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Previous Years Question Papers

Mains 2014 Papers and CSP 2014 Answer Key


General Studies Paper-I 2014 Mains
Answer all the question in NOT MORE THAN 150 words each. Contents of the answer are more important than its
length. All questions carry equal marks (10 Marks).
Q1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day
urbanization? Discuss.

General Studies/CSAT
History
Political Science
Law

Q2. Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.
Q3. Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned
learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is
not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.
Q4. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?
Q5. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure o
Hindu/Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.
Q6. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till
independence.
Q7. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?
Q8. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial
struggle in India?
Q9. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britains self-image as a
world power?
Q10. The New Economic Policy-1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence.
Evaluate.
Q11. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?
Q12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.
Q13. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.
Q14. Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in
India.
Q15. How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?
Q16. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
Q17. Why are the worlds fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association
between the global distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.
Q18. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.
Q19. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
Q20. Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the
Indian sub-continent.
Q21. Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and lesser Himalayas from Assam
to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.

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Q22. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of
water?
Q23. Account for the change in spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.
Q24. Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resources crisis in the
world.
Q25. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa?

General Studies Paper-II 2014 Mains


Answer the question in NOT MORE THAN 200 words each. Content of the answer is more important than its length.
All questions carry equal marks (12 Marks).
Q1. Starting from inventing the basic structure doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly pro-active role in ensuring that
India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statements, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in
achieving the ideals of democracy.
Q2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is
equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of strong centre, a feature that militates against
concept of strong federalism. Discuss.
Q3. The Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliaments and its Members as envisaged in Article 105 of the
Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Asses the reasons
for the absence of legal codification of the parliamentary privileges. How can this problem be addressed?
Q4. What do you understand by the concept freedom of speech and expression? Does it cover hate speech also? Why
do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.
Q5. Instances of Presidents delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice.
Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.
Q6. The size of the cabinet should be as big as government work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage
as a team. How far is the efficacy of a government then inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss.
Q7. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment
channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What
difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
Q8. The setting of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian railways to demand
subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power
sector, discuss if the proposed reforms is expected to benefits the consumers, the Indian railways or the private
container operators.
Q9. National Human right Commission (NHRC) I India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported
by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of
NHRC as an effective compliment to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human right
standards.
Q10. The penetration of self help group (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in developing programmes in is
facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.
Q11. Do governments schemes for uplifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social
resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies?
Q12. An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nations glory; victors are showered with cash
incentives by various agencies on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as
against the rationale of reward mechanism as encouragement.
Q13. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic
independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria off selection of students. Discuss the light of
growing challenges.
Q14. Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organization has been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine.
Q15. Two parallel run schemes of the Government, viz the Aadhar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as
compulsory, have led to debates as national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both
schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable

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growth.
Q16. With respect to the South China Sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for
safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context,
discuss the bilateral issues between India and China.
Q17. The aim of information technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology
products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on Indias interests?
Q18. Some of the international funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial
component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merit of such terms and
if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context.
Q19. India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank and also the Asian
Infrastructure Investment Bank. How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the strategic significance of
these two banks for India.
Q20. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is
the mandate of WTO and how bindings are their decisions? Critically analyse Indias stand on the latest round of talks
on Food security.

General Studies Paper-III 2014 Mains


Answer all the question in NOT MORE THAN 200 words each. Content of the answer is more important than its
length. All questions carry equal marks (12 x 20=250).
1. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture
to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis--vis industry in the country? Can India become a
developed country without a strong industrial base?
2. While we flaunt Indias demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing
while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
3. There is also a point of view that Agriculture Produce Market Committees (APMCs) set up under the State Acts have
not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically
examine.
4. In the villages itself no form of credit organization will be suitable except the cooperative society. All India Rural
Credit Survey.
Discuss the statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constraints and challenges do financial
institutions supplying agricultural finance face? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?
5. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
has come into effect from 1st January, 2014. What are the key issues which would get addressed with the Act in place?
What implications would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?
6. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contribute to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe
and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss.
7. Explain how Private Public Partnership arrangements, in long gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer
unsustainable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive
generations capacities are not compromised?
8. National Urban Transport Policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the
success of the various strategies of the Government in this regard.
9. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to
have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?
10. Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as are
business professions, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer-oriented. Critically
comment.
11. Can overuse and free availability of antibiotics without Doctors prescription, be contributors to the emergence of
drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discus
various issues involved.

