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Chemistry and Its Importance

Chemistry earlier study of alchemy (an art


of transforming common metals to precious
metals, usually lead to gold but to no success)
(alchemy has since been proven to be a
wrong and currently dead branch of science)
Chemistry is the study of
the composition, structure, properties and int
eractions of matter.
Founder of Modern Chemistry (try and
read up on the history of these two great
men)
1.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
performed controlled experiments and
published his work with elaborate details
such as procedure, apparatus and
observations.
2.
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)
developed the Law of Conservation of
Mass and thetheory of combustion.
Scientific Method
1.
Making Observation
2.
Making Inference (smart guess)
3.
Identifying the Problem
4.
Making a Hypothesis
5.
Identifying the Variables
6.
Controlling the Variables
7.
Planning an Experiment
8.
Collecting Data
9.
Interpreting Data
10.
Making a Conclusion
11.
Writing a Report
SPM Form 4 Terminology and
Concepts: The Structure of the Atom
Important Terms
Matter anything that occupies space and
has mass.
Compound a substance
consists two or more elements that
are chemically bonded (molecule or ions).
Element a substance that cannot be made
into anything simpler by chemical reaction.
Atom smallest particle of an element.
Molecule a group of two or more atoms.
Ion
a positively charged / negatively charged
particle.

Cations positively-charge ions. Example:


H+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+
Anions negatively-charge ions. Example:
Br-, OH-, O2- and S2O32Velocity of the particle increases when

Temperature increases

Kinetic energy increases


Diffusion movement of particles from a
region of high concentration to a region
of lowconcentration.
Changes in the States of Matter
1.
Freezing / Solidification liquid ->
solid
2.
Melting solid -> liquid
3.
Evaporation liquid -> gas / vapour
4.
Condensation gas / vapour -> liquid
5.
Sublimation gas / vapour -> solid
6.
Sublimation solid -> gas / vapour
(Sublimation iodine, ammonium chloride
and solid carbon dioxide)
Important Scientist and Their
Contributions
Berry Berry Teacher thinks that it will be good
if students can link the contribution of each
great scientists to their findings. This will
allow a chronological understanding of the
discoveries (for easier understanding) and to
appreciate the work of these fine scientist.
John Dalton (1808) atomic theory
1.
Atoms small indivisible particles.
2.
Atoms
neither created nor destroyed.
3.
Atoms an element are alike.
4.
Atoms it combine in simple ratio.
5.
Atoms chemical reactions result
from combination / separation of atoms.
J. J. Thomson (1897)
1.
Electrons negatively-charged
particles.
2.
Atoms positively-charged sphere.
Ernest Rutherford (1911)

1.

Atoms consists of a positivelycharged nucleus with a cloud of electrons


surrounding nucleus.
2.
Protons positively-charged particles.
Niels Bohr (1913)
1.
Electrons surrounding the nucleus
(orbit).
James Cadwick (1932)
1.
Neutrons electrically neutral
subatomic particles.
2.
Neutrons mass almost the same with
a proton.
3.
Nucleus of an atom consists of
protons and neutrons.
Concepts of the Atomic Model
Modern Atomic Model
1.
Nucleus of an atom consists
of protons and neutrons.
2.
Electrons moving around
the nucleus (orbits / electron shells/
quantum shells)
Proton number / Atomic number /
Number of protons
1.
Number of protons in its atom.
2.
Number of electrons (neutral atom).
Nucleon number / Mass number /
Number of nucleon
1.
Sum of the number protons and
neutrons.
Isotopes atoms of the same element
with same proton number but different
nucleonnumbers.
SPM Form 4 Terminology and
Concepts: Chemical Formulae and
Equations Part 1
1. Relative atomic mass, Ar is the atomic
mass of an atom when compared to
a standard atom
2. Standard atom:
Hydrogen scale: hydrogen is the lightest
atom of all and the mass of one hydrogen
atom was assigned 1 unit.
Weakness of Hydrogen scale:

not too many elements can


react readily with hydrogen,

the reactive masses of some elements


were not accurate,

hydrogen exists as a gas at room


temperature and

has a number of isotopes with


different masses.
Helium scale: the second lightest atom of all
and the mass of one helium atom was
assigned 1 unit.
Weakness of Helium scale:

Mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times the


mass of a hydrogen atom

So, mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times


1/12 mass of a carbon atom

helium exists as a gas at room


temperature and

helium is an inert gas.


Oxygen scale: chose as the standard atom to
compare the masses of atoms
Weakness of Oxygen scale:

the existence of three isotopes of


oxygen were discovered,

natural oxygen (containing all the


three isotopes) as the standard (Chemist)
and

used the isotopes oxygen-16 as the


standard (Physicists).
Carbon scale: standard atom of
comparison internationally.

a carbon-12 atom is 12 times


heavier than an atom of hydrogen,

used as the reference standard in mass


spectrometers,

exists as a solid at room temperature,

most abundant carbon isotope,


happening about 98.89% and

carbon-12 is close to the agreement


based on oxygen.
3. Relative molecular mass, Mr of a
substances is the average mass of
a molecule (two or more atoms) of the

substances when compared 1/12 with of the


mass of a carbon-12 atom.
4. Relative formula mass, Fr is
for ionic compound which is calculated by
adding up therelative atomic masses of all the
atoms.
5. Example:

Relative atomic mass, Ar of helium = 4

Relative molecular mass, Mr of CO2 =


12 + 2(16) = 44

Relative formula mass, Fr of NaCl =


23 + 35.5 = 58.5

Relative formula mass, Na2CO310H2O


= 2(23) + 12 + 3(16) + 10 [2(1) + 16] = 286
Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (Name
at birth: Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo
Avogadro)

Born: 9 August 1776

Birthplace: Turin, Piedmont, Italy

Died: 9 July 1856

Best Known As: The guy they


named Avogadros number after
1. Avogadro constant / Avogadros
number is 6.02 x 1023
2. Atomic substances

Elements all the particles are atoms.

Example: zinc (Zn), sodium (Na),


aluminium (Al) and all noble gases, argon
(Ar), helium (He) and neon (Ne).

RAM (Relative Atomic Mass) of Na =


23
3. Molecular substances

Covalent compounds the particles


are molecules.

Example: carbon dioxide (CO2), water


(H2O) and non-metal elements, iodine
(I2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2).

RMM (Relative Molecular Mass) of


I2 = 127 + 127 = 254
4. Ionic substances

Ionic compounds the particles


are ions.

Example: sodium chloride (NaCl),


hydrochloric acid (HCl) and potassium
iodide (KI).

RFM (Relative Formula Mass) of HCl


= 1 + 35.5 = 36.5
5. Avogadros Law / Gas Law states that
equal volumes of all gases contain the same
numberof molecules under the same
temperature and pressure.

Example: equal volumes of molecular


hydrogen and nitrogen would contain the
same number of molecules under the
same temperature and pressure.
6. Volume of gas (dm3) = Number of moles
of gas x Molar volume
7. Room temperature and pressure
(r.t.p.) = 24 dm3 mol-1 (25C and 1 atm)

Example: What is the volume of 5.0


mol helium gas at s.t.p.?

Volume of gas = Number of moles x


Molar gas volume
= 5.0 mol x 24 dm3 mol-1
= 120 dm3
8. Standard temperature and pressure
(s.t.p.) = 22.4 dm3 mol-1 (0C and 1 atm)

Example: What is the volume of 5.0


mol helium gas at s.t.p.?

