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TAIPEI 101, taipei, taiwan

Taipei 101

Height: 508 m (1,667 ft)


Floors: 101
Floor area: 193,400 sq m (2.08 million sq ft)
Total weight: 700,000 tons
Construction time: 1999 to 2004
Crew: 2,000 workers
Cost: $1.8 billion

It was the world's tallest building from 2004


until 2010, when it was surpassed by Dubai's
Burj Khalifa.
Taipei 101 is still considered the tallest green
building in the world for its innovative and
energy-saving design.
It also has the worlds fastest elevators,
which ascend at speeds of 16.83 meters per
second (55.22 ft/s).

Taipei 101
Taipei 101 is home to scores of tenants including
communications companies, banks, motor
companies, consulting groups, and financial
companies. Some notable tenants include: Google
Taiwan on the 73rd floor, L'Oreal' -- the world's
largest cosmetic company, and the Taiwan Stock
Exchange.
The tower is also home to a library, fitness
center, a shopping mall, and all the expected
retail and restaurant chains.
Perhaps most interesting of Taipei 101's
inhabitants is Summit 101 -- an exclusive VIP club
situated on the 101st floor of the tower. Aside
from once being listed in the tower brochure, the
club is shrouded in secrecy and is unreachable
via the regular elevators. Despite widespread
publicity and millions of visitors a year that
come to see the tower, no one is really sure what
goes on up there!

TAIPEI, TAIWAN

Challenges
height
frequent strong
typhoon
earthquakes
weak clayey soils Winds
therefore it has some of the most innovative safety
precautions of anything ever built, requiring a
challenging combination of strength and flexibility.

CONSTRUCTION

FOUNDATION
One of the most stable
buildings ever constructed.
It took 8 months just to
analyze the soil samples
from the building site and a
further 15 months to prepare
the
foundations.
Approximately 700,000 tons
of earth was removed whilst
laying the foundations for
101, which is equal to the
weight of the building itself.
The foundation consists of a
23,000 cubic meter concrete
slab sitting on top of 382
steel reinforced concrete
piles driven 262 feet into the
ground.
Each pile is 5 feet in diameter
and can withstand a load of
1100-1450 tons, that is
2,900,000 pounds each.

Double stair step corners


The original design exhibited some
worrisome patterns when run through
a wind simulator, severe enough to
necessitate a design change.
the solution is practically invisible;
the edges were given a double stair
step design, almost like the fluting of
Greek columns.
those redesigned edges reduce the
potentially dangerous oscillations
caused by high winds by about 30-40%,
allowing the structure to stand, even
under the force of relentless
typhoons.

BRACED MEGAFRAME
Skyscrapers must be flexible in strong winds yet
remain rigid enough to prevent large sideways
movement. Flexibility prevents structural damage
while resistance ensures comfort for the
occupants and protection of glass, curtain walls
and other features.
The design achieves both strength and flexibility
for the tower through the use of highperformance steel construction.

The central core of the building is connected to 8


extremely strong super-columns by a network of
horizontal outrigger trusseS.
Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including
eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69
MPa) concrete.[14] Every eight floors, outrigger
trusses connect the columns in the building's core
to those on the exterior.

TUNE MASS DAMPER


One of Taipei 101s most famous engineering features is
its tuned mass damper.
A tuned mass damper, also known as a harmonic
absorber, is a device mounted in structures to reduce
the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their
application can prevent discomfort, damage, or
outright structural failure.

Its essentially a giant pendulum, which swings in the


opposite direction of the sway of the building,
preventing it from swaying too far But it doesnt just
swing back and forth on its suspension cables; its
hydraulically controlled so its movements correspond
precisely with the movement of the building, rather
than swinging freely.
Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers along with Evergreen
Consulting Engineering designed a 660-tonne (728-shortton) steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass
damper, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million).

TUNE MASS DAMPER


Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the
pendulum sways to offset movements in the building
caused by strong gusts.

IT IS the largest damper sphere in


the world.
Two additional tuned mass
dampers, each weighing 6 tons (7
short tons), are installed at the
tip of the spire which help
prevent damage to the structure
due to strong wind loads.

SYMBOLISM

Numbers
The 101 in the name refers to the number
of floors, as well as the idea of renewal,
going 1 step beyond the traditionally
complete number of 100; it also
represents the new year, which occurs
on 1/01, as well as representing the
digital language of binary.
The eight upside-down trapezoidal
sections are split into eight floors each;
the number eight symbolizes prosperity
and good fortune in Chinese cultures,
and it also represents going past the end
of a seven-day week, thus representing
renewal once again. Eight also
represents a single byte, which is
composed of eight bits.

Colors
As mentioned, the slight green tint of the
windows is meant to further mimic the
appearance of bamboo, which is a symbol
of growth.
In the evening, the tower displays one of
the seven colors of the rainbow, a
symbol of renewal, while also
corresponding to the seven days of the
week (and providing color-coded
reminders to forgetful people).

Time
The building itself is a giant sundial,
casting a shadow over the adjoining
park, which allows residents on the
appropriate side of the building to
estimate the time.

Classical Chinese elements

STACK OF CHINESE SYCEE

BAMBOO

The buildings eight trapezoidal sections


mimic several forms; a multi-sectioned stalk
of bamboo, which is also why the windows are
tinted green, and the SYCEE, an ancient
Chinese form of currency, while also
resembling an upside-down pagoda. They do
not, as is often believed, represent Chinese
takeout boxes. This is merely a happy
coincidence.
The giant circular protrusions on each side
are actually based on ancient Chinese coins,
which had a section cut out in the center so
they could be tied together on strings.

RUYI

The curly decoration on each of the eight


subsections represents the RUYI, an ancient
ceremonial scepter, which symbolizes
strength and good fortune.

THANK YOU

SUBMITTED BY
BHAWNA JOSHI
GURPREET KAUR
RISHABH BHANOT
SAHIB PREET
SHIKHA VERMA