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12. In a globalized world, Intellectual Property Rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly
distinguish between the terms-Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets.
13. Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCC be maintained even
though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to Indias energy needs for
economic growth.
14. Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its spatial expanse, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting
effects of vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National Disaster Management
Authority (NDMA), discuss the of preparedness to deal with El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.
15. Environmental Impact Assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the
Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads.
16. The diverse nature of India as a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism
which is seen in her neighborhood. Discuss along with strategies to be adopted to counter this environment.
17. International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above their
territory. What do you understand by airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggest ways to contain
the threat.
18. How does illegal transborder migration pose a threat to Indias security? Discuss the strategies to curb this,
bringing out the factors which give impetus to such migration.
19. In 2012, the longitudinal marking for high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65 degrees east to 78 degrees east
in the Arabian Sea by the International Maritime Organization. What impact does this have on Indias maritime security
concerns?
20. China and Pakistan have entered into a agreement for development of an economic corridor. What threat does this
pose for Indias security? Critically examine.

General Studies Paper-IV 2014 Mains


Answer questions in NOT MORE than the word limit specified for each in the parenthesis. Content of the answer is
more important than its length.
Section-A
1. (a) All human beings aspire for happiness. Do you agree? What does happiness mean to you? Explain with
examples. (150 words).
(b) What does ethics seek to promote in human life? Why is it all the ore important in public administration? (150 words)
2. (a) In the context of defence services, patriotism demands readiness to even la down ones life in protecting the
nation. According to you, what does patriotism imply in everyday civil life? Explain with illustrations and justify your
answer. (150 words).
(b) What do you understand by probity in public life? What are the difficulties in practicing it in the present times? How
can these difficulties be overcome? (150 words)
3. (a) Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.
What do you understand by this statement? Explain your stand with illustration from the modern context. (150 words).
(b) Human beings should always be treated as ends in themselves and never as merely means. Explain the
meaning and significance of this statement, giving its implications in the modern techno-economic society. (150 words).
4. (a) Which eminent personality has inspired you the most in the context of ethical conduct of life? Give the gist of
his/her teachings. Giving specific examples, describe how you have been able to apply these teachings for your own
ethical development. (150 words).
(b) There is a heavy ethical responsibility on the public servants because they occupy positions of power, handle huge
amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on society and environment. What steps have
you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility? (150 words)
5. (a) The current society is plagued with widespread trust-deficit. What are the consequences of this situation for
personal well-being and for societal well-being? What can you do at the personal level to make yourself trustworthy?
(150 words).
(b) It is often said that poverty leads to corruption. However, there is no dearth of instances where affluent and powerful

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people indulge in corruption in a big way. What are the basic causes of corruption among people? Support your answer
with examples. (150 words)
6. What factors affect the formation of a persons attitude towards social problems? In our society, contrasting attitudes
are prevalent about many social problems. What contrasting attitudes do you notice about the caste system in our
society? How do you explain the existence of these contrasting attitudes? (150 words).
7. What does accountability mean in the context of public service? What measures can be adopted to ensure individual
and collective accountability of public servants? (150 words)
8. We are witnessing increasing instances of sexual violence against women in the country. Despite existing legal
provisions against it, the number of such instances is on the rise. Suggest some innovative measures to tackle this
menace. (150 words).
Section B
In the following questions, carefully study the cases presented and then answer the questions that follow:
9. Now a days, there is an increasing thrust on economic development all around the globe. At the same time, there is
also an increasing concern about environmental degradation caused by development. Many a time, we face a direct
conflict between developmental activity and environmental quality. It is neither feasible to stop or curtail the development
process, nor it is advisable to eep degrading the environment, as it threatens our very survival.
Discuss some feasible strategies which could be adopted to eliminate this conflict and which could lead to sustainable
development. (250 words)
10. Suppose one of your close friends, who is also aspiring for civil services, comes to you for discussing some of the
issues related to ethical conduct in public service. He raises the following points:
(i) In the present times, when unethical environment is quite prevalent, individual attempts to sick to ethical principles
may cause a lot of problems in ones career. It may also cause hardship to the family members as well as risk to ones
life. Why should we not be pragmatic and follow the path of least resistance, and be happy with doing whatever good we
can?
(ii) When so many people are adopting wrong means are grossly harming the system, what differences would it make if
only a small minority tries to be ethical? They are going to be rather ineffective and are bound to get frustrated.
(iii) If we become fussy about ethical considerations, will it not hamper the economic progress of our country? After all, in
the present age of high competition, we cannot afford to be left behind in the race of development.
(iv) It is understandable that we should not get involved in grossly unethical practices, but giving and accepting small
gratifications and doing small favours increases everybodys motivation. It also makes the system more efficient. What
is wrong in adopting such practices?
Critically analyze the above viewpoints. On the basis of this analysis, what will be your advice to your friend? (250 words)
11. You are a no-nonsense, honest officer. You have been transferred to a remote district to head a department that is
notorious for its inefficiency and callousness. You find that the mains cause of the poor state of affairs is the indiscipline
of a section of employees. They do not work themselves and also disrupt the working of others. You first warned the
troublemakers to mend ways or else face disciplinary action. When the warning had little effect, you issued a show
cause notice to the ringleaders. As a retaliatory measure, these troublemakers instigated a woman employee amongst
them to file a complaint of sexual harassment against you with the womens commission. The commission promptly
seeks your explanation. The matter is also publicized in the media to embarrass you further. Some of the options to
handle this situation could be as follows:
(i) Give your explanation to the commission and go soft on the disciplinary action.
(ii) Ignore the commission and proceed firmly with the disciplinary action.
(iii) Brief you higher-ups, seek directions from them and act accordingly.
Suggest any other possible option(s). evaluate all of them and suggest the best course of action, giving your reasons for
it. (250 words)
12. Suppose you are the CEO of a company that manufactures specialized electronic equipment used by a government
department. You have submitted your bid for the supply of this equipment to the department. Both the quality and cost of
your offer are better than those of the competitors. Yet the concerned officer is demanding a hefty bribe for approving the
tender. Getting the order is important both for you and for your company. Not getting the order would mean closing a
production line. It may also affect your own career. However, as a value-conscious person, you do not want to give bribe.

