258C.
*2 B value : determined by rated zero-power resistance at 258C and 858C.
*3 Time when thermistor temperature reaches 63.2% of the temperature difference. The value is measured in the air.

Taping
6.3561.3

12.761.0

2.461

3.561

2.0 max.

18.0 60.5

0.660.3

1.5 max.

9.010.75
20.5

12.5 min

11.0 max.

16.060.5

3 max.

9.012.0
21.0

361

2.0 max.

f0.560.05

12.760.3

f4.060.3

1 max.

5 10.8
20.2

Resistance -Temperature
Temperature
(8C)

250
245
240
235
230
225
220
215
210
25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

Type
102AT
24.46
18.68
14.43
11.23
8.834
6.998
5.594
4.501
3.651
2.979
2.449
2.024
1.684
1.408
1.184
1.000
0.8486

202AT
55.66
42.17
32.34
24.96
19.48
15.29
12.11
9.655
7.763
6.277
5.114
4.188
3.454
2.862
2.387
2.000
1.684

502AT
154.6
116.5
88.91
68.19
52.87
41.21
32.44
25.66
20.48
16.43
13.29
10.80
8.840
7.267
6.013
5.000
4.179

103AT
329.5
247.7
188.5
144.1
111.3
86.43
67.77
53.41
42.47
33.90
27.28
22.05
17.96
14.69
12.09
10.00
8.313

203AT
1253
890.5
642.0
465.8
342.5
253.6
190.0
143.2
109.1
83.75
64.88
50.53
39.71
31.36
24.96
20.00
16.12

503AT
3168
2257
1632
1186
872.8
646.3
484.3
364.6
277.5
212.3
164.0
127.5
99.99
78.77
62.56
50.00
40.20

104AT
11473
7781
5366
3728
2629
1864
1340
969.0
709.5
523.3
390.3
292.5
221.5
168.6
129.5
100.0
77.81

Temperature
(8C)
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110

Type
102AT
0.7229
0.6189
0.5316
0.4587
0.3967
0.3446
0.3000
0.2622
0.2285
0.1999
0.1751
0.1536

202AT
1.424
1.211
1.033
0.8854
0.7620
0.6587
0.5713
0.4975
0.4343
0.3807
0.3346
0.2949

502AT
3.508
2.961
2.509
2.137
1.826
1.567
1.350
1.168
1.014
0.8835
0.7722
0.6771
0.5961
0.5265
0.4654
0.4128

103AT
6.940
5.827
4.911
4.160
3.536
3.020
2.588
2.228
1.924
1.668
1.451
1.266
1.108
0.9731
0.8572
0.7576

203AT
13.06
10.65
8.716
7.181
5.941
4.943
4.127
3.464
2.916
2.468
2.096
1.788
1.530
1.315
1.134
0.9807

503AT
32.48
26.43
21.59
17.75
14.64
12.15
10.13
8.482
7.129
6.022
5.105
4.345
3.712
3.185
2.741
2.369

104AT
60.94
48.10
38.13
30.44
24.42
19.72
15.99
13.05
10.68
8.796
7.271
6.041
5.037
4.220
3.546
2.994
Unit(kV)

LM135/LM235/LM335, LM135A/LM235A/LM335A
Precision Temperature Sensors
General Description
The LM135 series are precision, easily-calibrated, integrated circuit temperature sensors. Operating as a 2-terminal
zener, the LM135 has a breakdown voltage directly proportional to absolute temperature at a 10 mV/ K. With less
than 1X dynamic impedance the device operates over a
current range of 400 mA to 5 mA with virtually no change in
performance. When calibrated at 25 C the LM135 has typically less than 1 C error over a 100 C temperature range.
Unlike other sensors the LM135 has a linear output.
Applications for the LM135 include almost any type of temperature sensing over a b55 C to a 150 C temperature
range. The low impedance and linear output make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy.
The LM135 operates over a b55 C to a 150 C temperature
range while the LM235 operates over a b40 C to a 125 C

temperature range. The LM335 operates from b40 C to


a 100 C. The LM135/LM235/LM335 are available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages while the
LM335 is also available in plastic TO-92 packages.

Features
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Directly calibrated in Kelvin


1 C initial accuracy available
Operates from 400 mA to 5 mA
Less than 1X dynamic impedance
Easily calibrated
Wide operating temperature range
200 C overrange
Low cost

Schematic Diagram

TL/H/5698 1

Connection Diagrams
SO-8
Surface Mount Package

TO-92
Plastic Package

TO-46
Metal Can Package*

TL/H/56988

Bottom View

TL/H/5698 26

Order Number LM335Z or LM335AZ


See NS Package Number Z03A

C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation

TL/H/5698

TL/H/5698 25

Order Number LM335M or


LM335AM
See NS Package Number M08A

Bottom View
*Case is connected to negative pin

Order Number LM135H,


LM135H-MIL, LM235H, LM335H,
LM135AH, LM235AH or LM335AH
See NS Package Number H03H
RRD-B30M115/Printed in U. S. A.

LM135/LM235/LM335, LM135A/LM235A/LM335A Precision Temperature Sensors

February 1995

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Specified Operating Temp. Range

If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,


please contact the National Semiconductor Sales
Office/Distributors for availability and specifications.
(Note 4)
Reverse Current
15 mA
Forward Current
10 mA
Storage Temperature
b 60 C to a 180 C
TO-46 Package
b 60 C to a 150 C
TO-92 Package
b 65 C to a 150 C
SO-8 Package

Continuous
b 55 C to a 150 C
LM135, LM135A
b 40 C to a 125 C
LM235, LM235A
b 40 C to a 100 C
LM335, LM335A
Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 seconds)
TO-92 Package:
TO-46 Package:
SO-8 Package:
Vapor Phase (60 seconds)
Infrared (15 seconds)

Intermittent
(Note 2)
150 C to 200 C
125 C to 150 C
100 C to 125 C
260 C
300 C
300 C
215 C
220 C

Temperature Accuracy LM135/LM235, LM135A/LM235A (Note 1)


Parameter

LM135A/LM235A

Conditions

LM135/LM235

Units

Min

Typ

Max

Min

Typ

Max

2.97

2.95

2.98

3.01

C
C
C

Operating Output Voltage

TC e 25 C, IR e 1 mA

2.98

2.99

Uncalibrated Temperature Error

TC e 25 C, IR e 1 mA

0.5

Uncalibrated Temperature Error

TMIN s TC s TMAX, IR e 1 mA

1.3

2.7

Temperature Error with 25 C


Calibration

TMIN s TC s TMAX, IR e 1 mA

0.3

0.5

1.5

Calibrated Error at Extended


Temperatures

TC e TMAX (Intermittent)

Non-Linearity

IR e 1 mA

0.3

0.5

0.3

Temperature Accuracy LM335, LM335A (Note 1)


Parameter

LM335A

Conditions

Operating Output Voltage

TC e 25 C, IR e 1 mA

Uncalibrated Temperature Error

TC e 25 C, IR e 1 mA

LM335

Units

Min

Typ

Max

Min

Typ

Max

2.95

2.98

3.01

2.92

2.98

3.04

C
C
C

Uncalibrated Temperature Error

TMIN s TC s TMAX, IR e 1 mA

Temperature Error with 25 C


Calibration

TMIN s TC s TMAX, IR e 1 mA

0.5

Calibrated Error at Extended


Temperatures

TC e TMAX (Intermittent)

Non-Linearity

IR e 1 mA

0.3

1.5

0.3

C
1.5

Electrical Characteristics (Note 1)


Parameter

LM135/LM235
LM135A/LM235A

Conditions

Min
Operating Output Voltage
Change with Current

400 mAsIRs5 mA
At Constant Temperature

Dynamic Impedance

IR e 1 mA

Output Voltage Temperature


Coefficient

Typ

Max

2.5

10

LM335
LM335A
Min

Units

Typ

Max

14

mV

0.5

0.6

a 10

a 10

mV/ C

Time Constant

Still Air
100 ft/Min Air
Stirred Oil

80
10
1

80
10
1

sec
sec
sec

Time Stability

TC e 125 C

0.2

0.2

C/khr

Note 1: Accuracy measurements are made in a well-stirred oil bath. For other conditions, self heating must be considered.
Note 2: Continuous operation at these temperatures for 10,000 hours for H package and 5,000 hours for Z package may decrease life expectancy of the device.
Note 3: Thermal Resistance
iJA (junction to ambient)
iJC (junction to case)

TO-92
202 C/W
170 C/W

TO-46
400 C/W
N/A

SO-8
165 C/W
N/A

Note 4: Refer to RETS135H for military specifications.

Typical Performance Characteristics


Reverse Voltage Change

Calibrated Error

Reverse Characteristics

Response Time

Dynamic Impedance

Noise Voltage

Thermal Resistance
Junction to Air

Thermal Time Constant

Thermal Response
in Still Air

Thermal Response in
Stirred Oil Bath

Forward Characteristics

TL/H/5698 3

Application Hints
To insure good sensing accuracy several precautions must
be taken. Like any temperature sensing device, self heating
can reduce accuracy. The LM135 should be operated at the
lowest current suitable for the application. Sufficient current,
of course, must be available to drive both the sensor and
the calibration pot at the maximum operating temperature
as well as any external loads.
If the sensor is used in an ambient where the thermal resistance is constant, self heating errors can be calibrated out.
This is possible if the device is run with a temperature stable
current. Heating will then be proportional to zener voltage
and therefore temperature. This makes the self heating error proportional to absolute temperature the same as scale
factor errors.

CALIBRATING THE LM135


Included on the LM135 chip is an easy method of calibrating
the device for higher accuracies. A pot connected across
the LM135 with the arm tied to the adjustment terminal allows a 1-point calibration of the sensor that corrects for
inaccuracy over the full temperature range.
This single point calibration works because the output of the
LM135 is proportional to absolute temperature with the extrapolated output of sensor going to 0V output at 0 K
(b273. 15 C). Errors in output voltage versus temperature
are only slope (or scale factor) errors so a slope calibration
at one temperature corrects at all temperatures.
The output of the device (calibrated or uncalibrated) can be
expressed as:

WATERPROOFING SENSORS
Meltable inner core heat shrinkable tubing such as manufactured by Raychem can be used to make low-cost waterproof sensors. The LM335 is inserted into the tubing about
(/2 from the end and the tubing heated above the melting
point of the core. The unfilled (/2 end melts and provides a
seal over the device.

T
To
where T is the unknown temperature and To is a reference
temperature, both expressed in degrees Kelvin. By calibrating the output to read correctly at one temperature the output at all temperatures is correct. Nominally the output is
calibrated at 10 mV/ K.
VOUTT e VOUTT c
o

Typical Applications
Basic Temperature Sensor

Calibrated Sensor

Wide Operating Supply

TL/H/56982
TL/H/5698 9

*Calibrate for 2.982V at 25 C

Minimum Temperature Sensing

TL/H/5698 10

Average Temperature Sensing

Remote Temperature Sensing

TL/H/56984

TL/H/5698 19

Wire length for 1 C error due to wire drop

TL/H/5698 18

AWG
14
16
18
20
22
24

IR e 1 mA
FEET
4000
2500
1600
1000
625
400

IR e 0.5 mA*
FEET
8000
5000
3200
2000
1250
800

*For IR e 0.5 mA, the trim pot must be deleted.

Typical Applications

(Continued)

Isolated Temperature Sensor

TL/H/5698 20

Simple Temperature Controller

TL/H/5698 5

Simple Temperature Control

TL/H/5698 21

Typical Applications

(Continued)

Centigrade Thermometer

Ground Referred Fahrenheit Thermometer

TL/H/569822

*Adjust R2 for 2.554V across LM336.

TL/H/5698 23

Adjust R1 for correct output.

