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Methods and Technology for the

Analysis of Composite Materials


September 24, 2007

Agenda
NAFEMS Methods and Technology
gy for the
Analysis of Composite Materials Webinar
September 24, 2007
11:00am ET (GMT -04:00, New York)

Welcome & Introduction (Overview of NAFEMS Activities)


Matthew Ladzinski, NAFEMS North American Representative

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite


Materials
Dale Berry, SIMULIA

Failure Simulation of Z-pinned Composites


Kyle Indermuehle, ATA Engineering

Q&A Session
Panel

Cl i
Closing
Berry

Indermuehle

www.nafems.org

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION


FOR THE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
COMMUNITY

An Overview of NAFEMS Activities

Matthew Ladzinski
NAFEMS
North American Representative

www.nafems.org

Planned Activities in North America


Work Session on the Management of Simulation
Data
Take Control of Your Analysis and Simulation Data
Data
September 27, 2007
www.nafems.org/92707

Webinars
W bi
New topic each month!
MultiMulti-physics Simulation using Directly Coupled
Coupled--Field Element
th
T h l
Technology
October
O t b 18 att 2pm
2
ET.
ET

Recent webinars:

Simulation Process Management


NWC07 Preview
Simulation--supported Decision Making
Simulation
Simulation Driven Design (SDD) Findings

For the latest information, please refer to the NAFEMS website:


http://www.nafems.org/regional/north_america
www.nafems.org

Methods and Technology for the


Analysis of Composite Materials
Dale Berry
SIMULIA

Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

Agenda
Industry trends
Recent development
p
in Abaqus
q driven by
y the composites
p
community
y

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

Composites Usage is Increasing in All Industries


Aerospace
Boeing 787 1st large jet with a majority of composites by weight
Airbus 350WX - Over 60% of airframe made of new materials
UAVs primarily composite construction
Automotive
F1 racing composite shells
Pickup truck composite box
Civil
Composite-wrapped
bridge structures
Dentistry
Fiber-reinforced composite dental bridges

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

8
Increased Usage of Composites Means More Users
Which Results in More Software Development Efforts
More customers using software results in more requests for features
and enhancements related to composites
p
Using composites in new applications requires new methods and
technology developed to simulate those applications
Majority of development efforts are in response to and with guidance
from customers
Industry requirements
Bug reports
Enhancement requests
User groups
Benchmarks / round robins

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

9
Increase in Usage of Composites Corresponds to
Expanded User Base
Composite analysis moving from the researcher level to the designer
level requires:
q
Enhanced usability features
Increased robustness
Early Adopters

Simulation sophistica
ation

Researchers

Designer
Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

Engineer
User sophistication

Analyst/
Expert

10
Increase in Usage of Composites Requires
Development of New Software Technology
Composites are increasingly being used for load-bearing, critical parts
Requires more reliability and capability in the software for simulating
failure modes of composites
Fracture and failure
Delamination
D l i ti
Crashworthiness
Fatigue

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

from McCarthy, M.A., Harte, CG, Wiggenraad, J.F.M., Michielsen,


A.L.P.J., Kohlgruber, D., and Kamoulakos, A., Finite Element
Modeling
g of Crash Response
p
of Composite
p
Aerospace
p
Sub-floor
Structures, Computational Mechanics, 26(3), Sept. 2000

11
Growth of Industry Drives Software Development
In Turn, Software Enables Industry Growth

Composites industry helps drive software developments


More customers results in more requirements
Larger
L
user b
base requires
i
iin iincreased
d usability
bili
Increased usage requires greater reliability

New software developments enable growth of composites industry


Ease
E
off use features
f t
allow
ll
greater
t access to
t the
th technology
t h l
Increased capabilities provides greater confidence in simulation

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

12
Software Usability Enables Greater Number of Users
Expanded access to composites simulation through
CAD interface / environment for composites definition
Direct interfaces between CAD lay-up and FEA lay-ups for simulation
Easier definition of composite layups
Enhanced post
post-processing
processing of composites for easier understanding of
results