Volume of gas = Number of moles x


Molar gas volume
= 5.0 mol x 22.4 dm3 mol-1
= 112 dm3
9. Mass (g) = Number of moles x Molar mass
10. Number of particles = Number of
moles x Avogadro constant
11. Volume (dm3) = Number of moles x
Molar volume
SPM Form 4 Terminology and
Concepts: Chemical Formulae and
Equations (Part 3)
Empirical and Molecular Formulae
1. Empirical (simplest ratio of atoms of each
element that present in the compound) and
molecular formulae (actual number of atoms
of each element that are present in one
molecule of the compound) indicate:

the types of the elements

the symbols of the elements and the


ratio of atoms or

moles of atoms of each element in a


compound.
2. Molecular formula = (empirical formula)n
n is a positive number

+3 *
Chromium(III) ion
Cr3+
+3 *
Iron(III) ion
Fe3+
+4 *
Lead(IV) ion
Pb4+
+4 *
Tin(IV) ion
Sn4+
Compound
Molecular formula
n Empirical
* referformula
to the Roman numerals
Carbon dioxide
CO2
1
(CO
Ethane
CH3
2 (CH
5. Anions are negatively-charged ions.
Propene
CH2
3 (CH
Glucose
CH2O
6 (CH
Charge
Anions
Formula
Quinine
C10H12NO
2 C
-1
Bromide
ion
Br3. Chemical formulae for covalent compounds.
-1
Chloride ion
Cl-1
Chlorate(V) ion
ClO3Name
Chemical
Number of each element
-1
Ethanoate ion
CH3COOformula
-1
Fluoride ion
FNitrogen gas
N2
2 nitrogen atoms
-1
Hydride ion
HOxygen gas
O2
2 oxygen atoms
-1
Hydroxide ion
OHAmmonia
NH3
1 nitrogen atom and 3
-1
Iodide ion
Ihydrogen atoms
-1
Manganate(VII) ion
MnO4Water
H2O
2 hydrogen atoms and 1
-1
Nitrate ion
NO3oxygen atom
-1
Nitrite ion
NO24. Cations are positively-charged ions.
-2
Oxide ion
O2-2
Carbonate ion
CO32Charge
Cations
Formula
-2
Chromate(VI) ion
CrO42+
+1
Ammonium ion
NH4
-2
Dichromate(VI) ion
Cr2O72+1 *
Copper(I) ion
Cu+
-2
Sulphide ion
S2+
+1
Hydrogen ion
H
-2
Sulphate ion
SO42+
+1
Lithium ion
Li
-2
Sulphite ion
SO32+1 *
Nickel(I) ion
Ni+
-2
Thiosulphate ion
S2O32+1
Potassium ion
K+
-3
Nitride ion
N3+
+1
Silver ion
Ag
-3
Phosphate ion
PO43+
+1
Sodium ion
Na
-3
Phosphite ion
PO33+2
Barium ion
Ba2+
6. Chemical formulae for ionic compounds
+2
Calcium ion
Ca2+
+2 *
Copper(II) ion
Cu2+
Name
Chemical formula Number of
+2 *
Iron(II) ion
Fe2+
cation
2+
+2 *
Lead(II) ion
Pb
Zinc chloride
ZnCl2
1 Zn2+
+2
Magnesium ion
Mg2+
Copper(II) sulphate CuSO4
2 Cu2+
+2 *
Manganese(II) ion
Mn2+
Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3
2 Al3+
+2
Nickel(II) ion
Ni2+
7. Meaning of prefixes
+2 *
Tin(II) ion
Sn2+
+2
Zinc ion
Zn2+
Prefix
Meaning
+3
Aluminium ion
Al3+

Num
anion
2 Cl2 SO4
3 SO4

Mono1
Di2
Tri3
Tetra4
Penta5
Hexa6
Hepta7
Octa8
Nona9
Deca10
8. Naming of chemical (non-metal)
compounds with Greek numerical prefixes.
Non-metal compound
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Sulphur dioxide
Sulphur trioxide
Carbon tetrachloride
(tetrachloromethane)

Chemical formula
CO
CO2
SO2
SO3
CCl4

Development of the Periodic Table


Chapter 4

Elements were classified into 4 groups


Limitation some wrong information
(light and heat were consider as elements
B) Johann Dobereiner (1780 1849)
German chemist

Elements were classified into groups


named as triad (Triad Law relationship
between properties and atomic masses of
the elements)

Limitation few elements were


classified
C) John Newlands (1837 1898) British
chemist

Elements were
arranged horizontally in ascending order
of their atomic masses and each row
consisted of 7 elements (Law of Octaves
same properties were repeated at every
eight element)

Limitation obeyed by the first 17


elements only (from H to Ca)
D) Lothar Meyer (1830 1895) German
chemist

Properties of the elements were in a


periodic pattern with their atomic masses

Similar chemical properties occupied


the same relative positions on the curve
E) Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 1907) Russian
chemist

Periodic Table

A) Antoine Lavoisier (1743 1794) French


chemist

Elements were arranged in ascending


order of their atomic masses
Elements with similar chemical
properties were placed in a group
Gap for undiscovered elements
Prediction: gallium, scandium and
germanium (discover later)
Separate groups for certain elements:
transition elements

Meedeleevs Periodic Table was used


as a basis for the formation of the Periodic
Table
F) H. J. G. Moseley (1887 1915) British
physicist

Elements were arranged horizontally


in ascending order proton numbers

Elements with the same number


valence electrons same group

18 vertical columns Group 1, Group


2, until Group 18

Alkali metal Group 1

Alkaline earth metal Group 2

Transition elements Group 3 to


Group 12

Halogen Group 17

Noble gas Group 18

Horizontal row of the elements


period

Period 1 2 elements

Period 2 and 3 8 elements

Period 4 and 5 18 elements

Period 6 32 elements

Period 7 27 elements

Lantanides proton numbers 58 to 71

Actinides proton numbers 90 to 103

Elements (Group 1, 2 and 13) metal

Transition elements (Group 3 to 12)


metal

Elements (Group 15, 16 and 17) nonmetal

Carbon and silicon (Group 14) nonmetal


(Tips: Draw out the electron arrangements
of atoms of elements in a group side by side
on a piece of paper. Then compare them.
Then draw it again but put a mockup
periodic table beside your drawing. This
way, youll have a mental picture of the
electron arranngements, its position in the
periodic table and their interconnectivity.
This tip is provided by a top student during
his study days, very effective among Berry
Berry Teachers students)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes


Periodic Table of Elements (Part 2)
Relationship between the electron
arrangement of the atom of an element
to its group and period

The number of valence electrons


determines the chemical properties of
elements (group).

Elements in the same group have the


same number of valence electrons.

The number of shells occupied with


electrons in an atom determines the
period number of an element.
Group 1
Group 2
Period 2
Lithium / Li / 2.1
Beryllium / Be / 2.2
Period 3
Sodium / Na / 2.8.1
Magnesium / Mg / 2.8.2
Period 4
Potassium / K / 2.8.8.1 Calcium / Ca / 2.8.8.2
Group 18 elements

Group 18 elements are known as noble


gases (inert chemically and chemically
unreactive).
Atomic radius (atomic size)
increases (going down the group)
Helium atom has only one filled
electron shell which is 2 electrons (duplet
electron arrangement)
The outermost shell of the atoms (Ne,
Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn) have 8 electrons (octet
electron arrangement)
Atoms of noble gases do not release
electrons, accept electrons or share
electrons.

