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e-mail : ykwag@kau.ac.kr

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Radar Resolution
Resolution(4-Dimension : Range, AZ, EL, Doppler)

< Comparison of Low and High Resolution Radars >


Range resolution pulse width( ) & waveform BW ( B)

R C / 2 C / 2 B
Radar Engineering

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Radar Resolution
Enhanced Radar Resolution
- Enhanced Range Resolution using pulse Compression

target detection capability : wide pulse width for high energy


range resolution : narrow pulse width
Pulse Compression : wide pulses expansion when transmitting
narrow pulse compression when receiving

Enhanced cross-range resolution using large antenna


- Limited physical antenna size
- Synthetic antenna :

Synthetic aperture to simulate large antenna by moving small antenna to


a number of location
Cross-range Resolution (Azimuth)
X R 3 antenna beamwidth
R

Radar Engineering

D
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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Radar Resolution - Example


Example
Given
C band : 5.7GHz ,

pulse width : 3.5 sec

bandwidth: 4.0MHz ,

PRF : 550Hz

N L pulses : 64 pulses dwell ,

3 dB : 1.2o

Find how for target must be spaced from one another at a range of 20km
in R , AZ , Doppler.
solution
c
3 108
range resolution R

37.5m
2 B 2 4 106
1
net pulse width : 250 109 0.25 sec
B
No. of pulse compressed : 3.5
14
0.25
cross range resolution X R 3 ( 180) 20 103 1.2 ( 180) 418.8m
Doppler resolution f d
Radar Engineering

1
1
1

8.6 Hz
TD ( N L PRI ) 64 (1 550)
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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Pulse Compression
Concept
- Process of transmitting a wide pulse (for energy & detention)
and processing it to a narrow pulse (for range resolution)
CR E C : compression ratio

Type
- Analog PC

Frequency modulation
Matched filter

B 1 E

C 1 B

- Digital PC

Phase Coded
Correlation

Radar Engineering

where B = matched bandwidth

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Frequency and Phase Modulation of Pulses

Radar Engineering

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Linear FM Pulse Compression

Radar Engineering

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Binary Phase Coded Waveforms

Radar Engineering

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Pulse Compression Phase Code

Radar Engineering

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Pulse Compression
Digital Pulse Compression

z (t ) x( ) h(t ) d

z(t) : correlation function of delay time t


x( ) : received waveform
h(t+ ) : transmitted waveform, delayed by time t

< Correlation Pulse Compression >


Radar Engineering

10

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Pulse Compression
Phase-Coded Waveform
- Barker codes : 13-bit code

Best resolution for the given transmitted bandwidth


No side-lobe level, 13 bit-largest code

< Autocorrelation of 13-bit Barker Sequence >


Radar Engineering

11

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Pulse Compression
- Pseudorandom codes

< Autocorrelation of a 13-Bit Pseudorandom Sequence >

- 35 bit optimal sequence

< Autocorrelation of One of the 35-Bit Optimal Sequences >


Radar Engineering

12

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Concept
- A resolution cell is specified by range and azimuth resolution
cell

Range resolution is accomplished through range gating


: Pulse compression techniques Fine range resolution
Azimuth resolution depends on antenna size and radar wavelength
: radar motion in order to synthesize a larger antenna aperture
fine azimuth resolution

- Other factors affecting the size of the resolution cell

Size of the processed map and the amount of signal processing involved
Cost consideration
Size of the objects the need to be resolved in the map

Radar Engineering

13

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Concept Evolution


Low
Angular
Resolution
Radar

Point
Target
Detection

DBS by
Carl Wiley
in 1951

RAR

DBS

Real Aperture
Radar

Short Pulse Width for High


Range Resolution Pulse
Compression and Wide
Bandwidth

Range Resolution
Radar Engineering

High
Angular
Resolution
Radar

Doppler Beam
Sharpening

High
Resolution
Imaging Radar

SAR
14

Long Synthetic Aperture for


High Azimuth Resolution
Doppler Pulse Integration
during Dwell Time

Azimuth Resolution
Korea Aerospace Univ.

Real vs. Synthetic Arrays


Beam Development

< Real and Synthetic Array Beam Development >


Radar Engineering

15

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS)


- Doppler Beam Sharpening
(DBS) SARs

Improve azimuth resolution

3dB 2.0o
AZ 15o
R 10 Km
Vt 400 Kt 205.7 m s
f 10GHz

0.03 m

X R R 10 103 2.0( 180) 350m


< Doppler Beam-Sharpening Principle >
Radar Engineering

16

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS)


* DBS : resolution the slightly different angle with radial velocity as a
Doppler shift

3dB 2o / 8 cells
3dB 0.25o
<Doppler Spectrum for DBS Example >

fd

2Vt

cos

<DBS Example Data>

Radar Engineering

17

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS)


DBS Processing
- In Doppler beam-sharpening, the surface to be imaged is scanned by
the antenna as the radar flied past it.