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

13
Greater Confidence in Simulation Enables Increased
use of Composites
p
for Critical Components
p
New, advanced technology provides for greater confidence in results
Ability to simulate the many failure mechanisms of composites allows
composites to be used for critical parts
Testing still necessary for validation, but simulation critical for
designing components

Example of high speed impact damage


Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

14
Growth of Composites Industry and
Increased Software Capabilities are Coupled
Broader use of composites
requires advanced features

Industry

Software

More users results in


more requirements

Enhanced usability
results in more users

Advanced capabilities enables


broader use of composites

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

15

/CAE Composites
Manager
Reducing Costs in Aircraft, Martin and Evans,
Ply-based postJournal JOM, 52 (3) (2000), pp. 24-28.
processing
Thru-thickness
Cohesive
plots
elements
Draping analysis

Delamination
VCCT analysis
failure analysis Ply stack plots
/CAE supports
Continuum shells
Import of damage
lamina mat. p
props.
p
state
t t (Std.
(Std Exp.)
E )
v6.4

v6.5

v6.6

Abaqus version
Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

v6.7

Composites Fe
eatures

Trend Charts

16
Good Software Capabilities Have Been Created, But
There is Still A Lot of Work to Be Done
Current simulation methodology is not up to the task
Verification of composites
p
relies on testing
g
Expensive, time consuming
Current methodology has not evolved since the 1980s
Typical
T i l simulation
i l ti uses lilinear methods
th d tto estimate
ti t fifirstt ffailure
il
Current composites interfaces are not up to the task
It is very time consuming to define composites and post-process
composites in today's CAE tools
Some CAD/CAE/PLM packages do not support progressive failure,
delamination, or material damage
With linear methods, design margins for composite parts today are
often too high the part is too expensive and heavy as a result
p
and blunts the cost
This reduces the value of the use of composites
advantages that composites can provide to a product
Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

17

Agenda
Industry trends
Recent development
p
in Abaqus
q driven by
y the composites
p
community
y

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

18

End Result of Increased Composites Usage in


Industry is a Composites Focus at SIMULIA
SIMULIA Composites Mission Statement
Our solution allows customers to:
Perform advanced composites simulations including static and dynamic
analysis that includes linear, nonlinear, and damage / fracture /failure
within a single environment
Predict the stiffness, first-failure, strength, and post-failure behavior at
the component and full-vehicle structural scale of complex composite
products
Simulate low- (from tool drop or hail), medium- (from runway debris), or
high-velocity (ballistic penetration) events including Barely Visible Impact
Damage (BVID) and Bird Strike
Have the very best in composite modeling, visualization, and postprocessing
p
g through
g /CAE's new p
ply-based
y
interfaces

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

19
A Look at Abaqus Developments that Enable
Composite Usage in Industry

SIMULIA technology
gy needs to:
Provide a platform for evolving your composites simulation
methodology to deliver more accurate results to meet regulatory and
competitive demands
Be built in cooperation with and with guidance from customers and
composite industry groups
Builds upon the traditional deep FEA simulation foundation of ABAQUS
Increase your composite simulation efficiency by reducing the time
needed to generate composites models
Be backed by a solid experienced team of application engineers that will
help speed deployment to maximize the value of your investment in
ABAQUS simulation

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

20

Abaqus Provides the Capability to Design


Better Performing Composite Products
Technology Need:
Provide a platform for evolving composites simulation methodology to deliver
more accurate results to meet regulatory and competitive demands
Meaning:
To design better performing composite components, you need to change your
methodology Abaqus enables new analysis methodology
methodology.
New methodologies used by industry:
VCCT for composite crack growth
Boeing,
B i
H
Hawker
k d
deHaviland
H il d
Progressive failure analysis
NASA Glenn Research Center
Modelling
M d lli Fib
Fibre M
Metal
t lL
Laminates
i t
Airbus Deutschland, Advanced
Lightweight Engineering