Element
Electron arrangement of atom
Helium / He
2
Neon / Ne
2.8
Argon / Ar
2.8.8
Krypton / Kr
2.8.18.8
Xenon / Xe
2.8.18.18.8
Radon / Rn
2.8.18.32.18.8
Physical properties

Monoatomic gases

Colourless gas at room temperature

Insoluble in water

Cannot conduct electricity

Poor conductors of heat


Melting point and boiling point
increases (going down the group)
atomic size increases and force of
attraction between atoms of each element
become stronger

Density of element increases (going


down the group)
Chemical properties

Chemically inert / not reactive / nonflammable do not gain, lose or share


electrons with other elements
Uses

Helium airships, weather balloons,


cool down metals

Neon advertising light bulb

Argon welding, filled light bulbs

Krypton used in laser, filled


photographic flash lamps

Radon treat cancer


(Tips: Please follow the safety precaution
prescribed by your teacher in handling the
alkali metals (if you were given the chance to
do so). The reason is simple, as you will only
need to see the volatile nature of alkali metals
here when they are in contact with water,
Brainiacs video on Alkali Metal <view here>.
After viewing the video, you should have no
reasons to not follow the safety precautions)
(Second Tips: Do try your best to memorise
the elements down the group. Read aloud
everyday a few times: Lithium, Sodium,
Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium and
Francium. If you do so, youll memorise it
without much effort. Thatll be an advantage
in exams.)
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Periodic Table of Elements (Part 3)

Alkali metal atom arrangement

Group 1 elements

Group 1 elements are known as alkali


metals

Atomic radius (atomic size)


increases (going down the group)

The outermost shell of the atoms (Li,


Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr) have 1 valence
electron

Good reducing agents

Very reactive increases (going down


the group)

Very electropositive increases (going


down the group)
Element
Electron arrangement of atom
Lithium / Li
2.1
Sodium / Na
2.8.1
Potassium / K 2.8.8.1
Rubidium / Rb 2.8.18.8.1
Caesium / Cs 2.8.18.18.8.1
Francium / Fr 2.8.18.32.18.8.1
Physical properties

Grey solids with shiny silvery surfaces


when freshly cut

Soft solids at room temperature

Good conductors of electricity

Good conductors of heat

Low melting point and boiling point


(compared to heavy metal)

Melting point and boiling point


decreases (going down the group)

atomic size increases and number of shells


occupied with electrons increases /
metallic bonding between atoms becomes
weaker & less heat energy is required to
overcome the weaker metallic bonding.

Low density (Li, Na and K float on the


surface water / Rb, Cs and Fr sink in the
water)

Density of element increases (going


down the group)
Chemical properties

Chemically very reactive and react


rapidly with oxygen and water vapour in
the air (must be kept in paraffin oil)

Reactivity increases (down the group)


how easily it can lose one (single)
its valence electronto achieve stable (octet
or duplet) electron arrangement

React vigorously with cold water


produce alkaline metal hydroxide
solutions and hydrogen gas

React with oxygen produce white


solid metal oxides and metal oxides can
dissolve in water to form alkaline metal
hydroxide solutions

React with halogens produce white


solid metal halides
Safety precautions

Cannot hold with bare hands

Wear safety goggles and gloves

No flammable substance nearby

Avoid the fire


(Tips: You should draw out the diatomic
molecules and their electron configurations
so that you can better understand why they
typically exist in the form of diatomic
molecules. Try to also memorise the atomic
size as they go down a group. Note whether if
it is metallic or non-metallic. How about
their oxidising abilities? If you can answer
those and beyond, you would have mastered
the basic knowledge on halogens.)
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Periodic Table of Elements (Part 4)

Molecules of Halogen

Group 17 elements

Group 17 elements are known


as halogens

Exist as diatomic molecules (F2, Cl2,


Br2, I2 and At2)

Non-metals

Atomic radius (atomic size)


increases (going down the group)

The outermost shell of the atoms (F,


Cl, Br, I and At) have 7 valence electrons

Good oxidising agents

Very reactive decreases (going down


the group)

Very electronegative decreases


(going down the group)
Element
Electron arrangement of atom
Fluorine / F
2.7
Chlorine / Cl
2.8.7
Bromine / Br 2.8.18.7
Iodine / I
2.8.18.18.7
Astatine / At
2.8.18.32.18.7
Physical properties

Non-metals

Insulators of electricity

Poor conductors of heat

Low melting point and boiling point

Melting point and boiling point


increases (going down the group)
molecular size increases / forces of
attraction between molecules become
stronger & more heat energy is required to
overcome the stronger forces of attraction
(Van der Waals forces of attraction
between molecules).

Colour: F2 (pale yellow gas),


Cl2 (greenish-yellow gas),
Br2 (reddish-brown liquid),
I2 (purplish-black solid) and
At2 (black solid rarest naturally
occurring element and extremely
radioactive)

Low density

Density of element increases (going


down the group) increase in atomic
mass
Chemical properties

Chemically reactive

Reactivity decreases (down the group)


how easily it can gain one (single)
more valenceelectron to achieve
stable (octet) electron arrangement

React with water produce two acids

React with hot iron produce brown


solids iron(III) halides

React with sodium hydroxide NaOH


solution produce water and two types of
sodium salts (sodium halide and sodium
halite(I))
Safety precautions

Poisonous gas

Wear safety goggles and gloves

Handle in the fume cupboard


SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Periodic Table of Elements (Part 5)

Elements: Zinc Copper Lead Magnesium

Elements in a period

The Periodic Table 7 periods (Period


1 to Period 7)

Proton number increases by one


(across a period from left to right)

Number of valence electrons of each


element increases (across a period from
left to right)
Across Period 3

Atomic radius / atomic


size decreases increasing number of
electrons / attraction by nucleus on the
valence electrons becomes stronger
(pulled closer to the nucleus)

Proton number increases positive


charge of the nucleus increases

Electronegativity (strength to attract


electrons towards its nucleus) increases
proton number increases / positive charge
of the nucleus increases

Change from solid to gas

Left solid metals

Right non-metals gases

Electropositive / metallic
properties decreases

Na, Mg, Al (metals): good conductor /


Si (semi-metal): weak conductor of
electricity / P, S, Cl (non-metals): cannot
conduct electricity

Na, Mg (metals): form oxides with


basic properties

Al (metal): form oxides with both


basic and acidic properties = amphoteric
oxides

Si (semi-metal): forms oxides with


acidic properties

P, S, Cl (non-metals): forms oxides


with acidic properties
Uses of semi-metals (metalloids)

Semiconductor (flow in one direction)

Microchip
The next part, Part 5 is the final part in this
series of notes from Berry Berry Easy on
the Periodic Table of Elements for SPM
Chemistry Form 4 students. The next post
which conclude the entire series of post will be
on transition elements.
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Periodic Table of Elements (Part 6
Final)
Transition elements

Elements from Group 3 to Group 12

Metals

Atomic radius (atomic size)


approximately the same

Solids with shiny surfaces

Very hard (compared to Group 1 and


Group 2 metals)

High density

Ductile (ability to stretched into wires


without breaking)

Malleable (ability to be bent into new


shape)

High tensile strength (ability to stay in


their shape without breaking)

High melting and boiling points

High density

Good conductors of electricity

Good conductors of heat

3
Sc
Y
La
Ac

Electronegativity is low but increases


(across the series)
4
Ti
Zr
Hf
Rf

5
V
Nb
Ta
Db

6
Cr
Mo
W
Sg

7
Mn
Tc
Re
Bh

8
Fe
Ru
Os
Hs

9
Co
Rh
Ir
Mt

10
Ni
Pd
Pt
Ds

11
Cu
Ag
Au
Rg

Colourful Complex of Transition Elements

Special characteristics

Form coloured ions (Cu2+: blue /


Fe2+: pale green / Fe3+: yellow)

Form coloured compound (cobalt


chloride crystal: pink)

Different oxidation numbers in their


compound

Useful catalysts (nickel


hydrogenation of vegetable
oil, copper(II) sulphate reaction of
zinc with dilute sulphuric acid to liberate
hydrogen gas, manganese(IV) oxide
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to
liberate oxygen gas, iron Haber
process,vanadium(V) oxide Contact
process, platinum Ostwald process)

12
Zn
Cd
Hg
Uub

Form complex ions (bigger-sized


polyatomic ion) (Hexacyanoferrate(III)
ion / [Fe(CN)6]3- )
Uses

Iron used as steel

Chromium coating corroded metals,


heat-resisting alloys and make stainless
steel

Copper making cables, pipes and


electrical wires

Titanium metal pipes and tanks, wings of


supersonic aircraft
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Chemical Bonds (Part 1) Chapter 5
Chemical Bond

Formation of Compounds

Compounds different elements


that chemically bonded together

Octet electron arrangement electron


arrangement of an atom where the
outermost occupied shell is filled
with eight valence electrons

Duplet electron arrangement


electron arrangement of an atom where a
single shell filled with two valence
electrons
Example:
Compound water is hydrogen and oxygen
atoms are chemically bonded together.
Stability of Noble Gases

Atom of noble gas does not gain, lose


nor share electrons with other atoms.