<Range Bins Stabilization>

<DBS Processing>
Radar Engineering

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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)


High Resolution Radar High cross-range resolution
Concepts

X R R Deff (radians )

: real aperture radar antenna

X S R 2 Leff (radians )

: synthetic aperture antenna

Enhanced cross-range resolution


- DBS : Doppler Beam Sharpening
- SAR : Synthetic Aperture Radar
- ISAR : Inverse SAR
Radar Engineering

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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

< Synthetic Aperture Radar Concept >

Radar Engineering

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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Side Looking SAR (SLAR)


Array output is described as (ignoring space loss and element pattern)
N

vRe al { exp[ j (2 )dn] }


n1
N

vsynth {exp[ j (2 / )dn]}2


n1

3R Deff , 3S 2Leff
X R Leff R3 R Deff
X S 3S R

R
2 Leff

R Deff Deff

2 R
2

X S Re solution half of antenna

Radar Engineering

21

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Side Looking SAR Geometry

< Definition of minimum and Maximum Range >

< Footprint Definition >


- The size of the footprint is a function

of the grazing angle and the antenna


beamwidth
Radar Engineering

22

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Unfocused SAR
* Unfocused SAR resolution
2
Leff R / 2
- Data are corrected to simulate a circular flight path around
each scatterer focusing
-If the processing is unfocussed, the scatterers must be in the far field of the
synthetic antenna limiting its length to the following value
2
Leff R / 2
since

X S

R
2 Leff

, X S (U )

R
2(R 2)

( R 2)

X S (U ) R 2

Radar Engineering

X S ( F ) Deff 2

23

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Focused SAR
Processing for focused SAR
- Corrects the elemental signal phases such that all elements of the
resulting array are at the same distance from the target, after correction
for azimuth angles other than 90

<Data before and after Focusing>

Radar Engineering

24

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Focusing Principle
(Rn R) 2 R 2 (nS ) 2
assum (dRn / 2 R) 1,
n2S 2
Rn
2R
The phase error associated
with the range error is :
2(2Rn ) 2n 2 S 2
n

R
<Focusing Principle>

Radar Engineering

25

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Focusing Process
* Focusing Process

<Focusing Process>
Radar Engineering

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Korea Aerospace Univ.

Radar & SAR - History


Technology Evolution and Trends
1886
Radio Wave
DEMO,
H. Hertz

1904
Ship

Hulsmeyer

1920-30
CW
A/C
Radar

2000
SAR

LPI

1990
MultiFunction
SAR

1980
SAR

OTH

SAR System Trend :


, ,
,
, ,
Radar Engineering

1940
Pulsed
Radar
World WarII
1970
MTD
SAR
Radar

1950
Pulsed
DBS
Radar
1960
Phased
Array
Radar

SAR Technology Trend :


Multi-Freq. Multi-Polarization
Wide Bandwidth, High Resolution
Interferometry, Bi-Static
27

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Concept Evolution


Low
Angular
Resolution
Radar

Point
Target
Detection

DBS by
Carl Wiley
in 1951

RAR

DBS

Real Aperture
Radar

Short Pulse Width for High


Range Resolution Pulse
Compression and Wide
Bandwidth

Range Resolution
Radar Engineering

High
Angular
Resolution
Radar

Doppler Beam
Sharpening

High
Resolution
Imaging Radar

SAR
28

Long Synthetic Aperture for


High Azimuth Resolution
Doppler Pulse Integration
during Dwell Time

Azimuth Resolution
Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Range Resolution


Reference
signal

Pulse
compression

Radar Engineering

29

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Azimuth Resolution

3dB = /L a

- Creation of virtual large antenna


- Synthesized Antenna size = Beam width of original antenna
Radar Engineering

30

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Remote Sensing Advantages


- Ability to penetrate clouds, foliage
vegetation

and

- Distinguished from optics and IR

Complementary benefits

- All weather operation

Day-night operation

Extreme climates (polar regions, fire)

- Range and reflectivity information

Investigate geophysical properties

Active control of sensor parameters


- Frequency, direction, modulation

Radar Engineering

31

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Image characteristics


- Determined by

Strength of the reflected energy or backscatter.