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

21

New Abaqus Developments are Focused-on


and Driven-by Real Life Needs
Technology Need :
Be built in cooperation with and with guidance from customers and
composite industry groups
Meaning:
Our new technologies
g
are exactlyy what is needed to solve real p
problems,,
because it has been developed with cooperation with industry
Developments drive-by:
Boeing VCCT collaboration
FAA Center of Excellence for Composite Materials
ASTM/D30, Composites Workshops and CMH-17
Fracture CRT
Fracture Customer Review Team

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

22

Along with Composites, Abaqus is a Leader in


General Purpose FEA Simulation
Technology Need :
Builds upon the traditional deep FEA simulation foundation of Abaqus
Meaning:
We are not offering solely a composites solution. Abaqus is a complete,
market leading
g FEA toolkit.
Abaqus is used throughout the following industries:
Aerospace & defense
Architecture
A hit t
& construction
t ti
Automotive
Consumer goods
Industrial equipment
Life sciences
Process,
Process power,
power & petroleum
Shipbuilding
Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

23

New Composites Interface Reduces Time


Spent Building Models
Technology Need :
Increases your composite simulation efficiency by reducing the time
needed to generate composites models
Meaning:
The new p
ply-based
y
modeling
g in /CAE saves a significant
g
amount of time
in creating and understanding results for composite simulations
Time Savings:
New interface reduces time spent creating composite models from
multiple hours to less than one hour
New post-processing functionality
dramaticallyy reduces the amount of time
need to interpret and understand results

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

24

Realize Abaqus Benefits Quickly Through


Support by Abaqus Application Engineers
Technology Need :
Be backed by a solid experienced team of application engineers that will
help speed deployment to maximize the value of your investment in
Abaqus simulation
Meaning:
Methods evolution can be scary, we can help you with the process
Abaqus provides a range of services to support deployment:
Assessment of needs
Delivery of introductory and advanced training
Development, documentation and deployment of
methods and procedures
On-site mentoring
Development of process automation solutions

Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials


Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

25

Status Summary
Large-scale high-volume applications of composites is increasing
Software developments to enable Realistic Simulation of composites
are appearing in COTS products
This feeds even more industry applications...
Current demands driving the software community are:
Increased efficiency in crack-propagation/damage simulation
Composites
C
it ffor high-volume
hi h l
E
Energy M
Managementt applications
li ti
Fatigue lifecycle simulation
Repair modeling and residual life simulation
Accounting for the effects of aging
We will respond positively to these trends...stay
trends stay tuned!
Methods and Technology for the Analysis of Composite Materials
Copyright 2007 Dassault Systmes

F il
Failure
Si
Simulation
l ti off Z
Z-pinned
i
d
Composites

Kyle C. Indermuehle
ATA Engineering

Simulation of Z-Pinned Composites


.........................................
One weakness of composites is low

resistance to delamination
Only matrix provides strength in thru-thickness
Z-Pinning addresses this by adding Trans-

Laminar Reinforcements (TLR)


Z-pins are a discontinuous fibres that are added
in the thru-thickness direction
Z-pinning results in dramatically improved
delamination capabilities
Challenge is to accurately represent z-pins in

analytical simulations
Currently, testing is relied upon
(Image courtesy of Chang, et. al. [2])

www.ata-e.com

Agenda
.........................................
Problem statement
Abaqus technology utilized
Simulation results and conclusions

www.ata-e.com

Problem Statement: Predict the Load Carrying


Capability of DCB Coupon
.........................................
Can the z-pins resist the growth of the initial crack?
Speciman 9 long by 1 wide by 0.12 thick
24 zero degree (0) plys
1 initial crack 1 unreinforced composite
p
1 z-pins
p

Freels, Jason K., Modelling Fracture in Z-pinned Composite Co-Cured Laminates Using Smeared Properties and
Cohesive Elements in DYNA3D, Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/GMS/ENY/06-S01, 2006.