Noble gas atoms do not combine with


atoms of other elements to form
compounds or with each other to form
molecules.

Noble gases are chemically unreactive.

Noble gases exist as monoatomic.


Chemical Bonds

Types of chemical bonds:


ionic bonds (metal + non-metal)
covalent bonds (non-metal + nonmetal)
Atoms of other elements can achieve the
stable octet electron arrangement by

transfer of electrons

sharing of electrons

Ionic Bonds

It is a chemical bond formed from


the transfer of electrons from metal atoms
to non-metal atoms

Metal atoms donate valence


electrons to form positive ions (cations,
Mb+) and achieve the stable duplet or octet
electron arrangement of the noble gases

Non-metal atoms receive electrons to


form negative ions (anions, Xa-) and
achieve the stable duplet or octet electron
arrangement of the noble gases

Cations and anions are attracted to


each other by strong electrostatic force of
attraction
Example:

Metal
Sodium
Calcium
Lithium
Aluminium
Metals
Group 1

+
+
+
+
+

Non-metal
bromine
chlorine
oxygen
nitrogen

>
>
>
>
>

An aluminium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.8.3 achieves stability
after it donates three valence electrons to
form an alumium ion, Al3+. The electron
arrangement of the aluminium ion, Al3+, is
2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Non-metal
Group 15

Ionic compound
Sodium bromide
Calcium chloride
Lithium oxide
Aluminium nitride

A lithium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.1 achieves stability after
it donates one valence electron to form a
lithium ion, Li+. The electron arrangement
of the lithium ion, Li+, is 2 with stable
duplet electron arrangement.

A sodium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.1 achieves stability
after it donates one valence electron to
form a sodium ion, Na+. The electron
arrangement of the sodium ion, Na+, is 2.8
with stable octet electron arrangement.

A potassium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.8.1 achieves stability
after it donates one valence electron to
form a potassium ion, K+. The electron
arrangement of the potassium ion, K+, is
2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Group 2

A magnesium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.2 achieves stability
after it donates two valence electrons to
form a magnesium ion, Mg2+. The electron
arrangement of the magnesium ion, Mg2+,
is 2.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.

A calcium atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.8.2 achieves stability
after it donates two valence electrons to
form a calcium ion, Ca2+. The electron
arrangement of the calcium ion, Ca2+, is
2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Group 13

A nitrogen atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.5 achieves stability after
it accepts three valence electrons to form a
nitride ion, N3-. The electron arrangement
of the nitride ion, N3-, is 2.8 with stable
octet electron arrangement.

A phosphorus atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.5 achieves stability
after it accepts three valence electrons to
form a phosphoride ion, P3-. The electron
arrangement of the phosphoride ion, P3-,
is 2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Group 16

An oxygen atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.6 achieves stability after
it accepts two valence electrons to form a
oxide ion, O2-. The electron arrangement
of the oxide ion, O2-, is 2.8 with stable
octet electron arrangement.

A sulphur atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.6 achieves stability
after it accepts two valence electrons to
form a sulphide ion, S2-. The electron
arrangement of the sulphide ion, S2-, is
2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Group 17

A fluorine atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.7 achieves stability after
it accepts one valence electron to form a
fluoride ion, F -. The electron arrangement

of the fluoride ion, F -, is 2.8 with stable


octet electron arrangement.

A chlorine atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.7 achieves stability
after it accepts one valence electron to
form a chloride ion, Cl -. The electron
arrangement of the chloride ion, Cl -, is
2.8.8 with stable octet electron
arrangement.
Predict the Formula of an Ionic
Compound

Cation Mb+

Anion Xa
Formula of an ionic compound
formed, MaXb
Formulae for ionic compound
Metal
Non-metal Ionic
atom, M
atom, X
Compound
Group 1
Group 15
M3X
Group 1
Group 16
M2X
Group 1
Group 17
MX
Group 2
Group 15
M3X2
Group 2
Group 16
MX
Group 2
Group 17
MX2
Group 13 Group 15
MX
Group 13 Group 16
M2X3
Group 13 Group 17
MX3
Some common ionic compound

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Magnesium oxide (MgO)

Calcium sulphide (CaS)

Potassium oxide (K2O)

Magnesium fluoride (MgF2)


Structure of ionic compounds

The oppositely-charged ions, Mb+ and


Xa- are attracted to each other by a strong
electrostatic force.

It form a rigid 3dimensional lattice structure

Formed crystal.

Giant ionic lattice.


Berry Important Notes:

In the diagram of ionic compound, always


shows
The outermost shells of all ions must
achieve a stable duplet or octet electron
arrangement.

The charge of each ion must be placed


outside the bracket.

Label the ions.


In the next part (Part 3) of Berry Berry
Easy notes on Chemical Bonds for SPM
Form 4 chemistry students, Berry
Readers will learn covalent bonds and the
non-metals needed to form the bonds, the
different types of covalent bonds, examples
and structure of covalent compounds.
[Extra: Pure ionic bonds cannot actually be
formed as all ionic compounds have some
levels of covalent bonding. However, this is
not covered in the syllabus, hence it'll only be
for your own reference, in case you do extra
reading online and get confused. Hence, the
traditional ionic bond only exist when ionic
character > covalent character]
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Chemical Bonds (Part 3)

Molecules

Covalent Bonds

It is a chemical bond formed from


the sharing of valence electrons between
non-metal atoms to achieve the stable
duplet of octet electron arrangement.

Each shared pair of electrons is


as one covalent bond.

It produces molecules.

Usually the covalent bonds form


between non-metal atoms from Group 15,
16 and 17 and sometimes can be formed
from Group 14 (carbon and silicon) and
hydrogen.

Covalent bond can be formed from


atoms of the same element and atoms of
different elements.
Example:

arrangement after it contribute (through


sharing) three valence electrons to
another atom (can be from Group 14, 15,
16, 17).
Group 16

An oxygen atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.6 needs two more
electrons to achievestable octet electron
arrangement after it contribute (through
sharing) two valence electronsto another
atom (can be from Group 14, 15, 16, 17).

A sulphur atom with an electron


arrangement of 2.8.6 need two more
electrons to achievestable octet electron
arrangement after it contribute (through
sharing) two valence electronsto another
atom (can be from Group 14, 15, 16, 17).
Group 17
Non-metal + Non-metal > Covalent compound
Bromine
+ bromine
> Bromine (Br2)

A fluorine atom with an electron


Nitrogen
+ nitrogen
> Nitrogen (N2)
arrangement
of 2.7 needs one more
Carbon
+ chlorine
> Tetrachloromethane (CCl
electron to achievestable octet electron
Hydrogen
+ oxygen
> Water (H2O)
arrangement after it contribute (through
Hydrogen
+ nitrogen
> Ammonia (NH3)
sharing) one valence electron to another
Types of covalent bond formed:
atom (can be from Group 14, 15, 16, 17).

A chlorine atom with an electron

Single bond = one pair of electrons


arrangement of 2.8.7 need one more
shared between two atoms.
electron to achievestable octet electron

Double bond = two pair of electrons


arrangement after it contribute (through
shared between two atoms.
sharing) one valence electron to another

Triple bond = three pair of electrons


atom (can be from Group 14, 15, 16, 17).
Predict the Formula of a Covalent
shared between two atoms.
Compound
Non-metal

Non-metal X atom (valence electron


Group 15
is a)

Combine with another non-metal Y

A nitrogen atom with an electron


atom (valence electron is b)
arrangement of 2.5 needs three more

b = simplest ratio (n) and a = simplest


electrons to achievestable octet electron
ratio (m)
arrangement after it contribute (through

Formula of a covalent compound


sharing) three valence electronsto another
formed, XnYm
atom (can be from Group 14, 15, 16, 17).
Example:

A phosphorus atom with an electron


The electron arrangement of atom X is 2.8.6
arrangement of 2.8.5 need three more
and atom Y has four valence electrons. Which
electrons to achieve stable octet electron

of the following is the formula of the


compound formed between X and Y?

