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Fundamentalsof

Fundamentals
of
StreetPave Software
StreetPaveSoftware
Apresentationforpromotion
professionalsbythe
AmericanConcrete
PavementAssociation
Skokie,Ill.
and
National Ready Mixed
NationalReadyMixed
ConcreteAssociation
SilverSpring,Md.

I t d ti
Introduction

Objective
Providepromotion
Provide
promotion
professionalswitha
resourcetoguide
andassistengineers
inusingStreetPave
f t t
forstreetsandroads
d
d
design.

PresentationOverview
Basicpavementdesign
p
g
principles.
StreetPavefundamentals.
Factorsaffecting
pavementdesign.
Frameworkforpavement
F
kf
t
designoptimization.

Presentation Goals
PresentationGoals
Understand
Understandrelationship
relationship
betweendesignfeatures,
costs,andperformance.
Establishframeworkfor
assistingcustomersin
pavementtypeselection.
Establishframeworkfor
assistingcustomersin
optimizeddesigns.

B i P
BasicPavementDesignPrinciples
tD i P i i l

Some Basic Principles


SomeBasicPrinciples
Concrete
Concretepavementsareengineeredstructuresand
pavements are engineered structures and
so,mustbedesigned,notsimplyplaced.
Pavementdesignisaboutmorethanjustmeeting
g
j
g
specs;designershavethelatitudetochangeawide
rangeoffeatures.
Traffic,typeoffacility,climate,etc.areamong
variablesinfluencingdesignandcosts.

Streets and Roads Thickness Design


StreetsandRoadsThicknessDesign
Surface smoothness
or rideability

Thickness Design

Longitudinal joint
Transverse joint
Surface Texture

Concrete materials
Tiebars
Subgrade
Subbase

D
Dowel
l bars
b
(may
(
b optional)
be
ti
l)

Understanding Design Optimization


UnderstandingDesignOptimization
Design
Designoptimizationisthebalanceofperformance
optimization is the balance of performance
featuresandcosts.
StreetPaveallowsdesignertovaryprojectspecific
g
yp j
p
inputstoachieveoptimizeddesign.

Understanding Design Optimization


UnderstandingDesignOptimization
Designoptimizationinvolvesadjustingvariablesto:
g p
j
g
Achievelonglife(durability),
Reduceinitialcosts,
Minimizemaintenanceandrehabilitationcosts,
and/or
Enhancesustainability.
Enhance sustainability

St tP
StreetPaveFundamentals
F d
t l

Historical Basis for StreetPave


HistoricalBasisforStreetPave
PCAsthicknessdesign
methodologyoriginally
publishedin1933
Updatedin1951,1966,
andagainin1984
PCAdevelopedPCAPAV
programforiterative
thicknessdesign(latest
version1990)

StreetPave DesignSoftware
Design Software
Pavementdesigntool
geared primarily to streets
gearedprimarilytostreets
androads.
BasedonthePCAs
p
pavementthicknessdesign
g
methodology.
Usedforbothnewand
existingandnew
pavementdesign
d i
StreetPavewillanalyze
designconstraints&
requirements,pavement
i
t
t
properties,andtraffic
characteristics.

StreetPave Capabilities
StreetPaveCapabilities
Provides
Providesareal
a realworld
worldanalysisofindividualor
analysis of individual or
combineddesignfeatures.
AllowsLifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA)tocompare
y
y (
)
p
hardcosts(ifcost&performancedataavailable).
y
Considersnonmonetaryfactors.
Canbeusedforoverlays.

StreetPave Capabilities
StreetPaveCapabilities
Foranewconcrete
pavementanalysis,
StreetPavewilloutputa
d i
designrecommendation
d ti
forconcretethickness,
dowel bar use and
dowelbaruse,and
maximumtransverse
jointspacing.

StreetPave
Capabilities
StreetPaveCapabilities
Forexistingconcrete
pavements,StreetPave
willoutputthe
th
theoreticalyearinwhich
ti l
i hi h
thepavementwillfail,
along with total erosion
alongwithtotalerosion
andfatigueprojections.

F t Aff ti P
FactorsAffectingPavement
t Design
D i

Understanding Design Variables


UnderstandingDesignVariables
Pavementdesigninputscanbebroadlyclassifiedas
one of the following:
oneofthefollowing:
Siteconditioninputs(fixed,cannotoptimize)
Traffic
Environmentalconditions
Subgrade support?