*Adjust for 2.7315V at output of LM308

Fahrenheit Thermometer

TL/H/5698 24

*To calibrate adjust R2 for 2.554V across LM336.


Adjust R1 for correct output.

THERMOCOUPLE COLD JUNCTION COMPENSATION


Compensation for Grounded Thermocouple
*Select R3 for proper thermocouple type
THERMOR3
COUPLE
( g 1%)
J
377X
T
308X
K
293X
S
45.8X

SEEBECK
COEFFICIENT
52.3 mV/ C
42.8 mV/ C
40.8 mV/ C
6.4 mV/ C

Adjustments: Compensates for both sensor and resistor tolerances


1. Short LM329B
2. Adjust R1 for Seebeck Coefficient times ambient temperature (in degrees
K) across R3.
3. Short LM335 and adjust R2 for voltage across R3 corresponding to thermocouple type

J
T

TL/H/56986

14.32 mV
11.79 mV

K
S

11.17 mV
1.768 mV

Typical Applications

(Continued)
Single Power Supply Cold Junction Compensation

*Select R3 and R4 for thermocouple type


THERMOR3
R4
COUPLE
J
1.05K
385X
T
856X
315X
K
816X
300X
S
128X
46.3X

SEEBECK
COEFFICIENT
52.3 mV/ C
42.8 mV/ C
40.8 mV/ C
6.4 mV/ C

Adjustments:
1. Adjust R1 for the voltage across R3 equal to the Seebeck Coefficient
times ambient temperature in degrees Kelvin.
2. Adjust R2 for voltage across R4 corresponding to thermocouple

J
T
K
S

14.32 mV
11.79 mV
11.17 mV
1.768 mV

TL/H/5698 11

Centigrade Calibrated Thermocouple Thermometer

Terminate thermocouple reference junction in


close proximity to LM335.
Adjustments:
1. Apply signal in place of thermocouple and adjust R3 for a gain of 245.7.
2. Short non-inverting input of LM308A and output of LM329B to ground.
3. Adjust R1 so that VOUT e 2.982V @ 25 C.
4. Remove short across LM329B and adjust R2
so that VOUT e 246 mV @ 25 C.
5. Remove short across thermocouple.

TL/H/5698 12

Fast Charger for Nickel-Cadmium Batteries


Differential Temperature
Sensor

TL/H/56987

Adjust D1 to 50 mV greater VZ than D2.

Charge terminates on 5 C temperature rise. Couple D2 to battery.

TL/H/5698 13

Typical Applications (Continued)


Differential Temperature Sensor

TL/H/5698 14

Variable Offset Thermometer

Adjust

for zero with sensor at 0 C and 10T pot set at 0 C

*Adjust for zero output with 10T pot set at 100 C and sensor
at 100 C
Output

reads difference between temperature and dial setting

of 10T pot
TL/H/5698 15

Typical Applications (Continued)


Ground Referred Centigrade Thermometer

Air Flow Detector*

TL/H/5698 17

*Self heating is used to detect air flow

TL/H/5698 16

Definition of Terms
Calibrated Temperature Error: The error between operating output voltage and case temperature at 10 mV/ K over
a temperature range at a specified operating current with
the 25 C error adjusted to zero.

Operating Output Voltage: The voltage appearing across


the positive and negative terminals of the device at specified conditions of operating temperature and current.
Uncalibrated Temperature Error: The error between the
operating output voltage at 10 mV/ K and case temperature
at specified conditions of current and case temperature.

10

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters)

Metal Can Package (H)


Order Number LM135H, LM235H, LM335H, LM135AH, LM235AH or LM335AH
NS Package Number H03H

8-Lead Molded Small Outline Package (M)


Order Number LM335M or LM335AM
NS Package Number M08A

11

LM135/LM235/LM335, LM135A/LM235A/LM335A Precision Temperature Sensors

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) (Continued)

Plastic Package
Order Number LM335Z or LM335AZ
NS Package Z03A

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


NATIONALS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL
SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose
failure to perform, when properly used in accordance
with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can
be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury
to the user.
National Semiconductor
Corporation
1111 West Bardin Road
Arlington, TX 76017
Tel: 1(800) 272-9959
Fax: 1(800) 737-7018

2. A critical component is any component of a life


support device or system whose failure to perform can
be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
support device or system, or to affect its safety or
effectiveness.

National Semiconductor
Europe
Fax: (a49) 0-180-530 85 86
Email: cnjwge @ tevm2.nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: (a49) 0-180-530 85 85
English Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 78 32
Fran3ais Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 93 58
Italiano Tel: (a49) 0-180-534 16 80

National Semiconductor
Hong Kong Ltd.
13th Floor, Straight Block,
Ocean Centre, 5 Canton Rd.
Tsimshatsui, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2737-1600
Fax: (852) 2736-9960

National Semiconductor
Japan Ltd.
Tel: 81-043-299-2309
Fax: 81-043-299-2408

National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.

This datasheet has been download from:


www.datasheetcatalog.com
Datasheets for electronics components.

UA741
GENERAL PURPOSE SINGLE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

..
..
.
.

LARGE INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE


NO LATCH-UP
HIGH GAIN
SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION
NO FREQUENCY COMPENSATION
REQUIRED
SAME PIN CONFIGURATION AS THE UA709

N
DIP8
(Plastic Package)

DESCRIPTION
The UA741 is a high performance monolithic operational amplifier constructed on a single silicon chip.
It is intented for a wide range of analog applications.
Summing amplifier
Voltage follower
Integrator
Active filter
Function generator
The high gain and wide range of operating voltages
provide superior performances in integrator, summing amplifier and general feedback applications.
The internal compensationnetwork (6dB/octave)insures stability in closed loop circuits.

..
..
.

D
SO8
(Plastic Micropackage)

ORDER CODES
Part
Number

Temperature
Range

UA741C

0oC, +70oC

UA741I

-40 C, +105 C

UA741M

Package
N

-55 C, +125 C

Example : UA741CN

PIN CONNECTIONS (top view)

October 1997

1 - Offset null 1
2 - Inverting input
3 - Non-inverting input
4 - VCC5 - Offset null 2
6 - Output
7 - VCC+
8 - N.C.

1/9

UA741
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS


Symbol
Vcc

Parameter

UA741M

Supply Voltage

UA741C

Unit
V

Vid

Differential Input Voltage

30

Vi

Input Voltage

15

500

mW

Ptot

Power Dissipation
Output Short-circuit Duration

Toper
Tstg

2/9

UA741I
22

Operating Free Air Temperature Range


Storage Temperature Range

Infinite
-55 to +125
-65 to +150

-40 to +105
-65 to +150

0 to +70

-65 to +150

C
C

UA741
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
VCC = 15V ,Tamb = +25oC (unless otherwise specified)
Symbol
Vio

Iio

Iib

Avd

SVR

ICC

Parameter
Input Offset Voltage (R S 10k)
o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

Typ.

Max.

5
6

Input Offset Current


o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

30
70

Input Bias Current


o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

10

100
200

nA

Large Signal Voltage Gain *


(VO 10V, RL = 2k)
o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

V/mV
50
25

Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio


(R S 10k)
o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

77
77

Supply Current, no load


o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

mA

Common-mode Rejection Ratio (RS 10k)


o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

KOV
RI
GBP
THD
en
m

2.8
3.3
V

12
12

dB
70
70

90

10

25

12
10
12
10

14
13

0.25

0.5

Output Short-circuit Current


Output Voltage Swing
o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

tr

90

1.7

CMR

SR

200
dB

Input Common Mode Voltage Range


o
Tamb = +25 C
Tmin. Tamb Tmax.

VOPP

Unit
mV

nA

Vicm

IOS

Min.

mA
40
V
RL
RL
RL
RL

=
=
=
=

10k
2k
10k
2k

Slew Rate
o
(Vi = 10V, R L =2k, C L= 100pF, Tamb = 25 C, unity gain)
Rise Time
o
(Vi = 20mV, RL = 2k, CL = 100pF, Tamb = 25 C, unity gain)

0.3

Overshoot
(Vi = 20mV, RL = 2k, CL = 100pF, Tamb = 25oC, unity gain)

s
%

Input Resistance

0.3

Gain Bandwidth Product


(Vi = 10mV, RL = 2k, C L= 100pF, f = 100kHz)

0.7

Total Harmonic Distortion


o
(f = 1kHz, AV = 20dB, RL =2k, VO = 2VPP,CL = 100pF, Tamb = 25 C)

V/s

M
MHz
%

0.06

Equivalent Input Noise Voltage


(f = 1kHz, R s = 100)

23

nV

Hz

Phase Margin

50

Degrees

3/9

UA741

4/9

UA741

5/9

UA741

6/9

UA741

7/9

UA741
PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA
8 PINS - PLASTIC DIP

Dim.

Millimeters
Min.

A
a1

0.51

1.15

0.356

b1

0.204

Typ.
3.32

Min.

Typ.
0.131

0.045

0.065

0.55

0.014

0.022

0.304

0.008

0.012

10.92
9.75

0.430
0.313

0.384

2.54

0.100

e3

7.62

0.300

e4

7.62

0.300
6.6

i
L

0260

5.08
3.18

Max.

0.020

7.95

8/9

Max.

1.65

D
E

Inches

3.81
1.52

0.200
0.125

0.150
0.060

UA741
PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA
8 PINS - PLASTIC MICROPACKAGE (SO)

Dim.
A
a1
a2
a3
b
b1
C
c1
D
E
e
e3
F
L
M
S

Min.

Millimeters
Typ.

0.1
0.65
0.35
0.19
0.25

Max.
1.75
0.25
1.65
0.85
0.48
0.25
0.5

Min.

Inches
Typ.

0.026
0.014
0.007
0.010

Max.
0.069
0.010
0.065
0.033
0.019
0.010
0.020

0.189
0.228

0.197
0.244

0.004

45 (typ.)
4.8
5.8

5.0
6.2
1.27
3.81

3.8
0.4

0.050
0.150
4.0
1.27
0.6

0.150
0.016

0.157
0.050
0.024

8o (max.)

Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which
may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SGS-THOMSON
Microelectronics. Specifications mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice. This publication supersedes
and replaces all info rmation previously supplied. SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics.
ORDER CODE :

1997 SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics Printed in Italy All Rights Reserved


SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES
Australia - Brazil - Canada - China - France - Germany - Hong Kong - Italy - Japan - Korea - Malaysia - Malta - Morocco
The Netherlands - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Taiwan - Thailand - United Kingdom - U.S.A.

9/9

This datasheet has been download from:


www.datasheetcatalog.com
Datasheets for electronics components.

This datasheet has been download from:


www.datasheetcatalog.com
Datasheets for electronics components.

LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers
General Description

Advantages

The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain,


internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers
which were designed specifically to operate from a single
power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from
split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the
power supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain
blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now
can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard a 5V power supply voltage which is
used in digital systems and will easily provide the required
interface electronics without requiring the additional g 15V
power supplies.

Unique Characteristics
Y

Y
Y

Features
Y
Y
Y

In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage


range includes ground and the output voltage can also
swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply voltage
The unity gain cross frequency is temperature
compensated
The input bias current is also temperature
compensated

Eliminates need for dual supplies


Four internally compensated op amps in a single
package
Allows directly sensing near GND and VOUT also goes
to GND
Compatible with all forms of logic
Power drain suitable for battery operation

Y
Y

Internally frequency compensated for unity gain


Large DC voltage gain
100 dB
Wide bandwidth (unity gain)
1 MHz
(temperature compensated)
Wide power supply range:
Single supply
3V to 32V
g 1.5V to g 16V
or dual supplies
Very low supply current drain (700 mA)essentially independent of supply voltage
Low input biasing current
45 nA
(temperature compensated)
Low input offset voltage
2 mV
and offset current
5 nA
Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
Large output voltage swing
0V to V a b 1.5V

Connection Diagram
Dual-In-Line Package

TL/H/9299 32

Order Number LM124AE/883 or LM124E/883


See NS Package Number E20A
TL/H/9299 1

Top View
Order Number LM124J, LM124AJ, LM124J/883**,
LM124AJ/883*, LM224J, LM224AJ, LM324J, LM324M,
LM324AM, LM2902M, LM324N, LM324AN or LM2902N
See NS Package Number J14A, M14A or N14A
TL/H/9299 33

*LM124A available per JM38510/11006


**LM124 available per JM38510/11005
C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation

TL/H/9299

Order Number LM124AW/883 or LM124W/883


See NS Package Number W14B
RRD-B30M115/Printed in U. S. A.

LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers

December 1994

Power Supply
Rejection Ratio

Common-Mode
Rejection Ratio

b 1.5V,

V e 5V to 30V
a
(LM2902, V e 5V to 26V),
TA e 25 C

DC, VCM e 0V to V
TA e 25 C

V e 15V, RL t 2 kX,
(VO e 1V to 11V), TA e 25 C

Over Full Temperature Range


RL e % On All Op Amps
a
a
V e 30V (LM2902 V e 26V)
a
V e 5V

Supply Current

Large Signal
Voltage Gain

V e 30V, (LM2902, V
TA e 25 C

Input Common-Mode
Voltage Range (Note 7)

e 26V),

IIN( a ) b IIN(b), VCM e 0V,


TA e 25 C

Input Offset Current


a

IIN( a ) or IIN(b), VCM e 0V,


TA e 25 C

Input Bias Current


(Note 6)

(Note 5) TA e 25 C

Conditions

Input Offset Voltage

Parameter

1.5
0.7

85

65 100

70

50 100

20

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

10

50

Max

LM124A

1.5
0.7

85

65 100

70

50 100

40

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

15

80

Max

LM224A

Electrical Characteristics V a e a 5.0V, (Note 4), unless otherwise stated

1.5
0.7

85

65 100

65

25 100

45

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

30

100

Max

LM324A

1.5
0.7

85

65 100

70

50 100

45

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

30

150

Max

LM124/LM224

1.5
0.7

85

65 100

65

25 100

45

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

50

250

Max

LM324

1.5
0.7

70

50 100

50

25 100

45

Min Typ

3
1.2

a
V b1.5

50

250

Max

LM2902

dB

dB

V/mV

mA

nA

nA

mV

Units

If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/Distributors for availability and specifications.
(Note 9)
LM124/LM224/LM324
LM124/LM224/LM324
LM2902
LM2902
LM124A/LM224A/LM324A
LM124A/LM224A/LM324A
a
b 65 C to a 150 C
b 65 C to a 150 C
Supply Voltage, V
32V
26V
Storage Temperature Range
Differential Input Voltage
32V
26V
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds) 260 C
260 C
b 0.3V to a 32V
b 0.3V to a 26V
Input Voltage
Soldering Information
Dual-In-Line Package
Input Current
260 C
Soldering (10 seconds)
260 C
50 mA
50 mA
(VIN k b0.3V) (Note 3)
Small Outline Package
Power Dissipation (Note 1)
Vapor Phase (60 seconds)
215 C
215 C
Molded DIP
1130 mW
1130 mW
Infrared (15 seconds)
220 C
220 C
Cavity DIP
1260 mW
1260 mW
See AN-450 Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability for
Small Outline Package
800 mW
800 mW
other methods of soldering surface mount devices.
Output Short-Circuit to GND
ESD Tolerance (Note 10)
250V
250V
(One Amplifier) (Note 2)
a
Continuous
Continuous
V s 15V and TA e 25 C
b 40 C to a 85 C
Operating Temperature Range
LM324/LM324A
0 C to a 70 C
b 25 C to a 85 C
LM224/LM224A
b 55 C to a 125 C
LM124/LM124A

Absolute Maximum Ratings

f e 1 kHz to 20 kHz, TA e 25 C
(Input Referred)

Conditions

Output Voltage VOH


Swing
VOL

e 5V, RL e 10 kX

V e 30V
a
(LM2902, V e 26V)

V e a 15V
(VO Swing e 1V to 11V)
RL t 2 kX

Large Signal
Voltage Gain

Input Common-Mode
V e a 30V
a
Voltage Range (Note 7) (LM2902, V e 26V)

27

25

26

Input Offset
Current Drift

RL e 2 kX

IIN( a ) b IIN(b), VCM e 0V


RS e 0X

Input Offset Current

RL e 10 kX

RS e 0X

Input Offset
Voltage Drift

IIN( a ) or IIN(b)

(Note 5)

Input Offset Voltage

Input Bias Current

(Note 2) V

e 15V, TA e 25 C

12

b
a
VIN e 1V, VIN e 0V,
a
V e 15V, VO e 200 mV, TA e 25 C
a

10

20

28

40

10

40

50

20

40

b 120

20

27

26

25

V b2 0

100

200

30

20

60

12

10

20

28

40

10

40

50

20

40

b 120

20

27

26

15

V b2 0

100

200

30

20

60

12

10

20

28

40

10

40

50

20

40

b 120

20

27

26

25

V b2 0

200

300

75

30

60

12

10

20

28

40

10

40

50

20

40

b 120

20

27

26

15

V b2 0

300

100

60

12

10

20

28

40

10

40

50

20

40

b 120

20

23

22

15

V b2 0

500

150

60

12

10

20

24

40

10

45

40

50

20

40

b 120

100

V b2

500

200

10

60

Max

LM2902

Max Min Typ

LM324

Max Min Typ

LM124/LM224

Max Min Typ

LM324A

Max Min Typ

LM224A

Max Min Typ

LM124A
Min Typ

VIN e 1V, VIN e 0V,


a
V e 15V, VO e 2V, TA e 25 C

Short Circuit to Ground

Sink

a
b
Output Current Source VIN e 1V, VIN e 0V,
a
V e 15V, VO e 2V, TA e 25 C

Amplifier-to-Amplifier
Coupling (Note 8)

Parameter

Electrical Characteristics V a e a 5.0V (Note 4) unless otherwise stated (Continued)

mV

V/mV

nA

pA/ C

nA

mV/ C

mV

mA

mA

mA

dB

Units

Sink

Source

VO e 2V
VIN e a 1V,
a
a
VIN e 0V, V e 15V

a
VIN e a 1V,
b
a
VIN e 0V, V e 15V

Conditions

10

10

Min

15

20

Typ

Max

LM124A

10

Min

20

Typ

Max

LM224A

10

Min

20

Typ

Max

LM324A

10

Min

20

Typ

Max

LM124/LM224

10

Min

20

Typ

LM324
Max

10

Min

20

Typ

Max

LM2902

mA

Units

b 1.5V (at 25 C), but either or both

Schematic Diagram (Each Amplifier)

Note 10: Human body model, 1.5 kX in series with 100 pF.

Note 9: Refer to RETS124AX for LM124A military specifications and refer to RETS124X for LM124 military specifications.

TL/H/9299 2

Note 8: Due to proximity of external components, insure that coupling is not originating via stray capacitance between these external parts. This typically can be detected as this type of capacitance increases at higher frequencies.

Note 7: The input common-mode voltage of either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3V (at 25 C). The upper end of the common-mode voltage range is V
a
inputs can go to a 32V without damage ( a 26V for LM2902), independent of the magnitude of V .

Note 6: The direction of the input current is out of the IC due to the PNP input stage. This current is essentially constant, independent of the state of the output so no loading change exists on the input lines.

Note 4: These specifications are limited to b 55 C s TA s a 125 C for the LM124/LM124A. With the LM224/LM224A, all temperature specifications are limited to b 25 C s TA s a 85 C, the LM324/LM324A temperature
specifications are limited to 0 C s TA s a 70 C, and the LM2902 specifications are limited to b 40 C s TA s a 85 C.
a
a
a
Note 5: VO j 1.4V, RS e 0X with V from 5V to 30V; and over the full input common-mode range (0V to V b 1.5V) for LM2902, V from 5V to 26V.

Note 3: This input current will only exist when the voltage at any of the input leads is driven negative. It is due to the collector-base junction of the input PNP transistors becoming forward biased and thereby acting as input diode
a
clamps. In addition to this diode action, there is also lateral NPN parasitic transistor action on the IC chip. This transistor action can cause the output voltages of the op amps to go to the V voltage level (or to ground for a large
overdrive) for the time duration that an input is driven negative. This is not destructive and normal output states will re-establish when the input voltage, which was negative, again returns to a value greater than b 0.3V (at 25 C).

Note 2: Short circuits from the output to V can cause excessive heating and eventual destruction. When considering short circuits to ground, the maximum output current is approximately 40 mA independent of the magnitude of
a
V . At values of supply voltage in excess of a 15V, continuous short-circuits can exceed the power dissipation ratings and cause eventual destruction. Destructive dissipation can result from simultaneous shorts on all amplifiers.

Note 1: For operating at high temperatures, the LM324/LM324A/LM2902 must be derated based on a a 125 C maximum junction temperature and a thermal resistance of 88 C/W which applies for the device soldered in a printed
circuit board, operating in a still air ambient. The LM224/LM224A and LM124/LM124A can be derated based on a a 150 C maximum junction temperature. The dissipation is the total of all four amplifiersuse external resistors,
where possible, to allow the amplifier to saturate of to reduce the power which is dissipated in the integrated circuit.

Output Current

Parameter

Electrical Characteristics V a e a 5.0V (Note 4) unless otherwise stated (Continued)

Typical Performance Characteristics


Input Voltage Range

Input Current

Supply Current

Voltage Gain

Open Loop Frequency


Response

Common Mode Rejection


Ratio

Voltage Follower Pulse


Response

Voltage Follower Pulse


Response (Small Signal)

Large Signal Frequency


Response

Output Characteristics
Current Sourcing

Output Characteristics
Current Sinking

Current Limiting

TL/H/9299 3

Typical Performance Characteristics (LM2902 only)


Input Current

Voltage Gain

TL/H/9299 4

Application Hints
Where the load is directly coupled, as in dc applications,
there is no crossover distortion.
Capacitive loads which are applied directly to the output of
the amplifier reduce the loop stability margin. Values of
50 pF can be accommodated using the worst-case non-inverting unity gain connection. Large closed loop gains or
resistive isolation should be used if larger load capacitance
must be driven by the amplifier.
The bias network of the LM124 establishes a drain current
which is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
voltage over the range of from 3 VDC to 30 VDC.
Output short circuits either to ground or to the positive power supply should be of short time duration. Units can be
destroyed, not as a result of the short circuit current causing
metal fusing, but rather due to the large increase in IC chip
dissipation which will cause eventual failure due to excessive junction temperatures. Putting direct short-circuits on
more than one amplifier at a time will increase the total IC
power dissipation to destructive levels, if not properly protected with external dissipation limiting resistors in series
with the output leads of the amplifiers. The larger value of
output source current which is available at 25 C provides a
larger output current capability at elevated temperatures
(see typical performance characteristics) than a standard IC
op amp.
The circuits presented in the section on typical applications
emphasize operation on only a single power supply voltage.
If complementary power supplies are available, all of the
standard op amp circuits can be used. In general, introduca
ing a pseudo-ground (a bias voltage reference of V /2) will
allow operation above and below this value in single power
supply systems. Many application circuits are shown which
take advantage of the wide input common-mode voltage
range which includes ground. In most cases, input biasing is
not required and input voltages which range to ground can
easily be accommodated.