In the diagram of ionic compound, always


shows

(A) Y4X
(B) Y2X
(C) YX
(D) YX2
Solution:

The outermost shells of all atoms must


achieve a stable duplet or octet electron
arrangement through sharing.

The outermost shells of each atom


must overlap.

Label all atoms clearly.


SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Chemical Bonds (Part 4 Final)
Properties of Ionic and Covalent
Compounds

X has 6 valence electrons, it needs to


share 2 electrons to achieve the stable
octet electron arrangement.

Y has 4 valence electrons, it needs to


share 4 electrons to achieve the stable
octet electron arrangement.

Therefore, the formula of the covalent


compound is X4Y2 = Y2X4 = simplest ratio
YX2.
Answer: D
Some common covalent compound

Hydrogen molecule, H2 (single bond)


Chlorine molecule, Cl2 (single bond)
Bromine molecule, Br2 (single bond)
Fluorine molecule, F2 (single bond)
Water molecule, H2O (single bond)
Nitrogen trifluoride molecule,
NF3 (single bond)

Tetrachoromethane / carbon
tetrachloride, CCl4 (single bond)

Ammonia molecule, NH3 (single bond)

Oxygen molecule, O2 (double bond)

Carbon dioxide molecule, CO2 (double


bond)

Nitrogen molecule, N2 (triple bond)

Ethyne molecule, C2H2 (triple bond)


Structure of covalent compounds

Can be simple molecular structure or


giant molecular structure.

The atoms in the molecule are joined


together by strong covalent bond but
intermolecular forces are weak by weak
van der Waals forces.
Berry Important Notes:

Ionic Compound

Ionic Compound ionic bonding is strong


electrostatics forces between the oppositelycharged ions

propanone)
Conduct electricity Electricity
Cannot conduct elec
in liquid and
conductor
any state (no free mo
aqueous solution
(positive and
negative ions can
move freely).
Cannot conduct
electricity in solid
state (fixed position
and cannot move
freely).
Uses of covalent compounds as solvent

Ether solvents in the extraction of


chemicals from aqueous solution

Alcohol solvents used to make ink


Covalent Compound
and dye because these solvent are volatile

Turpentine dissolved paint


Covalent Compound covalent bonding is

CFC (chlorofluocarbons) solvents to


strong bonding between the atoms in the
clean computer circuits board
molecule

Propanone remove nail varnish

Ionic Compound Differences


Covalent Compound
Ions
Particles
Molecules
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Lost or gained
Electron
Shared
Electrochemistry
(Part 1)
Strong electrostatics Forces
Strong (Covalent
bond)
forces (Ionic bond)
between the
oppositely-charged
ions arranged in a
3-D giant crystal
lattice
Solid
State
High
Melting point
High

Melting point

Non-volatile

Volatility

Dissolve in water
and polar solvents
Do not dissolve in
organic solvent

Solubility in
water
Solubility in
organic solvent

between the atoms in the


molecule. Weak forces of
attraction between the
molecules (van der Waals
forces)
Gases or volatile liquids
Low (Simple molecules)High
(Giant molecules)
Low (Simple molecules)High
(Giant molecules)
Voltaic Cell
Very volatile (Simple
molecules)Non-volatile
(Giant
Electrolyte
molecules)
Electrolytes are substances that can
Do not dissolve in
water electricity in molten or aqueous
conduct
state and undergo chemical changes.
Dissolve in organic
solvent

It can conduct electricity due to


(ether, alcohol, benzene,
the presence of free moving ions.
tetrachloromethane and

Example for electrolytes (alkalis, acids, salt


solution or molten salt):
molten lead(II) chloride
copper(II) sulphate solution
solution containing ions such as
hydrochloride acid
Non-electrolyte

Non-electrolytes are molecules


that cannot conduct electricity and will
not undergo any chemical changes.

It cannot conduct electricity due to


the absent of free moving ions.
Example of non-electrolytes (covalent
substances):

This is the end of the introductory post


on Electrochemistry for SPM Form 4
Chemistrystudents by Berry Berry Easy.
Stay tuned to the next part, Part 2 of the series
which focuses onelectrolysis in molten
compounds.
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes
Electrochemistry (Part 2)

molten acetone

molten naphthalene

glucose solution
Conductor

Conductors are substances that can


conduct electricity in solid or molten state
but do not undergo any chemical changes.

It can conduct electricity due to


the flow of electrons.
Example of conductor:

iron

graphite

mercury
Ionic Compounds
Solid state
Do not conduct electricity
Ions are held in a lattice
Ions do not move freely
Covalent Compounds

Voltaic Cell

Electrolysis of Molten Compounds

Electrolysis (with battery / electricity


current) is a process of decomposition /
breaking down / separation of a
compound (electrolyte) into
its constituent elements when electric
current passes through it.
Important definition
Molten state or aqueous
state (dissolved in water)
Can conduct electricity Anode
Ions are free to move
Cathode

Electrode connected to the


positive terminal (+) of a battery
Electrode connected to the
negative terminal (-) of a battery
Solid state
Molten state or aqueous
Anion
Negatively-charged ion. Example:
state (dissolved in water)
Cl-, SO42- and O2Do not conduct electricity Do not conduct electricity Cation
Positively-charged ion. Example:
Na+, Zn2+ and Al3+
Exist in molecules
Exist in molecules
Molecules do not have free Exception: HCl and NH Classification of electrodes
moving ions
as free moving ions in water

Inert
electrodes
Active
electrodes

Electrodes that do not take


part in chemical reactions
during electrolysis
Electrodes that take part in
chemical reactions during
electrolysis

Example 1:
Molten magnesium oxide, MgO
Ions: Magnesium ions (Mg2+) & oxide
ions (O2-)

Cathode (Negative electrode):


Mg2+ move to the cathode

Anode (Positive electrode): O2- move


to the anode

Electrons flow from anode to the


cathode through the wire

Can conduct electricity


Example 2:
Molten lead(II) bromide, PbBr2

Ions: Lead(II) ions (Pb2+) & bromide


ions (Br - )

Cathode (Negative electrode):


2+
Pb move to the cathode

Anode (Positive electrode): Br - move


to the anode

Electrons flow from anode to the


cathode through the wire

Can conduct electricity


Example 3:
Molten naphthalene

Ions: No ions present (naphthalene is


covalent compound which consists of
molecules = uncharged particles)

No electrons flows

Cannot conduct electricity


This is end of Part 2, the next part of short
notes from Berry Berry Easy on SPM
Form 4 Chemistry
Electrochemistry will be on the main title
of Electrolysis of Aqueous
compounds focusing on the smaller subtopic
of positions of ions in the
electrochemical series.

Electrolysis
of Aqueous Compounds
Carbon
or
(dissolved
in
water, H2O)
platinum
There are three important factors to
determine
Copper
or zinc the types of ions to be discharged at
the electrodes.
1.

