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A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE WITH REFERENCE TO THE MADRAS

PHARMACEUTICALS
By
SUGANYA.V, Research Scholar, Management (AMET University)
Dr.V.SASIREKHA, Professor (Department Of Management), SaiRam Engineering College
ABSTRACT
A study has been carried at The Madras pharmaceuticals to identify the Quality Of
Work Life. A survey was conducted for about 200 employees of Madras pharmaceuticals. The
company is in the business of producing medicines. The main objective of the study was to
identify the Quality of Work Life towards their organization. The need for the study was to know
the satisfaction level and morale of employees, and to relate Quality of Work Life and
employees performance.
The type of research design that has been used for the study was descriptive research
design. The primary data has been collected using questionnaire. The present study makes use of
secondary data in the form of magazines, company websites, records, journals, etc. The sampling
design that has been used in this study was Simple Random Sampling. The Universe of the study
was the employees of Madras pharmaceuticals where 1000 employees were working. The
sample size that has been taken for the study was 200 workers. The data has been analyzed using
the percentage method and various statistical tools has been used like Chi-square, Correlation
and Weighted Average.
INTRODUCTION
Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach of managing
people. The QWL approach considers people as an 'asset' to the organization rather than as
'costs'. It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate in managing
their work and make decisions. Robbins defined QWL as a process by which an organization
responds to employees needs by developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making
the decisions to design their lives at work.
This consideration of Quality of work Life as the greater context for various factors in the
workplace such as job satisfaction and stress, may offer opportunity for more cost-effective
interventions in the workplace. Thus the focus and purpose of creating balanced work life
should be maintained at any cost and also organization can achieve high organizational
excellence only when the Quality Of Work Life is good in the organization.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Large number of organizations, both private and public has realized the importance of
Quality of Work Life and has taken systematic efforts to improve the quality of work life of their
employees. Increasing interest in QWL movement has been evident in various ways, such as
the emergence of new centers created for the study and diffusion of concepts and techniques of

work life improvements. This study has been done to relate Quality of Work Life and employees
performance whereas other studies done in the area of Quality of Work Life mainly focused on
relationship between working condition and new forms of work organization, organization
arrangements and other aspects of humanizations of work and quality of work life. But only few
studies have related Quality of Work Life and employees performance. Hence the emergence of
the study.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Primary Objectives
To know the overall quality of work life in the madras pharmaceuticals.
To measure the level of satisfaction and to identify the major areas of dissatisfaction.
Secondary Objectives
To know how the various welfare activities and other benefits helps to bring a better
quality of work life.
To suggest suitable measures to improve the quality of work life.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research has been taken up at THE MADRAS PHARMACEUTICALS which is
categorized under pharmaceutical industry. This study may help the organization to adopt some
measures to improve their satisfaction and there by their quality of work life if necessary. Their
satisfactory level is based up on the wages and salaries, incentives, extra facilities provided by
the organization such as Bonus, festival benefits, transport facilities etc. Thus organization can
concentrate more on employees satisfaction through which their performance can be improved
and thus Quality of Work life can be maintained in a good way.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Bear field, (2003) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, and distinguished
between causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and service
workers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for different groups.
The distinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working life
reflects the influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg at al., (1959) used Hygiene factors
and Motivator factors to distinguish between the separate causes of job satisfaction and job
dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to the job, that is; job
content, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. The Hygiene factors or dissatisfactionavoidance factors include aspects of the job environment such as interpersonal relationships,
salary, working conditions and security. Of these latter, the most common cause of job
dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilst achievement can be the greatest
source of extreme satisfaction.
2. T S Nanjundeswaraswamy, Swami D R (2013) Used 9 components to measure quality of work
life of employees in Technical institution they are
Work environment