The LM124 series are op amps which operate with only a


single power supply voltage, have true-differential inputs,
and remain in the linear mode with an input common-mode
voltage of 0 VDC. These amplifiers operate over a wide
range of power supply voltage with little change in performance characteristics. At 25 C amplifier operation is possible
down to a minimum supply voltage of 2.3 VDC.
The pinouts of the package have been designed to simplify
PC board layouts. Inverting inputs are adjacent to outputs
for all of the amplifiers and the outputs have also been
placed at the corners of the package (pins 1, 7, 8, and 14).
Precautions should be taken to insure that the power supply
for the integrated circuit never becomes reversed in polarity
or that the unit is not inadvertently installed backwards in a
test socket as an unlimited current surge through the resulting forward diode within the IC could cause fusing of the
internal conductors and result in a destroyed unit.
Large differential input voltages can be easily accommodated and, as input differential voltage protection diodes are
not needed, no large input currents result from large differential input voltages. The differential input voltage may be
larger than V a without damaging the device. Protection
should be provided to prevent the input voltages from going
negative more than b0.3 VDC (at 25 C). An input clamp
diode with a resistor to the IC input terminal can be used.
To reduce the power supply drain, the amplifiers have a
class A output stage for small signal levels which converts
to class B in a large signal mode. This allows the amplifiers
to both source and sink large output currents. Therefore
both NPN and PNP external current boost transistors can
be used to extend the power capability of the basic amplifiers. The output voltage needs to raise approximately 1 diode drop above ground to bias the on-chip vertical PNP
transistor for output current sinking applications.
For ac applications, where the load is capacitively coupled
to the output of the amplifier, a resistor should be used, from
the output of the amplifier to ground to increase the class A
bias current and prevent crossover distortion.

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC)


Non-Inverting DC Gain (0V Input e 0V Output)

*R not needed due to temperature


independent IIN
TL/H/9299 5

DC Summing Amplifier
(VINS t 0 VDC and VO t VDC)

Power Amplifier

VO e 0 VDC for VIN e 0 VDC


AV e 10
TL/H/9299 7
TL/H/9299 6

Where: VO e V1 a V2 b V3 b V4
(V1 a V2) t (V3 a V4) to keep VO l 0 VDC

LED Driver

BI-QUAD RC Active Bandpass Filter

TL/H/92998

fo e 1 kHz
Q e 50
AV e 100 (40 dB)
TL/H/9299 9

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


Lamp Driver

Fixed Current Sources

TL/H/9299 11

I2 e

# R2 J I
R1

TL/H/929910

Current Monitor

Driving TTL

TL/H/9299 13

VO e

1V(IL)
1A

a
VL s V b 2V

*(Increase R1 for IL small)


TL/H/929912

Voltage Follower

Pulse Generator

VO e VIN
TL/H/929914

TL/H/9299 15

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


Squarewave Oscillator

Pulse Generator

TL/H/9299 16
TL/H/9299 17

High Compliance Current Sink

IO e 1 amp/volt VIN
(Increase RE for Io small)

Low Drift Peak Detector

TL/H/929918

HIGH ZIN
LOW ZOUT

TL/H/9299 19

Comparator with Hysteresis

Ground Referencing a Differential Input Signal

TL/H/9299 20

VO e VR
TL/H/9299 21

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


Voltage Controlled Oscillator Circuit

TL/H/9299 22

*Wide control voltage range: 0 VDC s VC s 2 (V a b 1.5 VDC)

Photo Voltaic-Cell Amplifier

TL/H/9299 23

AC Coupled Inverting Amplifier

AV e

Rf
(As shown, AV e 10)
R1
TL/H/9299 24

10

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


AC Coupled Non-Inverting Amplifier

AV e 1 a

R2
R1

AV e 11 (As shown)
TL/H/9299 25

DC Coupled Low-Pass RC Active Filter

fO e 1 kHz
Qe1
AV e 2
TL/H/9299 26

High Input Z, DC Differential Amplifier

For

R4
R1
e
(CMRR depends on this resistor ratio match)
R2
R3

VO e 1 a

R4
(V2 b V1)
R3

As shown: VO e 2(V2 b V1)

11

TL/H/9299 27

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


High Input Z Adjustable-Gain
DC Instrumentation Amplifier

If R1 e R5 & R3 e R4 e R6 e R7 (CMRR depends on match)

TL/H/9299 28

2R1
VO e 1 a
(V2 b V1)
R2
As shown VO e 101 (V2 b V1)

Using Symmetrical Amplifiers to


Reduce Input Current (General Concept)

Bridge Current Amplifier

For e kk 1 and Rf ll R
VO j VREF

#2J R
e

Rf

TL/H/9299 30

TL/H/929929

12

Typical Single-Supply Applications (V a e 5.0 VDC) (Continued)


Bandpass Active Filter

fO e 1 kHz
Q e 25

TL/H/9299 31

13

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters)

Leadless Chip Carrier Package


Order Number LM124AE/883 or LM124E/883
NS Package Number E20A

Ceramic Dual-In-Line Package (J)


Order Number LM124J, LM124AJ, LM124AJ/883, LM124J/883, LM224J, LM224AJ or LM324J
NS Package Number J14A
14

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) (Continued)

S.O. Package (M)


Order Number LM324M, LM324AM or LM2902M
NS Package Number M14A

Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N)


Order Number LM324N, LM324AN or LM2902N
NS Package Number N14A

15

LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) (Continued)

Ceramic Flatpak Package


Order Number LM124AW/883 or LM124W/883
NS Package Number W14B

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


NATIONALS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL
SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose
failure to perform, when properly used in accordance
with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can
be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury
to the user.
National Semiconductor
Corporation
1111 West Bardin Road
Arlington, TX 76017
Tel: 1(800) 272-9959
Fax: 1(800) 737-7018

2. A critical component is any component of a life


support device or system whose failure to perform can
be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
support device or system, or to affect its safety or
effectiveness.

National Semiconductor
Europe
Fax: (a49) 0-180-530 85 86
Email: cnjwge @ tevm2.nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: (a49) 0-180-530 85 85
English Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 78 32
Fran3ais Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 93 58
Italiano Tel: (a49) 0-180-534 16 80

National Semiconductor
Hong Kong Ltd.
13th Floor, Straight Block,
Ocean Centre, 5 Canton Rd.
Tsimshatsui, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2737-1600
Fax: (852) 2736-9960

National Semiconductor
Japan Ltd.
Tel: 81-043-299-2309
Fax: 81-043-299-2408

National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.

This datasheet has been download from:


www.datasheetcatalog.com
Datasheets for electronics components.

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S

Data Sheet

August 2002

3 1/2 Digit, LCD/LED Display, A/D


Converters

FN3082.4

Features
Guaranteed Zero Reading for 0V Input on All Scales

The Intersil ICL7106 and ICL7107 are high performance, low


power, 31/2 digit A/D converters. Included are seven
segment decoders, display drivers, a reference, and a clock.
The ICL7106 is designed to interface with a liquid crystal
display (LCD) and includes a multiplexed backplane drive;
the ICL7107 will directly drive an instrument size light
emitting diode (LED) display.
The ICL7106 and ICL7107 bring together a combination of
high accuracy, versatility, and true economy. It features autozero to less than 10V, zero drift of less than 1V/oC, input
bias current of 10pA (Max), and rollover error of less than
one count. True differential inputs and reference are useful in
all systems, but give the designer an uncommon advantage
when measuring load cells, strain gauges and other bridge
type transducers. Finally, the true economy of single power
supply operation (ICL7106), enables a high performance
panel meter to be built with the addition of only 10 passive
components and a display.

True Polarity at Zero for Precise Null Detection


1pA Typical Input Current
True Differential Input and Reference, Direct Display Drive
- LCD ICL7106, LED lCL7107
Low Noise - Less Than 15VP-P
On Chip Clock and Reference
Low Power Dissipation - Typically Less Than 10mW
No Additional Active Circuits Required
Enhanced Display Stability

Ordering Information
PART NO.

TEMP.
RANGE (oC)

PACKAGE

PKG. NO.

ICL7106CPL

0 to 70

40 Ld PDIP

E40.6

ICL7106CM44

0 to 70

44 Ld MQFP

Q44.10x10

ICL7107CPL

0 to 70

40 Ld PDIP

E40.6

ICL7107RCPL

0 to 70

40 Ld PDIP (Note)

E40.6

ICL7107SCPL

0 to 70

40 Ld PDIP (Note)

E40.6

ICL7107CM44

0 to 70

44 Ld MQFP

Q44.10x10

NOTE: R indicates device with reversed leads for mounting to PC


board underside. S indicates enhanced stability.

CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 321-724-7143 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2002. All Rights Reserved

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Pinouts
ICL7106, ICL7107 (PDIP)
TOP VIEW

ICL7107R (PDIP)
TOP VIEW

V+

40 OSC 1

D1

39 OSC 2

C1

38 OSC 3

B1

37 TEST

A1

36 REF HI

F1

35 REF LO

G1

E1

34 CREF+
33 CREF-

D2

32 COMMON

C2

10

31 IN HI

B2

11

30 IN LO

A2

12

29 A-Z

F2

13

28 BUFF

E2

14

27 INT

D3

15

26 V-

B3

16

25 G2 (10s)

F3

17

24 C3

E3

18

23 A3

(1000) AB4

19

22 G3

POL

20

21 BP/GND

40 V+

OSC 2

39 D1

OSC 3

38 C1

TEST

37 B1

REF HI

36 A1

REF LO

35 F1

CREF+

34 G1

CREF-

33 E1

COMMON

32 D2

IN HI

10

31 C2

IN LO

11

30 B2

A-Z

12

29 A2

BUFF

13

28 F2

INT

14

27 E2

V-

15

26 D3

G2 (10s)

16

25 B3

C3

17

24 F3

(100s)

23 E3

19

22 (1000) AB4

BP/GND

20

21 POL

V-

INT

BUFF

A-Z

IN LO

IN HI

COMMON

TEST

31

C3

OSC 3

30

A3

NC

29

G3

OSC 2

28

BP/GND

OSC 1

27

POL

V+

26

AB4

D1

25

E3

C1

10

24

F3

B1

11
23
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

B3

A1 F1 G1 E1 D2 C2 B2 A2 F2 E2 D3

(100s)

18

NC

NC

(10s)

A3

44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34
33
2
32

NC

(1s)

G3

ICL7106, ICL7107 (MQFP)


TOP VIEW
CREF+

(MINUS)

(100s)

CREF-

(100s)

REF LO

(10s)

REF HI

(1s)

OSC 1

G2

(MINUS)

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Absolute Maximum Ratings

Thermal Information

Supply Voltage
ICL7106, V+ to V-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15V
ICL7107, V+ to GND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6V
ICL7107, V- to GND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -9V
Analog Input Voltage (Either Input) (Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . V+ to VReference Input Voltage (Either Input). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V+ to VClock Input
ICL7106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST to V+
ICL7107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND to V+

Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 2)

JA (oC/W)

PDIP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
MQFP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150oC
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . -65oC to 150oC
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . .300oC
(MQFP - Lead Tips Only)

Operating Conditions
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0oC to 70oC
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.