Positions of ions in the


electrochemical series
2.
Concentration of ions in the solution
3.
Types of electrodes used
1. Positions of ions in the
electrochemical series
The lower the position of the ion in the
electrochemical series, the easier the ion is
selectivelydischarged.
Electrochemical series:
Cation
Anion
+
K
FNa+
SO42Ca2+
NO32+
Mg
ClAl3+
BrZn2+
IFe2+
OH2+
Sn
Pb2+
H+
Cu2+
Hg+
Ag+
Au+
Example 1:
0.5 mol dm3 of potassium chloride, KCl
solution

Positive ions (cations): potassium ions


(K+) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): chloride ions


(Cl ) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode): H+ move


to the cathode (ions are selectively
discharge)

Anode (positive electrode): OH- move


to the anode (ions are selectively
discharge)
Example 2:
0.1 mol dm3 of copper(II) sulphate,
CuSO4 solution

Positive ions (cations): copper ions


(Cu2+) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions


(SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode):


2+
Cu move to the cathode (ions are
selectively discharge)

Anode (positive electrode): OH- move


to the anode (ions are selectively
discharge)
The next part, Part 4 of short notes
from Berry Berry Easy on SPM Form 4
Chemistry Electrochemistry will be on
the main title of Electrolysis of aqueous
compounds while focusing on the subtopic
of effects of concentration of ions in the
solution.
2. Effect of concentration of ions in the
solution
The concentration of a particular type of ion is
high = ion more likely to be discharged in
electrolysis.
Example:
2.0 mol dm-3 of lead(II) chloride,
PbCl2 solution

Positive ions (cations): lead(II) ions


2+
(Pb ) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): chloride ions


(Cl ) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode):


Pb2+ move to the cathode (ions are
selectively discharge)

Anode (positive electrode): Cl- move to


the anode (ions are selectively discharge)
Nevertheless, if the two ions are placed very
far apart in the electrochemical series, the
concentration aspect becomes insignificant.
Example 1:
2.0 mol dm-3 of sodium bromide, NaBr
solution

Positive ions (cations): sodium ions


(Na+) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): bromide ions


(Br ) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode): H+ move


to the cathode (ions are selectively
discharge)

Anode (positive electrode): Br - move


to the anode (ions are selectively
discharge)
Example 2:
2.0 mol dm-3 of lead(II) nitrate,
Pb(NO3)2 solution

Positive ions (cations): lead(II) ions


2+
(Pb ) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): chloride ions


(NO3-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode):


Pb2+ move to the cathode (ions are
selectively discharge)

Anode (positive electrode): OH - move


to the anode (ions are selectively
discharge)
This ends Part 4. The next part, Part 5 of
short notes from Berry Berry Easy on SPM
Form 4 Chemistry
Electrochemistry will be on the main title
of electrolysis of aqueous compounds while
dwelling on the subtopic of types of
electrodes used in the electrolysis.
3. Types of electrodes used in the
electrolysis
There are 2 important notes:

Inert electrodes: Carbon and platinum


(Both of these electrodes do not react with
the electrolytes or products of electrolysis)

Active electrodes: Silver, copper and


nickel (Active anode ionises and
concentration of cations in the electrolyte
does not change)
Example 1:
Carbon electrode (inert electrode) in the
electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous
copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution

Positive ions (cations): copper ions


(Cu ) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions


(SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Cathode (negative electrode):


2+
Cu move to the cathode (ions are
selectively discharge). A brown deposited
on the cathode.

Anode (positive electrode): OH- move


to the anode (ions are selectively
discharge). Gas bubbles are produced. A
colourless gas liberates and it ignites the
glowing wooden splinter.

The intensity of the blue colour


solution decreases because the
concentration of copper(II) ions
decreases.
Example 2:
Copper electrode (active electrode) in the
electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous
copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution

Positive ions (cations): copper ions


2+
(Cu ) and hydrogen ions (H+),

Negative ions (anions): sulphate ions


(SO42-) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Anode (positive electrode): OH- and


SO42- are not discharged. Copper anode
dissolves by releasing electrons to form
copper(II) ions, Cu2+. Copper anode
becomes thinner.

Cathode (negative electrode):


Cu2+ move to the cathode (ions are
selectively discharge) to form copper
metal. Copper cathode becomes thicker.

The intensity of the blue colour


solution remains unchanged because the
concentration of copper(II) ions remains
the same.
Other examples:
3. Copper electrode (active electrode) in the
electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous
copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 solution
4. Silver electrode (active electrode) in the
electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous silver
nitrate, AgNO3 solution

2+

This ends Part 5. The next part, Part 6 of short


notes from Berry Berry Easy on SPM Form 4
Chemistry Electrochemistry will focus on
the prediction of electrolysis products of
aqueous solutions and industrial applications
of electrolysis.
Predict the Products of Electrolysis of
Aqueous Solutions
Main factor: Position of ions in the
electrochemical series
Cation: The higher the position in the
electrochemical series are
very stable (remain as cation). Example:
K+ and Na+ are never discharged in an
aqueous solution in electrolysis.

Anions: The higher the position in the


electrochemical series are
very stable (remain as anion). Example:
F - and SO42- are never discharged in an
aqueous solution in electrolysis.
Second factor: Concentration of the electrolyte

Third factor: Types of electrode as anode


Electrolysis in Industries
A. Extraction of reactive metals

Reactive metals: Sodium, calcium,


magnesium and aluminium extract from
their compounds

Example: extraction of aluminium


from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 (bauxite) by
using cryolite, Na3AlF6 at 980C.
B. Purification of metals

Anode: impure metal

Cathode: pure metal

Electrolyte: solution containing the


ions of the metal to be purified

Example: purification of impure


copper metal.
C. Electroplating of metals

Electroplating is a process of coating


the surface of metal objects with a thin
and even layer of another metal.

Importance of electroplating is to
prevent corrosion and improve the
appearance.

Cathode: object to be electroplated

Anode: pure plating metal

Electrolyte: aqueous solution contains


plating metal ions
Voltaic Cell / Galvanic cell
It is an electrochemical cell which converts
chemical energy > electrical energy

Negative terminal: more


electropositive (higher position in the
electrochemical series)

Positive terminal: less electropositive


(lower position in the electrochemical
series)

Electrons released (more


electropositive metal) through the wire to
a less electropositive metal.
Example 1: Zinc plate and iron plate are
placed in 1.0 mol dm3 of lead(II) nitrate,
Pb(NO3)2solution

Negative terminal (Anode): Zinc metal


(Zinc plate dissolves to form Zn2+)

Positive terminal (Cathode): Iron


metal (hydrogen ions will be selectively
discharge to form hydrogen gas. It is
because H+ is lower position than Pb2+ and
Zn2+ in the electrochemical series)
Example 2: Magnesium plate and copper plate
are placed in 1.0 mol dm3 of sodium chloride,
NaCl solution

Negative terminal (Anode):


Magnesium metal (Magnesium plate
dissolves to form Mg2+)

Positive terminal (Cathode): Copper


metal (hydrogen ions will be selectively
discharge to form hydrogen gas. It is
because H+ is lower position than
Mg2+ and Na+ in the electrochemical
series)
Daniell Cell
It is another example of a voltaic cell.

Solutions are connected by a salt


bridge (inert electrolyte) or a porous pot.

The main function of a salt bridge /


porous pot is to complete the circuit by
allowing the movement of ions and
prevent two aq from mixing.
In the next part, Part 8 of short notes
from Berry Berry
Easy on Electrochemistry for SPM
Chemistry Form 4 students, the focus will
be on half equations and overall
equations, in addition to comparison of
Electrolytic Cells and Voltaic Cells.
Berry Important Half Equations
Anode:

2Cl - > Cl2 + 2e

2Br - > Br2 + 2e

2I - > I2 + 2e

4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e


Cathode:

2H+ + 2e > H2

Zn2+ + 2e > Zn

Fe2+ + 2e > Fe

Pb2+ + 2e > Pb

Cu2+ + 2e > Cu

Ag+ + e > Ag
How to write overall reaction equation?
Example 1:

Anode: 2I - > I2 + 2e

Cathode: 2H+ + 2e > H2

Overall: 2I - + 2H+ > I2 + H2


Example 2:

Anode: 2Br - > Br2 + 2e

Cathode: Pb2+ + 2e > Pb

Overall: 2Br - + Pb2+ > Br2 + Pb


Example 3:

Anode: 4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e

Cathode: 2H+ + 2e > H2 (x2)

Overall: 4OH- + 4H+ > 2H2O +


O2 + 2H2
Example 4:

Anode: 4OH- > 2H2O + O2 + 4e

Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e > Cu (x2)


Overall: 2Cu2+ + 4OH- > 2Cu + 2H2O
+ O2

.
Comparison of Electrolytic Cells and
Voltaic Cells
Similarities:
Two electrodes involves in the reaction
Electrons flow through the external
circuit (connecting wires)

Anode (oxidation): loss of electrons

Cathode (reduction): gain of electrons


Differences:

Electrolytic Cell
Main basic
A battery is needed to
structures
supply electrical energy
Energy conversion Electrical energy >
chemical energy
Transfer of electrons Anode (positive
at the positive
terminal): Oxidation
terminal
anions lose electrons at
the anode
Transfer of electrons Cathode (negative
at the negative
terminal): Reduction
terminal
cations accept electrons
from the cathode
Electrochemistry

It is an arrangement of elements
according to their tendencies to donate
electrons to form cations.