Projectspecificvariables(variable,canbeoptimized)
Concretestrength
Loadtransfer
d
f
Othersdependingondesignmethodused

Design Life
DesignLife
Commonly
Commonly20to35years.
20 to 35 years.
Shorterorlongerperiodmaybeeconomically
j
justified.
Highperformanceconcretepavements:

Longlifepavements
g
p
Specialhaulroad(tobeusedforonlyafewyears)
Crossovers
Temporarylanes

Levels of Reliability
LevelsofReliability
Functional Classification of Roadway
FunctionalClassificationofRoadway

RecommendedReliability
Urban

Rural

Interstates,Freeways,andTollways

85 99

80 99

PrincipalArterials

80 99

75 95

Collectors

80 95

75 95

Residential&LocalRoads

50 80

50 80

Failure Criteria (Slab Cracking)


FailureCriteria(SlabCracking)
RoadwayType

RecommendedPercentofSlabs
Cracked at End of Design Life
CrackedatEndofDesignLife

(Default)

15%

InterstateHighways,Expressways,
Tollways,Turnpikes

5%

StateRoads,Arterials
d
l

10%

Collectors,CountyRoads

15%

ResidentialStreets

25%

F
FrameworkforPavementDesignOptimization
kf P
t D i O ti i ti

Global Inputs in StreetPave


GlobalInputsinStreetPave

Projectinformation
Designlife
Reliability*
Failurecriteria*
Terminalserviceability
Percentcrackedslabs

*Shouldbeselectedbasedonpolicyandexperience.

StreetPave Input Examples


StreetPaveInputExamples
StreetPavewebversion

StreetPave Input Examples


StreetPaveInputExamples
Firstscreenof
walkthrough
wizard

Global Settings
GlobalSettings

Combined Effects: Reliability & Failure


CombinedEffects:Reliability&Failure

Site Condition Inputs in StreetPave


SiteConditionInputsinStreetPave
Fixedvariablesforspecificprojectsandlocations

Trafficcategory
Totalnumberoflanes
Directionaldistribution
Designlanedistribution
ADTT ADT l
ADTTorADTpluspercentageoftrucks
f
k
Trucktrafficgrowth
S b d
Subgradesupportvalue(kvalue)
t l (k l )

Traffic Inputs
TrafficInputs

Street Classification and Traffic


StreetClassificationandTraffic
Comprehensivetrafficstudieshaveshown:
Streetsofsimilarcharacterhaveessentiallythesame
trafficdensitiesandaxleloadintensities.

StreetPave hasdividedSLRpavementsintosix
has divided SLR pavements into six
differentclassifications.
Eachclassificationincludes:
Trafficvolumes.
Typesofvehicles.
Maximumaxleloadings.
Ma im m a le loadings

Street Classifications
StreetClassifications
StreetClass

Description

Twoway
AverageDaily
Average
Daily
Traffic
(ADT)

Twoway
AverageDaily
Average
Daily
TruckTraffic
(ADTT)

TypicalRangeof
Typical
Range of
SlabThickness

Light
Residential

Shortstreetsinsubdivisionsand
similarresidentialareas oftennot
throughstreets.

Lessthan200

24

4.0 5.0in.
(100125mm)

Residential

Throughstreetsinsubdivisionsand
similarresidentialareasthat
occasionall carr a hea
occasionallycarryaheavyvehicle
ehicle
(truckorbus).

2001,000

1050

5.0 7.0in.
(125175mm)

Collector

Streetsthatcollecttrafficfromseveral
residentialsubdivisions,andthatmay
serve buses and trucks
servebusesandtrucks.

1,0008,000

50500

5.5 9.0in.
(135225mm)

Continued

Street Classifications
StreetClassifications
Continued

StreetClass

Description

Twoway
AverageDaily
Average
Daily
Traffic
(ADT)

Twoway
AverageDaily
Average
Daily
TruckTraffic
(ADTT)

TypicalRangeof
Typical
Range of
SlabThickness

Business

Streetsthatprovideaccesstoshopping
andurbancentralbusinessdistricts.