NOTES:
1. Input voltages may exceed the supply voltages provided the input current is limited to 100A.
2. JA is measured with the component mounted on a low effective thermal conductivity test board in free air. See Tech Brief TB379 for details.
Electrical Specifications

(Note 3)

PARAMETER

TEST CONDITIONS

MIN

TYP

MAX

UNIT

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Zero Input Reading

VIN = 0.0V, Full Scale = 200mV

-000.0

000.0

+000.0

Digital
Reading

Stability (Last Digit) (ICL7106S, ICL7107S


Only)

Fixed Input Voltage (Note 6)

-000.0

000.0

+000.0

Digital
Reading

Ratiometric Reading

VlN = VREF , VREF = 100mV

999

999/10
00

1000

Digital
Reading

Rollover Error

-VIN = +VlN 200mV


Difference in Reading for Equal Positive and Negative
Inputs Near Full Scale

0.2

Counts

Linearity

Full Scale = 200mV or Full Scale = 2V Maximum


Deviation from Best Straight Line Fit (Note 5)

0.2

Counts

Common Mode Rejection Ratio

VCM = 1V, VIN = 0V, Full Scale = 200mV (Note 5)

50

V/V

Noise

VIN = 0V, Full Scale = 200mV


(Peak-To-Peak Value Not Exceeded 95% of Time)

15

Leakage Current Input

VlN = 0 (Note 5)

10

pA

Zero Reading Drift

VlN = 0, 0oC To 70oC (Note 5)


VIN = 199mV, 0oC To 70oC,
(Ext. Ref. 0ppm/ oC) (Note 5)

0.2

V/oC

ppm/oC

1.0

1.8

mA

0.6

1.8

mA

Scale Factor Temperature Coefficient


End Power Supply Character V+ Supply
Current

VIN = 0 (Does Not Include LED Current for ICL7107)

End Power Supply Character V- Supply Current ICL7107 Only


COMMON Pin Analog Common Voltage

25k Between Common and


Positive Supply (With Respect to + Supply)

2.4

3.0

3.2

Temperature Coefficient of Analog Common

25k Between Common and


Positive Supply (With Respect to + Supply)

80

ppm/oC

V+ = to V- = 9V (Note 4)

5.5

DISPLAY DRIVER ICL7106 ONLY


Peak-To-Peak Segment Drive Voltage
Peak-To-Peak Backplane Drive Voltage

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Electrical Specifications

(Note 3) (Continued)

PARAMETER

TEST CONDITIONS

MIN

TYP

MAX

UNIT

Except Pins 19 and 20

mA

Pin 19 Only

10

16

mA

Pin 20 Only

mA

DISPLAY DRIVER ICL7107 ONLY


Segment Sinking Current

V+ = 5V, Segment Voltage = 3V

NOTES:
3. Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to both the ICL7106 and ICL7107 at TA = 25oC, fCLOCK = 48kHz. ICL7106 is tested in the circuit
of Figure 1. ICL7107 is tested in the circuit of Figure 2.
4. Back plane drive is in phase with segment drive for off segment, 180 degrees out of phase for on segment. Frequency is 20 times conversion
rate. Average DC component is less than 50mV.
5. Not tested, guaranteed by design.
6. Sample Tested.

Typical Applications and Test Circuits


IN

A3 23

G3 22

BP 21

19 AB4

20 POL

C3 24

18 E3

17 F3

V- 26

G2 25
16 B3

INT 27

DISPLAY

15 D3

14 E2

A-Z 29

BUFF 28

C3

13 F2

IN HI 31

C2 R2

IN LO 30

COM 32

CREF- 33

CREF+ 34

REF LO 35

TEST 37

C5

C1

R4

REF HI 36

OSC 3 38

OSC 2 39

OSC 1 40

C4

R5

R1
R3

9V

B1

A1

F1

G1

E1

D2

12 A2

C1
3

11 B2

D1
2

10 C2

V+
1

ICL7106

C1 = 0.1F
C2 = 0.47F
C3 = 0.22F
C4 = 100pF
C5 = 0.02F
R1 = 24k
R2 = 47k
R3 = 100k
R4 = 1k
R5 = 1M

DISPLAY

FIGURE 1. ICL7106 TEST CIRCUIT AND TYPICAL APPLICATION WITH LCD DISPLAY COMPONENTS SELECTED FOR 200mV FULL
SCALE
+

+5V

IN

INT 27

V- 26

G2 25

C3 24

A3 23

G3 22

GND 21

14 E2

15 D3

16 B3

17 F3

18 E3

19 AB4

20 POL

DISPLAY

BUFF 28

A-Z 29

C3

13 F2

C2 R2

IN LO 30

COM 32

CREF- 33

CREF+ 34

REF LO 35

IN HI 31

C5

C1

R4

REF HI 36

TEST 37

OSC 3 38

OSC 2 39

OSC 1 40

C4

-5V

R5

R1
R3

12 A2

11 B2

D2
9

10 C2

E1
8

F1

A1

G1

B1

C1

V+

D1

ICL7107

C1 = 0.1F
C2 = 0.47F
C3 = 0.22F
C4 = 100pF
C5 = 0.02F
R1 = 24k
R2 = 47k
R3 = 100k
R4 = 1k
R5 = 1M

DISPLAY

FIGURE 2. ICL7107 TEST CIRCUIT AND TYPICAL APPLICATION WITH LED DISPLAY COMPONENTS SELECTED FOR 200mV FULL
SCALE

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Design Information Summary Sheet
DISPLAY COUNT

OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY

V IN
COUNT = 1000 --------------V REF

fOSC = 0.45/RC
COSC > 50pF; ROSC > 50k
fOSC (Typ) = 48kHz

CONVERSION CYCLE

OSCILLATOR PERIOD

tCYC = tCL0CK x 4000


tCYC = tOSC x 16,000
when fOSC = 48kHz; tCYC = 333ms

tOSC = RC/0.45
INTEGRATION CLOCK FREQUENCY

COMMON MODE INPUT VOLTAGE

fCLOCK = fOSC/4

(V- + 1V) < VlN < (V+ - 0.5V)

INTEGRATION PERIOD

AUTO-ZERO CAPACITOR

tINT = 1000 x (4/fOSC)

0.01F < CAZ < 1F

60/50Hz REJECTION CRITERION

REFERENCE CAPACITOR

tINT/t60Hz or tlNT/t60Hz = Integer

0.1F < CREF < 1F

OPTIMUM INTEGRATION CURRENT

VCOM
Biased between Vi and V-.

IINT = 4A
FULL SCALE ANALOG INPUT VOLTAGE

VCOM V+ - 2.8V
Regulation lost when V+ to V- < 6.8V
If VCOM is externally pulled down to (V+ to V-)/2,
the VCOM circuit will turn off.

VlNFS (Typ) = 200mV or 2V


INTEGRATE RESISTOR
V INFS
R INT = ----------------I INT

ICL7106 POWER SUPPLY: SINGLE 9V


V+ - V- = 9V
Digital supply is generated internally
VGND V+ - 4.5V

INTEGRATE CAPACITOR
( t INT ) ( I INT )
C INT = -------------------------------V INT

ICL7106 DISPLAY: LCD

INTEGRATOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING


( t INT ) ( I INT )
V INT = -------------------------------C INT

Type: Direct drive with digital logic supply amplitude.


ICL7107 POWER SUPPLY: DUAL 5.0V
V+ = +5V to GND
V- = -5V to GND
Digital Logic and LED driver supply V+ to GND

VINT MAXIMUM SWING:


(V- + 0.5V) < VINT < (V+ - 0.5V), VINT (Typ) = 2V

ICL7107 DISPLAY: LED


Type: Non-Multiplexed Common Anode

Typical Integrator Amplifier Output Waveform (INT Pin)

AUTO ZERO PHASE


(COUNTS)
2999 - 1000

SIGNAL INTEGRATE
PHASE FIXED
1000 COUNTS

DE-INTEGRATE PHASE
0 - 1999 COUNTS

TOTAL CONVERSION TIME = 4000 x tCLOCK = 16,000 x tOSC

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Detailed Description

reduced to less than the recommended 2V full scale swing


with little loss of accuracy. The integrator output can swing to
within 0.3V of either supply without loss of linearity.

Analog Section
Figure 3 shows the Analog Section for the ICL7106 and
ICL7107. Each measurement cycle is divided into three
phases. They are (1) auto-zero (A-Z), (2) signal integrate
(INT) and (3) de-integrate (DE).

Auto-Zero Phase
During auto-zero three things happen. First, input high and low
are disconnected from the pins and internally shorted to analog
COMMON. Second, the reference capacitor is charged to the
reference voltage. Third, a feedback loop is closed around the
system to charge the auto-zero capacitor CAZ to compensate
for offset voltages in the buffer amplifier, integrator, and
comparator. Since the comparator is included in the loop, the AZ accuracy is limited only by the noise of the system. In any
case, the offset referred to the input is less than 10V.

Signal Integrate Phase


During signal integrate, the auto-zero loop is opened, the
internal short is removed, and the internal input high and low
are connected to the external pins. The converter then
integrates the differential voltage between IN HI and IN LO for a
fixed time. This differential voltage can be within a wide
common mode range: up to 1V from either supply. If, on the
other hand, the input signal has no return with respect to the
converter power supply, IN LO can be tied to analog COMMON
to establish the correct common mode voltage. At the end of
this phase, the polarity of the integrated signal is determined.

De-Integrate Phase
The final phase is de-integrate, or reference integrate. Input
low is internally connected to analog COMMON and input
high is connected across the previously charged reference
capacitor. Circuitry within the chip ensures that the capacitor
will be connected with the correct polarity to cause the
integrator output to return to zero. The time required for the
output to return to zero is proportional to the input signal.
Specifically the digital reading displayed is:
V IN
DISPLAY COUNT = 1000 --------------- .
V REF

Differential Input
The input can accept differential voltages anywhere within the
common mode range of the input amplifier, or specifically from
0.5V below the positive supply to 1V above the negative
supply. In this range, the system has a CMRR of 86dB typical.
However, care must be exercised to assure the integrator
output does not saturate. A worst case condition would be a
large positive common mode voltage with a near full scale
negative differential input voltage. The negative input signal
drives the integrator positive when most of its swing has been
used up by the positive common mode voltage. For these
critical applications the integrator output swing can be

Differential Reference
The reference voltage can be generated anywhere within the
power supply voltage of the converter. The main source of
common mode error is a roll-over voltage caused by the
reference capacitor losing or gaining charge to stray capacity
on its nodes. If there is a large common mode voltage, the
reference capacitor can gain charge (increase voltage) when
called up to de-integrate a positive signal but lose charge
(decrease voltage) when called up to de-integrate a negative
input signal. This difference in reference for positive or negative
input voltage will give a roll-over error. However, by selecting
the reference capacitor such that it is large enough in
comparison to the stray capacitance, this error can be held to
less than 0.5 count worst case. (See Component Value
Selection.)

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S

STRAY

STRAY

CREF

CREF+

REF HI

34

36

V+

REF LO
35

A-Z

A-Z

28

31
DE-

DE+

CINT

A-Z
29

INT

INTEGRATOR
+

6.2V

A-Z

A-Z

COMMON

DE+

32
30

INT

DE-

TO
DIGITAL
SECTION

2.8V

INPUT
HIGH

27

INT

CAZ

BUFFER V+

33

10A
IN HI

RINT

CREF -

COMPARATOR

INPUT
LOW

A-Z AND DE()

IN LO
V-

FIGURE 3. ANALOG SECTION OF ICL7106 AND ICL7107

Analog COMMON
This pin is included primarily to set the common mode
voltage for battery operation (ICL7106) or for any system
where the input signals are floating with respect to the power
supply. The COMMON pin sets a voltage that is
approximately 2.8V more negative than the positive supply.
This is selected to give a minimum end-of-life battery voltage
of about 6V. However, analog COMMON has some of the
attributes of a reference voltage. When the total supply
voltage is large enough to cause the zener to regulate (>7V),
the COMMON voltage will have a low voltage coefficient
(0.001%/V), low output impedance (15), and a
temperature coefficient typically less than 80ppm/oC.
The limitations of the on chip reference should also be
recognized, however. With the ICL7107, the internal heating
which results from the LED drivers can cause some
degradation in performance. Due to their higher thermal
resistance, plastic parts are poorer in this respect than
ceramic. The combination of reference Temperature
Coefficient (TC), internal chip dissipation, and package
thermal resistance can increase noise near full scale from
25V to 80VP-P. Also the linearity in going from a high
dissipation count such as 1000 (20 segments on) to a low
dissipation count such as 1111(8 segments on) can suffer by a
count or more. Devices with a positive TC reference may
require several counts to pull out of an over-range condition.
This is because over-range is a low dissipation mode, with the
three least significant digits blanked. Similarly, units with a
negative TC may cycle between over-range and a non-overrange count as the die alternately heats and cools. All these
problems are of course eliminated if an external reference is
used.
The ICL7106, with its negligible dissipation, suffers from
none of these problems. In either case, an external
reference can easily be added, as shown in Figure 4.
7

Analog COMMON is also used as the input low return during


auto-zero and de-integrate. If IN LO is different from analog
COMMON, a common mode voltage exists in the system
and is taken care of by the excellent CMRR of the converter.
However, in some applications IN LO will be set at a fixed
known voltage (power supply common for instance). In this
application, analog COMMON should be tied to the same
point, thus removing the common mode voltage from the
converter. The same holds true for the reference voltage. If
reference can be conveniently tied to analog COMMON, it
should be since this removes the common mode voltage
from the reference system.
Within the lC, analog COMMON is tied to an N-Channel FET
that can sink approximately 30mA of current to hold the
voltage 2.8V below the positive supply (when a load is trying
to pull the common line positive). However, there is only
10A of source current, so COMMON may easily be tied to a
more negative voltage thus overriding the internal reference.
V+

V
REF HI
6.8V
ZENER

REF LO

IZ

ICL7106
ICL7107

V-

FIGURE 4A.