Organization culture and climate


Relation and co-operation
Training and development
Compensation and Rewards
Facilities
Job satisfaction and Job security
Autonomy of work
Adequacy of resources
In summary Male employees are more satisfied than female employees the chi square test
confirms that all the demographic factors like gender, designation, salary, department, and
experience are independent of quality of work life of employees in private technical institution
Study also reveals that there is a significant association between QWL of Teaching and Non
teaching staffs. From the correlation analysis it is find that Adequacy of Resources are more
correlated and Training & Development are less correlated with teaching staffs perception
towards quality of work life and in case of non teaching staffs Compensation & Rewards are
more correlated and Work Environment are less correlated with QWL.
3. Sirgy (2001) suggested that the key factors in quality of working life are - Need satisfaction
based on job requirements, Need satisfaction based on work environment Need satisfaction
based on supervisory behavior, Need satisfaction based on ancillary programmes. Organizational
commitment. They defined quality of working life as satisfaction of these key needs through
resources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the workplace. Needs as
defined by the psychologist, Abraham, were seen as relevant in underpinning this model,
covering health & safety, economic and family, social, esteem, actualization, knowledge and
aesthetics, although the relevance of non-work aspects is play down as attention is focused on
quality of work life rather than the broader concept of quality of life.
4. According to Rethinam (2008) QWL is a multi-dimensional construct, made up of a number of
interrelated factors that need careful consideration to conceptualize and measure. It is associated
with job satisfaction, job involvement, motivation, productivity, health, safety and well-being,
job security, competence development and balance between work and non work life and also he
concluded as QWL from the perspective of IT professionals is challenging both to the individuals
and organizations.
5. Hosseini and Jorjatki (2010) concluded that the career satisfaction, career achievement and
career balance are not only the significant variables to achieve good quality of work life but
quality of work life (QWL) or the quality of work system as one of the most interesting methods
creating motivation and is a major way to have job enrichment, which has its roots in staff and
managers attitude to motivation category that is more attention to fair pay, growth opportunities

and continuing promotion improves staffs performance which in turn increases QWL of social
insurance employees in Tehran.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be
understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically
Research Design
:
Descriptive research design
Sample Design
:
Simple Random Sampling
Population

The Employees of Madras Pharmaceuticals (1000)

Sampling Unit

The Madras Pharmaceuticals

Sample Size

200 Employees

Statistical Tools for Analysis

Percentage Analysis
Chi-Square Test
Weighted Average
Correlation Analysis
COMPLETE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

It is inferred that majority 43% of the respondents are between 31-45 years of age.

It is found majority 32% of the respondents are having less than 1years of experience.

It is found majority 33% of the respondents income lies between 10000-20000.

It is found that majority 36% of the respondents agree about respect in work place and
minimum 4% of employees strongly disagree that they get respect in their work place.

It is found that majority 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied towards their job
and minimum 4% of them are highly dissatisfied towards their job.

It is found that majority 36% of the respondents agree that they are not spending time
with their family and friends because of work and7% of employees opinion is neutral.

It is clear that 30% of the respondents says environment creates interest in work.

It is found that majority 46% of the respondents have stress in their work sometimes
and minimum11% of employees always have stress.

It is inferred that majority 41% of the respondents agree that promotion policies
adopted in their company are fair and minimum 1% of them strongly disagree.

It is found that majority 51% of the respondents strongly agree that safety and welfare
measures are periodically analyzed.

It is inferred that majority 77% of the respondents dont feel free to offer comments
and suggestions.

It is evident that majority 58% of the respondents says average for the welfare
activities and fringe benefits.

It is found majority 33% of the respondents of them are neutral about supervisor
concern about welfare activities and minimum 7% of them disagree.

It is found that majority 48% of the respondents are satisfied towards direction,
guidance and support provided their superior and minimum 4% of the employees are
highly dissatisfied.

It is found that majority 56% of the respondents say no for job security.

It is evident that majorities 46% of the respondents are satisfied towards drinking water
and minimum8% of employees are satisfied with transport.

It is found that majority 81% of the respondents are comfortable with on the job
training.

It is found that majority 62% of the respondents says to great extent the training
program helps them to achieve the required skill for performing their job efficiently.

It is evident that majority 74% of the respondents says that sometimes their ideas are
accepted and motivated by their superior.

It is evident that majority 81% of the respondents strongly agree that they are proud to
be a part of The Madras Pharmaceuticals.
MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
WEIGHTED AVERAGE
Table showing employees ranking towards motivational insights.
RANK
1
2

WEIGHTED AVERAGE
47.467
45.867

INSIGHTS
Interesting work
Recognition

3
4
5

39.333
36.267
31.067

Friendly Co-Workers
Awards & Rewards
Compensation

From the table it is clear that among the motivational insights, interesting work ranks the top
resulting an average of 47.467, followed by recognition with weighted average of 45.867.it
reveals that both the management and the workers are in mutual understanding as the interesting
work ranks high and the recognition of the workers ability and skill by the management is also at
high level.
The motivational factors like awards and rewards, compensation and friendliness with coworkers rank less than the general average of 40.It envisages that the management needs
concentration on awarding rewards and in paying compensation where as the workers shall
develop friendliness with their co-workers to make the work life a quality 0ne.
CHI-SQUARE TEST
Ho is null hypothesis
H0=> There is no significant difference between respect in work place and job satisfaction.
H1=> There is a significant difference between respect in workplace and job satisfaction.
Refer Table and chart no(1.1&1.2) for values
Table showing the calculation for Chi-square test
O