Higher position in the series = a metal


that has a higher tendencies to ionise and
form positive ions.

Electrochemistry is constructed by
the potential difference (voltage
difference) between pairs of metals and
the ability of a metal to displace another
metal from its own salt solution.
A) Electrochemical Series based on the
Potential Difference (Voltage
Difference)

To construct an electrochemical series


= measure the potential
difference between two metals in voltaic
cells.

Negative terminal (anode) in voltaic


cell has a higher tendency to release
electrons = higher position in the
electrochemical series (Positive
terminal (cathode) in voltaic cell has
a lower tendency to release
electrons = lower position in the
electrochemical series.

The greater the potential


difference (voltage) = further
apart the positions of two metals in
electrochemical series.
B) Electrochemical Series from the
Displacement Reaction of Metals

To construct an electrochemical series


= ability of a metal to displace another
metal from its salt solution.

Higher position of a metal in the


electrochemical series = able to displace a
metal below it from its salt solution.
Example:
Mg(s) + CuSO4(aq) > MgSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Mg is more electropositive than Cu


(placed higher than copper in
electrochemical series)

Mg atom loses electrons to form


magnesium ion and dissolves in the
solution.
The Importance of Electrochemical
Series
To determine:

Terminal of a voltaic cell


Voltage produced by a pair of metals
Ability of a metal to displace another
metal from its salt solution

Metal displacement of hydrogen from


an acid
The Importance of Electrochemical Industries

Extract useful metals (aluminium,


sodium and magnesium) from its ore
using electrolysis.

Manufacture of useful chemical


substances (chlorine and sodium
hydroxide) using electrolysis.

Electroplating of iron with chromium


to protect the iron layer.

Silver-plating to make fine cutleries.

Voltaic cell (batteries)


Effect of Electrochemical Industries towards
the Environment

Heavy metals (chromium and


mercury) cause water pollution.
Chlorine gas is a toxic gas cause
problem (irritates) to human respiratory
system.
Mercury cell (batteries) is highly toxic.
Improper disposal of industrial waste
cause water pollution.

Chapter 7 acid n basses


Acids

An acid is a chemical substance


which ionises in water to
produce hydrogen ions, H+ /hydroxonium
ions, H3O+.

H+(aq) + H2O(l) > H3O+(aq)

Example: HCl(g) + H2O(l) > H3O+


(aq) + Cl -(aq)
Acid
Acid name
Ions
HCl
Hydrochloric acid H+, Cl HNO3
Nitric acid
H+, NO3H2SO4
Sulphuric acid
H+, SO42CH3COOH
Ethanoic acid
H+, CH3COO
Monoprotic acid = acid can produce
only one hydrogen ion per molecule in
water. (Example: HCl)

Diprotic acid = acid can produce two


hydrogen ions per molecule in water.
(Example: H2SO4)

Triprotic acid = acid can


produce three hydrogen ions per molecule
in water. (Example: H3PO4)

Sodium hydroxide

Bases / Alkalis

A base is a chemical substance


which reacts with an acid to produce
a salt and water only.

Base(s) + acid(aq) > salt + water (l).

Example: NaOH(s) + HCl(aq) >


NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Base

Formula

Solubility in water

I
a
s
Insoluble base
Insoluble base
Insoluble base
Insoluble base
Insoluble base
Soluble base (alkali) N
Soluble base (alkali) C
Soluble base (alkali) N
Soluble base (alkali) K
Soluble base (alkali) B

Copper(II) oxide
CuO
Lead(II) oxide
PbO
Magnesium oxide
MgO
Zinc hydroxide
Zn(OH)2
Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3
Sodium oxide
Na2O
Calcium oxide
CaO
Sodium hydroxide
NaOH
Potassium hydroxide KOH
Barium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2
This ends Part 1 of the notes for SPM
Chemistry Form 4 on Acids and
Bases from Berry Berry Easy. In the next
part in the series, youll learn about the uses of
acid and bases in ourdaily life. So do stay
tuned and log on to this site in the future.
The Uses of Acids in Our Daily Life
Benzoic acid
Carbonic acid
Ethanoic acid
Hydrochloric acid

Nitric acid

Its salt are used to preserve food


To make carbonated drinks
A main compound of vinegar
To clean metals before electroplating /
household cleaning / leather
processing / swimming pool
maintenance
Production of fertilisers, explosives,

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes Acids


etching and dissolution of metals
and Bases (Part 3)
(purification and extraction of gold)
Sulphuric acid
To make detergent, polymer andChemical Properties
important Definition for Acids
fertilisers.
Monoprotic acid (monobasic acid) is an acid
Tartaric acid
Manufacturing of soft drinks, provide
which produce one mole of H+ ion when one
tartness to food, as an emetic (a
mole of the acid ionise in water.
substance to induce vomiting)
Monoprotic Monoprotic acid
The Uses of Bases in Our Daily Life
acid
name
Ammonia
Production of fertilisers (ammonium
HCl
Hydrochloric acid
and nitrate salts), used in the
HNO3
Nitric acid
manufacture of nitric acid, neutralise
CH
COOH
Ethanoic acid
3
the acid (in the petroleum industry) and
prevent premature coagulation in.
natural / synthetic latex.
Aluminium
Manufacture other aluminium Polyprotic acids
hydroxide
compound and to make gastric medicine
Diprotic acid (dibasic acid) is an acid which
(antacid)
produce two moles of H+ ios from one mole of
Calcium
To make cement, limewater, neutralise
the acid in water.
hydroxide
the acidity of soil and applicationDiprotic
of
acid Diprotic acid name
sewage treatment.
H2SO4
Sulphuric acid
Sodium
Used in the manufacturing of soaps,
H2CO3
Carbonic acid
hydroxide
detergents, and cleaners.
H2CrO4
Chromic acid
Acid
Alkali
Magnesium
Suspension of magnesium hydroxide in
H2C2Owater,
4
In
the presence of water,
an are
acidused
will as an antacid,
In the presence
an Ethanedioic acid /
hydroxide
water
used as of
an
+
Oxalate acid
ionise to form hydrogen
ion, H .
will ionise
to form
antiperspirant
armpitalkali
deodorant
and as
Triprotic acid (tribasic acid)
hydroxide
ion, OH .
a non-hazardous alkali
to neutralise
is an acid which
Sour in taste
acidic wastewater. Bitter in taste
produce three moles of
pH values less than 7
pH values more than 7
+
Indicator: Blue litmus paper (Red)
Indicator: Red litmus paper H ions from one mole of the
acid in water.
(Blue)
Triprotic acid Triprotic acid
Indicator: Universal indicator (Orange Indicator: Universal
name
and red)
indicator (Blue and
H3PO4
Phosphoric acid
purple)
C6H8Oorange
Citric acid
7
Indicator: Methyl orange (Red)
Indicator: Methyl
We have reached the end
(Yellow)
of Part 4 of the notes
React with bases to
React with acids to
produce saltsand water.
produce salts and water. for SPM Chemistry Form
4 on Acids and
2HCl(aq) + CuO(s) > CuCl2(aq) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) >
Bases from Berry Berry
NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Easy. In the next part in the
React with metals (reactive metal, higher React with an ammonium
series, youll learn about the
position than H+ in the electrochemical
salt (alkali is heated) to
berry berry important pH
series) to producesalts and hydrogen
produce ammonia gas.
gas.
Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2NH4Cl(s) scale colour of the
universal indicator. Very
2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) > ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
> BaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) +
important for exams, so do
2NH3(g)
stay tuned.
React with carbonates to
React with aqueous salt
producesalts, carbon dioxide
gas andwater.
H2SO4(aq) + ZnCO3(s) > ZnSO4(aq) +
H2O(l) + CO2(g)