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


V+

V+
V+

BP

6.8k
20k

ICL7106
ICL7107

ICL7106
ICL8069
1.2V
REFERENCE

REF HI
REF LO

TO LCD
DECIMAL
POINTS

DECIMAL
POINT
SELECT

TEST

COMMON

CD4030
GND

FIGURE 4B.
FIGURE 4. USING AN EXTERNAL REFERENCE

TEST
The TEST pin serves two functions. On the ICL7106 it is
coupled to the internally generated digital supply through a
500 resistor. Thus it can be used as the negative supply for
externally generated segment drivers such as decimal points
or any other presentation the user may want to include on
the LCD display. Figures 5 and 6 show such an application.
No more than a 1mA load should be applied.

V+

1M
TO LCD
DECIMAL
POINT

ICL7106
BP
TEST

21
37

TO LCD
BACKPLANE

FIGURE 5. SIMPLE INVERTER FOR FIXED DECIMAL POINT

The second function is a lamp test. When TEST is pulled


high (to V+) all segments will be turned on and the display
should read 1888. The TEST pin will sink about 15mA
under these conditions.
CAUTION: In the lamp test mode, the segments have a constant DC
voltage (no square-wave). This may burn the LCD display if maintained for extended periods.

FIGURE 6. EXCLUSIVE OR GATE FOR DECIMAL POINT DRIVE

Digital Section
Figures 7 and 8 show the digital section for the ICL7106 and
ICL7107, respectively. In the ICL7106, an internal digital
ground is generated from a 6V Zener diode and a large
P-Channel source follower. This supply is made stiff to
absorb the relative large capacitive currents when the back
plane (BP) voltage is switched. The BP frequency is the
clock frequency divided by 800. For three readings/sec., this
is a 60Hz square wave with a nominal amplitude of 5V. The
segments are driven at the same frequency and amplitude
and are in phase with BP when OFF, but out of phase when
ON. In all cases negligible DC voltage exists across the
segments.
Figure 8 is the Digital Section of the ICL7107. It is identical to
the ICL7106 except that the regulated supply and back
plane drive have been eliminated and the segment drive has
been increased from 2mA to 8mA, typical for instrument size
common anode LED displays. Since the 1000 output (pin
19) must sink current from two LED segments, it has twice
the drive capability or 16mA.
In both devices, the polarity indication is on for negative
analog inputs. If IN LO and IN HI are reversed, this indication
can be reversed also, if desired.

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S

a
a

g
b

b
g

c
d

c
d

BACKPLANE
21

LCD PHASE DRIVER


7
SEGMENT
DECODE

TYPICAL SEGMENT OUTPUT


V+

7
SEGMENT
DECODE

7
SEGMENT
DECODE

200

0.5mA
LATCH

SEGMENT
OUTPUT
2mA

1000s
COUNTER

INTERNAL DIGITAL GROUND

100s
COUNTER

10s
COUNTER

1s
COUNTER

TO SWITCH DRIVERS
FROM COMPARATOR OUTPUT

1
V+

CLOCK

LOGIC CONTROL

6.2V
500

THREE INVERTERS

INTERNAL
DIGITAL
GROUND

ONE INVERTER SHOWN FOR CLARITY

VTH = 1V

37

26
40
OSC 1

39
OSC 2

38
OSC 3

FIGURE 7. ICL7106 DIGITAL SECTION

TEST

V-

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


a
a

f
g

a
f

b
g

c
d

7
SEGMENT
DECODE
TYPICAL SEGMENT OUTPUT
V+

b
g
c
d

7
SEGMENT
DECODE

7
SEGMENT
DECODE

LATCH

0.5mA
TO
SEGMENT

1000s
COUNTER

100s
COUNTER

10s
COUNTER

1s
COUNTER

8mA
TO SWITCH DRIVERS
FROM COMPARATOR OUTPUT

DIGITAL GROUND

V+

1
V+

CLOCK
4

LOGIC CONTROL

37

THREE INVERTERS

27

ONE INVERTER SHOWN FOR CLARITY


40
OSC 1

39
OSC 2

TEST

500
DIGITAL
GROUND

38
OSC 3

FIGURE 8. ICL7107 DIGITAL SECTION

System Timing

INTERNAL TO PART

Figure 9 shows the clocking arrangement used in the


ICL7106 and ICL7107. Two basic clocking arrangements
can be used:

CLOCK

CLOCK

1. Figure 9A. An external oscillator connected to pin 40.


2. Figure 9B. An R-C oscillator using all three pins.
The oscillator frequency is divided by four before it clocks
the decade counters. It is then further divided to form the
three convert-cycle phases. These are signal integrate
(1000 counts), reference de-integrate (0 to 2000 counts) and
auto-zero (1000 to 3000 counts). For signals less than full
scale, auto-zero gets the unused portion of reference
de-integrate. This makes a complete measure cycle of 4,000
counts (16,000 clock pulses) independent of input voltage.
For three readings/second, an oscillator frequency of 48kHz
would be used.
To achieve maximum rejection of 60Hz pickup, the signal
integrate cycle should be a multiple of 60Hz. Oscillator
frequencies of 240kHz, 120kHz, 80kHz, 60kHz, 48kHz,
40kHz, 331/3kHz, etc. should be selected. For 50Hz
rejection, Oscillator frequencies of 200kHz, 100kHz,
662/3kHz, 50kHz, 40kHz, etc. would be suitable. Note that
40kHz (2.5 readings/second) will reject both 50Hz and 60Hz
(also 400Hz and 440Hz).

10

40

39

38

GND ICL7107
TEST ICL7106

FIGURE 9A.

INTERNAL TO PART

40

39

38

C
RC OSCILLATOR

FIGURE 9B.
FIGURE 9. CLOCK CIRCUITS

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Component Value Selection
Integrating Resistor
Both the buffer amplifier and the integrator have a class A
output stage with 100A of quiescent current. They can
supply 4A of drive current with negligible nonlinearity. The
integrating resistor should be large enough to remain in this
very linear region over the input voltage range, but small
enough that undue leakage requirements are not placed on
the PC board. For 2V full scale, 470k is near optimum and
similarly a 47k for a 200mV scale.

Integrating Capacitor
The integrating capacitor should be selected to give the
maximum voltage swing that ensures tolerance buildup will
not saturate the integrator swing (approximately. 0.3V from
either supply). In the ICL7106 or the ICL7107, when the
analog COMMON is used as a reference, a nominal +2V fullscale integrator swing is fine. For the ICL7107 with +5V
supplies and analog COMMON tied to supply ground, a
3.5V to +4V swing is nominal. For three readings/second
(48kHz clock) nominal values for ClNT are 0.22F and
0.10F, respectively. Of course, if different oscillator
frequencies are used, these values should be changed in
inverse proportion to maintain the same output swing.
An additional requirement of the integrating capacitor is that
it must have a low dielectric absorption to prevent roll-over
errors. While other types of capacitors are adequate for this
application, polypropylene capacitors give undetectable
errors at reasonable cost.

Auto-Zero Capacitor
The size of the auto-zero capacitor has some influence on
the noise of the system. For 200mV full scale where noise is
very important, a 0.47F capacitor is recommended. On the
2V scale, a 0.047F capacitor increases the speed of
recovery from overload and is adequate for noise on this
scale.

Reference Capacitor

Reference Voltage
The analog input required to generate full scale output (2000
counts) is: VlN = 2VREF. Thus, for the 200mV and 2V scale,
VREF should equal 100mV and 1V, respectively. However, in
many applications where the A/D is connected to a
transducer, there will exist a scale factor other than unity
between the input voltage and the digital reading. For
instance, in a weighing system, the designer might like to
have a full scale reading when the voltage from the
transducer is 0.662V. Instead of dividing the input down to
200mV, the designer should use the input voltage directly
and select VREF = 0.341V. Suitable values for integrating
resistor and capacitor would be 120k and 0.22F. This
makes the system slightly quieter and also avoids a divider
network on the input. The ICL7107 with 5V supplies can
accept input signals up to 4V. Another advantage of this
system occurs when a digital reading of zero is desired for
VIN 0. Temperature and weighing systems with a variable
fare are examples. This offset reading can be conveniently
generated by connecting the voltage transducer between IN
HI and COMMON and the variable (or fixed) offset voltage
between COMMON and IN LO.

ICL7107 Power Supplies


The ICL7107 is designed to work from 5V supplies.
However, if a negative supply is not available, it can be
generated from the clock output with 2 diodes, 2 capacitors,
and an inexpensive lC. Figure 10 shows this application.
See ICL7660 data sheet for an alternative.
In fact, in selected applications no negative supply is
required. The conditions to use a single +5V supply are:
1. The input signal can be referenced to the center of the
common mode range of the converter.
2. The signal is less than 1.5V.
3. An external reference is used.

V+

A 0.1F capacitor gives good results in most applications.


However, where a large common mode voltage exists (i.e.,
the REF LO pin is not at analog COMMON) and a 200mV
scale is used, a larger value is required to prevent roll-over
error. Generally 1F will hold the roll-over error to 0.5 count
in this instance.

Oscillator Components

CD4009
V+
OSC 1
1N914

OSC 2
OSC 3

0.047
F

ICL7107

For all ranges of frequency a 100k resistor is recommended


and the capacitor is selected from the equation:
0.45
f = ----------- For 48kHz Clock (3 Readings/sec),
RC

+
10
F

1N914

GND
V-

V- = 3.3V

C = 100pF.
FIGURE 10. GENERATING NEGATIVE SUPPLY FROM +5V

11

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Typical Applications

Application Notes

The ICL7106 and ICL7107 may be used in a wide variety of


configurations. The circuits which follow show some of the
possibilities, and serve to illustrate the exceptional versatility
of these A/D converters.
The following application notes contain very useful
information on understanding and applying this part and are
available from Intersil Corporation.