- Backscatter is influenced by the system


factor of

Radar wavelength
Polarization
incidence angle

- Backscatter influencing target


characteristics

surface roughness
dielectric constant (related to moisture)
surface slope

Radar Engineering

32

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR/EO Image Comparison

EO Image

Radar Engineering

Washington. D.C

33

SAR Image

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Target Classification Characteristics

Radar Engineering

34

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR
Spaceborne SAR
Airborne SAR
UAV- SAR

/
/
/
/
/

/


/
/

National Strategic Dual-Use Technologies


Radar Engineering

35

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR System - Platform


Spaceborne -Satellite /Shuttle

Lacrosse()


(200-800km)

,
SR-71, U2()
Global Hawk()

Reconnaissance Vehicle


(15-30km)

,
J-STARS()

Surveillance Aircraft

(7.5-15km)

UAV

Predator()
/

/
(7.5km)

Radar Engineering

36

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Ku-Band SAR Payload (GA)

Predator B

Spotlight Mode - High Resolution

Latest Airborne SAR Resolution :

1 foot (30 Cm) 4 Inch(10cm)


Spotlight mode
Radar Engineering

37

PL020B
04-04-03

Korea Aerospace Univ.

Spaceborne Radar TerraSAR-X


2007. 6 .15

TRM 384
4.8x0.7 m Array

2010. 6 .20 TANDEM

Passive Array Radar


System Parameters

Korea Aerospace University

Radar carrier frequency

X-band (9.65 GHz)

Nominal radar duty cycle

13 % -18 %

Polarizations

HH, VH, HV, VV

Antenna length

4.8 m

Antenna width

0.7 m

Number of stripmap / Scan SAR


elevation beams

12 (full performance) 27 (access range)

Number of spotlight elevation


beams

124

Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)

2.2 kHz - 6.5 kHz

Range Bandwidth

150 MHz(300 MHz experimental)

Prof Y Kwag @ Radar Research Institute, KAU

Spaceborne SAR Cosmo Skymed


/
2007. 6. 8 (1st)
2007. 12. 9 (2nd)
2008. 10. 25 (3rd)
2010. 11.6 (4th)
Launcher: Delta
7420

Active Array Radar

TRM 1280
5.6x1.4m Array

Parameter

Value

Frequency

9.6 GHz (X-band)

Bandwidth

99.3 MHz

PRF

2905.9 ~ 4116.7 Hz

Polarization

HH, HV, VH, VV

Antenna size

5.6x 1.4 m

Power

SAR tx: 5kW / RF peak : 7.6 k W

# of TRM

1280

NESZ

-19 dB

Korea Aerospace University

KOMPSAT-5 in 2011

Nation

ITALY

Type /
Application

Earth Observing (Radar)


1900 Kg, 619Km Orbit, 5 Yr Life

Contractors

Alenia Spazio

Equipment

X-band synthetic aperture


radar (SAR)

Managed by

Italian Space Agency (ASI)

Coverage

Maximum width of up to 520 km


Prof Y Kwag @ Radar Research Institute, KAU

Space Shuttle Radar - SAR


: NASA/JPL, NIMA, DLR(, )
: 2000. 2. 11 17:43 GMT
: 11 5 38
: Global DTM 3 (Interferometry)
60m baseline
: +60 ~ -56, 225km swath
: C-band, X-band SAR
: 20m(), 10m()
: 80% DEM

Radarsat-2

SRTM
Project Interferometry SAR Image
Korea Aerospace University
Prof Y Kwag @ Radar Research Institute, KAU

Spaceborne SAR KOMPSAT-5


5

Korea Aerospace Research Institute


TAS-I (Tales Alenia Space in Italia)

Frequency

Launch site

Yasny, Russia

Inclination

98.5 degrees

Launching Date

TDB (2013. 5)

Life Time

5 years

Organization

Korea Aerospace University

Altitude

X band
550 km Down Dusk

Prof Y Kwag @ Radar Research Institute, KAU

SAR Image Seoul (RadarSat-1)

Radar Engineering

42

Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR Applications

3-D Image

Stereo Image

Underground Exploration

Security

(Prof. Kwag)

Land Use

Risk Management
Korea Aerospace Univ.

SAR
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
- Foot Inch Cm
SpotSAR mode ATR(Recognition )
- Broadband Wideband <500MHz Ultra High Resolution
Ultra Wideband >1GHz 7GHz
- Wide Swath Strip ScanSAR SweepSAR
(Digital Beamforming)
- , , , , ,
Constellation Fast Revisit
- -> Multi-Freq./Multi-Polarization
Target Identification
- (Interferometry)InSAR
Pol-InSAR (Polarimetric Interferometric SAR)
- Anti-Jamming Bi-Static, Multi-Static SAR
(Prof. Kwag)

Korea Aerospace Univ.


International Radar Conference Since 1970

2015

APSAR
2011

2016

Every Odd Year


in Asia-Pacific
Region

APSAR
2013

National

IEE/IEEE
International
Radar
Conference

2017

2013

Every Even Year


in European Region

2014

EUSAR
2012

IRS
IRS
Europe
Eu-Rad

5 5 IEEE
(USA, UK, France, China, and Germany, Australia)
Korea Aerospace University

Prof Y Kwag @ Radar Research Institute, KAU

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