www.ata-e.com

Agenda
.........................................
Problem statement
Abaqus technology utilized
Simulation results and conclusions

www.ata-e.com

New Abaqus Technology Enables Advanced


Simulation of Composites
.........................................
ABAQUS recently released a VCCT capability

for analyzing composites


Partnership with Boeing Commercial Aircraft
Group to implement VCCT into Abaqus products
B
Based
d on Li
Linear El
Elastic
ti F
Fracture
t
Mechanics (LEFM) concepts
Based on computing the energy
release rates for normal and shear
crack-tip deformation modes
Compare energy release rates to
interlaminar fracture toughness

www.ata-e.com

VCCT-for-Abaqus Usage and Keywords


.........................................
Abaqus approach is surface based
Extension of DEBOND
Automatic modeling of post failure contact

Delamination plane paved


with surface based contact
pair

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRACTURE, ADJUST=Nsetbond


Slave Slave surface name
Slave--Slave
Master--Master surface name

*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRACTURE, UCRACK, DEPVAR=12,


PROPERTIES=16
,
G_IC,G_IIC,G_IIIC,mixType,m,n,o
w,
www.ata-e.com

Surface Interaction Properties Define


.Fracture
. . . . . . . . . Mechanics
...............................
Properties (given on data line)
G_IC
G_IIC
G_IIIC

= Fracture toughness, modes I, II, and III

= 1 for B-K (2D shown):


mixType

G
GIC + (GIIC GIC ) IIC
GI + GII

= 2 for Power law:


m

G G G
I + II + III
GIC GIIC GIIIC

eta

= Coefficient for B-K law

m, n, o

= Exponents for mode mixity formula

= Out-of-plane width for 2D analysis


www.ata-e.com

Advantages of Abaqus VCCT


.........................................
Runs during an ABAQUS analysis
Utilizes the existing debond contact
architecture in ABAQUS/Standard,
suitably extended
Does not utilize overlapped user
elements as the basis for the
implementation
Does not require matched meshes
across bonded surfaces
Includes post-failure ramp-down of
crack tip force
Includes post-failure penetration prevention
Includes post-processing capabilities within Abaqus/Viewer
Includes analysis stabilization algorithms to help stabilize running cracks in
Abaqus/Standard
Is compatible with existing Abaqus elements and material, incrementation and
convergence controls, and stress-based procedures

www.ata-e.com

Along with VCCT, Abaqus Also Recently Released


Cohesive Elements
.........................................
Cohesive elements model progressive failure at

interfaces
Adhesive joints with finite thickness
Constitutive modeling
g based on any
y ABAQUS
Q
material
Enables failure modeling in ABAQUS/Explicit
consistent with general framework

Delamination (adhesive layer of zero thickness)


Based on a traction separation description for
delamination
Enables failure modeling
g consistent with
general framework

Damage initiation criteria


Damage evolution criteria

www.ata-e.com

Delamination with Cohesive Elements


.........................................
T
N

Delamination applications
Traction separation law
Typically
T i ll characterized
h
t i db
by peak
k
strength (N) and fracture energy
(GTC)

GT C

Mode dependent

Linear elasticity with damage


Available in both
ABAQUS/Standard and
ABAQUS/Explicit
Q / p

Damage initiation

Traction or separationbased criterion

Damage evolution
Removal of elements

Shear mode

6
5

GTC

Modeling of damage under the


general framework used for other
material models in ABAQUS

Typical traction-separation response

Normal mode

4
3
2
1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

M d Mix
Mode
Mi

Dependence of fracture toughness on mode mix

www.ata-e.com

Cohesive Elements in Action


.........................................
*element, type=coh2d4, elset=coh
999999, 2005, 2105, 2106, 2006
*cohesive section, elset=coh,
material=mat1, response=traction
separation, controls=cont
*material, name=mat1
*elastic, type=traction
1.5e4, 1.5e4, 1.5e4
*damage initiation, criterion=maxe
0 06 0
0.06,
0.06
06
*damage evolution,
type=displacement,
SOFTENING=EXPONENTIAL
0.06, 0.06
*section controls, name=cont,
element deletion=yes, max
degradation=1.0