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Valid arguments can be advanced both for giving the bribe and getting order, and for refusing to pay the bribe and risking
the loss of the order. What those arguments could be? Could there be ay better way to get out of this dilemma? If so,
outline the main elements of this third way, pointing out its merits. (250 words)
Rameshwar successfully cleared the prestigious civil services examination and was excited about the opportunity that
he would h=get through the civil services to serve the country. However, soon after joining the services, he realized that
things are not as rosy as he had imagined.
He found a number of malpractices prevailing in the department assigned to him. For example, funds under various
schemes and grants were being misappropriated. The official facilities were frequently being used for personal needs
by the staff was also not up to the mark. Prospective candidates were required to write an examination in which a lot of
cheating was going on. Some candidates were provided external help in the examination. Rameshwar brought these
incidents to the notice of his seniors. However, he was advised to keep his eveys, ears and mouth shut and ignore all
these things which were taking place with the connivance of the higher ups. Rameshwar felt highly disillusioned and
uncomfortable. He comes to you seeking your advice.
Indicate various options that you think are available in this situation. How would you help him to evaluate these options
and choose the most appropriate path to be adopted? (250 words).
14. In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This causing serious
problems both in the rural as well as in the urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you
analyze this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors
responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why(a) educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas;
(b) landless poor people are migrating to urban slums;
(c) even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs.
What possible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem of our country? (250
words)

History Paper-I Mains 2014


1. Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of
them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below
seriatim:

2 x 20=50

(i) An ancient capital


(ii) A Paleolithic site
(iii) A cultural centre
(iv) An ancient capital
(v) A Paleolithic site
(vi) A historical site
(vii) A Harappan site
(viii) An ancient capital
(ix) A political and cultural centre
(x) A Megalithic site
(xi) A Mesolithic site
(xii) A Chalcolithic site
(xiii) A prehistoric site
(xiv) A political and cultural centre
(xv) An ancient capital
(xvi) A lost port
(xvii) Rock-cave Art centre

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(xviii) An ancient capital


(xix) A political and cultural centre
(xx) An ancient town
2. (a) While using the accounts of foreign writers, historians must distinguish between statements based on hearsay
and those grounded in perspective observations. Elaborate with examples. 15
(b) The Upanishadic principles embody the epitome of the Vedic thought. Discuss. 15
(c) Review critically the evolution of different schools of art in the Indian subcontinent between the second century BCE
and the third century CE, and evaluate the socio-religious factors responsible for it. 20
3. (a) In what ways can the Megalithic culture be considered a foundational phase of the history of peninsular India? 15
(b) Do you think the Harappan civilization had a diversity of subsistence base? 15
(c) Discuss different interpretations of historians about the nature of Ashokas Dhamma. Did his principles of
Dhamma-viaya render the Mauryan Empire militaristically weak? 20
4. (a) Buddhas teachings to a large extent could be helpful in understanding and resolving the problems of todays
society. Analyse critically. 15
(b) Discuss the provincial and district administrative units of the Gupta Empire with the designations and functions of
officers. 15
(c) What were the privileges granted to the donees in land-grant charters of early India? How far were these charters
responsible for integration or disintegration of socio-political milieu? 20
Section-B
5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) Critically analyse the agricultural economy from 750 to 1200 CE.
(b) Evaluate the contribution of Vaishnava saints to the growth of medieval Bhakti literature.
(c) Analyse the ordinances mentioned by Barani which Alauddin Khalji promulgated for market control.
(d) Give a brief account of resistance offered by Ahom State against the Mughal rule.
(e) How was Cartaz system used by the Portuguese to maintain their control over the oceanic trade?
6. (a) Evaluating various theories regarding the Chola State, throw light on its village assemblies. 15
(b) Trace the technological and stylistic development in the architecture of the Sultanate period. 15
(c) Analyse the Mughal monetary system and examine their policy of minting of coins. 20
7. (a) Evaluate the Kitab al-Hind of Alberuni as a source of history of India. 15
(b) Evaluating the theory of kingship of the Sultanate, discuss the deviations seen in the reigns of different Sultans. 20
(c) The Battle of Plassey that decided the fate of Bengal was won by the Clive through intrigues. Explain. 15
8. (a) To what extent is Segmentary State model relevant for defining the Vijayanagar State? Critically examine. 20
(b) How was iqta system of the Sultans different from Jagir system under the Mughals? 15
(c) India had been hundreds of years the Lancashire of the Eastern world. Critically examine this view. 15