solutions to produce metal


hydroxides (as
precipitate).
2NaOH(aq) + CuSO4(aq) >
Na2SO4(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes Acids


and Bases (Part 5)

pH value

(The above image is just a representation,


colours may vary, so please follow the
colours described in the table below)
The pH scale and the Measurement of
pH Value of a Solution

pH scale is a set of numbers used to


represent the degree of acidity or
alkalinity of a solution.
pH is a measurement of the
concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the
solution.
pH value greater than 7: alkaline
solution
pH value of exactly 7: neutral solution
pH value less than 7: acidic solution
In an acidic solution = higher in the
concentration of the H+ ions, the lower the
pH value.
In an alkaline solution = lower in the
concentration of the H+ ions, the higher
the pH value.
pH solution can be measured by using
universal indicator, pH paper and pH
meter.

Colour of Universal
Indicator
0, 1, 2
Red
3
Orange red
4
Orange
5
Orange yellow
6
Yellow
7
Green
8
Greenish-blue
9
Blue
10
Blue
11
Bluish-purple
12, 13, 14
Purple
Strong Acids

Strength of an acid
the degree of ionisation or dissociation of
the acid in water.

Strong acid an acid which ionises /


dissociates completely in water to
form high concentration of hydrogen
ions (H+).

Example of strong acid: Mineral acid


hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid
(HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4).

Example of the strong acid reaction in


water: HCl(aq) > H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) (The
concentration of hydrogen ions is equal to
the concentration of hydrochloric acid)
Weak Acids

Weak acid an acid which ionises /


dissociates partially in water to form low
concentration ofhydrogen ions (H+).

Example of weak acid: ethanoic acid


(CH3COOH) and methanoic acid
(HCOOH)

Example of the weak acid reaction in


water: CH3COOH <-> CH3COO-(aq) +
H+(aq) {The concentration of hydrogen
ions is low and the ions (CH3COO- and H+)
reacts to reform the ethanoic acid
molecule = reversible reaction}

Strong Alkalis

Strength of an alkali
the degree of ionisation or dissociation of
the alkali in water.

Strong alkali an alkali


which ionises / dissociates
completely in water to form high
concentration of hydroxide ions (OH ).

Example of strong alkali: Sodium


hydroxide (NaOH) solution, potassium
hydroxide (KOH) solution and barium
hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) solution.

Example of the strong alkali reaction


in water: NaOH(aq) > Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Weak Alkalis

Weak alkali an alkali which ionises /


dissociates partially in water to form low
concentrationof hydroxide ions (OH ).

Example of weak alkali: ammonia


(NH3) solution.

Example of the weak alkali reaction in


water: NH3(g) + H2O(l) <-> NH4+(aq) +
OH- (aq)
This is the end of this part. Stay tuned for the
upcoming Part 7 in the series of notes
by Berry Berry Easy on the topic of Acids
and Bases for SPM Form 4
Chemistry students where we will be sharing
information on the concentration of acids and
alkalis, pelationship between number of moles
with molarity and volume of a solution,
preparation of standard solutions, dilution
method and relationship between pH Values
and molarities of acids or alkalis for SPM
Chemistry. It sounds long and comprehensive
but it is really not, just a compilation of many
shorter points.
Concentration of Acids and Alkalis

Quantity of solute can be measured in


grams or moles: g dm-3 or mol dm-3.

Concentration (g dm-3) = mass of


solute (g) / volume of solution (dm3)

Concentration (mol dm-3) = number of


moles of solute (mol) / volume of solution
(dm3)

Relationship between Number of Moles


with Molarity and Volume of a Solution

Molarity (mol dm-3) = number of


moles of solution (mol) / volume of
solution (dm3)

M = molarity of solution (mol dm-3), V


= Volume of solution (dm3), n = Number
of moles of solute (mol)

M = n/V
Preparation of Standard Solutions

Standard solution = a solution in


which its concentration is accurately
known.

Standard solution is prepared by using


volumetric flask with a fixed volume (100
cm3, 200 cm3, 250 cm3, 500 cm3 and 1000
cm3)
Preparation of a Solution by Dilution
Method

Dilution = a process of diluting a


concentrated solution by adding a
solvent (water) to obtain amore diluted
solution.

The concentration of the


solution decreases after dilution.

The number of moles of solute in the


solution remains unchanged after
dilution.

(MaVa) / 1000 = (MbVb) / 1000

Ma = Initial molarity of solution, Mb =


Final molarity of solution, Va = Initial
volume of solution and Vb = Final volume
of solution
Relationship between pH Values and
Molarities of Acids or Alkalis

pH values depends on degree of


dissociation and molarity / concentration
of hydrogen ions, H+/ hydroxide ions,
OH- in the solution.

The higher the molarity of a strong


acid, the lower is its pH value.

The higher the molarity of a strong


alkali, the higher is its pH value.

The molarity of an acid can be


changed when (i) water is added, (ii) an

acid of different concentration is added


and (iii) an alkali is added.
Neutralisation

Neutralisation = a reaction between


an acid and a base/alkali to
produce salt and water only.

Acid + alkali > salt + water

Ionic equation of neutralisation: H+


(aq) + OH-(aq) > H2O(l)
Application of Neutralisation Reactions
in Daily Life
Digestive juices in
stomach
Insect stings
Toothpaste

pH of the swimming
pool
Latex industries

Titration a quantitative analysis


method to determine the volume of
an acid that is required
to neutralise a fixed volume of an alkali / a
quantitative analysis method to determine
the volume of an alkali that is required to
neutralise a fixed volume of an acid.

End point of a titration


a point which neutralisation occurs when
the acid has completely neutralised the
alkali / the alkali
has completely
neutralised the acid.
Break up food (only in acidic condition)
and
Reactants: Acid and alkali
maintained at pH of between

Products:
Salt and water
Bees and ants inject an acidic liquid into
the
liquid.
End point can be determined by (i) the
skin but wasps inject an alkaline
use of acid-base indicators during
An alkaline compound (magnesium
titration, (ii) measuring the pH values of
hydroxide) in toothpastes
the solution during titration and (iii)
organic acids produced by the food.
measuring the electrical conductivity of
Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)
solution during titration.
water.

Alkali Neutral
Ammonia is used to neutraliseIndicator
the organic
Litmus
Blue
Orange
acidproduces by bacteria to prevent
Methyl orange
Yellow Orange
coagulation.
Pink
Colourless
Neutralisation
Manufacture fertilisers, soaps Phenolphthalein
and detergents
Finally,
you
have
arrived
at
the
end
of
this
Effluent from factories It can be treated with lime
series
of notes on Acids and Bases for SPM
Sulphuric acid
Manufacture of dyes, explosives,
steel,
Form
4 Chemistry by Berry Berry Easy.
fertilisers, paints and plastics.
Soil treatment
Plants grow best when the pH of the soil
about 7. The soil is too acidic, quick lime
(calcium oxide) or slaked lime (calcium
hydroxide) is added to the soil to neutralise
the excess acid.
You have reached the end of Part 8 of
essential short notes on Acids and
Bases by Berry Berry Easy specially for
SPM Chemistry Form 4 students. In the next
post, youll learn about the very exampopular acid-base titration. So make sure
you dont miss out on the next post.

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes Acids


and Bases (Part 9 Final)
Acid-base Titration

Acid
Red
Red
Colourless