E
48
72
54
18
8
86
58
32
16
8

O-E
67
65
43
17
8
67
65
43
17
8

-19
7
11
1
0
19
-7
-11
1
0

TOTAL
Degree Of Freedom

(O-E)2
361
49
121
1
0
361
49
121
1
0

(O-E)2/E
5.39
0.75
2.81
0.06
0
5.39
0.75
2.81
0.06
0
18.02

= (C-1) (R-1)
= (5-1) (2-1)
=4X1
=4

Table Value
Calculated Value

= 7.815
= 18.02
= 7.815 < 18.02
Table value is < Calculated value
HO is rejected

RESULT:
Ho is rejected; hence there is a significant difference between respect in work place
and job satisfaction.
CORRELATION ANALYSIS
Job satisfaction VS Direction, guidance and support by superiors
X1 = Job satisfaction
X2 = Direction, guidance and support by superiors.

Refer Table and chart no (1.2&1.3) for values


Table showing relationship between Job satisfaction and Direction, guidance and support
by superiors

X1

X2

X1-X1

X2-X2

(X1-X1)2

(X2-X2)2

(X1-X1) *
(X2-X2)

86
58
32
16
8

48
96
34
14
8

46
18
-8
-24
-32

8
56
-6
-26
-32

2116
324
64
576
1024

64
3136
36
676
1024

368
1008
48
624
1024

= 40

4104
4936
3072
(X1-X1) (X2-X2)
r=
-----------------------------

X1 = 200 / 5

(X1-X1)2 E(X2-X2)2
X2 = 200 / 5 = 40
=

3072
---------------------- = 1.52
4104 X 4936

Result:
There is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and direction, guidance and support by
superiors.

SUGGESTIONS
The company may adopt good promotion policies to the employees by considering their
experience and qualification.
They can provide canteen for the employees as there is no such existence.
They can improve the transport facilities for the man power in production department
according to the shifts provided by the organization.
The stress of the employees can be reduced by providing alternative work schedules.
Job security can be provided to the employees by making them permanent after the
probationary period.
Participative management can be implemented so that employees can feel them as the
part of the organization.
They can increase the number of awards and rewards provided to the employees in order
to provide them better motivation.

CONCLUSION
As a human being we are living in a social structure. This set-up is based upon the
conventions of the culture, prevailing in the environment under which certain norms& adherence
to the practices is expected for all the members of the society. Similarly work culture in Madras
Pharmaceuticals is a composite mix of various cultural, social and ethical ideologies which acts
as a basis and directs the employees to incorporate the feeling of oneness in personnel objectives
with the company objective. High QWL and high organizational excellence is always highly
desirable, therefore management should ensure to provide all the things which can purely
improve the Quality Of Work Life and so the Organizational excellence can also be improved.
REFERENCES
Books referred:

P.SubbaRao, Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial


Relations - Himalaya Publications-1997.
C.B.Mamoria., Personnel Management: Twelfth Edition.
Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology, Vikas publishing house Pvt. Ltd, 1978.

Journals and articles referred:

P.SubbaRao and Alfred,Gitam Journal of Management, vol II.


HR review and Human Capital, Vol II and III.

T S Nanjundeswaraswamy, Swami D R (2013) "QUALITY OF WORKLIFE OF


EMPLOYEES IN PRIVATE TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONS", International
Journal for Quality Research 7(3) 314 ISSN 1800-6450

Bear field, S (2003) Quality of Working Life. Aciirt Working paper 86. University
of Sydney. www.acirrt.com

Sirgy, M. J., Efraty, D., Siegel, P & Lee, D. (2001). A new measure of quality of
work life (QoWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social
Indicators Research, 55, 241-302.

Rethinam, G. S. (2008). Constructs of Quality of Work Life: A Perspective of


Information and Technology Professionals. European Journal of Social Sciences,
7(1), 58-70.

Hosseini, S. M. (2010). Quality of work life (QWL) and its relationship with
performance. Advanced Management Science, 1, 559-562.
Table and Chart no 1.1: Table and Chart showing respondents opinion towards their
respect in the work Place
S.NO.

OPTIONS

NO OF
RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE(%)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
TOTAL

48
72
54
18
8
200

24
36
27
9
4
100

Table and Chart no 1.2:Table and Chart showing employees satisfaction towards their job
S.NO.

OPTIONS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

Percentage(%)

NO OF
RESPONDENTS
86
58
32
16
8
200

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Options

PERCENTAGE(%)
43
29
16
8
4
100

Table and Chart no 1.3: Table and Chart showing employees satisfaction level towards
direction, guidance and support provided by their superior.
S.NO.

OPTIONS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

Percentage(%)

NO OF
RESPONDENTS
48
96
34
14
8
200

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Options

PERCENTAGE(%)
24
48
17
7
4
100