History Paper-II Mains 2014


1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) Plassey did not complete the British conquest of India. Had the English been convincingly defeated in any
subsequent battle in India, then (the battle of) Plassey would have remained as a minor episode in the history of India.
(b) Montesque-Chelmsford reform proposals introduced dyarchy, but blurred the lines of responsibility.
(c) The military, feudal and traditional overtones of the Revolt of 1857 were overshadowed by its nationalist or protonationalist character.
(d) The safety-valve thesis does not adequately explain the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

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(e) M.K. Gandhi made a gross mistake in championing the Khilafat cause, an extra-territorial issue cut at the very roots
of Indian nationality.
2. (a) The Dual system of Government was a complete failure from the outset. In the first place, the abuse of the private
trade reahed a greater height than ever. In the second phase, the demands of the Company for the increase led to gross
oppression of the peasantry. 20
(b) .instead of rejecting the plan (Cabinet Mission Plan), they (the Congress Leadership) restored to a half-baked
legalistic stratagem to reserve their position on its long-term arrangements and accepted its short-term provisions.
Critically examine. 20
(c) Dalit Movements for empowerment in independent India have essentially been for carving out political space through
electoral politics. Discuss. 10
3. (a) Politics remained for the bulk of the Moderates very much a part-time affair. The Congress was not a political
party, but an annual three day show Elucidate. 20
(b) the Anti-partition Agitation (1909) had an economic character in Bengal unlike the Extremist Agitation in Maharashtra
which had a religious character. Examine. 20
(c) Sardar Patel accomplished a silent revolution by ensuring the absorption and assimilation of a multitude of
principalities without shedding even a drop of blood. Elucidate. 10
4. (a) Though Sri Ramakrishna became the prophet of neo-Hinduism, he never claimed to have founded any new
religion. Elaborate. 20
(b) Why did the British finally quit India on 15th August 1947? The Imperialist answer is that independence was simply
the fulfillment of Britains self-appointed mission to assist the Indian people to self-government. Examine. 20
(c) To what extent did the Freedom Movement I India influence the Liberation Movement in Africa? 10
Section-B
5. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) Rousseau strove to reconcile the liberty of the individual and the institution of Government through a new vision of
the Contract-Theory of Government.
(b) The commercial and industrial interests created a veritable hothouse atmosphere in Europe for the establishment
of colonies.
(c) Enlightened despots (Europe) were not necessarily political liberal.
(d) the passing of the Reform Act marked the real beginning of modern party organization in England. In real
sense, the present political system of England dates from 1832.
(e) The Russo-Japanese War helped in the rise of Japan as a great power.
6. (a) American Revolution seems to have come with remarkable suddenness. A roster of talented leaders emerged
during 1763 to 1775 to make it happen. Elucidate.
(b) If we were to define our conception of the State, our answer would be that the State is the banker of the poor. The
government would finance and supervise the purchase of productive equipments and the formation of social
workshops. In light of the above statement of Louis Blanc, throw light on the Pre-Marxist Socialist Thought in Europe.
(c) To what extent did the expansion of European Powers in the late 19th century help in the modernization of Africa?
7. (a) the Declaration of Rights was the death-warrant of the system of privilege, and so of the ancient regimeYet in
the history of ideas it belonged rather to the past than to the future. Examine.
(b) Critically examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration in Europe and Asia in the 18th and
19th centuries.
(c) Discuss the circumstances leading to the Suez Crisis of 1956 and examine its repercussions on global politics.
8. (a) Europe was eclipsed through folly due to the two world wars. Elucidate.
(b) the language of narrow nationalism held at Frankfurt held destroyed the German Revolution; as the fatal idea of
aggrandizement of the House of Savoy destroyed the Italian Revolution. Discuss.

(c) Discuss the nature of American overseas expansion in Asia and explain the consequences.