www.ata-e.com

Agenda
.........................................
Problem statement
Abaqus technology utilized
Simulation results and conclusions

www.ata-e.com

Proposed Method for Simulating


Z-Pinned Composites Using Abaqus
.........................................
Methodology
Coupled VCCT and cohesive element
modeling
Composite
C
it ffracture
t
represented
t d using
i VCCT
Based on GI, GII, GIII property definitions

Effect of Z-pins represented using cohesive


elements
Cohesive element properties tuned based on
test data

www.ata-e.com

Double Cantilever Beam (DCB)


.........................................
VCCT defined along entire beam
Cohesive
C h i elements
l
t d
defined
fi d only
l in
i z-pinned
i
d

region

region of cohesive elements


VCCT *DEBOND surface
www.ata-e.com

VCCT Definition
.........................................
. . .
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRACT,ADJUST=BNODES
BOT, TOP
*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRACT,ucrack, properties=11, depvar=13
1.0
<GIc>, <GIIc>,<GIIIc>,<modeMixLaw>, <eta>,<am>,<an>, <ao>
<width>,<damv>,<tol>
** Fracture toughness:
GIc
= 1.425
GIIc = 6.0
GIIIc = 6.0
** B-K parameter:
modeMixLaw=1
eta=1.75
** mixed mode parameter
am =0.001
an=0.0
ao=1.0
. . .

www.ata-e.com

Cohesive Elements Definition


.........................................
. . .
*element, type=coh2d4, elset=coh
999999, 2005, 2105, 2106, 2006
*elgen, elset=coh
999999, 10, 100, 1,
*cohesive section, elset=coh, material=mat1, response=traction
separation, thickness=specified, controls=cont
1.0, 1.0
*material, name=mat1
*elastic, type=traction
1.5e4, 1.5e4, 1.5e4
*d
*damage
i
initiation,
i i i
criterion=maxe
i
i
0.06, 0.06
*damage evolution, type=displacement, SOFTENING=EXPONENTIAL
0.06, 0.06
*
*section
i
controls,
l
name=cont, element
l
d
deletion=yes,
l i
max
degradation=1.0
. . .

www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (Without Z-Pins)


.........................................
Analysis and test compare fairly well
Test peak is between 70 and 145 lbf (depending on rate)
Analysis peak is 78 lbf
Shape compares well

www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (With Z-Pins)


.........................................
Analytical model
VCCT properties remain same as previous model
Added zero-thickness cohesive elements for z-pins

active zz--pins

Failed zz-pins
www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (With Z-Pins)


.........................................

www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (With Z-Pins)


.........................................

www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (With Z-Pins)


.........................................

www.ata-e.com

DCB Simulation (With Z-Pins)


.........................................
Analysis and test compare fairly well
Stiffness slope through z-pin area matches
Peak load of ~75 lbf in test compared to 80 lbf in simulation at COD of
0.7 inches in both test and analysis

ABAQUS

Test

www.ata-e.com

Summary
.........................................
Simulation of composites is still very challenging
Especially
E
i ll th
the many ffailure
il
modes
d

Accurate analysis
y
of composites
p
requires
q
new

methodologies and new FEA technologies

Simulation of z
z-pinned
pinned reinforced composites was

presented using a combined VCCT and Cohesive element


approach in Abaqus
DCB specimen
i
examined
i d
Initial results show good comparison between test and analysis

www.ata-e.com

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION


FOR THE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS COMMUNITY

Q&A Session
Using the Q&A tool, please submit any
questions you may have for our panel.

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION


FOR THE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS COMMUNITY

Thank you!
If you have any further questions, please
refer them to me:
matthew.ladzinski@nafems.org