11,000
17,000

400700

6.0 9.0in.
(150225mm)

Industrial

Streetsthatprovideaccesstoindustrial
areasorparks,andtypicallycarry
heaviertrucksthanthebusinessclass.

2,0004,000

300800

7.0 10.5in.
(175260mm)

Arterial

Streetsthatservetrafficfrommajor
expresswaysandcarrytrafficthrough
metropolitanareas.Truckandbus
routes are primarily on these roads
routesareprimarilyontheseroads.

4,000
15,000
(minor)
4 000
4,000
30,000
(major)

300600

6.0 9.0in.
(150225mm)
7.0 11.0in.
(175275 mm)
(175275mm)

7001 500
7001,500

Traffic Categories
TrafficCategories
Axle
Load
C t
Category

MaximumAxleLoads
(kips)

Traffic
Description
ADT

Residentialstreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads
(L to M)
(LtoM)
CollectorStreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads(H)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(L)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(M)
Expressways;urbanandruralinterstates(LtoM)

Arterialstreets,primaryroads,expressways(H)
Urbanandruralinterstates(MtoH)

ADTT**

SingleAxles

Tandem
Tandem
Axles

PerDay

200800

13

Upto
25

22

36

7005000

518

401000

26

44

830

5005000+

30

52

830

10008000+

34

60

300012,000
2lane
300050,000+
4laneormore
300020,000
2lane
3000150,000+
4laneormore

Continued

Traffic Categories
TrafficCategories
Axle
Load
C t
Category
1

MaximumAxleLoads
(kips)

Traffic
Description
ADT
Residentialstreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads(LtoM)

CollectorStreets
Ruralandsecondary
roads(H)
Arterialstreetsand
primaryroads(L)
i
d (L)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(M)
Expressways;urbanandruralinterstates(LtoM)

Arterialstreets,primaryroads,expressways(H)
Urbanandruralinterstates(MtoH)

ADTT**

SingleAxles

Tandem
Tandem
Axles

PerDay

200800

13

Upto25

22

36

7005000

518

40
1000

26

44

830

5005000+

30

52

830

10008000+

34

60

300012,000
2lane
300050,000+
4laneormore
3000 20,000
300020,000
2lane
3000150,000+
4laneormore

Continued

Traffic Categories
TrafficCategories
Axle
Load
C t
Category
1

MaximumAxleLoads
(kips)

Traffic
Description
ADT
Residentialstreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads(LtoM)
CollectorStreets
R l d
Ruralandsecondaryroads(H)
d
d (H)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(L)

SingleAxles

Tandem
Tandem
Axles

PerDay

200800

13

Upto25

22

36

700 5000
7005000

5 18
518

40 1000
401000

26

44

830

500
5000+

30

52

830

10008000+

34

60

300012,000
2lane
Arterialstreetsandprimary
roads (M); Expressways;
roads(M);Expressways;
3000
3000
urbanandruralinterstates
50,000+
(LtoM)
4laneor
more
Arterialstreets,primaryroads,expressways(H)
Urbanandruralinterstates(MtoH)

ADTT**

300020,000
2lane
3000150,000+
4laneormore

Continued

Traffic Categories
TrafficCategories
Axle
Load
C t
Category
1

MaximumAxleLoads
(kips)

Traffic
Description
ADT
Residentialstreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads(LtoM)

CollectorStreets
Ruralandsecondaryroads(H)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(L)
Arterialstreetsandprimaryroads(M)
Expressways;urbanandruralinterstates(LtoM)

Arterialstreets,primary
roads,expressways(H)
Urban and rural interstates
Urbanandruralinterstates
(MtoH)

ADTT**

SingleAxles

Tandem
Tandem
Axles

PerDay

200800

13

Upto25

22

36

7005000

518

401000

26

44

830

5005000+

30

52

830

1000
8000+

34

60

300012,000
2lane
300050,000+
4laneormore

300020,000
2lane
3000
150 000+
150,000+
4laneor
more

Axle Load Distributions


AxleLoadDistributions

Pavement Property Analysis


PavementPropertyAnalysis

Subgrade Properties
ResilientModulusoftheSubgrade
Support

ResilientModulus
Resilient
Modulus
(MR),psi

Low

14552325

Sandandsandgravelwithmoderate
silt/clay

Medium

25003300

Sandandsandgravelwithlittleorno
silt/clay

High

35004275

SoilType
Finegrainedwithhighamountsof
silt/clay

Subgrade Properties
SubgradeProperties
SubgradeSoilTypesandApproximatekValues
TypeofSoil
Finegrainedsoilsinwhichsiltandclaysize
particles predominate
particlespredominate
Sandsandsandgravelmixtureswithmoderate
amounts of silt and clay
amountsofsiltandclay
Sandsandsandgravelmixturesrelativelyfree
of plastic fines
ofplasticfines