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Law Paper-I Mains 2014


Section-A
1. Answer the following (each answer should be in about 150 words):
1. (a) What do you think is the form/nature of our constitution Federal, Unitary or Quasi-federal? The members of
Drafting Committee call it federal, but many other would dispute this title. Critically examine the statement. 10
1. (b) What is Constitutionalism? Explain the said concept in its negative and positive aspects in the context of Indias
tryst with Constitutionalism and Constitutional Governance. 10
1. (c) Article 13 makes the Judiciary, and especially the Apex Court, as a guardian, protector and the interpreter of the
Fundamental Rights. It confers a power as well as imposes an obligation on the Courts to declare a law void if it is
inconsistent with a Fundamental Right. Discuss. 10
1. (d) Explain the scope of the Special Leave Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as expounded by it.10
1 (e) Examine the doctrine of separation of powers. Also mention the relevance of this doctrine in India.10
2. (a) The concept of Reasonable Opportunity being a constitutional limitation on the doctrine of Tenure Pleasure,
Parliament or State Legislature can make a law defining the content of Reasonable Opportunity and prescribing
procedure for affording the said opportunity to the accused government servant. Explain the concept with reference to
leading cases. 20
2. (b) Explain and elucidate the meaning of the Right to personal Liberty as interpreted by the Supreme Court in
Papansam Labour Union v. Madura Coat Ltd. AIR 1995 S.C. 2200. Analyse critically the guidelines prescribed by the
Honble Supreme Court in this respect. 15
2. (c) Define the term public servant. Also discuss the recruitment procedure of public servants in India. 15
3. (a) Examine and elucidate the constitutional scope of the Ordinance making power of the President and the
Governors in India. 20
3. (b) A backward class cannot be identified only and exclusively with reference to economic criterion. A backward class
may, however be identified on the basis of occupation-cum-income without any reference to caste. These is no
constitutional bar in the State categorizing the backward classes as backward and more backward. Do you agree with
the statement? Give reasons. 15
3. (c) What is Public Interest Litigation? What are the major facets of this form of litigation? Also discuss the limitations
of this type of litigation. 15
4 (a) Define and distinguish between Constituent Power, Amending Power, and Legislative Power. Give illustrations.
20
4. (b) Do you agree with the statement that all human rights are fundamental rights protected and recognized by the
Constitution of India. Discuss with reference to statutory provisions and case laws.15
4. (c) Enumerate the fundamental duties as provided in the Constitution of India. Also discuss the rationale behind the
incorporation of fundamental duties in the Constitution of India later on. 15
Section-B
5. Answer the following (each answer should be in about 150 words):
5 (a) It is impossible to fix a precise date or period in history to mark the beginning of International Law as it predates
recorded history. Critically examine the history, nature, scope and relevance of International Law in Contemporary
Society. 10
5. (b) International Law sets little or no limitation on the jurisdiction which a particular State may arrogate to itself. Explain
the nature and scope of State Jurisdiction. Critically examine the principles of State Jurisdiction. 10
5. (c) Recognition confers the legal status of a State under International Law upon the entity seeking recognition.
Important legal effects are being derived from recognition. Critically examine the statement. 10
5. (d) International treaties are agreement of contractual character between States or organization of States creating
legal rights and obligations between the parties. Examine the statement critically and explain the growing importance of
Treaties in Modern International Law. 10
5. (e) What do you understand by the concept Diplomatic Immunity. What rules are provided under International Law in

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this respect? Discuss. 10


6. (a) Explain the concept of International Humanitarian Law. How can it be achieved? Critically examine the role of The
Hague and The Geneva Convention in the development of Modern International Humanitarian Law. 20
6. (b) In several respects the TRIPS Agreement goes beyond the traditional GATT approach and further develops the
law of International Trade. Examine the important achievement of the Agreements on Trade Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). 15
6. (c) What is fishery zone? How it is different from Exclusive Economic Zone? Do you agree with the statement that a
coastal state has a special interest in the maintenance of the productivity of the living resources in any area of the high
seas adjacent to its territorial sea. Elucidate. 15
7. (a) What are the objectives, structure and functioning of World Trade Organization? Does signing and ratifying WTO
undermine the Parliamentary Autonomy of India? Discuss. 20
7. (b) Trace the development of International Law relating to sovereignty over air-space. Critically examine the scope of
legal control of use and abuse of outer space. 15
7. (c) Define intervention and mention the grounds under which it is justified. Also throw light on the violations of this
principle of International Law. 15
8. (a) Asylum stops as it were when extradition begins. Comment. Also explain the various principles extradition with
reference to leading cases. 20
8. (b) Define the concept of opposability in the context of relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
Also discuss the relevance of this concept in modern times with special reference to India. 15
8. (c) What is the importance and meaning of Base Line under UN convention on Law of Sea 1982? How is it
determined? 15