NOTE #

DESCRIPTION

AN016

Selecting A/D Converters

AN017

The Integrating A/D Converter

AN018

Dos and Donts of Applying A/D Converters

AN023

Low Cost Digital Panel Meter Designs

AN032

Understanding the Auto-Zero and Common Mode


Performance of the ICL7136/7/9 Family

AN046

Building a Battery-Operated Auto Ranging DVM with the


ICL7106

AN052

Tips for Using Single Chip 31/2 Digit A/D Converters

AN9609 Overcoming Common Mode Range Issues When Using


Intersil Integrating Converters

Typical Applications
TO PIN 1
OSC 1 40
OSC 2 39

100k

OSC 2 39

OSC 3 38
TEST 37

TO PIN 1
OSC 1 40
OSC 3 38

SET VREF
= 100mV

100pF

TEST 37

REF HI 36

REF HI 36

REF LO 35

REF LO 35

CREF 34
CREF 33

1k

IN

A-Z 29

47k

+
9V

INT 27
0.22F

G2 25
C3 24
A3 23

+5V
1k

A-Z 29
BUFF 28

22k

0.1F
1M

IN HI 31
IN LO 30

SET VREF
= 100mV

100pF

COMMON 32

0.01F
0.47F

BUFF 28
V - 26

CREF 34
CREF 33

1M

IN HI 31
IN LO 30

22k

0.1F

COMMON 32

100k

+
IN

0.01F
0.47F

47k

INT 27
V - 26

0.22F

-5V

G2 25
TO DISPLAY

G3 22

C3 24
A3 23

TO DISPLAY

G3 22

BP 21

TO BACKPLANE

GND 21

Values shown are for 200mV full scale, 3 readings/sec., floating


supply voltage (9V battery).

Values shown are for 200mV full scale, 3 readings/sec. IN LO may


be tied to either COMMON for inputs floating with respect to
supplies, or GND for single ended inputs. (See discussion under
Analog COMMON).

FIGURE 11. ICL7106 USING THE INTERNAL REFERENCE

FIGURE 12. ICL7107 USING THE INTERNAL REFERENCE

12

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Typical Applications

(Continued)
TO PIN 1

OSC 1 40
OSC 2 39

OSC 2 39

OSC 3 38
TEST 37

TO PIN 1
OSC 1 40

100k

OSC 3 38

SET VREF
= 100mV

100pF

TEST 37

REF HI 36

CREF 33

1k

10k

0.1F

A-Z 29

10k

1M

IN HI 31

BUFF 28

V+

CREF 33

0.47F

IN

IN LO 30

A3 23

V-

V - 26
C3 24

TO DISPLAY

A3 23
G3 22

IN LO is tied to supply COMMON establishing the correct common mode


voltage. If COMMON is not shorted to GND, the input voltage may float
with respect to the power supply and COMMON acts as a pre-regulator
for the reference. If COMMON is shorted to GND, the input is single
ended (referred to supply GND) and the pre-regulator is overridden.
FIGURE 13. ICL7107 WITH AN EXTERNAL BAND-GAP
REFERENCE (1.2V TYPE)

47k

0.22F

Since low TC zeners have breakdown voltages ~ 6.8V, diode must


be placed across the total supply (10V). As in the case of Figure 12,
IN LO may be tied to either COMMON or GND.

FIGURE 14. ICL7107 WITH ZENER DIODE REFERENCE

OSC 1 40

100k

OSC 2 39

OSC 3 38

TEST 37
V+

25k

24k

CREF 33
1M

IN HI 31
0.047F

IN

A-Z 29
INT 27
V-

G2 25
C3 24
A3 23

IN LO 30
BUFF 28

INT 27
0.22F

0.1F

V - 26

15k

1.2V (ICL8069)
+
IN

0.01F
0.47F

+5V

47k
0.22F

G2 25
C3 24

TO DISPLAY

10k

1M

IN HI 31

470k

BUFF 28

1k

COMMON 32

0.01F

A-Z 29

REF LO 35
CREF 34

0.1F

COMMON 32

V - 26

SET VREF
= 100mV

100pF

REF HI 36

REF HI 36

IN LO 30

TO PIN 1
100k

OSC 3 38

SET VREF
= 1V

100pF

REF LO 35
CREF 33

-5V

TO DISPLAY

TO PIN 1

CREF 34

G2 25

GND 21

TEST 37

IN

0.47F

INT 27

0.22F

G3 22

OSC 2 39

0.01F

BUFF 28

GND 21

OSC 1 40

6.8V
1M

A-Z 29

47k

G2 25
C3 24

100k

0.1F

IN HI 31

INT 27
V - 26

1k

COMMON 32

0.01F

+5V

REF LO 35
CREF 34

1.2V (ICL8069)

COMMON 32
IN LO 30

SET VREF
= 100mV

100pF

REF HI 36

REF LO 35
CREF 34

100k

A3 23

TO DISPLAY

G3 22

G3 22

GND 21

BP/GND 21

An external reference must be used in this application, since the


voltage between V+ and V- is insufficient for correct operation of the
internal reference.
FIGURE 15. ICL7106 AND ICL7107: RECOMMENDED
COMPONENT VALUES FOR 2V FULL SCALE

13

FIGURE 16. ICL7107 OPERATED FROM SINGLE +5V

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Typical Applications

(Continued)
TO PIN 1

OSC 1 40

V+

OSC 2 39

TO PIN 1

OSC 1 40

100k

100k

OSC 2 39
OSC 3 38

OSC 3 38
100pF

TEST 37
REF HI 36

REF HI 36

REF LO 35

REF LO 35

CREF 34

CREF 34

0.1F

CREF 33

CREF 33

100k 1M
100k 220k

0.1F

22k

COMMON 32

COMMON 32
IN HI 31

IN HI 31

IN LO 30

IN LO 30

0.47F

A-Z 29

0.22F

V - 26

0.47F

V - 26

SILICON NPN
MPS 3704 OR
SIMILAR

47k

BUFF 28
INT 27

INT 27

ZERO
ADJUST

0.01F

A-Z 29

47k

BUFF 28

9V
0.22F

G2 25

G2 25
C3 24

C3 24

TO DISPLAY

A3 23

A3 23

G3 22

G3 22

GND 21

BP 21

The resistor values within the bridge are determined by the desired
sensitivity.
FIGURE 17. ICL7107 MEASUREING RATIOMETRIC VALUES
OF QUAD LOAD CELL

TO DISPLAY

TO BACKPLANE

A silicon diode-connected transistor has a temperature coefficient of


about -2mV/oC. Calibration is achieved by placing the sensing
transistor in ice water and adjusting the zeroing potentiometer for a
000.0 reading. The sensor should then be placed in boiling water
and the scale-factor potentiometer adjusted for a 100.0 reading.
FIGURE 18. ICL7106 USED AS A DIGITAL CENTIGRADE
THERMOMETER
+5V

V+

TO LOGIC
VCC

1 V+

OSC 1 40

1 V+

OSC 1 40

2 D1

OSC 2 39

2 D1

OSC 2 39

3 C1

OSC 3 38

3 C1

OSC 3 38

4 B1

TEST 37

4 B1

TEST 37

5 A1

REF HI 36

5 A1

REF HI 36

6 F1

REF LO 35

6 F1

REF LO 35

7 G1

CREF 34

7 G1
8 E1

O/RANGE

TO
CREF 34 LOGIC
GND
CREF 33

TO LOGIC
VCC

8 E1

CREF 33
COMMON 32

COMMON 32

12k

9 D2

10 C2

IN HI 31

IN HI 31

IN LO 30

11 B2

IN LO 30

12 A2

A-Z 29

The LM339 is required to


ensure logic compatibility
with heavy display loading.

10 C2

11 B2

12 A2

A-Z 29

13 F2

BUFF 28

LM339

13 F2

BUFF 28

14 E2

INT 27

14 E2

INT 27

15 D3

V- 26

16 B3

G2 25

17 F3

C3 24

18 E3

A3 23

19 AB4

G3 22

20 POL

BP 21

9 D2

V-

U/RANGE
CD4023 OR
74C10

SCALE
FACTOR
ADJUST

100pF

TEST 37

O/RANGE

U/RANGE
CD4023 OR
74C10

15 D3

V- 26

16 B3

G2 25

17 F3

C3 24

18 E3

A3 23

19 AB4

G3 22

20 POL

BP 21

V-

+
33k

CD4077

FIGURE 19. CIRCUIT FOR DEVELOPING UNDERRANGE AND


OVERRANGE SIGNAL FROM ICL7106 OUTPUTS

14

FIGURE 20. CIRCUIT FOR DEVELOPING UNDERRANGE AND


OVERRANGE SIGNALS FROM ICL7107 OUTPUT

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Typical Applications

(Continued)

TO PIN 1
OSC 1 40

100k

OSC 2 39

10F

SCALE FACTOR ADJUST


(VREF = 100mV FOR AC TO RMS)

OSC 3 38
TEST 37

100pF

5F

CA3140

REF HI 36

REF LO 35
CREF 34
CREF 33

1N914
1k

22k

470k

0.1F

2.2M

COMMON 32

10k

1F

IN HI 31

1F

10k

1F

4.3k

IN LO 30

0.47F

A-Z 29

0.22F

47k

BUFF 28

10F

+
9V

INT 27

100pF
(FOR OPTIMUM BANDWIDTH)

0.22F

V - 26
G2 25
C3 24
A3 23

100k
+

TO DISPLAY

G3 22
BP 21

TO BACKPLANE

Test is used as a common-mode reference level to ensure compatibility with most op amps.
FIGURE 21. AC TO DC CONVERTER WITH ICL7106
+5V

DM7407
ICL7107

130

LED
SEGMENTS

130
130

FIGURE 22. DISPLAY BUFFERING FOR INCREASED DRIVE CURRENT

15

AC IN

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Dual-In-Line Plastic Packages (PDIP)
E40.6 (JEDEC MS-011-AC ISSUE B)

40 LEAD DUAL-IN-LINE PLASTIC PACKAGE


E1

INDEX
AREA

1 2 3

INCHES

N/2

SYMBOL
-B-

-C-

SEATING
PLANE

A2

B1

D1

A1

eC

B
0.010 (0.25) M

C A B S

NOTES

0.250

6.35

0.39

A2

0.125

0.195

3.18

4.95

0.014

0.022

0.356

0.558

C
L

B1

0.030

0.070

0.77

1.77

eA

0.008

0.015

0.204

0.381

1.980

2.095

D1

0.005

eB

NOTES:
1. Controlling Dimensions: INCH. In case of conflict between English
and Metric dimensions, the inch dimensions control.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Symbols are defined in the MO Series Symbol List in Section 2.2
of Publication No. 95.
4. Dimensions A, A1 and L are measured with the package seated in
JEDEC seating plane gauge GS-3.
5. D, D1, and E1 dimensions do not include mold flash or protrusions.
Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
6. E and eA are measured with the leads constrained to be perpendicular to datum -C- .
7. eB and eC are measured at the lead tips with the leads unconstrained. eC must be zero or greater.
8. B1 maximum dimensions do not include dambar protrusions. Dambar protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
9. N is the maximum number of terminal positions.
10. Corner leads (1, N, N/2 and N/2 + 1) for E8.3, E16.3, E18.3, E28.3,
E42.6 will have a B1 dimension of 0.030 - 0.045 inch (0.76 - 1.14mm).

16

MAX

0.015

A
L

D1

MIN

A
E

BASE
PLANE

MAX

A1

-AD

MILLIMETERS

MIN

50.3

53.2

0.13

0.600

0.625

15.24

15.87

E1

0.485

0.580

12.32

14.73

0.100 BSC

2.54 BSC

eA

0.600 BSC

15.24 BSC

eB

0.700

17.78

0.115

0.200

2.93

5.08

40

40

9
Rev. 0 12/93

ICL7106, ICL7107, ICL7107S


Metric Plastic Quad Flatpack Packages (MQFP)
D

Q44.10x10 (JEDEC MS-022AB ISSUE B)


44 LEAD METRIC PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK PACKAGE

D1
-D-

INCHES
SYMBOL

-A-

-B-

E E1

e
PIN 1
SEATING
A PLANE

-H-

0.076
0.003
-C-

12o-16o
0.40
0.016 MIN

0.20
M
0.008

C A-B S

0o MIN

D S
b

A2 A1

0o-7o

b1

MILLIMETERS
MIN

MAX

NOTES

0.096

2.45

A1

0.004

0.010

0.10

0.25

A2

0.077

0.083

1.95

2.10

0.012

0.018

0.30

0.45

b1

0.012

0.016

0.30

0.40

0.515

0.524

13.08

13.32

D1

0.389

0.399

9.88

10.12

4, 5

0.516

0.523

13.10

13.30

E1

0.390

0.398

9.90

10.10

4, 5

0.029

0.040

0.73

1.03

44

44

0.032 BSC

0.80 BSC

Rev. 2 4/99

NOTES:
1. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch
dimensions are not necessarily exact.
2. All dimensions and tolerances per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimensions D and E to be determined at seating plane -C- .
4. Dimensions D1 and E1 to be determined at datum plane
-H- .

