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BS 5975 : 1996

Annex M (informative)
Selection of propping and repropping
procedures for multi-storey buildings

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M.2 Procedures
Three possible site procedures, with their structural
implications, can be identified as follows.
a) Removal of props or other supports
1) where slabs are spanning between beams, the
slabs both sides of a beam should be released
before props under the beam are disturbed;
2) the removal of support to any single slab or
beam should be undertaken in the following two
stages, to avoid the risk of overloading any props:
i)ease all props by about the same amount
(e.g. one or two turns on an adjustable prop);
ii)starting at mid span (or cantilever tip) and
working towards the supports, remove the
props.
b) Repropping. After all the props and formwork at
one level have been removed, an appropriate
number of props should be reintroduced and
adjusted to give a solid contact with the concrete
above and below; they should not, however, be
deliberately extended enough to put a significant
load into them.
Provided the props are carefully erected, and the
end plates are in direct contact with the slabs, it
may be possible for them to carry higher loads than
those given in 3.9.6. However, it is recommended
that the loads imposed on props complying with the
requirements of BS 4074 should not exceed 35 kN.
The load reduction due to the removal of formwork
is normally disregarded in propping calculations.
Repropping should, where possible, be in alignment
with the props above. Where a prop at the level
above is not directly over a reprop, the effect on the
slab should be considered.
c) `Quick-strip method'. This method may be offered
as an optional facility with proprietary support
equipment.
With this method, the structural props need to
remain undisturbed (and hence loaded) while the
forms and their immediate supports are removed.
It is necessary to check that the slab can span
between the structural props before the formwork is
removed.

BSI 1996

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

M.1 General
In multi-storey reinforced concrete construction, it is
usually necessary for several slabs to contribute to the
support of the last one to be cast. The supporting
levels will generally not have reached their
twenty-eight day design concrete strengths, and will be
of differing ages (and therefore stiffness). Furthermore,
the deflections of maturing reinforced concrete
members under a sustained load at an early age are
not easy to predict.
With the tendency towards both faster construction
cycles and the use of larger spans (in which the design
live load is decreased relative to the dead load), the
importance of the selection and control of propping
procedures increases.
In the case of post-tensioned prestressed concrete
construction, the tensioning operations will affect load
distribution, and special consideration needs to be
given to the propping procedure.
In simple cases where a single floor does not have
sufficient strength to support a further slab of fresh
concrete and progress is not very rapid, stripping and
repropping may be undertaken so that two floors
support the new floor. Table M.1 shows a method of
analysing this approach. For cases where props are left
undisturbed table M.2 gives an analysis. Table M.3 is
appropriate when a further level of repropping is in
use. Where it is possible to strip props one at a time
and replace them without allowing any deflection of
the slab above to occur, they may be considered as
undisturbed (see tables M.2 and M.3). These analyses
are based on the following simplified assumptions:
a) creep and shrinkage of the concrete can be
disregarded;
b) the footings beneath the props to the first
suspended level are taken as rigid;
c) all props are rigid (i.e. all levels connected by
props are subject to the same deflections);
d) all suspended slabs are equally stiff.
Some confirmation of figures calculated in this way
has been obtained from site measurements, but both
assumptions b) and c) tend to underestimate the load
carried by upper slabs.

Annex M

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

Annex M

M.3 Examples
Three examples of the calculation of propping loads
are given in tables M.1, M.2 and M.3. In each case, the
load W represents the weight of the reinforced
concrete plus the formwork and falsework, which is
sometimes taken as 10 % of the concrete weight.
An additional allowance may be made for any known
imposed loads (see 4.4) but for simplicity, the
calculation of these is not shown in these examples.
Two useful arithmetic checks that can be made on
calculations in these and similar examples are:
a) the total slab loads (in the right hand columns) at
each stage should equal the total weight of slabs
being considered;
b) at each slab level, the prop load acting from
above plus slab weight should equal the load
transmitted by the slab to the support plus the prop
support load from beneath.

BSI 1996

BS 5975 : 1996

It is important that the first lift of props on a


non-suspended slab is not left in too long, as the total
weight of all the slabs constructed will act on them.
Once they are removed, slabs can deflect and hence
contribute to the support of loads.
Where a particular system of propping and repropping
is considered for the construction of a large number of
similar slabs, the loads on the slabs converge on
specific values, and some general conclusions may be
drawn.
1) The most heavily loaded slab is the one under
the lowest set of props (not reprops) and its load
will not exceed 2.5W.
2) The effect of increasing the number of propped
levels is to allow a slab more time before it carries
its maximum construction load, but not to modify
that load significantly.

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Annex M

Table M.1 Two lifts of propping with repropping

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

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Annex M

BS 5975 : 1996

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

Table M.2 Two lifts of propping without repropping

BSI 1996

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BS 5975 : 1996

Annex M

Table M.3 Two lifts of propping plus one lift of repropping

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

NOTE. To this stage, propping procedure repeats stages I to V of table M.2.

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Annex M

BS 5975 : 1996

Licensed Copy: Giorgio Cavalieri, none, 16-Nov-00, Uncontrolled Copy. BSI

Table M.3 Two lifts of propping plus one lift of repropping (concluded)

BSI 1996

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