Law Paper-II Mains 2014


Section-A
1. Answer the following in about 150 words each. Support your answer with legal provisions and judicial
pronouncements: 10x5=50
Q1. (a) What is meant by right of private defence? What are the general principles which form the basis of right of private
defence?
Q1. (b) Discuss various stages of crime. How is the stage of attempt punishable under the Indian Penal Code?
Q1. (c) The maxim is volenti non fit injuria and not scienti non fit injuria. Explain.
Q1. (d) A tort is a specie of civil wrong. Examine this definition and add other feature to make it comprehensive.
Q1. (e) Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 is an important legislation to safeguard democracy in India. Discuss.
Q2. (a) What are the constituent elements of crime? Elaborately discuss mens rea with relevant case law. 20
Q2. (b) A assaulted his wife by kicking her repeatedly on non-vital parts of her body. She fell down and became
unconscious. In order to create an appearances that she had committed suicide he took up the unconscious body and
thinking it to be a dead body hung it up by a rope. The post mortem examination showed that death was due to hanging.
With the help of decided cases determine the culpability of A. 20
Q2. (c) The abetment of the illegal omission of an act may amount to an offence although the abettor may not himself
be bound to do that act. Explain and illustrate. 10
Q3. (a) Criminal breach of trust and cheating are two distinct offences generally involving dishonest intention but
mutually exclusive and different in basic concept. Explain with the help of decided cases. 20
Q3. (b) Distinction between death caused by rash or negligent act under section 304-A and culpable homicide not
amounting to murder under section 304 of the Indian Penal Code is fine, but if overlooked, can result in grave injustice.
Discuss. 20
Q3. (c) The age of child must be considered in deciding whether it has been guilty of contributory negligence. Discuss
and refer to case law. 10

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Q4. (a) Although the decision of the Supreme Court in Kasturi Lal v. State of U.P. has not been overruled as such, yet for
all practical purposes its force has been considerably reduced. Elucidate. 20
Q4. (b) W, wife of A was diagnosed to be suffering from toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Doctor D was consulted who
prescribed a long acting Cortico steroid Depomedrol injection at a dose of 80 mg twice daily. Despite administration of
this medicine her condition deteriorated rapidly and she died within a week. On expert opinion, it was found that the line
of treatment followed by D is not supported by any school of medical thought and is in sheer ignorance of basic hazard
relating to use of steroids. A files a complaint in Consumer Forum claiming Rupees 75 lakhs as damages for death of
his wife W. D objects to the jurisdiction of the Consumer Forum and also pleads lack of negligence on his part. Decide.
20
Q4. (c) It is not necessary that in all cases of tort of defamation there must be a loss of reputation of the plaintiff. Explain
and illustrate. 10
Section-B
Answer the following (answer to each part must not exceed 150 words). Support your answer with relevant legal
provisions and decided cases: 10x5=50
Q5. (a) If a contract is broken, the law will endeavour so far as money can do it, to place the injured party in the same
position as if the contract had been performed.
Explain the above statement and discuss the principle court follows for assessment of damages.
Q5 (b) The procedure and qualifications for appointment of chairperson and members of Cyber Appellate Tribunal have
been introduced to keep up the standards of Justice. Comment.
Q5. (c) Arbitration, as an alternate method of adjudication is acceptable to parties irrespective of that fact that access to
court by the parties has been curbed drastically under the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. Explain.
Q5. (d) The actual concept of partnership from people sharing the profit to mutual responsibility was the outcome of
the decision in Cox V. Hickman case. Elaborate.
Q5. (e) The liability of sub-agent towards principal is not direct, except in case of fraud and willful wrong. Explain giving
reasons.
Q6 (a) X and Co. in its prospectus represented that A, B and C would be the directors of the company. This was true and
on the basis of this P and Q applied for shares. However, before the allotment took place, there were changes in
directors. Is the allotment of P and Q subject to their choice or it stands cancelled due to change in directors? Discuss.
10
Q6. (b) A, stands as a surety for the good conduct of B, who is employed in a Bank on a monthly salary of Rs. 1600.
Three months after when the financial position of the bank deteriorated B, agreed to accept a monthly salary of Rs. 1500.
Two months after, it is discovered that B has been misappropriating cash all through. What is the liability of A as surety
under the Indian Law? 20
Q6. (c) Judiciary in India is impartial, hence cannot be influenced by internal or external factors. In the light of this
discuss how far media transgresses its limit and attempts to influence the judicial process. 20
Q7 (a) Copyright is the right of the artist, author, producer of a film who have created a work by use of their artistic skills.
Examine infringement of copyright particularly relating to video piracy and the remedies available under the law. 20
Q7. (b) The doctrine of Public Trust as propounded by Supreme Court has worked as an instrument for protection of
Environment in India. Discuss. 15
Q7. (c) Explain the scope of rule of Caveat Emptor in the expanding law of consumer protection. 15
Q8. (a) Right not to compete is a right meant for promoting business through small groups called firms. Explain. 20
Q8. (b) By and large Lok-Adalats have failed in achieving the objects for which they were created. Comment. And also
suggest some measures to make this institution more effective. 10
Q8. (c) Cyber-terrorism is a well organized transborder criminal act, hence a combined domestic law supported by a
Global law may help to address the problem. Discuss. 20

Political Science and International Relations - Paper-I, Mains 2014


Section-A
1. Comment on the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50