6. Dimension b does not include dambar protrusion. Allowable


dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm (0.003 inch) total.

BASE METAL
WITH PLATING

MAX

5. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion.


Allowable protrusion is 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per side.

0.13/0.17
0.005/0.007

12o-16o

MIN

7. N is the number of terminal positions.


0.13/0.23
0.005/0.009

All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporations quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.

For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
17

This datasheet has been download from:


www.datasheetcatalog.com
Datasheets for electronics components.

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

3-TERMINAL 0.2A POSITIVE


VOLTAGE REGULATOR

1
TO-92

SOP-8

DESCRIPTION

The UTC 78LXXM family is monolithic fixed voltage regulator


integrated circuit. They are suitable for applications that required
supply current up to 200mA.

1
SOT-89

TO-92NL

FEATURES

*Output Current up to 200mA


*Fixed Output Voltage of 5V, 6V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 12V, 15V, 18V
and 24V Available
*Thermal Overload Shutdown Protection
*Short Circuit Current Limiting

SOT-223

ORDERING INFORMATION

Ordering Number
Lead Free
Halogen Free
78LXXML-S08-R
78LXXMG-S08-R
78LXXML-S08-T
78LXXMG-S08-T
78LXXML-AA3-R
78LXXMG-AA3-R
78LXXML-AB3-R
78LXXMG-AB3-R
78LXXML-T92-B
78LXXMG-T92-B
78LXXML-T92-K
78LXXMG-T92-K
78LXXML-T92-R
78LXXMG-T92-R
78LXXML-T9N-B
78LXXMG-T9N-B
78LXXML-T9N-K
78LXXMG-T9N-K
78LXXML-T9N-R
78LXXMG-T9N-R
Note: 1. XX: Output Voltage, refer to Marking Information
2. O: Output G: GND
I: Input
78LXXML-AA3-R

(1)Packing Type
(2)Package Type
(3)Lead Free
(4)Output Voltage Code

www.unisonic.com.tw
Copyright 2012 Unisonic Technologies Co., Ltd

Package
SOP-8
SOP-8
SOT-223
SOT-89
TO-92
TO-92
TO-92
TO-92NL
TO-92NL
TO-92NL

1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

Pin Assignment
2 3 4 5 6
G G NC NC G
G G NC NC G
G I - - G I - - G I - - G I - - G I - - G I - - G I - - G I - - -

7 8
G I
G I
- - - - - - - - -

Packing
Tape Reel
Tube
Tape Reel
Tape Reel
Tape Box
Bulk
Tape Reel
Tape Box
Bulk
Tape Reel

(1) B: Tape Box, K: Bulk, R: Tape Reel, T: Tube


(2) AA3: SOT-223, AB3: SOT-89, S08: SOP-8,
(2) T92: TO-92, T9N: TO-92NL
(3) G: Halogen Free, L: Lead Free
(4) xx: refer to Marking Information

1 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

MARKING INFORMATION
PACKAGE

VOLTAGE CODE

MARKING
M

78L

Voltage Code

L: Lead Free
G:Halogen Free

SOT-223

Date Code

UTC
SOP-8

SOT-89

Date Code

05:5.0V
06:6.0V
08:8.0V
09:9.0V
10:10V
12:12V
15:15V
18:18V
24:24V

78L

Voltage Code

L: Lead Free
G: Halogen Free

UTC

TO-92/
TO-92NL

Voltage Code

78L

L: Lead Free
G: Halogen Free
Date Code

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

2 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS

(Operating temperature range applies unless otherwise specified.)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
RATINGS
UNIT
VOUT=5~9V
30
V
VIN
Input Voltage
VOUT=12~24V
35
V
Output Current
IOUT
200
mA
SOP-8
500
TO-92
625
TO-92L
800
Power Dissipation
PD
mW
TO-92NL
800
SOT-89
500
SOT-223
750
Ambient Operating Temperature
TOPR
-40~+85
C
Storage Temperature
TSTG
-55~+150
C
Note Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which the device could be permanently damaged.
Absolute maximum ratings are stress ratings only and functional device operation is not implied.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(0C <TJ<125C, C1=0.33uF, CO=0.1uF, unless otherwise specified) (Note 1)


For UTC78L05M (VIN=10V, IOUT=40mA)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

IQ
IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

For UTC78L06M (VIN=12V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
7VVIN20V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
7VVINVMAX
IOUT=1mA-200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
7VVIN20V,TJ=25C
8VVIN20V,TJ=25C
8VVIN20V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
8VVIN20V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C
TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
8.5VVIN20V, IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
8.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 70mA
8.5VVIN20V, TJ=25C
9VVIN20V, TJ=25C

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

9VVIN20V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
10VVIN20V, f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TYP
5.0

4.75

41

MIN
5.76
5.7

TYP
6.0

49
0.75
46
1.7

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

MAX
6.24
6.3

UNIT
V
V
V

6.3
12.8
5.8
64
54
3.9

UNIT
V
V
V

60
30
150
100
5.5
1.5
0.1

40
-0.65
80
1.7

5.7

40

MAX
5.20
5.25
5.25

11
5.0
8
6
2.0

IQ

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

MIN
4.80
4.75

80
40
175
125
6.0
1.5
0.1

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V
3 of 10

QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.)

For UTC78L08M (VIN=14V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

11VVIN23V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
11VVIN23V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
11.5VVIN24V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
11.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
11.5VVIN24V, TJ=25C
13VVIN24V, TJ=25C

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

13VVIN24V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
12VVIN23V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TYP
8.0

7.60

39

MIN
8.64
8.55

TYP
9.0

49
0.75
44
1.7

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

MAX
9.36
9.45

UNIT
V
V
V

9.45
20
10
90
100
2.0

UNIT
V
V
V

80
40
175
125
5.5
1.5
0.1

49
0.75
70
1.7

8.55

38

MAX
8.32
8.40
8.40

15
8.0
10
8
2.0

IQ

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

MIN
7.68
7.60

IQ

For UTC78L09M (VIN=15V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
10.5VVIN23V,IOUT=1mA ~40mA
10.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 70mA
10.5VVIN23V, TJ=25C
11VVIN23V, TJ=25C

90
45
200
150
6.0
1.5
0.1

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

4 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.)

For UTC78L10M (VIN=16V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

12.5VVIN23V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
15VVIN23V, f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
14.5VVIN27V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
14.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
14.5VVIN27V,TJ=25C
16VVIN27V,TJ=25C

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

16VVIN27V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
15VVIN25V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TYP
10.0

9.5

38

MIN
11.52
11.40

TYP
12

80
-1.0
65
1.7

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

MAX
12.48
12.60

UNIT
V
V
V

12.60
25
12
25
20
2.0

UNIT
V
V
V

94
47
220
170
6.5
1.5
0.1

74
0.95
43
1.7

11.40

37

MAX
10.4
10.5
10.5

20
10
100
200
4.2

IQ

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

MIN
9.6
9.5

IQ

For UTC78L12M (VIN=19V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
12.5VVIN23V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
12.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 70mA
12.5VVIN23V, TJ=25C
14VVIN23V, TJ=25C

150
75
300
250
6.0
1.5
0.1

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

5 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.)

For UTC78L15M (VIN=23V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

VOUT

Load Regulation

VOUT

Line Regulation

VOUT

Quiescent Current
Quiescent Current Change
Output Noise Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
Ripple Rejection
Dropout Voltage

20VVIN30V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
18.5VVIN28.5V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C
TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
21VVIN33V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
21VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
21VVIN33V,TJ=25C
22VVIN33V,TJ=25C

IQ
eN
VO/T
RR
VD

21VVIN33V
1mAVIN40mA
10Hzf100kHz
IOUT=5mA
23VVIN33V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
TJ=25C

TYP
15

14.25

34

MIN
17.28
17.10

TYP
18

150
-1.8
48
1.7

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

MAX
18.72
18.90

UNIT
V
V
V

18.90
30
15
145
135
2.0

UNIT
V
V
V

150
150
150
75
6.5
1.5
0.1

90
-1.3
63
1.7

17.10

34

MAX
15.60
15.75
15.75

20
25
25
15
2.2

IQ

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

MIN
14.40
14.25

IQ

For UTC78L18M (VIN=27V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
17.5VVIN30V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
17.5VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 70mA
17.5VVIN30V,TJ=25C
20VVIN30V,TJ=25C

170
85
300
250
6.0
1.5
0.1

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
mA
V
mV/C
dB
V

6 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.)

For UTC78L24M (VIN=33V, IOUT=40mA)


PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Output Voltage

VOUT

TEST CONDITIONS
TJ=25C
27VVIN38V,IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
27VVINVMAX,
IOUT=1mA - 200mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 100mA
TJ=25C, IOUT=1mA ~ 40mA
27VVIN38V,TJ=25C
28VVIN38V,TJ=25C

MIN
23.04
22.80

TYP
24

22.80

MAX
24.96
25.20
25.20

(Note 2)

mV
mV
mV
Line Regulation
VOUT
mV
Quiescent Current
IQ
mA
27VVIN38V
mA
Quiescent Current Change
IQ
1mAVIN40mA
mA
Output Noise Voltage
eN
10Hzf100kHz
200
V
Temperature Coefficient of VOUT
VO/T IOUT=5mA
-2.0
mV/C
Ripple Rejection
RR
27VVIN38V,f=120Hz,TJ=25C
34
45
dB
Dropout Voltage
VD
TJ=25C
1.7
V
Note 1: The Maximum steady state usable output current are dependent on input voltage, heat sinking, lead length
of the package and copper pattern of PCB. The data above represent pulse test conditions with junction
temperatures specified at the initiation of test.
Note 2: Power dissipation<0.5W
Load Regulation

VOUT

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

40
20
160
150
2.2

UNIT
V
V
V

200
100
300
250
6.0
1.5
0.1

7 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

APPLICATION CIRCUIT
VI

C1
0.33F

VO

UTC 78LXXM

C0
0.1F

Note 1: To specify an output voltage, substitute voltage value for "XXM".


Note 2: Bypass capacitors are recommended for optimum stability and transient response and should be located
as close as possible to the regulators.

TEST CIRCUIT
INPUT

3
R13

R17
T10

R14

Z2

R9

T8

T9

T12
R19
R18

T13

T11

R11

T5
T6

R15

T14

R12
R10

OUTPUT

R8
R5

T4

Z1
T15

R4
R6

R16

R1

R2

T7

C1

R7

T3
T1

T2

R3

GND

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

8 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

9 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

78LXXM

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS(Cont.)

Fig.9 Peak Output Current


vs Dropout Voltage Difference

Peak Output Current(mA)

400

300

(TJ=0C)

200

(TJ=25C)
100

(TJ=150C)
0

10

20

30

40

Input-Output Voltage Difference(V)

UTC assumes no responsibility for equipment failures that result from using products at values that
exceed, even momentarily, rated values (such as maximum ratings, operating condition ranges, or
other parameters) listed in products specifications of any and all UTC products described or contained
herein. UTC products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices or systems where
malfunction of these products can be reasonably expected to result in personal injury. Reproduction in
whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner. The information
presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate
and reliable and may be changed without notice.

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD


www.unisonic.com.tw

10 of 10
QW-R101-002,I

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