Support

kvaluerange

Low

75 120pci
((20 34
MPa/m)

Medium

130 170pci
(35 49
MPa/m)

High

180 220pci
(50 60
MPa/m)

Project Specific Variables in StreetPave


ProjectSpecificVariablesinStreetPave
Variableswhichcanbeoptimizedforspecificprojects
Variables which can be optimized for specific projects
Subbasetype,thicknessandstrength(compositek)
Concreteproperties
Concrete properties
Modulusofrupture(MR)
Elasticmodulus(relatedtoMR)

Loadtransfertype
Edgesupportconditions

Design Example For Sensitivity Analysis


DesignExampleForSensitivityAnalysis
The
Thefollowinginputvalueswereusedtoestablisha
following input values were used to establish a
baselinepavementdesign.

Subbase & Subbase Considerations


Subbase&SubbaseConsiderations
Subgradestrengthisnotcriticaltothicknessdesign.
Subbasematerialscanbeusedtosignificantly
changethecompositesupportvalue(k).
Subgrade:k 100psi/in.
Granularsubbase:k 150psi/in.
Asphalttreatedsubbase:k300psi/in.
Cementtreated/leanconcretesubbase:k 500psi/in.

Methods for Providing Edge Support


MethodsforProvidingEdgeSupport
Curb&Gutter
seeparate

ConcreteShoulder

integraal

or

WidenedLane

Dowel Recommendations
DowelRecommendations
Dowelrecommendations:
Not
Notrecommendedif
recommended if
pavementthicknessis7in.
orless.
Use1in.dowels,stabilized
subgrade,or4to6in
subbaseifpavement
thicknessis7.0in.&7.5in.
Use11/4in.dowelsif
p
pavementthicknessis8in.
orgreater.

Jointing Considerations
JointingConsiderations
Controltransverseand
longitudinal crack from
longitudinalcrackfrom
internalslabstresses.
Dividepavementinto
constructionlanesor
i l
increments.
Accommodateslab
movements.
Provideloadtransfer.

LongitudinalJoints
Dividespavementlanes(814ft.)
Depth 1/4 to 1/3 pavement thickness
Depth1/4to1/3pavementthickness

TransverseJoints
TransverseContractionJoints(820ft.)
Depth 1/3pavementthickness

Now What?
NowWhat?
Withabaselinedesignasshown,thesestepscan
optimize the pavement design:
optimizethepavementdesign:

Lifecyclecostanalysis.
Performance expectations
Performanceexpectations.
Availablebudget.
Availability of qualified contractors
Availabilityofqualifiedcontractors.
Constructability.
User costs.
Usercosts.

LifeCycle
Life
CycleCostAnalysis
Cost Analysis
Combinesallpresentandfuturecosts(benefits)
Initial Cost

Co
ost

Rehabilitation Costs
Maintenance Costs

Time

Cos
st

Salvage
Value

Net Present Worth


Time

LifeCycle
Life
CycleCostAnalysis
Cost Analysis

Fi di St tP
FindingStreetPave

Where to find StreetPave


WheretofindStreetPave
Availableintwoformats
a ab e
o o as
FullfeatureWindows
versioninavailablefrom
ACPA website at
ACPAwebsiteat
www.acpa.org/bookstore
Free,limitedfeatureweb
basedversiononACPAs
websiteatwww.acpa.org/
StreetPave/index.asp

WhatssNextforStreetPave?
What
Next for StreetPave?
Watchfornewversioncominginthe4
Watch
for new version coming in the 4th Quarter
Quarter
2010
Newcapabilitiesforthinconcreteoverlays
Newsustainabilityinputs

Thank You!
ThankYou!
Moreinformationat847.966.2272|www.acpa.org
888 84NRMCA (1 888 846 7622) |
88884NRMCA(1.888.846.7622)|www.nrmca.org