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(a) political theory is not an escape mechanism but an arduous calling. (John Plamanetz)
(b) All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. (J.S. Mill)
(c) Nationalism is not a mere political programme but a way of life like religion. (Aurobindo Ghose)
(d) India has thrown up a form of judicial democracy that no parallel anywhere else, and has nurtured a kind of civil
society that is uniquely its own. (Bhiku Parekh)
(e) Power is never the property of an individual; it belongs to a group and remains in existence only so long as the
group keeps together. (Hannah Arendt)
2. (a) Comment on the view that socialism in the 21st century may be reborn as anti-capitalism. 20
(b) Examine the conditions that are required for the maintenance of legitimacy in modern societies. 15
(c) Evaluate the contributions of Buddhist tradition to Indian political thought. 15
3. (a) explicate the conception of justice in the critiques of communitarian theorists. 20
(b) Examine the conception of the State in the ideologies of Fascism and Marxism. 15
(c) How is liberty a precondition for equality? Explicate the relationship between equality and liberty. 15
4. (a) Explain how Machiavellis application of empirical method to human affairs marks an important stage in the
evolution of political science. 20
(b) Central to Aristotles political thought is his classification of the different types of political constitutions in the Politics.
Evaluate. 15
(c) Explicate the features of deliberative democracy. 15
Section-B
5. Comment on the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) The dilemmas of the human rights movements in India.
(b) Relation between ethnicity and democracy in India.
(c) Increasingly higher focus on Directive Principles of State Policy
(d) Marginalization of the left ideology in India.
(e) The role of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India in promoting good governance.
6. (a) Discuss the working of the National Commission for Schedule Castes to curb violence against Dalits. 20
(b) Examine the scope and limitations of womens movements in India. 15
(c) Explain how peasant movements promoted nationalist ideas during the struggle for Indian independence. 15
7. (a) Discuss the nature of reforms of the electoral process in India and explain the further scope for reforms. 20
(b) Examine the debates on the appointment procedure of judges to the higher judiciary in India. 15
(c) Explain how the participation of women impacted the functioning of rural local bodies in India. 15
8. (a) Explain how pressure groups have been influencing public policy-making with suitable illustrations. 20
(b) What are the provisions for constitutional protection of right to freedom of religion and how far have they succeeded in
promoting secularism in India? 15
(c) Account for the changes in the socio-economic profile of legislators during last one decade in India. 15

Political Science and International Relations - Paper-II, Mains 2014


Section-A
1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) Party system in India is neither western nor indigenous. Explain.
(b) In what respect is the new social movement new in nature? Discuss.

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(c) Do you agree that the UN has failed to contain transnational terrorism? Elaborate your answer with examples.
(d) The Feminist approach to international politics is biased. Comment.
(e) Ukraine crisis is a product of power politics and geo-politics. Comment.
2. (a) Despite so many agreed areas of cooperation, innumerable institutional mechanism and a permanent
secretariat, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not taken off as a meaningful regional
grouping. Discuss. 20
(b) Critically evaluate the approaches of global south towards addressing environment concerns. 15
(c) Critically assess the changing nature of the concept of national security. 15
3. (a) Argue a case for UN reform in the context of changing global milieu. 20
(b) Who was Mr. X in international politics? Elaborate his approach to foreign policy. 15
(c) Morton A. Kaplans system theory is contrary to the fundamental precepts of system approach. Comment. 15
4. (a) How do you explain the growing importance of multi-national corporations (MNCs) and civil society in
contemporary international politics? 20
(b) What is global village? Elaborate its main characteristics and also the factors that contributed to its growth. 15
(c) Discuss the main factors that have contributed to the gradual transformation of the world from Billiard Ball Model to
Cobweb Model. 15
Section-B
5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50
(a) Is Indias quest for a permanent seat in the Security Council a possibility or just a pipedream? Elaborate with
reasons.
(b) Afghanistan is a litmus test for Indias ascendance as a regional and global power. Discuss.
(c) EU-India relations have a long way to go before they can purposely be termed strategic. Discuss.
(d) Do you agree with the view that the USA is of late willing to treat India as a partner rather than merely a campfollower? Give reasons for your answer. 10
(e) Discuss the grounds for Indias opposition to NPT. 10
6. (a) Evaluate the recent changes in Indo-Japan relations. 20
(b) Federal units are critical in the making of Indias foreign policy. Examine this statement with reference to the role of
West Bengal vis--vis Bangladesh. 15
(c) Indias policy of non-alignment has been guided by the genius of the Indian people and their interests. Explain. 15
7. (a) Analyse the drivers of indo-Russian relations in the post-Cold-War era. 20
(b) Examine the implications of turmoil in Iraq and West Asia for Indias security and foreign policy concerns. 15
(c) Evaluate Indias participation in United Nations peace-keeping operations over the years. 15
8. (a) The Ministry of External Affairs is losing its importance in the making of Indias foreign policy with parallel rise of
PMO. Explain. 20
(b) Some of the major changes that occurred in Indias foreign policy after the Sino-India war in 1962 were within the
larger framework of continuity. Discuss. 15
(c) In the history of foreign policy, seldom have relations between any two nations blossomed as fast as they have in the
case of India and Israel. Discuss. 15

Paper-Essay
Write two essays, choosing one from each of the Sections A and B, in about 1000-1200 words each.
Section-A
1. With greater power comes greater responsibility.

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2. Is the growing level of competition good for the youth?


3. Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress.
4. Words are sharper than the two-edged sword.
Section-B
1. Was is the policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of our country?
2. Is sting operation an invasion on privacy?
3. Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India?
4. Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India?

Paper-English (Compulsory)
Q1. Write an essay in about 600 words on any one topic:

100

(a) What kind of crisis is India facing moral or economic?


(b) Participating in sports helps develop good characters?
(c) Should students be allowed to grade their teachers?
(d) Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.
Q2. Read carefully the passage below and write your answers to the questions that follow in clear, correct and concise
language:

5x15=75

A complete reading program, therefore, should include four factors: at least one good book each week, a newspaper or
news magazine, magazines of comment and interpretation, and look reviews. If you keep feeding your intelligence with
these four foods, you can be sure that your brain cells will be properly nourished. To this must be added the digestive
process that comes from your own thinking and from discussion with individuals or groups.
It is often desirable to make books that you own personally part of your mind by underlining or by marking in the margin
the more important statements. This will help you understand the book as you first read it, because out of the mass
details you must have selected the essential ideas. It will help you to remember better the gist of the book, since the
physical act of underlining, with your eyes on the page, tends to put the thought more firmly into your brain cells. It will
save time whenever you need to refer to the book.
Above all, never forget that creative intelligence is correlation of facts and ideas, not mere memorizing. What counts is
what you can do with your knowledge, by linking it with other things you have studied or observed. If you read Plutarchs
life of Julius Caesar, think how his rise to political power paralleled the technique of Adolf Hitler, or that of your local
political boss. If you read a play by Shakespeare, think how his portrayal of the characters helps you to understand
someone you know. In everything you read, keep at the back of your mind what it means to your life here and now, how it
supports or challenge the things you were taught in school, in Church and at home, and how the wisdom you get from
books can guide you in your thinking, in your career, in your voting as a citizen and in your personal morals.
Questions:
(a) What are the four things required for a complete reading program and why? (15)
(b) What else is required to feed your intelligence? (15)
(c) Why does the writer recommend underlining or marking in the margin the more statements? (15)
(d) What use can you put your knowledge to? (15)
(e) How can what you learn from books help in your life? (15)
Q3. Make a prcis of the following passage in about one-third of its length. Please do not give a title to it. Precis should
be written in your own language.

75

If this century has, in the famous phrase, made the world safe for democracy, the next challenge is to make a world safe
for diversity. It is in Indias interest to ensure that the world as a whole must reflect the idea that is already familiar to all
Indians that it should not matter what the colour of your skin is, the kind of food you eat, the sounds you make, when
you speak, the God you choose to worship (or not), so long as you want to play by the same rules as everybody else,
and dream the same dreams. It is not essential in a democratic world to agree all the time, as long as we agree on the

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ground rules of how we will disagree. These are the global principles we must strive to uphold if we are to be able to
continue to uphold them securely at home.
We want a world that gives us the conditions of peace and security that will permit us to grow and flourish, safe foreign
depredations but open to external opportunities. Whether global institutions adapt and revive will be determined by
whether those in charge are capable of showing the necessary leadership. Right now many of us would suggest that
there is a global governance deficit. Reversing it would require strong leadership in the international community by a
number of powers including the emerging ones. India is an obvious contender to provide some of that leadership. India
should aim not just at being powerful it should set new standards for what the powerful must do.
This is a huge challenge, and one to which India must rise. An analogy from another field is not encouraging; many
would argue that India has not acquitted itself well when the chance to have global impact in one domain that of the
sport of cricket, where India accounts or more than 80 percent of the games revenues and perhaps 90 percent of its
viewership, giving it an impact on the sport that no country can rival. Clearly international opinion does not believe that in
its domination of world cricket, India has set new standards for what the powerful must do. Broadening the analogy to
global geopolitics, one could well say: India, your world needs you.
So India must play its due part in the stewardship of the global commons including everything from the management of
the internet to the rules governing the exploitation of outer space. We can do it. India is turning increasingly outward as a
result of our new economic profile on the global stage, our more dispersed interests around the world, and the reality
that other countries, in our neighborhood as well as in Africa, are looking to us for support and security. India has the
ability and the vision to promote global partnerships across the broad range of its interests; it only needs to act.
The world economic crisis should give us an opportunity to promote economic integration with our neighbors in the
subcontinent who look to the growing Indian market to sell their goods and maintain their own growth. But as long as
South Asia remains divided by futile rivalries, and some continue to believe that terrorism can be a useful instrument of
their strategic doctrines, that is bound to remain a distant prospect. We in South Asia need to look to the future, to an
interrelated future on our subcontinent, where geography becomes an instrument of opportunity in a mutual growth
story, where history binds rather than divides, where trade and cross-border links flourish and bring prosperity to all our
peoples.
Q4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections. Please do not make unnecessary changes
in the original sentence.

1x10=10

(i) School is very near my home.

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